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Paint Making And Color Grinding | by Charles L. Uebele



A practical treatise for paint manufacturers and factory managers, including comprehensive information regarding factory ... as practical working formulas and recipes.

TitlePaint Making And Color Grinding
AuthorCharles L. Uebele
PublisherThe Trade Papers Publishing Co.
Year1913
Copyright1913, the Oil, Paint and Drug Reporter
AmazonPaint Making And Color Grinding
-Publishers' Preface
Although many books have been published on the subject of paint and pigments, most of them have been written either by chemists, whose knowledge of the practical questions involved in paint manufactur...
-Author's Preface
IN presenting this volume to the consideration of practical men and others interested in the subject of paint making and color grinding, it has been the aim of the author to incorporate the results of...
-Paint Making and Color Grinding. Chapter I. The Factory And Arrangement
Before describing in detail the processes involved in paint making and color grinding, it is well to consider briefly the general arrangement of the plant, the necessary machinery, apparatus, storage ...
-Part I. White Pigments And White Bases. Chapter II. White Lead Mixing And Grinding
We must preface this portion of our book with the remark that when we speak of white lead, we mean by that term the hydrated carbonate of lead, known to painters as keg lead, when ground in linseed oi...
-Examination Of Dry White Lead
Our first aim in producing a high grade of white lead in oil brings us to the physical examination of the dry pigment. No matter by what process white lead is produced, it is necessary that it be t...
-Foreign Metals In The Dry Lead
When white lead is corroded from metallic (pig) lead that contains an appreciable percentage of copper, the presence of the latter in the dry white lead can be readily determined by a very simple test...
-Excess Of Lead Acetate, And Test For Its Presence
As dry white lead supplied by the corroders is never adulterated, it is not necessary for paint grinders or other consumers to go to the expense of having elaborate chemical tests made, but still ther...
-Theoretical Compositions Of White Lead
The theoretical constituents of normal Dutch process white lead are claimed to be two molecules of lead carbonate (PbCO3) and one molecule of lead hydrate (PbH2O2), which would mean about 70 per cent ...
-White Lead In Oil As Ground For The Trade
There are two methods for grinding white lead in linseed oil for the market, the oldest being that still mostly followed, which is to mix the white lead in lump or powdered form, as it comes from dryi...
-The Grinding Of White Lead In Oil (Dry Method)
It is essential to success in grinding white lead to select linseed oil that if raw must be well settled, so as to be perfectly free of foots, and when refined or bleached is free from traces of acid ...
-Grinding Apparatus Required
Having pointed out the necessity of care in the mixing of the material, we will now describe the apparatus used from time to time in the process. Where white lead grinding in oil is carried on a large...
-Grinding Apparatus Required. Continued
Endless canvas belts have also been in favor in many white lead factories on which the heated product was dropped from the mills, carrying it a certain distance away, so as to cool down and be removed...
-The Pulp Lead Grinding Process
This process was introduced by white lead corroders some thirty years ago, probably much earlier, but if so it was kept very quiet, as it did not become generally known to the trade until twenty-five ...
-Chapter III. Grinding Sublimed White Lead, Zinc Lead And Zinc White. Grinding Sublimed White Lead. (Basic Lead Sulphate.)
The grinding of this pigment does not practically differ from that of dry white lead in oil, but being of a harsher texture, should be ground on stone mills, preferably buhr stones, in order to get it...
-American Zinc Lead And Leaded Zincs
Some twenty-five or thirty years ago a white pigment was offered to paint makers under the name of zinc lead, made from a lead and zinc ore found in Colorado and then known as Colorado zinc lead. It w...
-Zinc Lead As A Pigment
Like sublimed white lead, as it was first placed on the market, zinc lead was of a coarse, harsh texture, difficult to mix in oil and to grind fine and required a larger percentage of oil than a mixtu...
-Leaded Zinc As A Pigment
More recently a white pigment under this name has found its way into the paint market which, while it appears to have some of the features of zinc lead, is much bulkier, i. e., of lighter specific gra...
-Mixing And Grinding Zinc Whites
When zinc oxides are to be ground in oil in paste form for the trade it is essential for good results that the dry zinc be stored in a dry place, because green or moist zinc oxide will neither mix wel...
-Combined Lead And Zinc Whites
Paint grinders have had, some time or other, a puzzling experience in the grinding of combinations of pure lead and zinc paste paint, when the specification called for certain percentages of pigment a...
-Chapter IV. Lithopone White. Manufacture, Composition And Uses Of The Pigment, Which Has In Recent Years Come Into General Use
Lithopone or sulphide of zinc white has been in general use for twenty years or more in many industries where a white pigment of considerable body or hiding power is required that is not subject to ch...
-Lithopone White. Part 2
The materials used in a successful lithopone plant comprise barytes (crude), coal, zinc spelter, oil of vitriol, common salt, sal ammoniac, sodium phosphate, chlorate of potash, calcium chloride and c...
-Lithopone White. Part 3
As stated in the beginning of this chapter, the white pigment known under the collective term lithopone white, is becoming more and more appreciated, not only in the special industries referred to, bu...
-Lithopone White As A Pigment
Lithopone whites, showing by analysis less than 30 per cent zinc sulphide, are inferior grades made by adding barytes and possibly other extenders, such as carbonate of lime, china clay or sulphate of...
-Mixing And Grinding Lithopone
Lithopone is the most miscible of white pigments and can be readily ground fine on any good stone mill, one having esopus stones being best for the purpose. When ground in oil in large quantities, the...
-Chapter V. Grinding White Bases And Pigments. Grinding The White Bases For Liquid Paints
The methods of doing this most economically depends upon the arrangement of the building in which the ready-mixed paints are made and canned or packed for the trade. Naturally, the best arrangement is...
-Grinding Bases For White Enamel Paints
Varnish, as a rule, is a rather delicate material and requires a great deal of attention, especially when it is being employed as a vehicle for grinding pigments of one kind or another. And, as our so...
