Wittenberg (w as v), in Prussian Saxony, capital of the old electorate of Saxony, and cradle of the Reformation, on the Elbe, 59 miles SW. of Berlin. The famous university (1502), where Luther was professor and Hamlet studied, was in 1815 incorporated with that of Halle. In the Stadt-Kirche are two remarkable pictures by Cranach, of Melanchthon baptising, and Luther preaching. In the Schloss-Kirche (1499) are the tombs of Luther and Melanchthon, as well as those of Frederick the Wise (with a noble bronze statue by Vischer) and John the Steadfast, electors of Saxony. Luther nailed his theses to its wooden door, which, burned by the Austrian besiegers in 1760 during the Seven Years' War, was in 1858 replaced by one of bronze. The Schloss-Kirche was restored and reopened by the German emperor on 31st October 1892. The Augustinian monastery, with Luther's cell, was converted in 1817 into a theological seminary; the house of the great Reformer, containing his chair, table, etc, and two portraits of him by Cranach, remains almost unaltered. In the market-place is Schadow's bronze statue of Luther (1822), not far from it Drake's of Melanchthon (1865). Occupied by the French in 1813, it was stormed by the Prussians in 1814, and next year became Prussian. There are manufactures of woollen and linen goods, hosiery, leather, brandy, and beer. Pop. 18,350.