This section is from the book "The Goldfish And Its Systematic Culture With A View To Profit", by Hugo Mulertt. Also available from Amazon: The goldfish and its systematic culture.
(Carassius orientalis) Chinesische Goldfische. Poisson d'Orient.
The Chinese species of goldfish differ more from each other in color than in the shape of the body and fins, the contrary being the dominant characteristic of the Japanese species, described above.
So startling are these colors that one is almost immediately reminded of the story in the Arabian Nights' Entertainments" of the enchanted lake, the fish in which were of four colors, yellow, blue, red and white, and were people of four races, who had in some way incurred the displeasure of a genius, who, in revenge, had thus transformed them.
The Chinese reckon seven distinct species, each with its sub-varieties, the most of them very beautiful indeed. Of the species King-Yu, the variety called is very remarkable. Beneath, the fish is simply silvered, but on the back and sides it is mottled with rich hues of blue, yellow, black and rose, the latter color deepening into pure crimson at the gills. Along the ridge of the back, especially near the tail, the black becomes very intense, and has the rich appearance of a piece of Lyons velvet.
Another of the same species is The Superb
This magnificent fish, when fully developed, is nearly fifteen inches long. The under part is silvered like the preceding, but the back, which is remarkably broad, is splendidly varied with scarlet and black, the scales being delicately edged with a metallic gold color.
This, like the others, is also silvery on the abdomen, but which, however, is delicately flushed with pale rose. The whole of the sides and back are of a rich azure, which shines with a metallic luster.
is another distinct variety, and is a large fish. The back and sides are very nearly black, which becomes violet underneath. All of the scales are edged with a red-toned bronze.
This is a very beautiful variety, the ground color of which is a delicate flesh tint, and upon which there are large patches of rich brown, very much like the markings of a pie-bald horse.
This is a fish of exquisite beauty, being of a delicate semi-opaque, violet crimson, gradually shading off to pale rose underneath. A peculiarly fine variety of this species is the body of which is a delicate azure, while the head, tail and fins are an intense scarlet.
Species Kin-teon - Yu.
This is a remarkable fish, and one that seems quite distinct. The head and tail are bent upward, giving to the entire fish the form of a crescent.
When swimming it has the habit of throwing itself over and over in the same manner that tumbler pigeons do when flying. The color of the fish is a magnificent blue flushed with orange making a gorgeous display.
This is a variety of the species Ouen-Yu, or "lettered kind," so named because the streaky markings are not altogether unlike Chinese characters.
It is of a pure white sparingly dashed with patches of pearly pink on the body, and having some exquisite letter-like markings or tracings about the head and tail. Another variety of the species is rich scarlet, shading off to black on the back, in the midst of which is a large cross of pure white having two transverse bands like the Cross of Lorraine, by which name the author thinks proper to designate it.