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A Practical Treatise On The Fabrication Of Matches, Gun Cotton, Colored Fires And Fulminating Powders | by H. Dussauce



First, we have shown the present state of knowledge concerning the composition and nature of its pyroxylic products, its ballistic properties, its applications in pyrotechny, surgery, photography, mining, etc.; its preparation, and the accidents which are liable to take place daring this preparation; the accidents no less serious which result from the handling of gun cotton, and its application to fire-arms. Lastly, we have shown the causes of these accidents, the means to prevent them, and the processes of distinguishing gun cotton from ordinary cotton, not only in common use, but also in cases where it will be necessary to proceed to a judiciary inquest. To the fabrication of matches and gun cotton, we have added researches upon a subject well worth the attention of hygienists.

TitleA Practical Treatise On The Fabrication Of Matches, Gun Cotton, Colored Fires And Fulminating Powders
AuthorH. Dussauce
PublisherHenry Carey Baird
Year1864
Copyright1864, Henry Carey Baird
AmazonA Practical Treatise on the Fabrication of Matches, Gun Cotton, Colored Fires and Fulminating Powder

By Professor H. Dussauce, Chemist, Lately of the Laboratories of The French Governmnent, viz., the Mining, Botanical Garden, the Imperial Manufacture of the Gobelius, the Conservatoire Imperiale of Arts and Manufacture: Professor of Industrial Chemistry to the Polytechnic Institute, Paris.

-Preface
In 1830, the fabrication of matches was not yet, properly speaking, a special industry. It was limited to a few poor families, who not having the means to purchase in any quantity the materials necess...
-Chapter I. Phosphorus
Formula Ph. Equivalent = 32. 1. History Phosphorus was discovered in 1669, by Brandt, alchemist of Hamburg. He was engaged in researches on the philosopher's stone, or the art of converting common m...
-3. Chemical Properties of Phosphorus
Phosphorus melts at 111.45, and boils at 554. Its vapor is colorless, with a density = 4.328. Exposed to a heat of 140 to 158, and suddenly cooled, it becomes black; by cooling slowly,...
-5. Phosphorus Extraction
Phosphorus is extracted from calcined bones, which have been heated to the red heat in contact with the air, so as completely to destroy the organic matter. This combustion can easily be made in a lim...
-Purification, Moulding, Granulation Of Phosphorus
When the distillation is completed, take out the adapter K, and dip it into cold water. Extract the phosphorus of each receiver to clear it from the dirt it may contain. Then filter it through a chamo...
-Chapter II. Amorphous Phosphorus
In 1851, Dr. Schrotter made known the mode of preparation on a large scale, and the properties of this kind of phosphorus isomeric with the white one. Properties Amorphous phosphorus has a violaceou...
-Chapter III. Sulphur
Formula S. Equivalent = 16. Properties Sulphur is a substance found abundantly in nature, sometimes isolated, and sometimes in combination with a great number of metals. Sulphur may bo obtained in ...
-Chapter IV. Red Ochre - Minium - Bi-Oxide Of Lead - Bi-Oxide Of Manganese
Bed Ochre The red ochre, or sesquioxide of iron, is violet red, less easy to melt than iron, unalterable by heat, without action on oxygen or the air. The sulphuric and hydrochloric acids dissolve i...
-Chapter V. Sulphide of Antimony - Oxy-Sulphide Of Antimony - Sulphuride Of Mercury (Ver-Milion) - Cyanide Of Lead
Sulphide Of Antimony This sulphide (per-sulphide) Sb2S5 is orange yellow. Heat decomposes it into sulphur and proto-sulphide. Hydrochloric acid dissolves it with disengagement of sulphydric acid and ...
-Chapter VI. Chlorate Of Potash - Nitrate Of Potash-Bichromate Of Potash - Nitrate Of Lead
Chlorate Of Potash Chlorate of potash (KOCIO5) is an anhy-drous salt, which crystallizes in the form of small spangles. They are larger when the crystallization is effected slowly. It is much more so...
-Nitrate Of Potash
Nitrate of potash (N05KO), commonly known in commerce by the name of nitre and saltpetre, is a natural production. It has a cool, slightly bitter taste; its den-sity = 1.933. Subjected to the action ...
-Nitrate Of Lead
Nitrate of lead is prepared by dissolving litharge or white lead, or metallic lead, in an excess of nitric acid, taking care in the latter case to keep the acid in excess. The hot solution, when satu...
-Chapter VII. Gum - Gelatins
Gum Certain substances, as yet imperfectly understood, which issue from trees, are called gums. Their elementary composition is the same as that of amylaceous matter, but they differ from it in sever...
-Chapter VIII. Coloring Matters Used In The Preparation Of Matches
We have already indicated two, the vermilion and the minium, and we shall now mention a few others extensively used. Prussian Blue To prepare it, dissolve in water some persulphate of iron; pour int...
