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Our Edible Toadstools and Mushrooms and How to Distinguish Them | by W. Hamilton Gibson



A selection of thirty native food varieties easily recognizable by their marked individualities, with simple rules for the identification of poisonous species

TitleOur Edible Toadstools and Mushrooms and How to Distinguish Them
AuthorW. Hamilton Gibson
PublisherHarper & Brothers
Year1895
Copyright1895, Harper & Brothers
AmazonOur Edible Toadstools And Mushrooms And How To Distinguish Them
title

Our Edible Toadstools and Mushrooms and How to Distinguish Them

Gills

By W. Hamilton Gibson

With Thirty Colored Plates And Fifty-Seven Other Illustrations By The Author

New York

Harper & Brothers Publishers

The Works Of W. Hamilton Gibson.

Illustrated By The Author.

Published By Harper & Brothers, New York.

Copyright, 1895, by Harper & Brothers.

All rights reserved.

dedication

"For those who do hunger after the earthlie excrescences called mushrooms." - Gerarde.

contentslist of platesmushrooms
-Introduction
Prominent botanical authority connected with one of our universities, upon learning of my intention of perpetrating a popular work on our edible mushrooms and toadstools, was incline...
-Introduction. Part 2
Identification Of Fatal Species. Conservative Mycology While, then, from the point of view of desired popularity of my book, the grim greeting of a death's-head upon the frontispiece might be consi...
-Introduction. Part 3
Consider The Recipient In the possibility of a continuance of this correspondence, consequent upon the publication of this present book, the writer, in order to forefend a presumably generous propo...
-Introduction. Part 4
Number Of Mushroom Species. Mycology And Mycophagy The special character of my volume, then - the collateral consideration of the fungus as food - will be sufficient excuse for the omission of a me...
-Introduction. Part 5
Restricted Scope Of This Volume The knowledge of their identities once acquired, it is perfectly reasonable to assert that in average weather conditions the fungus-hunter may confine himself to the...
-Introduction. Part 6
Fungus Epicures. Chemical Constituents But in America the fungus is under the ban, its great majority of harmless or even wholesome edible species having been brought into popular disrepute through...
-Introduction. Part 7
The Rustic Authorities On Mushrooms And what a self-complacent, patronizing, solicitous character this rustic mushroom oracle is! Go where you will in the rural districts and you are sure of him,...
-Introduction. Part 8
A Rustic Authority Experiences similar to this one are frequent in the career of every mycophagist, and serve to illustrate the pity and solicitude which he awakens among his fellow-mortals, as wel...
-Edible American Mushrooms
From The Catalogue Of Dr. M. A. Curtis Agaricus albellus, De Candolle. Damp woods. Agaricus (amanitd) Caesarea. Scopoli. In oak forests. Agaricus (amanitd) rubescens. Persoon. Damp woods. ...
-Worthless Traditional Tests For The Discrimination Of Poisonous And Edible Mushrooms
Favorable Signs 1. Pleasant taste and odor. 2. Peeling of the skin of the cap from rim to centre. 3. Pink gills, turning brown in older specimens. 4. The stem easily pulled out of the cap ...
-Popular Tests Refuted
Pleasant taste and odor (1) is a conspicuous feature in the regular mushroom (Agaricus campestris), and most other edible fungi, but as a criterion for safety it is a mockery. The deadly Agaricus am...
-Popular Tests Refuted. Part 2
Omission Of The Only True Test A fungus may be poisonous in various ways: 1. A distinct and certain deadly poison. 2. The cause of violent digestive or other functional disturbance, but not n...
-Popular Tests Refuted. Part 3
No General Rule For Identification. Simple Botanical Discrimination It must not be presumed that the list of edible species just cited from the catalogue of Dr. Curtis includes all the esculents am...
-Rules For The Venturesome
1. Avoid every mushroom having a cup, or suggestion of such, at base (see Frontispiece, and Plates 3 and 4); the distinctly fatal poisons are thus excluded. 2. Exclude those having an unpleasant od...