-Grinding Of Quick-Drying Whites
A number of quick-drying whites are in demand by the carriage and car manufacturing trade, as well as in a few other industries. Foremost among these is flake white in japan. The term in japan is us...
-Grinding Whites For Artists' Tube Colors
Among the standard whites for artists' use, and put up in collapsible tubes, there are offered to the trade white lead under the name Cremnitz white, flake white, silver white or Venetian white; zinc ...
-Grinding White Pigments In Water
Although the demand in this country for whites ground in water without size for fresco or distemper work is not large, no color grinder's price list or catalogue is complete unless the list of water c...
-Chapter VI. Extenders And Fillers And Their Uses
The extenders, some of which are now also classed as reinforcing pigments, and which are mostly used in letting down white paste paints, as well as colors in oil, ready mixed paints, and are also us...
-Natural Barytes (Barium Sulphate)
This occurs in nature in a crystalline mass, known as heavy spar, and is mined same as iron ore, and is more or less contaminated with foreign material. When the crude article comes to the mill it is ...
-Testing The Properties Of Barytes
The paint grinder or color maker will select the barytes he requires by assaying for fineness and whiteness (absence of color) principally. It was the custom with some barytes manufacturers to add min...
-Precipitated Or Artificial Barytes. (Blanc Fixe)
Chemically this material does not differ from the natural product, both being barium sulphate BaS04 but blanc fixe, as the material is best known to the trade, is amorphous in texture, while the natur...
-Barium Carbonate (Witherite)
Aside from heavy spar, which is barium sulphate, another form of barium occurs in nature, a carbonate of barium known as witherite. This is an earthy mineral, nearly white, that is insoluble in water,...
-The Paris Whites
Cliffstone Paris white is sold in both lump and pulverized form and is largely used in potteries for making the white glaze with zinc oxide. For admixture with fine grades of paint and in the manufact...
-Gilders' Bolted Whiting
This grade is most called for. It derives its name from being used by picture frame makers for the ground of their moldings by mixing the dry whiting with glue size (and lately with a size made from c...
-Selecting And Testing Whiting
The paint maker who uses large quantities of whiting will be discriminating in the selection of the material, and most likely find it to his advantage to carry several grades in stock, as he would har...
-The Value Of Whiting In Certain Paints
Whiting has been classed as an adulterant in paint, but this applies only where it is used in replacing a higher priced material without any tangible reason. As we shall see in the case of putty, ther...
-Marble Dust
Marble Dust, besides being used in cheap putty, has been largely employed in place of whiting in low-priced paste paint, because, aside from being lower in price than whiting, it absorbs less oil in g...
-China Clay Or Kaolin In Paint
When we use the terms china clay or kaolin, we refer only to the white earthy pigments of silica and alumina, that are used in paints and colors. We pass by the species of earth known as pipe clay, po...
-Tests For And Use Of China Clay Or Kaolin
The pigment, domestic or imported, is classed as hydrated silicate of alumina and should therefore be insoluble in water, alkali or dilute acid solutions. It is decomposed, however, by long boiling wi...
-Sulphate Of Lime (Calcium Sulphate)
To this class belong gypsum (or terra alba, as it is often termed by its Latin name, meaning white earth), selenite and calcined plaster or, as it is more familiarly known, plaster of Paris. Gypsum is...
-Calcined Plaster (Plaster Of Paris)
is not fitted or suited for a paint extender. A few decades since, the very brilliant business manager of a large paint factory, led on by the no less brilliant chief of the laboratory of a large corp...
-Gypsum For Various Purposes
Alabaster and Derbyshire or satin spar are extra fine grades of gypsum, not always pure white, and chiefly used for making ornaments. Satin spar especially comes in long, fibrous pieces. Selenite is a...
-Gypsum As Extender For Oil Paint
Gypsum is tested for fineness in the usual way by rubbing up with turpentine and alone does not work well under the brush. It is readily colored by the oil it is ground or mixed in, no matter how colo...
-Testing Gypsum For Use In Paint
Gypsum is tested for fineness in the usual way by rubbing up with turpentine in comparison with an approved sample and may be wet up with water in order to see that no error has been made as it has ha...
-Silica Or Silex And Its Uses
Silica or silex chemically considered is oxide of silicon and represented by the formula: Sio2. When either is pure, they are insoluble in any other but hydroflouric acid, which readily dissolves them...
-Testing And Grinding Silica
The quartz, sand or flint from which silex or silica is produced, differs according to location of the mines, but the best method is to heat the mineral at very high temperature and then plunge into c...
-Magnesium Silicates
Pumice stone, a volcanic substance, is a porous silicate of alumina and alkaline earth mineral. Asbestos is a fibrous silicate of magnesia and calcium, and this is why that extender, known as asbestin...
-Magnesite Or Magnesia
Magnesia, when found in the natural state in the form of carbonate, Mg C03, is known as magnesite. It does resemble crude chalk in appearance, but is heavier in specific gravity than the latter, usual...
-Starch And Its Use In Fillers
Starch cannot be considered as a pigment any more than flour. And while rye flour years ago was used in fillers and to a certain extent in roughstuff, the practice has been abandoned long since. It is...
-Part II. Color Grinding In All Its Branches. Introduction
This section will be devoted to the grinding of colored pigments in oil for the use of the painter and decorator, the artist, and for the various industries requiring such material, as well as for use...
-Chapter VII. Mixing And Grinding Black Pigments. Bone Blacks
Bone black, made from calcined bones, is found on the market in several grades, that made from freshly calcined bones being purest and best in tone. Recovered bone black, known as sugar house black, i...
-Drop Blacks
Drop blacks in japan, as noted above, may be made by mixing bone black alone or with an addition of gas carbon black or a very fine grade of well calcined lampblack, or a high grade of animal black, w...