-Chapter IX. General Remarks On Matches
Among the properties which characterize sulphur, its inflammability at 482 explains its earliest application in the fabrication of matches. That fabrication has received from chemistry various an...
-Chapter X. Operations Followed In The Fabrication Of Matches
THE wood of the white poplar (Populus tre-mula and P. alba) is generally used to prepare wooden matches. Birch wood is more costly, and less easy to split; the matches it produces burn longer. Pine wo...
-Chapter I. Friction Matches Without Noise
We give below several usual compositions of phosphoric mastic for ordinary matches. Paste with Glue. Paste with Gum. Matches with-out Sulphur. Phosphorus ...
-Chapter XII. Matches Without Sulphur
To manufacture such matches the wood is prepared like other matches, only it should be very dry, particularly at the end of the operation. When the matches have stayed in the frame, they are laid on ...
-Chapter XIII. Candle Matches
This kind of matches, invented by Messrs. Savaresse and Merckel in 1836, and improved in 1849, is prepared with a machine similar to a weaving loom, carrying a chain disposed for the weaving. Every wi...
-Chapter XIV. Matches Of Amorphous Phosphorus
These new matches can be prepared with gum or glue. In the first case, dispose beforehand a mixture of equal parts of gum arable and water, so as to have a viscous solution. In 2 ounces of that solut...
-Chapter XV. Matches And Rubbers Without Phosphorus
We give below the different compositions used to prepare these matches: - Chlorate of Potash 5 parts 6 parts 5 parts Oxy-sulphuret of Antimony 1/2 ...
-Chapter XVI. New Matches Called Safety Matches
Lately new matches have been prepared by Messrs, Vaudaux and Poignon, which are free from white phosphorus, are without danger of poisoning, and diminish the chances of fire. The following is the comp...
-Chapter XVII. Various Formulae
I Take - Gum Arabic . 16 parts. Phosphorus . 9 Nitre . . . 14 Vermilion or binox. Manganese . . 16 Water q. s. II Take -Glue 6 parts. Phosphorus . 4 Nitre . ....
-Chapter XVIII. Dangers - Accidents - Diseases In The Fabrication
The enumeration alone of the accidents which take place in the fabrication of matches, their transport, or their domestic use would require a volume. We shall direct attention only to the causes to wh...
-Operations Which Expose To The Phosphorous Emanations
We have seen that all the wooden work, the making of boxes are gene-rally completed outside of the factory. The operators are consequently strangers to the questions of hygiene and pathology, and as t...
-Nature And Composition Of The Vapors Which Exhale In The Manufacture Of Matches
The air of the rooms has not been analyzed yet, and theory alone can guide us. If we examine one after the other, each of the substances which enter in the composition of the mastic, if we put aside t...
-Chapter XIX. Reforms In The Fabrication Of Matches
These measures of reform (unhappily those measures have not been taken yet in factories in this country) embrace, not only all the parts of the fabrication of matches, but also the cartage and the sal...
-Chapter XX. Construction Of The Factory
The complete separation of the rooms is the essential point in the construction of a match factory. It is not only an indispensable condition, in order to give to the shops the dispositions necessary ...
-Chapter XXI. History - Xyloidine And Pyroxyline - Properties And Composition
History In the course of 1833, a well known French chemist, Braconnot, having dissolved starch and some other organic matters in nitric acid, obtained by precipitating the dissolution by water, a new...
-Chapter XXII. Fabrication Of Gun Cotton - Nitric Paper - Pyroxam - Properties
Gun cotton and nitric paper, according to tbe analysis of Messrs. Pelouze, Payen, and Poinsot, can be considered as formed of two equivalents of cellulose which have lost three equivalents of water by...
-Chapter XXIII. Ballistic Properties Of Gun Cotton And Nitric Paper
The first essays tried by Messrs. Pelouze and Prelat, and those of Lassaigne have proved, without any contest, the remarkable energy of the new powder; but in these essays, the ballistic pendulum had ...
-Chapter XXIV. Uses Of Gun Cotton In Mining Operations - Pyrotechnic Effects - General Application
If the appreciation of the ballistic effects of the pyroxyle is yet in doubt, it is not the case as to its power and advantages under some other circumstances, principally in the blasting of rocks. Th...
-Chapter XXV. Applications Of Gun Cotton - Collodion -Its Uses In Surgery - Preparation Of Artificial Leaves And Flowers
Collodion Mr. Maynard, of Boston, has made a carious application of the pyroxyle obtained by Mr. Gaudin's process, by rendering it soluble in alcoholized ether. He designates this agglutinative solut...
-Chapter XXVI. Application Of Collodion In Photography
A vert happy application has been made of collodion in photography. We do not expect to give here a treatise on this art, but we think it of interest to the reader to be informed of that part which sp...