-Rules For The Venturesome. Continued
Mr. Mcllvaine's General Rule Before preparing mushrooms for the table, the specimens should be carefully scrutinized for a class of fungus specialists which we have not taken into account, and whic...
-Mushroom Poisoning
In conclusion, lest these pages, in spite of the impress of caution with which they are weighted, should lead to discomfiture, distress, or more serious results among their more careless readers, it i...
-The Deadly Amanita
THE frequency of this terrible foe in all our woods, and the ever-recurring fa-alities which are continually traced to its seductive treachery (some twenty-five deaths having been recorded...
-Easily Identified Botanically. Amanita Vernus
This poison-cup may be taken as the cautionary symbol of the genus Amanita, common to all the species. Any mushroom or toadstool, therefore, whose stem is thus set in a socket, or which has any sugg...
-The Poisonous Fly-Mushroom. Agaricus Muscarius. Amanita Muscaria
This, one of the most strikingly beautiful of our toadstools, is figured in Plate 4. Its brilliant cap of yellow, orange, or even scarlet, studded with white or grayish raised spots, can hardly be unf...
-Poisonous Fly-Mushroom. Agaricus Muscarius. Amanita Muscaria. Continued
Volva Scales Permanent Section Of Fly-Amanita Few species of mushrooms have such an interesting history as this. Its deadly properties were known to the ancients. From the earliest times i...
-The Poisonous Alkaloid
The toxic and deadly effects of certain mushroom poisons, as already described, have been known since ancient times; and the prolonged intoxicating debauches to-day prevalent among the Amanita dipsoma...
-Amanita Poisoning Symptoms
Attracted by their appearance, and supposing them to be edible, they gathered a large quantity, with the anticipation of having a delicious dish for their Sunday evening meal. Various other kinds w...
-Amanita Poisoning Treatment
R Bismuth subnit., 3v; Creosote, gtt. xv; Mucil. acaciae, f3i; Aq. menth. pip., q.s. ad f3iii. M. Sig. - Teaspoonful every one or two hours. 1/8 grain of morph. sulph. was administered hypodermical...
-Amanita Poisoning Treatment. Part 2
Amanitine And Atropine. Administration Of Antidote Mrs. B. , 1/180, 1/90, 1/90, or 5/180, or 1/36 gr. Mr F., 1/180, 1/90, 1/90, 1/90, or 7/180 gr. Mr. F., 1/180, 1/90, 1/90, 1/90 or 7/180 gr. ...
-Amanita Poisoning Treatment. Part 3
Poisons By Contact And Odor The moral of this story is that the less the reader has to do with Amanita fungi the better. Let them have a wide berth, or at most an annihilating kick, lest by their a...
-Amanita Poisoning Treatment. Part 4
Poison Extracted By Vinegar On this topic it is interesting to note the epicurean perversity of a certain French author, who, in the face of the already overwhelming abundance of nature's esculent ...
-Agarics or Gill-bearing Fungi
UR introductory description of the Amanita presents the most perfect botanical type of a large division of the fungus tribe, the Agaricaceae, or gill-bearing mushrooms, one of the tw...
-Classification Of Fungi
A fungus is a cellular cryptogamous (flowerless) plant, nourished through its spawn or mycelium in place of roots, living in air, and propagated by spores. Fungi - mycetes - are naturally subdivide...
-Agaricini
In this order the hymenium, or spore-bearing surface, is inferior, i.e., on the under side of the pileus, and is spread over lamellae or gills, which radiate from the stem of the fungus, and each of w...
-"The Mushroom". Agaricus Campestris
Perhaps the one species which enjoys the widest range of popular confidence as the mushroom in the lay mind, as distinguished from toadstool, is the Agaricus campestris, known as the meadow mushr...
-"The Mushroom". Agaricus Campestris. Part 2
Cultivation Of Mushrooms. Mushroom Spawn Bed. Species Opposed To Cultivation. Certain Exceptions The fairy-ring mushroom grows year after year upon our lawn, because its mycelium is continually...
-"The Mushroom". Agaricus Campestris. Part 3
Varieties Of The Campestris The application of the title horse-mushroom to this last-mentioned species was generally supposed to be referable to the same popular traditions of which we see the an...