-Carbon Blacks
Carbon Black, - While nearly all black pigments, and especially those most in use for paint making, owe their coloring principle to the element, carbon, when we at the present day speak of carbon blac...
-Carbon Black In Form Of Charcoal
Charcoal blacks include blacks made from soft woods, the best being that charred from the willow, but some of the wood pulp mills have also charred their refuse and offered the resulting product as ch...
-Ivory Black
While many in the trade do not make a distinction between drop black or bone black and ivory black, the latter, nevertheless, is, or at least should be, made from the waste of ivory in turning and cut...
-Lamp Blacks
Lampblack without question is the black pigment most commonly used of all the line of oil colors, and no assortment of these is complete without it. Of course, very large quantities of lamp black are ...
-Black Lead (Graphite Or Plumbago.)
This has hardly a place on an oil color list, yet it belongs properly to the group of black pigments. Years ago we only had the natural mineral at our command, but for some time it is produced also by...
-Mineral Black
So far as the demand by painters is concerned, this might be as well omitted from the lists of oil colors. But there is quite a demand for it from industrial concerns, where a great deal of metal is t...
-Chapter VIII. Mixing And Grinding Blue Pigments
Antwerp Blue Antwerp blue is now seldom in demand, although up to about fifteen years ago it was called for ground in poppyseed oil for artists' use, also in japan and varnish for special coach wor...
-Chinese Blue
Chinese blue is really a fine grade of Prussian blue, having a much better luster than the ordinary grade, and when in the lump form its fracture must show a decided bronze cast or luster, by which Ch...
-Prussian Blue
Prussian blue, also known as Paris blue or Berlin blue, requires the same general treatment and precautions in mixing and grinding as Chinese blue, differing from the latter only in the method of maki...
-Cobalt And Ultramarine Blues
True cobalt blue is only interesting to the color grinder so far as its use by artists is concerned, while for all other purposes the artificial ultramarine, known to the trade as imitation of cobalt ...
-Cobalt And Ultramarine Blues. Continued
Sulphate ultramarine blue may be recognized by its having a slightly greenish-blue cast when ground in oil, while soda ultramarine blue has a violet-blue character. The former shows more silica and...
-Ultramarine Blue In Distemper
For this purpose the sulphate ultramarine should be selected, and when 70 pounds of the dry blue are mixed with about 40 pounds (or nearly 5 gallons of water) and run through a stone mill until fine, ...
-Miscellaneous Blues
Lime blue, a pigment made from solutions of copper salts with the addition of sal ammoniac and quick lime, really a mixture of copper hydroxide and calcium sulphate, has gone out of use and a cheap gr...
-Chapter IX. Mixing And Grinding Brown Pigments
The pigments comprising this group include asphaltum, bistre, bitumen, Caledonian brown, Cassel or Cologne earth, mineral or metallic brown, sienna, raw and burnt; umber, raw and burnt, sepia and Vand...
-Mineral Or Metallic Browns
Mineral browns, or, as they are more familiarly known, metallic browns, are pigments containing more or less sesquioxide of iron with a portion of inert materials as they occur with the iron oxide in ...
-Italian And American Sienna Earths
We are placing sienna earths in the group of brown pigments for the reason that they really differ vastly from yellow ochers in both tone, strength and chemical constituents, at least so far as the pe...
-Mixing And Grinding Burnt Sienna
Burnt sienna, whether it be the Italian, the domestic or from any other source, is the product obtained by calcining or roasting the natural or raw sienna earth, at moderate red heat. This process dri...
-Selecting, Mixing And Grinding Umber
Umber earth, as it is called in its native state, is found in many localities, but the best undoubtedly comes from the island of Cyprus. Other inferior qualities are found in England, Wales, France an...
-Selections And Analysis Of Raw Umber
The best quality of Cyprus raw umber has a peculiar greenish cast, which we usually term olive, and its color is due to ferric oxide of iron and quite a large percentage of dioxide of manganese, to wh...
-Grinding Raw Umber In Various Vehicles
As will be seen from the chemical analysis of raw umber, it contains quite a high percentage of manganese dioxide, which constituent exerts a strong drying influence on linseed oil, even when it is no...
-Selecting, Mixing And Grinding Burnt Umber
What we. know as burnt Turkey umber is the Cyprus raw umber, burnt or calcined in the lump form and is imported into this country in this as well as in the powdered form. It runs from light reddish br...
-Chapter X. Mixing And Grinding Green Pigments
In green pigments there is quite a large field and greens really form a most interesting part of the general subject of color grinding, not only in oil for the trade in general, but also for the coach...
-Commercial Chrome Green In Oil
While government service specifications, when sending proposals for chrome green to manufacturers, call for an intimate mixture of at least 98 per cent chrome yellow and Prussian blue, permitting the ...
-Commercial Chrome Green In Oil. Continued
For this reason, if the color grinder has not any special object in view, he can, instead of carrying a stock of extended chrome greens, minimize it by purchasing chemically pure green of such shades ...
-Chrome Greens In Japan
In this line we find the chrome greens, when so listed of the same type, as the 25 per cent greens in oil, while those listed as coach painters' green are usually stronger in color, running as high as...
-Composite Green Colors
Under this heading should be classed bronze, bottle, olive and Quaker green that appear in oil color lists, issued by some color grinders. Foremost among these is bronze green, which at the present da...
-Composite Greens In Japan
Foremost among these on the price lists are Brewster greens, bronze greens, Brunswick green, Merrimac green, olive green, fern green, etc. There being any number of greens of these types, it would be ...
-Olive Green
In olive greens there is a wide divergence as to the effect. There was a time when the color turned out under that name in japan was more like the Brunswick green in the dark shade and similar to Merr...
-Rare Greens For Coach Work
Emerald green, a trade name for Paris green, is often called for by coach painters for striping and ornamental work on automobiles and sleighs, but as the ordinary Paris green is not opaque enough to ...
