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First Steps In Photography | by J. C. H. Wallsgrove



The aim of this little book is to state in a concise and simple way the simple truths in the practice of photography. As the worker progresses and it becomes necessary to make "Second Steps," it cannot be better done than by consulting a specialized work treating only upon the subject on which he is desirous of obtaining information.

TitleFirst Steps In Photography
AuthorJ. C. H. Wallsgrove
PublisherNew York: E. P. Dutton And Co.
Year1913
Copyright1913, 1913, J. C. H. Wallsgrove
AmazonFirst Steps In Photography
-Preface To Fourth Edition
First Steps In Photography By J. C. H. Wallsgrove, Medallist In Practical Photography And Chemistry, Exhibitor At Royal Photographic Society's And Other Leading Exhibitions, Author Of Plain Talks Wit...
-Chapter I. The Camera. Stand - Hand - Folder
Photography depends upon the effects of light on various chemicals sensitive to its action. Some means are required for the proper control of the light, in order that it may be entirely excluded from...
-The Stand Camera
As its name implies, is for use upon a stand or tripod, and is really the most satisfactory form to use for most purposes in photographic practice. Fig. 2 gives a general view of the stand camera most...
-The Hand Camera
The hand camera, as suggested by its name, is one for easy manipulation when held in the hand, but it requires some amount of practice to keep it quite steady beyond a fraction of a second; the pulsat...
-The Reflex Camera
Amongst high-class cameras the variety known as the Reflex is at the present time increasing in popularity, but is a somewhat expensive instrument. Its leading feature is an enlarged reflected imag...
-The Folding Hand Camera
Fig. 17 illustrates the external appearance of the folding camera. This class of camera is more especially arranged for use with films rolled upon spools. Most makes, however, are so made that adapter...
-Chapter II. The Lens. Lenses - Diaphragm - Shutters
Fig. 21 gives the general appearance of the. lens-mount. The centre portion is called the Tube and the end upon which the cap or shutter fits, the Hood. The lens proper, Fig. 22, is the glass thro...
-Apertures
The fullest working aperture or opening varies in different lenses according to their construction. High-class, flat-field lenses frequently used on the best hand cameras have a working aperture of wh...
-Apertures. Continued
For very long exposures the blind is merely drawn up until the lens is open and a click sound is heard; it will remain in this position until it is closed by pressing the bulb. Some makes of this shu...
-Chapter III. The Sensitive Material. Plates - Films - Papers
It was mentioned in the opening chapter that the whole scheme of photography depends upon the effect of light on chemicals sensitive to its action. This action varies according to the colour of the l...
-Chapter IV. Photographic Chemicals
Descriptive Notes The chemicals required by the amateur for use in ordinary photographic practice are not numerous. The following descriptive notes will be found useful for reference. The solutions i...
-Chapter V. Dark-Room. Arrangement - Light - Water
This is the room in which the handling of the plate, film or bromide paper is done. It is not actually dark, but is suitably lighted with red or orange light according to the sensitiveness of the mate...
-Source Of Suitable Light
Daylight If the room is on the shady side of the house - or its window is not subjected to too much direct sunlight - daylight properly filtered through coloured glass or fabric may be used as the il...
-Water
Where it is possible to bring the water from the main supply of the house to a tap immediately over the developing sink, it will be found very convenient. This, however, is not often possible, and the...
-Chapter VI. First Principles In The Artistic Treatment Of The Photograph
Principality - Tone Rendering - Orthochromatic Plates - Colour Photography This chapter should be carefully read, but its full value will possibly be more fully appreciated when some progress in phot...
-Tone Rendering
Colour Values The correct rendering of colour by tones should have careful consideration. The term tone here must not be confounded with the same term used in P.O.P. toning. It really means the sugge...
-Chapter VII. Practical Work. Filling The Camera
Filling The Camera - Arranging The Apparatus - Exposure All the operations in the early stages of photography are carried out with the intention of producing what is called The Negative on the plat...