-Application Of Collodion In Photography. Continued
Developing The Image There are two ways of developing - (a) By pyrogallic acid. (b) By proto-sulphate of iron. (a) To develop by pyrogallic acid, prepare the following bath: - Distilled water . . &#...
-Chapter XXVII. Accidents Which Are Liable To Occur During The Preparation Of Gun Cotton-Causes Of These Accidents - Cautions To Be Taken
It is to Mr. Payen that wo are indebted for a complete study of the very important question of the accidents which are liable to occur in the preparation and the drying of pyroxy-line. During the pre...
-Chapter XXVIII. Method Of Distinguishing Gun Cotton From Ordinary Cotton - Spontaneous Formation Of Products Similar To Pyroxyline
Many processes have been proposed to distinguish gun cotton from ordinary cotton. One chemist has proposed to rub them in the dark; he says that gun cotton becomes luminous, whilst ordinary cotton doe...
-Section IV. Colored Fires
The phenomena exhibiting colored flames may be distinguished into non-illuminating and illuminating fires. The former expression is certainly not to be taken in the strict sense of the word, since a f...
-Chapter XXIX. Substances Used For Preparing Colored Fires
Nitrate Of Potash In Chapter VII (Gum - Gelatins). of this work, we have said all that is necessary of this substance. Before using, it must be perfectly dried. It colors the flame of alcohol clear p...
-Substances Used For Preparing Colored Fires. Continued
Nitrate Of Strontia This salt is prepared from the native sulphate of strontia or its carbonate; the latter 13 furnishes a solution of the nitrate when it is powdered, placed in a porcelain dish, and...
-Chapter XXX. Non-Illuminating Colored Fires
The usual modes of preparing these fires are as follows: - Into a flat porcelain or tin cup pour alcohol, and add the coloring substance previously dissolved in hot water: Or cotton wadding is dusted...
-Chapter XXXI. Illuminating Fires - Bengal Fires - Open Lights - Colored Lights
Illuminating Fires And Bengal Fires These fires serve to illuminate objects of a small or larger compass; hence, intensity of light is principally to be aimed at, besides, there is a condition that t...
-Colored Lights
These are formed by filling cylinders of thin writing paper of about an inch in diameter with the mixtures. The length of the cylinder determines the duration of the light The mixture may be moistened...
-Chapter XXXII. Phosphoric Lights
Phosphorescence A number of bodies have the peculiarity under certain circumstances of emitting light, the origin or cause of which has not as yet been fitly explained. Among such cases is the appear...
-Chapter XXXIII. Pyrophors
A second class of self luminous substances are those in which this peculiarity is permanent and which are sometimes called pyrophors (fire bearers). Their phosphorescence consists in the diffusion of ...
-Chapter XXXIV. Military Fireworks
Buildings In a large establishment four separate buildings are required. No. 1 should have a porch, and contain at least four rooms. Cartridge room, for making paper and cartridges of all kinds. F...
-Chapter XXXV. Matches - Fuses - Rock-Fire - Blue Lights - Signal Rockets
Slow Match Slow match is prepared rope, which is used to keep and carry fire; it bums slowly, with a firm, hard coal, and is not easily extinguished. Materials Hemp or flax raps of 3 strands, sligh...
-Chapter XXXVI. Decorations For Rockets - War Rockets
Stars The composition to prepare stars is as follows: - While. Yellow. . Red. Blue. Green. 5 points. Nitre 16 ...
-Ornamental Fireworks
Lances are small paper cases, 2 to 4 inches diameter, filled with one or more compositions each burning with a flame of a particular color. They are used to mark the outlines of figures, and are attac...
-Chapter XXXVII. History
Amongst the industries of new creation worth the attention of the science, is the fabri-cation of fulminating and percussion powders. The universal adoption of percussion arms for war purposes is the ...
-Chapter XXXVIII. Fulminating Compounds
Fulminating compounds are compositions which detonate with great force by a blow or by friction. Many metals form such compounds which are not used in the fabrication of percussion powders, but we th...
-Chapter XXXIX. Fulminate Of Mercury
Preparation The following process has been indicated by Mr. Gaultier de Claubry. The mercury is dissolved by nitric acid in a glass flask with a short neck; the liquid must fill it quite 2/3 ds, as ...
-Chapter XL. Physical And Chemical Properties Of The Fulminate Of Mercury - Conditions Of Explosibility
The well prepared fulminate of mercury is in the form of bright, little crystals of a brownish-gray color; they appear transparent when placed on a glass watch-crystal and humected with a few drops of...
-Chapter XLI. Explosions - Fires And Other Accidents Produced By Ethereal Fluids Obtained In The Fabrication Of Fulminates -Treatment Of The Wounded
When the necessary quantity of mercury is dissolved in the nitric acid, and the alcohol is added, we have seen the production of a lively reaction. The whole mass is strongly agitated, it disengages v...