-Miscellaneous Green Colors In Oil
Paris Green, or emerald green, as it is sometimes designated in oil color lists for the general trade, is an aceto-arsenite of copper, consisting of about 32 per cent of copper oxide, 58 per cent of a...
-Green Colors For Artists And Decorators
Taking these up in alphabetical order, we have first of all bronze green, but as this is a color that artists will prefer to mix themselves, we may pass it by, because when wanted by sign writers or d...
-Green Distemper Colors
In this list we should omit such as bronze green, and, in fact, all composite greens, as well as the ordinary chrome green. When these are called for specially, the color grinder will have no trouble ...
-Chapter XI. Mixing And Grinding Red Pigments
This is also an important group of colors, and by far the greatest interest attaches to the red oxides of iron, natural or artificially made. It may be said that of the total output of most paint fact...
-Venetian Red
Venetian Red was originally made by grinding native red oxide or red hematite, but as the use of paint developed the name was transferred by English dry color manufacturers to the artificial product m...
-Oxide Of Iron Red
Oxide of Iron Red in Oil as found in some color grinders' lists is usually a mixture of native red oxide, or it may be a copperas red, containing any where from 70 to 90 per cent sesquioxide of iron i...
-Indian Red
Indian Red in Oil is listed by some grinders in one shade only, and here a medium shade is selected, while others quote light and dark shades. Indian red is made artificially from green copperas, and ...
-Tuscan Red
Tuscan Red in Oil. - These reds are a somewhat uncertain material so far as a standard for them is concerned. The color sold under the brand English Tuscan red is not up to some of the proprietary bra...
-Bases For Oxide Of Iron Dipping Paints
When grinding red pastes for use as base for dipping wood or metal it is not practical to assume that any ordinary oxide of iron red will be good enough for the purpose. The chief points in the proper...
-Mixing And Grinding Red Lead And Vermilion In Oil
When pure red lead in oil is demanded by the trade the manufacturer usually grinds it to order only, though he may keep a small quantity in stock in small cans. But it is an established fact that pure...
-American Vermilion (Chrome Red) In Oil
American vermillion, or, as it is commonly known by most painters, scarlet lead chromate, has also been placed on the market under names or brands such as Chinese red, Persian red, Imperial Scarlet an...
-The So-Called Permanent Or Non-Fading Reds In Oil
About the year 1894 the representatives in this country of some English and German manufacturers of coal-tar dyes and aniline colors visited some color makers whose line of dry colors was mostly used ...
-Red Colors For Artists' Tubes
The usual vehicle for these consists almost exclusively of poppyseed oil, although with permanent red lake, refined linseed oil is probably best, as this color is favored by sign writers and decorator...
-Red Colors In Water For Distemper Work
This list comprises carmine and crimson lake, Indian red, maroon lake, red lake, rose lake, rose pink, Turkey red lake and Venetian red. Since the advent of the numerous cold water paints the demand f...
-Red Colors In Japan Or Varnish
In this list there are colors, the names of which are standard, as they have become familiar to the trade by long usage, while each and every color grinder has his own proprietary name for some of his...
-Chapter XII. Mixing And Grinding Yellow Pigments. Yellow Ocher
Yellow Ocher is first and foremost among the yellow pigments because of the great quantities consumed, both in the dry state and ground in oil. Years ago it was thought to be indispensable as a primin...
-Golden Ochers And Chrome Ochers In Oil
There is no standard in the trade for true or genuine, that is, unadulterated golden ocher or chrome ocher, and every color grinder has his own standard or else matches his competitor's brand. As an e...
-Yellow Oxide
Yellow Oxide in Oil will also be found in the oil color lists of some manufacturers, but the demand is rather limited. There are some very pretty yellow oxides offered to the trade from English and It...
-Zinc Yellow
Permanent Yellow is a favorite label for zinc yellow or zinc chromate in oil, although baryta yellow or strontia yellow is also considered permanent. Zinc yellow when it first appeared upon the Americ...
-Naples Yellow
Naples Yellow is a lead compound that has been superseded by the lead chromates, but is still now and then called for, but mostly in tube colors and coach colors. True Naples yellow is still sold by a...
-Mixing And Grinding Yellow Colors For Artist's And Decorators' Use
In these lists will be found yellow ocher, Roman ocher, Oxford ocher, golden ocher and probably Mars yellow, so far as earth colors are concerned. The ocher designated as yellow ocher is invariably of...
-Mixing And Grinding Yellow Pigments In Water
French or Yellow Ocher is in fair demand for tinting kalsomines and for fresco or distemper work in general. For this purpose the citron shade, J. C. L. E. S. of French ocher is preferable, and sixty-...
-Mixing And Grinding Yellow Colors In Japan
The yellow colors for coach and car work that are listed under the caption of Superfine Coach Colors, as a rule, are not necessarily ground in what is understood as japan, but may be ground in the bro...
-Part III. Paint Vehicles And Thinners. Chapter XIII. Linseed Oil
So far linseed oil has not found an equal in paint making, although the subject has been one of deep study, and while other fixed oils have been discovered, that for certain purposes have been expecte...
-Chapter XIV. China Wood Or Tung Oil. A General Description Of Its Origin, Production, Physical And Chemical Properties And The Great Importance Of Its Use In The Manufacture Of Varnishes. Origin
It is generally known that this oil is pressed from the fruit of a tree which is named by the Chinese, on account of the bottle-shaped form of the nuts it bears, tung yu or ying tzu tung, also tung tz...
-Tung Oil Production
Some twenty years ago and for some time afterward tung oil, as we shall in our further description term this very interesting article, came to us through English and German channels of trade, and it w...
-Tung Oil Physical Properties
Raw tung oil of commerce is usually light straw yellow in color and of a disagreeable odor, that is designated by many as similar to smoked hog fat, which is difficult to disguise and cannot be remove...