-Practical Work. Filling The Camera. Continued
The lens is opened, and the inverted and more or less blurred image of the object in front of it will be seen on the focussing screen. The milled screw, Fig. 3, I, is turned gently backwards and forwa...
-The Exposure
The exposure is the most critical operation in photographic procedure, so much depends upon it. Its length is governed by four things. 1. Quality of light. 2. Class of subject (Open or Shut-in)....
-The Exposure. Continued
These instruments test the activity of the light by the length of time it takes a piece of sensitive paper to assume a given colour, and the exposure is made accordingly. Fig. 36 illustrates one of th...
-Chapter VIII. Developers And Development
Making The Solutions - Chemical Actions - Bringing Out And Fixing The Image After a plate has been exposed it should be taken to the dark-room for development. Before describing this operation the de...
-Chemical Actions
The reducing chemicals in the developing solutions vary in their action upon the haloid salts in the emulsion on the plate or film, and negatives of slightly different colours result. Hydroquinone is...
-Chemical Actions. Continued
In over-exposure, the image makes its appearance very rapidly all over the plate, and unless checked will soon become black and lost. To prevent this, the solution is returned to the measure, and abou...
-The Development Of Films
Rollable and other films are developed in precisely the same way as a plate. A strip of rollable film of six or twelve exposures may be developed at one time, provided the exposures have been nearly t...
-Chapter IX. After-Treatment Of The Negative
Reduction - Intensification - Mechanical Sometimes the negative, from causes already mentioned, may not be quite up to printing standard and may require slight modification, either from over-densenes...
-Chapter X. Printing And Toning
Print-Out Papers The print is made from the negative and forms the POSITIVE. Gelatino-Chloride Print-Out Paper, Or P.O.P Will receive first consideration. This paper belongs to the Daylight group...
-Printing And Toning. Continued
The Toning Bath A very good bath is made up of one grain of ammonium sulphocyanide and one-tenth of a grain of gold to each ounce of water, or a bath sufficient to work 12 quarter-plate prints, or th...
-Chapter XI. Printing And Developing
Bromide - Platinum - And Carbon Papers. Bromide Paper This paper belongs to the dark-room group of sensitive materials. They are, however, not quite so sensitive as plates, and can be safely handled ...
-Gaslight Papers
These are really a variety of slow bromide papers. They require a much longer exposure, but develop up much more quickly. Therefore, it is possible to handle them in very subdued artificial light in a...
-Platinotype Paper
This beautiful process is frequently regarded by those who have not tried it as an expensive and difficult one. With care, it may not necessarily be so. A certain amount of judgment is required when p...
-Carbon Printing
The carbon and platinotype processes are regarded as the most permanent of all the photographic printing processes. Carbon admits of a long range of colours, as black, brown, purple, red, and green. ...
-Chapter XII. Trimming And Mounting
Selection - Trimming - Mounting - Mounts Much ultimate success of the photograph depends upon careful and judicious trimming. The operation in its simplest form consists of merely cutting away the w...
-Trimming And Mounting. Continued
The worker, as progress is made, may find it inconvenient to be bound by fixed sizes, and the desire may arise to prepare a mount to a size more suitable for the print, and by which it will be helped ...
-Chapter XIII. Enlargement Making
By Daylight - By Artificial Light - Transparencies This may be done in one or two ways, either by daylight or artificial. The enlargement may be made either from a small negative direct upon bromide ...
-Enlarging By Artificial Light
This is usually done by means of a lantern, as shown in Fig. 50. The system consists of a lantern, A, for the illuminant, a condenser, B, a carrier for the negative at C, and a camera-like arrangement...
-Chapter XIV. Lantern-Slide Making. By Contact - By Reduction - Finishing
Lantern plates may be bought to give either warm or cold tones. The size of the lantern plate is 3 1/4 inches square, therefore it is somewhat smaller lengthways than a quarter-plate; but it frequentl...









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next page: Photography In The Studio And In The Field | by E. M. Estabrooke