Wurtemberg (nearly Veer'temlerg), a German kingdom, lying between Baden and Bavaria, and touching Switzerland (Lake of Constance) on the south. It entirely surrounds Hohenzollern, in which state, as well as in Baden, it owns several enclaves. Area, 7529 sq. m. (a little larger than Wales); pop. (1875) 1,881,505; (1900) 2,169,480. Chief town, Stuttgart (q.v.); Ulm, Heilbronn, Esslingen, Canstatt, Reutlingen, have over 20,000 inhabitants. The Black Forest (3776 feet) lies along its W. boundary; whilst the Swabian Alb (3327 feet) stretches right across the country, forming the watershed between the Neckar and the Danube, the principal rivers; the northern portions belong to the Bavarian plateau. Mineral springs are plentiful. The numerous fertile valleys produce wine and fruit in abundance. Forests occupy some 31 per cent. of the total area. Iron and salt are mined. The industries employ 41 per cent. of the population, the more notable branches being gold and silver work, hardware, iron-casting, machinery, watches, etc. Of the total population 69 per cent. are Protestants. The hereditary sovereign is assisted by two houses of parliament. The national income and expenditure balance at about £3,500,000 per annum; the national debt amounts to £22,000,000, nearly all incurred for building railways. Famous Wurtembergers were Baur, Dannecker, Hauff, Hegel, Kepler, Kerner, Œcolampadius, Schelling, Schiller, Strauss, Uhland, Wieland, etc.
Wurtemberg, then occupied by the Suevi, was conquered in the 1st c. a.d. by the Romans. In the 3d it was overrun by the Alemanni, who in their turn were subdued by the Franks. In or before the 13th c. it was created a countship, and in 1495 a duchy of the empire. Duke Frederick II. (1797-1816) on going over to the French was rewarded with 850 sq. m. of new territory and an addition of 125,000 subjects, as well as the dignity of Elector (1802). In Napoleon's war against Austria (1805) he sided with the French, and his troops fought with them down to 1813; in return for which he acquired the kingly title and an increase of territory that more than doubled the number of his subjects. Throwing in her lot with Austria in 1866, Wurtemberg was beaten at Koniggratz and Tauberbischofsheim, and her king (Charles, 1864-91) compelled to purchase peace from Prussia at the cost of an indemnity of £800,000.