-Chemistry Of Tung Oil
The exact chemical constituents have not as yet been accurately determined, simply because tung oil has never been found uniform, as will be seen from tables of the results of analyses by various auth...
-Testing Of Tung Oil
Adulterations of tung oil with cheaper materials have been determined, grease, fish oil and mineral oil being the adulterants principally used, and before rosin oil rose to its present height in price...
-Empirical Tung Oil Examination
Tung oil, even when mixed with other vegetable oils, gelatinizes under great heat. The jelly from pure tung oil is insoluble, while adulterated tung oil requires a greater degree of heat and the jelly...
-Physical Tung Oil Examination
The varnish manufacturer can escape a great deal of annoyance and pecuniary losses if he personally looks after this part of his purchases or has someone whom he can rely on look after this end of the...
-The Principal Uses Of Tung Oil
The research work in the possible uses for tung oil has not, by any means, been completed, as yet, but we may say that so far the chief object has been to find a substitute for linseed oil in the manu...
-Tung Oil In Floor Varnishes And Floor Paints
The Chemical Revue d. Harz and Fettind, 12 p. 244, contains a formula for colored floor varnish as follows: - Raw tung oil is heated for 2 hours at 340 degrees Fahrenheit, then permitted to cool an...
-Chapter XV. Paint Oils Other Than Linseed
There are quite a number of these, drying, semi-drying and non-drying, and not a few have their special uses in paint. The most important of the drying variety is China wood oil or tung oil, which has...
-Semi-Drying And Non-Drying Oils
Among those that interest paint manufacturers mostly should be classed soya bean oil, corn oil, cottonseed oil, castor oil, rosin oil, pine oil, tar oil, seal oil and mineral (or paraffine) paint oil....
-Chapter XVI. Paint Thinners And Solvents
Turpentine, the common name for oil or spirits of turpentine, is obtainable in two varieties, one that is distilled from the sap of the pine tree and now known as gum spirits, the other obtained from ...
-Chapter XVII. Varnishes, Driers And Japans
It is not proposed to furnish in this chapter any formulas for the varnishes, driers and japans used by the paint maker or color grinder, but in order to make this work complete, a description of thes...
-Part IV. Liquid Paints Ready For Use. Introduction
Under the caption of grinding bases for ready-mixed paints we have pointed out how this is usually accomplished and that there are several ways of doing this, the most frequent method being to grind t...
-Chapter XVIII. Building Paints
Before proceeding with this subject it might be well to have a better understanding of the present methods in formulating compositions for ready-for-use liquid paints or ready-mixed paints, that are t...
-Solid Colors In Ready For Use Building Paints
Blind and Shutter Greens or Trimming Greens of the chrome green type are usually mixed from a base containing from 20 to 25 per cent of chemically pure green, balance of pigment consisting of barytes....
-Chapter XIX. Floor Paints For Interior And Porches
The best wearing floor paints in our experience have been the house paints made from pure lead and zinc bases with pure tinting colors for producing the shade. On interior floors as well as on porch f...
-Chapter XX. Metal Preservative Coatings
This is a wide field and to treat the subject fully would require a volume itself and then not be exhausted as our scientific researchers are discovering new data regarding corrosion of metals as they...
-Chapter XXI. Concrete And Cement Coatings
This line of paint making is coming to the fore rapidly and there are, even now, many brands on the market that are offered for the purpose of coating such surfaces to keep them from dusting or wither...
-Chapter XXII. Barn And Roof Paints
Barn and Roof Paints, so called in distinction from the general line of ready mixed house and building paints to account for the difference in quality and selling price, are made to meet the demand fo...
-Chapter XXIII. Shingle Stains
Shingle Stains of High Quality can be produced only by using the strongest and finest oil colors as base, because they are chiefly used for staining the shingles before being laid. Coal tar creosote i...
-Chapter XXIV. Stains
Oil Stains And Varnish Stains With Pigment Bases While of late years some paint makers have listed stains with fancy names in these two lines, the most popular are still those that imitate natural ...
-Chapter XXV. Dipping Paints
Dipping Paints for Wood or Metal require to be made specially for either surface, as that intended for wood will not always serve the purpose for metal. The paint for wood requires to contain a pigmen...
-Chapter XXVI. Modern Flat Wall Finishes
It is a well-known fact to the trade that the evolution of these flat finishes is due to a great extent to the efforts of the manufacturers of lithopone, both here and abroad, to find a greater market...
-Chapter XXVII. White And Colored Enamel Paints
The term enamel is very much abused, as it is often being applied to any gloss paint. Properly speaking, enamel paints are or should be made to resemble in appearance the finish given to articles of...
-Chapter XXVIII. Liquid And Paste Wood Fillers
When liquid wood fillers were first placed on the market, they were offered as a shellac substitute, soft woods, such as white wood (poplar), white pine and spruce being more largely used in building ...
-Chapter XXIX. Iron Fillers And Machinery Paints
Iron fillers for surfacing castings and hiding the imperfections thereof are usually sold in paste form, so that they may be used as a plaster or putty, applying same with a wide spatula or broad knif...
-Chapter XXX. Putties And Cements
Good putty for the use of painters and glaziers cannot well be made without the use of a chaser or edge runner mill, because only a thorough kneading will produce the proper mechanical union between p...
-Part V. Casein And Cold Water Paints. Chapter XXXI. Origin And Uses Of Casein
For many years back it has been the aim of those interested in paint materials to devise a comparatively cheap coating for the exterior as well as the interior of buildings that did not have the defec...
-Chapter XXXII. Tests For Cold Water Paints
Physical properties of cold water paint should be tested for spreading and covering power, for free working under the brush and drying property, for resistance to moisture and water, atmospheric condi...
-Chapter XXXIII. Manufacture Of Cold Water Paint. Pigments Most Suitable In Cold Water Paint
The basic mineral pigments in cold water paints are usually chalk (whiting), kaolin (china clay), magnesium silicate or alumina. The chemical examination of a popular brand of cold water paint resulte...
