Yonne

Yonne (Yon), a dep. of NE. Fiance. Area, 2868 sq. m.; pop. (1886) 355,364; (1901) 321,062. Its arrondissements are Auxerre (the capital), Avallon, Joigny, Sens, Tonnerre.

York Peninsula

York Peninsula (Cape), the northernmost part of Queensland (q.v.). For Yorke Peninsula, see South Australia.

Yorktown

Yorktown, capital of York county, Virginia, on the York River, 10 miles from its mouth. Pop. 150. Here Lord Coruwallis surrendered to Washington in 1781.

Yoruba

Yor'uba, or Yarriba, once a West African kingdom, east of Dahomey, now mostly included in the British colony of Southern Nigeria. Its pop., some 2,000,000, are Soudanese Negroes, partly Mohammedanised.

Youghal

Youghal (pron. nearly Yawl), a seaport of County Cork, on the Blackwater estuary, 27 miles E. of Cork by rail. It has the parish church (1464), a handsome R. C. church, the 'water-gate' and 'clock-gate,' and Sir Walter Raleigh's house, Myrtle Grove, which remains nearly in its original state. Parts of the old walls are standing. According to local tradition, the potato was first planted at Youghal by Raleigh, who was mayor in 1588. The town returned one member till 1885. Pop. (1851) 7410; (1901)5393.

Youngstown

Youngstown, a manufacturing town of Ohio, on the Mahoning River, 67 miles by rail SE. of Cleveland, and 66 NW. of Pittsburgh, with blast-furnaces, rolling-mills, manufactories of machinery, etc. Iron, coal, and limestone abound near by. Pop. (1880) 15,435; (1860) 33,220; (1900)44,885.

Ypres

Ypres (Eepr; Flemish Y'peren), a Belgian town, 30 miles SSW. of Bruges by rail, and 8 from the French frontier. It once was one of the most important manufacturing towns in Flanders, with 200,000 inhabitants in the 14th c, and 4000 looms. The only remnant of its once flourishing manufacture is the Gothic Cloth-hall (Les Halles), with a stately square belfry. It was built 1230-1342, and restored in 1860; a part was added in 1730. One of the wings is now used as the hotel-de-ville. The cathedral of St Martin is a fine Gothic edifice (1221-1350). The chief modern manufactures are thread and lace. Pop. 17,137. Ypres is a very old town, dating from the 9th and 10th centuries. In 1688 it was strongly fortified by Louis XIV. Jansen was bishop of Ypres.

Ypsilanti

Ypsilanti (y as i), a city of Michigan, on the Huron River, 30 miles by rail W. by S. of Detroit. It contains the state normal school. Pop. 7400.

Ystad

Ystad (Ee'stad), a seaport in the extreme south of Sweden, 30 miles SE. of Malmo by rail, with manufactures of sugar, matches, etc. Pop. 8500.

Ystradyfodwg

Ystradyfodwg (Istradifo'doog; since 1894, Rhondda), an urban district of Glamorgan, occupying the mining district of the Rhondda valley, 20 miles NW. of Cardiff. Pop. (1891) 88,350; (1901) 113,735.

Yucatan

Yucatan', a Central American peninsula, dividing the Gulf of Mexico from the Caribbean Sea, and bordering on British Honduras and Guatemala. It is a flat expanse, ridged only towards the east by a low chain of hills. The interior is overspread with forests of mahogany, rosewood, and other valuable timber, while the south and east teem with maize, pulse, rice, tobacco, etc. Ruins of Uxmal, Chichen, Izamal, Mayapan, and other temples and vast edifices, richly carved and coloured, and of unknown history, testify to an ancient civilisation. Made known to Europe in 1517, and completely conquered in 1541, this part of New Spain (granted in 1783 to English logwood-cutters for a time) continued under Spanish domination till 1821. After repeated short periods of independence it has since 1852 belonged to Mexico - from 1858 as two states, Campeachy (area, 18,087 sq. m.; pop. 86,000) and Yucatan (area, 35,203 sq. m.; pop. 314,087).