-Horse-Mushroom. Agaricus arvensis
The Horse Mushroom. A Huge Variety It is plainly an Agaric related to the Campestris, and from the fact of its havingpink gills darker in older specimens I suspect it to be simply another local...
-St. George's Mushroom. Agaricus Gambosus
Another very common example of mushroom in its season of early spring is the Agaricus gambosus, or St. George's mushroom, as it is popularly styled in Great Britain, from its usual appearance about th...
-True Fairy-Ring Champignon. Marasmius Oreades
I remember, as a boy, summer after summer observing upon a certain spot upon our lawn this dense, and at length scattering, ring of tiny yellowish mushrooms, and the aroma, as they simmered on the kit...
-False Or Poison Champignon. Marasmius Urens. Marasmius Peronatus
There are two other species of mushroom which might possibly be mistaken for the above by the casual eye, but which are easily distinguishable on careful examination. The first of these is the false C...
-The Pasture Mushroom. Agaricus (Lepiota) Procerus
One of the most readily recognized of our wild mushrooms is the pasture or parasol Agaric (Agaricus procerus), a cluster of which in various stages of development is shown in Plate 10. It is frequentl...
-Hygrometric Properties. The Russula Group
Among the wild species of mushrooms which the novice might possibly mistake for the common mushroom of the markets - which is popularly supposed to be the only edible variety, as distinguished from ...
-Principal Species. The Green Russula. Agaricus (Russula) Virescens
Our first species, the green Russula, is to be found throughout the summer in hard-wood groves, and is apt to frequent the same immediate locality from year to year. I know one such veritable mushroom...
-Purple Russula. Russula Lepida
This, perhaps the most common species, is figured in Plate 12, fig. 3. It corresponds with the foregoing in size as well as in general shape, firm texture, and friable nature of the gills. The pileus ...
-Yellow-Gilled Russula. Russula Alutacea
Our third example of the Russula is one which is also quite common in our woods, and which might in the extreme variation of its color be confounded with the last by a careless observer, as indeed bot...
-Poisonous Or Emetic Mushroom. Russula Emetica
The variability in the coloring of the three edible species already described brings them occasionally into such close similarity with the gamut of color of the one common poisonous species of the gro...
-A Warning Tang. The Oyster Mushroom. Agaricus Ostreatus
What a mass of nutritious food do we occasionally pass in innocence or spurn with our foot upon the old stump or fallen log in the woods! - a neglected feast, indeed, if the specialists on edible fung...
-Broiled Oyster Recipe. The Elm Mushroom. Agaricus Ulmarius
This edible species of mushroom, allied to the foregoing:, and which stows in similar clusters on the elm-tree, is the Agaricus ulmarius (Plate 15). While much difference of opinion prevails regarding...
-Shaggy-Mane Mushroom. Coprinus Comatus
Upon a certain spot on the lawn of one of my neighbors, year after year, without fail, there springs up a most singular crop. For the first two seasons of its appearance it was looked upon with curiou...
-The Inky Toadstool. Inky Mushroom. Coprinus Atramentarius
In frequent company with the foregoing will be found another allied species, Coprinus atramentarius (Plate 17), with the same inky propensities, which is scarcely less delicious as an article of food....
-The Orange-Milk Mushroom. Lactarius Deliciosus
Pileus: Diameter three to five inches. Color varying from yellow to dull orange, or even brownish yellow with mottled zones of deeper color, especially in younger plants; outline at first convex, ulti...
-The Chantarelle. Cantharellus Cibarius
Bearing somewhat the shape of the Lactarius, but having its own distinguishing features, is the Chantarelle (Plate 19). The Agarics, as already described on page 79, are distinguished by the feat...
-Polyporei or Tube-bearing Fungi
The previous examples of mushrooms have all been included in the order of the Agarics, or gill-bearing fungi, the under spore-bearing surface of the cap having been disposed in the...