-Formulas For Casein Paints
The following formulas will give an idea of the commercial brands on the market as sold in the dry powdered form: - Branded White 10% Casein, alkali soluble, 5% Calcium hydrate, 85% Calcium ...
-Use Of Casein In Decoration And Art Painting
Pictures that are painted with casein colors are exposed to the vapors of formaldehyde, which treatment renders them insoluble in water. But inasmuch as this treatment is impracticable for large surfa...
-Chapter XXXIV. Uses Of Casein And Cold Water Paints
The decorators, who formerly used the better grades of glue and gelatine for their distemper and fresco material, have made progress in the use of casein, but they require far better material than the...
-Part VI. Practical Recipes And Working Formulas. Aluminum Bronze Paint In Liquid Form For Exterior Surfaces
I This may be made by mixing the aluminum bronze powder with the celluloid bronzing liquid (so-called banana oil) at the rate of 18% by weight of the powder and 82% by weight of the liquid, resulting ...
-For Interior Surfaces On Wood Or Metal Brush Work
III The odor of the so-called banana liquid being unpleasant to many persons and difficult to get rid of for some time, a lustrous and very durable aluminum liquid bronze paint can be made by mixing 1...
-For Dipping Metal, Such As Tin Or Galvanized Iron
IV Mix 15 pounds of the finest and most lustrous aluminum bronze powder obtainable with 55 pounds of pale mixing varnish, of the China wood oil type, as in III and add 15 pounds 62 benzine and 15...
-Anti-Fouling Paints Or Compositions For Ships' Bottoms
The best formula believed to have been designed so far for an anti-fouling paint for the bottoms of steel ships or boats is based on ferric oxide in very fine division with a portion of zinc oxide, ar...
-Anti-Corrosive Or Non Corrosive Coatings For The Bottoms Of Steel Ships
The first coating for this purpose is usually dry red lead mixed on the spot with raw linseed oil and, in the opinion of the author, nothing better can be devised. However next to the red lead a non-c...
-Anti-Fouling Composition For The Bottoms Of Steel Ships
The very best composition for this purpose so far designed is one that is based on an alcoholic solution of shellac and pine tar oil for vehicle, and finely ground ferric oxide of iron as pigment, wit...
-Asphaltum Paints And Asphaltum Compositions
So called black asphaltum paints are often simply benzine asphaltum varnishes with or without admixture with coal tar. While the name asphaltum paint has become a synonym for something very cheap in t...
-Blackboard Slating
Blackboard Slating Liquid can be made in several ways. When it is desired in such form, that after the application of several coats the board may be written on with soapstone pencils, the following fo...
-Cements For Various Purposes
Paste Cement for Fixing Metal Letters on Glass. To be used by specialist in doing this work, the material is ground in putty like form and put up in one or two pound tin cans for easy carriage. Grind ...
-Copper Paint For Wooden Ship's Bottoms
This is usually wanted in brown or copper color and the most effective paint known for the purpose contains 5 pounds copper oxide in the form of fine scales, although it has been made with what was kn...
-Formulas For First Class Yacht Compositions
Green: Grind 10 lbs. chemically pure chrome green, dark shade, 30 lbs. blanc fixe (precipitated barium sulphate), 2 1/2 lbs. to 3 lbs. powdered corrosive sublimate in 15 lbs. refined pine tar, as fine...
-Engine Enamels For Cold And Heated Parts
To manufacture enamel paints for the cold parts of engines is not a difficult task as it is only necessary to select a vehicle, that will, on the drying of the paint, make it an easy matter to wipe of...
-Floor Crack Filler Or Joint Cement
The very highest grade of floor crack filler, that is practically colorless, but may be colored to match the finish that is to be applied, is made by grinding a good grade of perfectly dry cornstarch ...
-Floor Wax Polish In Paste Form
To prepare this in the proper way, in quantity, a steam jacketted copper kettle is the best apparatus, and in this the following quantities of material are placed, until finally the whole mass is thor...
-Floor Oils Or Floor Dressings
A floor dressing, that may be used on finished floors to advantage as a polish, when rubbed in well is best made by mixing thoroughly 7 1/2 parts by measure of raw linseed oil, 1 3/4 parts of pure spi...
-Furniture Polish And Polish For Cabinet Work
Dissolve 1/2 pound orange shellac in one quart of denatured 188 alcohol, then mix with this 3 pounds of raw linseed oil and 2 1/2 pounds spirits of turpentine, then mix 3/4 pounds butter of antim...
-Gold Bronze Paint In Liquid Form
In preparing this for the trade, for jobbers' or dealers' shelves, the manufacturer must take especial care to select the very finest gold bronze, nothing coarser than that known as No. 6000 will do; ...
-Black Iron Filler For Rough Castings
This is for use in surfacing castings. Should be used as a priming coat, made thin with benzine and applied with the brush. Then when dry, should be gone over with the paste filler, using wide flexibl...
-High Grade Iron Filler And Surfacer, Also Steel Color Finish
This is usually applied on smooth castings, two coats being given. When dry and hard, it may be rubbed with pumice and water, but is mostly smoothed down with emery cloths and oil. The following formu...
-Ordinary Steel Color Paint In Paste Form
For a dark steel color, that is to be simply used on iron or steel, either for dipping or for application with the brush, after thinning with benzine or turpentine substitute, the inert material must ...
-Lacquers For Brass
An excellent clear spirit lacquer for brass may be made by dissolving, with the aid of gentle heat, in a water bath in a well tinned vessel, that can be closed to avoid evaporation, one pound of gum s...
-Locomotive Finish Black
For a batch of 50 gallons jet black locomotive enamel grind 13 pounds finest grade carbon black, that has been freed from moisture in a drying oven or kiln, in 12 gallons of a good grade of rubbing va...
