Zanzibar', since 1890 a British protectorate, consisting of the islands of Zanzibar (625 sq. m.; pop. 150,000) and Pemba (360 sq. m.; pop. 50,000). Some 500 Englishmen, as many Germans, and a few other Europeans live in the town of Zanzibar, on the west coast of the island (pop. 30,000), the chief trading town on the E. coast of Africa. Its imports and exports each average over £1,300,000 a year. Zanzibar (' Land of the Zenj,' a Swahili dynasty) formerly exercised authority over a large part of the mainland, with indefinite extensions inland, which was called Zanguebar as distinguished from the island. It was under Arab influence in the 10th c., Portuguese in the 15th-17th c. In 1856 a son of the imam of Muscat became sultan. Since 1870-90 the territories on the mainland have been absorbed by Britain (see Ibea) and Germany (see Africa), and the sultan is practically a British pensioner, all authority resting ultimately with the British agent and consul-general. See the travels of Stanley, J. Thomson, etc.; Zanzibar by Burton (1872); and works on the partition of Africa by Silva White (1890) and Keltie (1893).