This section is from the book "A Practical Treatise On The Joints Made And Used By Builders", by Wyvill J. Christy. Also available from Amazon: Practical treatise on the joints made and used by builders.
Another name for a back joint. Its thickness is usually about 3/8 in.
Weather Joint is one designed or protected with a contrivance to keep out wet, or wind and wet. To this category all the external joints of a building belong, or rather should belong, for it will obviously depend upon the degree or quality of workmanship displayed in their formation, whether they will stand or give after the trying ordeal of a few rounds of the opposite extremes of stilly hot, and boisterously cold weather. As a general rule, bevelling or slanting off a surface downwards and away from the joint more or less weathers it, owing to water finding its own level. Mortar joints therefore should be struck with a surface sloping inwards towards the underside of the course above to allow the rain to glance off. For the same reason, chimney pots and roofing are flanched, and walls coped, etc. In hollow walls a piece of 5 lb. sheet lead bent to form a sort of small gutter, and extending about 4 inches beyond each side, is built in over all door and window frames to prevent any wet reaching them that may find its way through the outer thickness.
One formed with ordinary mortar as distinguished from blue mortar. Or it is made by pointing with white putty, which is a stiff paste composed of the purest chalk lime, and silver sand, or else marble dust. The latter ingredient is the best of the two if reduced to powder by heat and well screened. Where cement bond is used it is necessary to rake out the cement before setting, or to keep it back from the face in order that the joints may be pointed similarly to the rest, which would be most likely executed in white mortar, though a good deal of blue or black is used.
Wood Joint occurs when wood occupies the place of the usual mortar joint between courses of brickwork, in order that woodwork may be fixed thereto. It is usually formed by laying or building in the wall a pallet or wood slip the length and width of a brick and about 3/8 in. thick.
Such slips are now preferred to wood bricks, as they shrink less and afford better hold by not becoming so loose. Ranging bond, which often consists of parallel slips of the same width and thickness built in dry the whole inside length of the wall at distances apart varying from 1½ ft. to 3 ft. to receive match boarding, battening, lining, wainscoting, etc, constitutes also another kind of wood joint.