-The Boleti. Tube Mushrooms
The structure of these mushrooms is clearly shown in Plate 38, in my chapter on Spore-prints, the hymenium being here spread upon the honey-combed pore surfaces, and shedding its spores from the tub...
-Edible Tube Boletus. Boletus Edulis
Pileus: Cushion-like; moist; variable in color, light brown to darker brownish red; surface smooth but dull; dimensions at full expansion, three to six or eight inches. Tube surface (A - magnified)...
-Rough-Stemmed Boletus. Boletus Scaber
Pileus: Rounded convex; diameter two to five inches; surface occasionally smooth and viscid when moist; color usually brownish red, but varying from orange brick red or even black in certain varieties...
-The Yellow-Cracked Boletus. Boletus Subtomentosus. Boletus Chrysenteron
The general contour of the present species - Boletus subtomentosus (Plate 22, fig. 1) - resembles the foregoing, but it is easily distinguished by the color of its cap and tube surface, the pileus bei...
-Yellow-Fleshed Boletus. Boletus Chrysenteron
Among the toadstools which tradition would surely brand as poisonous on account of bright color is the common species whose name heads this paragraph, and which is illustrated in Plate 22, fig. 2. I...
-Cone-Like Boletus. Strobilomyces Strobilaceus
Another allied species, not especially famous for its esculent qualities, but which is, nevertheless, not to be despised, is here introduced on account of its especially pronounced character (Plate 23...
-Boletus Alveolatus. Boletus Felleus. Suspicious Boleti
Alveolate Boletus - Boletus alveolatus Pileus: Smooth, polished; bright, deep crimson or maroon, occasionally mottled or marbled with yellowish; three to six inches in diameter. Flesh: Firm and ...
-The Vegetable Beefsteak. The Beefsteak Mushroom. Fistulina Hepatica
Our next member of the Polyporus order, or tube-bearing fungi, is a unique member of the fungus tribe, and cannot be mistaken for any other species. An example of this species is shown in Plate 25, th...
-The Sulphurous Polyporus. Polyporus Sulphureus
Probably the most conspicuous member of our native polyporei remains to be considered among the esculents, though until recently it was included in the black list, Dr. Curtis, of North Carolina, I bel...
-Sulphurous Polyporus. Polyporus Sulphureus. Continued
A Voice In The Wilderness Tasted at the tip, it yields for the first moment of mastication an acid flavor recalling that of the Fistu-lina hepatica. This is followed by a sweet, slightly mucilagino...
-Miscellaneous Fungi
The species of fungi thus far described have been confined to the two great orders of the Agarics and the Polyporei, which include the large majority of our edible mushrooms an...
-The Hedgehog Mushroom. Hydnum Repandum
In this species, figured on Plate 27, bearing somewhat the contour of an Agaric, the spines are all confined to the lower surface of the expanded cap. The general color of the upper surface is buff, g...
-The Medusa Hydnum. Hydnum Caput-Medusae
While driving through the White Mountain Notch, many years ago, I chanced upon a mass of cream-colored, fringy fungus growing upon a fallen beech-log by the side of the road. The fungus was then entir...
-Moss-Mushroom. Hydnum In The Kitchen. The Coral Or Club Fungus. Clavaria
What frequenter of the summer and autumn woods has failed to observe that occasional dense cluster of creamy-colored, coral-like growth such as I have indicated at Plate 30, and who has thought to gat...
-The Coral Fungus. Clavaria Formosa
Thickly branched from a stout pale base, the dense branchlets being tipped with two or three minute teeth. Color: Saffron yellow. Tips generally darker and more rosy. Flesh: White. Spores: Ochre-tinte...
-The Morel. Morchella Esculenta
In decided contrast to any of the foregoing fungi, and of unmistakable aspect, is the famous Morel, Morchella esculenta (Plate 32). The Morel belongs to a cohort of fungi known as the Sporidiifera,...
-Helvella. Helvella Crispa
One of the most strikingly individual of all the mushrooms, and one which could not possibly be confounded with any other kind, is the example pictured in Plate 33. With this mere portrait as our guid...
