Hall Or Piazza Lantern With Bayberry Candle.
Electric Lamp From The Forest Craft Guild.
The book-racks, shade, and hat-brush show some interesting work of the students of the Pratt Institute, Brooklyn.
The two book-racks in our illustration are made of wood, and have the ends covered with pierced brass. Unless the worker is familiar with the methods of working in wood, it will be best to buy some book-racks ready made. The brass, after it is shaped, can be pierced as already described.
Pierced Metal Made By Students Of The Pratt Institute, Brooklyn.
Jewel Cases, The Work Of Austrian Students.
The decorative qualities of these depend a good deal on the little brass nails which hold metal and wood together. The candle shade, with its very simple design, needs no further description. Some workers always make a point of turning the edges over the lamp or candle shades. This one is left unbent, but, of course, the edges are carefully filed.
The back of the brush has the background hammered; 40-penny nails are used for indenting the metal. When the point is filed off it makes a cheap and convenient tool for this purpose. The brass brush - back cover is held in place by being tightly hammered on to the wood. The little dents on the rim help to make it grip the bench.
One of the illustrations shows a candle sconce of pierced brass, which is done in the following manner: -
The centre portion is beaten by a mallet on a soft block, on the wrong side, then the rivet holes are punched, and finally the design is pierced. Two pieces of brass are cut out from the same pattern, and the pierced part is riveted on to the undecorated part. The bracket for the candle must be made by describing a 2-inch circle with a compass on the brass, and then it is cut out for the drip cup. In order to hollow it, set the hard-wood block on end in the vice, and with the ball end of the hammer strike firmly until an even hollow is formed in the wood. Now take the circular drip cup, and place it in the hollow. Then with the round end of the mallet beat the disk until it becomes an even, well-made saucer. Turn the metal with the left hand while beating with the right. When this is done, reverse the block, and hold the saucer on the edge, and beat with the round end of the hammer, just inside the edge resting on the block, which will round it up nicely, and give more depth. Then the cup and the handle must be made from a disk larger than the saucer, bending the sides into the shape of a candle-holder. Then drill a rivet-hole through the cup and saucer, and through a strip of metal which should have been left on the bottom for a bracket. After making a hole in this, rivet all three pieces together, striking from above. A little candle-holder can be placed inside the brass one to keep the candle from wabbling. These can be bought ready-made, though sometimes craft-workers prefer to make their own.
The jewel-cases show the work of advanced students, and they are made of copper with brass overlaid and riveted. Most of the ornamentation is repousse work, hammered on the wrong side into low relief on a hardwood block. The four sides of the jewel-cases are made from a strip of copper. The design is drawn by means of a carbon on the wrong side, and beaten with a blunt nail until the delicate tracery bears little resemblance to the original. It is then bent into box shape, and riveted firmly where one of the brass ornaments will hide it. The bottom is cut out, and the four sides are bent neatly over. The copper lid is hammered with a wooden mallet until the oblong hollow is made, and then the centre ornament is carefully worked up. The edge of the lid is bent back to make it heavy, and it is then finished off by a band of brass riveted over the join. These copper and brass jewel-cases were made by students at an Art School in Austria. The work of these students is excellent. Many people buy these copper and brass pieces in America, seldom realizing that Austrian metal work is almost always the handwork of individual artists.