-Marine White Enamel For Yachts
Grind best French process zinc white in the very palest bodied linseed oil, that may be in the nature of blown oil or lithographers' varnish without drier. The proper proportions are: 60 lbs. dry z...
-Mortar Colors (Moist In Paste)
There is quite a demand for these by the building trades, but to manipulate this material profitably requires facilities for handling at little cost. Where the output is large, edge runner mills (chas...
-Paints To Specifications
To design a paint, be it in paste or liquid form, requires a thorough knowledge of the materials, that are to be used; that is, their chemical composition, as most specifications are worded in chemica...
-Megilp For Artists
This should be in every assortment of artists' tube colors, it being used by them as a drying medium. It is prepared as follows in quantity: Heat in an enameled kettle 12 pounds raw linseed oil wit...
-Paint Remover At Low Cost
When surface is to be repainted and the discoloration of wood not considered, as on barns or other rough work, a cheap remover may be made as follows: Dissolve 7 pounds of 98% caustic soda in 2 gallon...
-Paste Drier For Printing Ink Plate Printing
This material should be made up in an edge runner mill (chaser) in the form of a medium stiff paste and in order to be successful, the pigments must be of utmost fineness and entirely free from grit. ...
-Paste Drier, Without White Lead, For Paint
For an excellent material, where liquid driers are undesirable, and for a batch of 500 lbs. the following ingredients are used: 250 pounds best bolted American Paris white, ...
-Manganese And Lead Paste Drier
A paste drier used by manufacturers of printers' and lithographers' inks in the consistency of fairly stiff putty is produced by pulverizing fine 32 pounds anhydrous white sugar of lead and 8 pounds f...
-Paste Drier For Zinc White Or Lithopone
Guynemer's Drier, that at one time was quite a favorite for drying zinc, especially for flat inside work is now practically obsolete, even in Europe. It was ground with too much zinc oxide to exhibit ...
-Primer For Galvanized Iron
Grind a soft base as follows: 48 pounds lithopone of normal composition; 20 pure graphite of 85% carbon; 4 Indian red of ...
-Paint For Metal, (Tin Or Iron.) High Grade Red For Roofs, Sheathing, Etc
Grind a soft paste as follows: 50 pounds native red, powdered (88% Fe2O3); 23 magnesium silicate (asbestine); 27 raw lins...
-Red Graphite Paint (Paste)
Red graphite, if so found in nature, is simply a mixture of graphite and red clay and therefore not as good a pigment, as the mixtures sold in practise to consumers, who specify the material for use o...
-Roof Stopping (For Leaky Tin Roofs)
Place into a change can mixer, 19 pounds rosin oil (first run will do), 3 pounds pine tar (free of water), 30 pounds cheap Venetian red, 24 pounds ground slate (slate flour) and 24 pounds common whiti...
-Red Mineral Primer Paste For Engine Tenders
One of the largest concerns building locomotives use for priming the bodies of tenders a dull red in paste form, which they thin with substitute turps. Can be made by mixing and grinding 55 pounds nat...
-Rivet Head And Butt End Cement For Steel Vessels
The following composition has been in use for many years by one of the largest ship building companies in the United States: Paste for Trowelling and Knifing in: Mix and grind to a medium stiff ...
-Ship Paints, (As Sold By Ship Chandlers)
These are in paste form furnished in various sizes and styles of packages. The grinding is usually done in a careless way, but more often the goods are simply put through a mixer, and very frequently ...
-Black Marine Paint
40 poundsordinary lampblack, dry; 360 barytes; 100 boiled linseed oil; 500 pounds paste. ...
-Jet Black Marine Paint
15 pounds gas carbon black, dry; 25 clay (kaolin); 360 ordinary barytes; 100 boiled linseed oil; ...
-Marine Blue Paint
15 pounds Prussian blue, dry; 35 English china clay; 385 ordinary barytes; 65 raw linseed oi...
-Bronze Green Marine Paint
20 pounds chemically pure chrome green, dark shade; 10 burnt Turkey umber, powdered; 10 chemically pure chrome yellow, lemon...
-Burnt Turkey Umber Marine Paint
200 pounds burnt Turkey umber in oil; 280 ordinary barytes; 20 raw linseed oil; 500 pounds paste. ...
-Chocolate Color Marine Paint
150 pounds purple oxide of iron (powdered); 25 American zinc; 25 asbestine powder; 235 ordin...
-Oxide Of Iron Red Marine Paint
125 pounds Persian Gulf red (powdered); 25 asbestine powder; 280 ordinary barytes; 70 raw li...
-Marine Green Paint, Any Shade
65 pounds chemically pure chrome green in oil; 35 china clay, fine bolted, dry; 350 ordinary barytes, dry; ...
-Marine Grey Paint
200 pounds red seal lithopone, dry; 2 Prussian blue in oil; 3 lampblack in oil; 245 fine ...
-Mast Color Paint
100 pounds sublimed white lead (or basic lead carbonate); 25 American zinc oxide; 25 whiting, bolted; 7 ...
-Teak Color Paint
150 pounds red seal lithopone, dry; 30 mineral brown (purple tone); 5 French yellow ocher; 5 ...
-Venetian Red Marine Paint
100 pounds Venetian red, medium (30% Fe2O3) in oil; 365 ordinary barytes; 35 raw linseed oil; 500 pounds ...
-White Lead Marine Paint
This is rarely ever made up for marine trade to be sold by ship chandlers, but we will make note of a few formulas that have been used: 200 pounds dry white lead (basic carbonate); ...
-Zinc White Marine Paints
The best selling brand of this character known to the author, was made as follows: 225 pounds extra selected American zinc oxide; 225 Missouri floated ba...
-Combination Marine White Paste
160 pounds dry white lead (basic carbonate); 65 American zinc oxide XX; 225 fine white barytes; 50 ...