-Puff-Balls. Lycoperdaceae. Lycoperdon Giganteum. Lycoperdon Gemmatum. Lycoperdon Saccatum
A detailed discrimination of the Puff-balls is hardly necessary here, and I will therefore omit it. While I am not inclined to go so far as to contend, as was the quaint habit of old Dr. Culpeper, in ...
-PuffBalls. Lycoperdaceae. Lycoperdon Giganteum. Lycoperdon Gemmatum. Lycoperdon Saccatum. Continued
Esculent Qualities. Closing Words Of Caution There are a number of other esculent species of fungi as easily available and enjoyable as those already described, but the scheme of the volume would h...
-Spore Prints
Mushroom Spore-prints Our common dusty Puff-ball, floating its faint trail of smoke in the breeze from the ragged flue at its dome-shaped roof as from an elfin tepee, or perhaps e...
-Spore Prints. Part 2
Development Of Spores. Buoyant Spore-Atoms We have seen the myriad-fold dispersion of its potential atoms in the cloud of spore-smoke, but who ever thinks of a spore-cloud from a mushroom or a toad...
-Spore Prints. Part 3
Making And Fixing Spore-Prints. Various Colors Of Spores Plate XXXV. - SPORE-SURFACE OF AN AGARIC Plate XXXVI.-SPORE-SURFACE OF POLYPORUS {BOLETUS) Spore-print Occasionally we sha...
-Agarics And Polypores. Spore-Mist From An Agaric
Plate XXXVII. - SPORE-PRINTS OF AMANITA MUSCARIUS A number of prints may be obtained successively from a single specimen gathered at its fruitful prime. To those of my readers interested in t...
-Whims Of Habitat. Curious Fastidiousness
A complete list of these exclusive habitats of fungi would well fill a large book, and might indeed almost involve the index of our botanies and zoologies, to say nothing of organic substances gener...
-Recipes
Concerning Mushromes and Tadstoles And now for that our fine mouthed and daintie wantons who set such store by their tooth; take so great delight to dress this only dish with their ow...
-Recipes. Part 2
The Comprehensive Fungus. A Reliable Crop. The Fungus Specialist In the absence of any adequate popular guide to this great food resource, it may be hoped that this present work may afford not mere...
-Recipes. Part 3
Nutritious Properties. A Discriminating Hawk The Agaricus ostreatus is known as the vegetable oyster - its flavor in a stew quite closely simulating the flavor of the bivalve; another fungus as t...
-Recipes For Mushroom Cooking
In all cases the mushroom should be fresh, clear and free from the insect indications mentioned on page 131. Some epicures recommend that the specimens be also washed in cold acidulated water and drie...
-Recipes For Mushroom Cooking. Part 2
6 Mushrooms A La Creme Trim and rub half a pint of button-mushrooms; dissolve two ounces of butter rolled in flour in a stewpan; then put in the mushrooms, a bunch of parsley, a teaspoonful of sal...
-Recipes For Mushroom Cooking. Part 3
12 Roast Mushrooms Mr. Palmer recommends the following: Cut the larger specimens into fine pieces and place them in a small dish, with salt, butter, and pepper to taste; put in about two tablespoo...
-Recipes For Mushroom Cooking. Part 4
17 Fried Mushrooms On Toast Place a pint of mushrooms in a pan, with a piece of butter about the size of an egg; sprinkle in a tea-spoonful of salt, and half a teaspoonful of pepper; when the butte...
-Recipes For Mushroom Cooking. Part 5
24 Polyporus Stew The beautiful sulphur-colored Polyporus described in my previous pages when stewed closely suggests the tender white meat of chicken or veal, and might lend itself to various dece...
-Recipes For Mushroom Cooking. Part 6
31 Mushroom Salad According to Cooke, the Beefsteak mushroom before mentioned is employed as an entremet in Vienna, the fresh fungus being cut in thin slices and eaten as a salad. The fresh, crisp ...
-Mushroom Menu
Potages Consommé de boeuf clair, 22 Potage á la purée d'huîtres, 1, 11, 13 Potage á la purée de boeuf, 22 Potage á la purée de volaille, 24 Poissons Cotelettes de poisson - Sauce aux champign...
-Bibliography
American 1. Geological and Natural History Survey of North Carolina. Part III. Botany. Containing a catalogue of the indigenous and naturalized plants of the State. By Rev. M. A. Curtis, D.D., etc....









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