-Chapter XLII. Preservation Of The Fulminate Of Mercury
The fulminate of mercury prepared, as we have said above, is put away, and can be kept any length of time. This preservation requires great care. Generally the fulminate is deposited in a wooden tube,...
-Chapter XLIII. Preparation Of Percussion Powder
To make the mixture of the fulminate of mercury with the nitre, they generally take the latter one into small pieces, and grind it with the fulminate. To manufacture in such a manner is very dangerous...
-Chapter XLIV. Corning Of The Powder - Desiccation-Separation Of The Powder From The Mist - Preservation Of The Powder
Corning Of The Powder When the fulminating matter has been sufficiently drained in the dryer, corn it on a hair sieve fixed above a wooden table, by pressing it slightly with the fingers. This danger...
-Chapter XLV. Fabrication Of Percussion Caps
The cap for small arms is made of copper. It is very slightly conical, with a rim or flange at the open end. It has four slits extending about half the height of the cap. The cap is charged with the ...
-Fabrication Of Percussion Caps. Part 2
Varnishing The Caps The caps are put into holes in counting plates, made of sheet brass, 15 inches by 12 inches, 0.5 inch thick, held in a frame of brass rods .35 inch square. This is quickly done by...
-Fabrication Of Percussion Caps. Part 3
Charging And Varnishing The small tube is charged by pressing the open end in the friction composition spread on a flat piece of iron, and brought to the consistency of soft putty, the long tube bein...
-Chapter XLVI. Application Of Gun Cotton And Paper To Tub Fabrication Of Caps
Since the discovery of pyroxylic products, the question relative to the fabrication of caps can bo considered in a new aspect. Will it not be possible to supersede the use of the fulminate of mercury...
-Chapter XLVII. Disposition Of Factories - Preservation And Transportation Of Percussion Powder And Caps
As in the fabrication of matches, every room must be isolated, indeed each one be a small building composed of a single room, without stairs, and of wood. The room in which the fulminate is prepared ...
-Appendix. Recent Improvements In Gun Cotton
At the British Association meetings of 1862, a committee of chemists and physicists was appointed to inquire and report on the so-called Austrian gun cotton. The report was published in the last meeti...
-Gun Cotton Physical Report
Mr. Russell stated that greater effects are produced by gases generated from gun cotton than by gases from gunpowder, and it was only after long and careful examination that the committee were able to...
-Gun Cotton Physical Report. Part 2
To understand this may not be easy. The waste of the solids of gunpowder accounts for one part of the saving, as in 100 pounds of gunpowder 68 pounds have to be projected in addition to the shot, and ...
-Gun Cotton Physical Report. Part 3
The gravest charge made against this new explosive material was, that it was liable to spontaneous combustion, as was known to be the case with gun cotton made in the ordinary way. It was of the utmo...
-Baron Von Lenk's Gun Cotton Patented In The United States
The Scientific American for July 9,1864, contains the following: - On the 4th of June, 1864, Baron Von Lenk procured a patent, through the Scientific American Patent Agency, for the manufacture of g...
-Improved Gun Cotton
'To all whom it may concern: 'Be it known that I, Baron W. Lenk, of the city of Vienna, in the Empire of Austria, have invented a new and improved mode of making an explosive material out of cott...
-Practical And Scientific Books, Published By Henry Carey Baird
INDUSTRIAL PUBLISHER, NO. 406 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. Any of the following Books will be sent by mail, free of postage, at the publication price. Catalogues furnished on application. American ...
-Practical And Scientific Books, Published By Henry Carey Baird. Part 2
Continuation Of The Study Of Toothed Gear Design for a pair of bevel-wheels in gear, Plate XXI1. Construction of wooden patterns for a pair of bevel-wheels, Plate XXIII. Involute and Helical Teeth, P...
-Practical And Scientific Books, Published By Henry Carey Baird. Part 2. Continued
From the very large number of articles in this volume, it is entirely impossible to give a list of the Contents, hut attention may be called to Home among the more elaborate, such as Affinity, Alcohol...
-Practical And Scientific Books, Published By Henry Carey Baird. Part 3
On The Fabrication Of Matches, Gun Cotton, And Fulminating Powders By Prof. 11. Dussauce. 12mo.,....$3.00 Contents Phosphorus - History of Phosphorus; Physical Properties; Chemical Propeties; Natur...
-Practical And Scientific Books, Published By Henry Carey Baird. Part 4
On The Act Of Dyeing Cotton And Wool As Practiced In Paris, Rocex, Meuocse And Germany From the French of M. Louis Ulrich, a Practical Dyer in the principal Manufactories of Paris, Rouen, Mulliouse, ...









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