-Non-Darkening White Deck Paint
The following paint is not affected by sulphur gases, sometimes prevailing on steamer decks: 35 pounds sublimed white lead (basic lead sul phate); 35 Ame...
-Slushing Compound For Castings
A cheap liquid paint for keeping iron castings from rusting, while stored exposed to the elements. 30 pounds mineral brown or red; 30 common whiting; ...
-Ship's Bunker And Hold Paint, Liquid. Quick Drying Red
Mix and grind a paste as follows: 50 pounds Indian red, pale (95% Fe2O3); 10 American zinc oxide; 10 fine barytes; ...
-Ship's Hold Paint White, Liquid. (Quick Drying)
Mix and grind a paste as follows: 68 pounds red seal lithopone (standard quality); 17 bolted American Paris white; 15 pal...
-Silicate Paint
When silicate paints are called for, it does not follow that they are to contain silicate of soda or potash (water glass), but that a certain portion of the dry pigment is to consist of silica or sile...
-Green Silicate Paint, Paste. Mix In A Power Mixer (Change Can Preferably);
85 pounds chemically pure chrome green light, ground in linseed oil; 180 fine barytes; 180 finest floated silica ...
-Silicate Of Soda Paints
The liquid for these compounds is best prepared as follows: Mix 100 pounds of silicate of soda of 40 Beaume and 12 gallons water; boil the mixture and while boiling, sift coarse powdered rosin to...
-White For Exterior Use
20 pounds American zinc white; 15 bolted American Paris white; 30 asbestine powder; 35 mixed...
-White For Interior Use
20 pounds red seal lithopone; 10 bolted American Paris white; 35 asbestine powder; 35 mixed ...
-Washable Water Paint Black
25 pounds mineral black; 25 asbestine powder; 50 mixed thinners; 100 pounds semi-paste = 8 gallons. ...
-Washable Water Paint Blue
10 pounds ultramarine blue (lime proof); 15 bolted American Paris white; 35 asbestine powder; 40 ...
-Washable Water Paint Yellow
30 pounds French yellow ochre; 25 asbestine powder; 45 mixed thinners; 100 pounds semi-paste = 8 gallons....
-Washable Water Paint Green
15 pounds lime proof green (of desired shade); 40 asbestine powder; 45 mixed thinners; 100 pounds semi-pa...
-Silicate Enamels For Metal
White for imitating enameled ware. Mix 30 pounds French zinc oxide; 30 dry blanc fixe; 25 clear water; ...
-Tinted Silicate Enamels
Add to either of the whites, of the description just given, the necessary coloring matter in pulp form, but use only colors, that are alkali proof. Tallow And Zinc Composition Although the pract...
-Trunk Paints
Some years since the base of trunk paints was pure white lead in the lighter colors, but at the present time, this material is mostly sold at ruinous prices and its make-up is almost on a par with bar...
-Miscellaneous Paints For Iron Or Steel. First Coat Black For Baking
Mix and grind fine: 12 pounds best carbon black; 40 blown bodied linseed oil; 16 hard gum japan; 32 ...
-Second Goat Black Or Gloss Finish For Baking
The first coat will dry nearly flat on baking and a finish with high gloss is given as a rule. Mix and grind fine: 5 pounds best grade carbon black; 15 ...
-Flat Black (Air Drying) For Smooth Iron Or Steel
Mix thoroughly and strain through fine mesh: 30 pounds drop black, ground in japan; 35 black asphaltum varnish, B; 35 g...
-Flat Black (For Spraying On Planished Metal.)
Mix and grind fine as possible on water cooled mill: 4 pounds finest jet carbon gas black; 12 bodied drying linseed oil; 20 ...
-Non-Corrosive Or Rust Preventative Black Paint For Steel Freight Cars Or Coal Cars
Since research in paint problems has developed the fact, that sublimed blue lead acts as a rust-inhibitive in paint for iron and steel surfaces, and since it has become a practice to bake priming coat...
-Steel Car Black Finish For Baking Or Forced Air Drying
Mix and grind fine a paste, consisting of: 12 pounds gas carbon black; 25 pure floated silica; 13 dry asbestine powder; ...
-Surfacers And Enamels For Steel Passenger Car Painting,
It is at once a difficult and thankless task to give recipes or formulas for this class of work, because of the fact, that most every railroad company, whose equipment consists of steel passenger and ...
-Types Of Pullman Coach Body Color Ground In Coach Japan
40 pounds French yellow ocher, dry; 10 orange chrome yellow, dry; 14 drop black, powdered; 1 ...
-Joint Compound For Steel Cars For Subway Or Tunnel Service
This should be almost similar to the Rivet Head or Butt End composition for steel ships, and applied when the sheets are joined. Must be in the form or consistency of medium stiff putty and the fol...
-Brown Zinc In Paste Form As Specified By The U.S. Navy Department
This is really a misnomer, as there never was such a pigment known to the trade. A one time student of applied chemistry, long since deceased, suggested this formula to some one in authority and it ha...
-Primer For Dipping The Bare Wooden Objects
Dissolve waste chips or cuttings of celluloid that are free of coloring matter in amylacetate, at the rate of one pound of the chips to three gallons of the solvent. This will keep the wooden objec...
-Waterproof Enamel For Wooden Fishing Baits
Make a heavy bodied celluloid lacquer by dissolving 2 pounds gun cotton in 10 pounds commercial acetone and 20 pounds amylacetate. Add to this amount one-half pound castor oil to make it flexible. For...
-Waterproofing Compound For Export Canvas Covered Packages
Very flexible and durable compositions are made in various colors by grinding chemically pure pigments of great color strength in castor oil to fairly stiff paste form, which are let down with cellulo...
-Grinding Colors In Turpentine
While not very often in demand, it will so happen, that for a special purpose, such grindings are specified. In order to avoid waste by evaporation and splashing, the grinding must be done on mills of...









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