books



no previous pagepage up: Scientific American Journal
  
next page: Scientific American Vol II. No. 1. September 26, 1846

Scientific American Reference Book. A Manual for the Office, Household and Shop | by Albert A. Hopkins, A. Russell Bond



The Editor of the Scientific American receives during the year thousands of inquiries from readers and correspondents covering a wide range of topics. The information sought for, in many cases, can not readily be found in any available reference or text-book. It has been decided, therefore, to prepare a work which shall be comprehensive in character and which shall contain a mass of information not readily procured elsewhere. The very wide range of topics covered in the Scientific American Reference Book may be inferred by examining the index and table of contents. This work has been made as nontechnical as the subjects treated of will admit, and is intended as a ready reference book for the home and the office.

TitleScientific American Reference Book. A Manual for the Office, Household and Shop
AuthorAlbert A. Hopkins, A. Russell Bond
PublisherMunn & Company
Year1905
Copyright1904, Munn & Company
AmazonScientific American Reference Book
Scientific American Reference Book
-Preface
The Editor of the Scientific American receives during the year thousands of inquiries from readers and correspondents covering a wide range of topics. The information sought for, in many cases, can no...
-Chapter I. Progress Of Discovery
Divisions Into Races. Race. Location. Number. Indo-Germanic or Aryan....... Europe, Persia, India, etc.......... ...
-Total Areas And Population Of The Earth
Population. Square Miles. Square Kilometers. In Thousands. Per Square Mile. ...
-Total Areas And Population Of The Polar Regions
Square Miles. Square Kilometers. In Thousands. Population. Per Square Mile. Per Square Kilo (1) ...
-The Polar Regions
National emulation, more particularly since the great success of Nan-sen, seems to have played the chief role in all the recent researches undertaken in the vicinity of the poles. No fewer than thr...
-The Polar Regions. Continued
On his return he made a dash for the north and reached 83 deg. 50 min., the highest point thus far attained on the American side of the polar archipelago. During the spring of 1902, Peary even exceede...
-The Great [Laurentian] Lakes
Lakes. Length, Miles. Breadth, Miles. Area, Sq. Miles. Height above Sea, Feet. Superior 390 160 ...
-Antarctic Explorations
Though the quest of the North Pole has monopolized the world's attention for more than a century, it has of late not been entirely without a rival. The British expedition broke the farthest-south reco...
-The British Expedition
sailed from London in July, 1901, on the Discovery, under command of Capt. Scott, R. N. Fearful lest the currents might destroy the expedition, a rescuing party was dispatched in 1902 under Lieut. Wil...
-Area And Population Of The Principal Countries Commerce With
Revised and Corrected by the Bureau of Countries. Area and Population. Area. Population. Population per Square Mile. ...
-Summary Of Shipping
The growth of our merchant marine is slow, and is in no sense commensurate with our phenomenal advancement in manufactures and commerce. At the same time, it is a fact worthy of note that the document...
-Summary Of Shipping. Continued
Collision to a great extent, and fire to a greater extent, cause loss or accident to vessels mainly through lack of skill and vigilance of the officers and crew. Except where caused by unusual storms ...
-National Swiss Railways
Four of the chief railway lines in Switzerland - the Central Suisse, the Nord Est, the Union Suisse, and the Jura-Simplon - have been nationalized. There only remains the St. Gothard Company. The exis...
-The World's Large And Fast Ocean Steamships
The following table shows the seagoing screw steamships in the world of 12 knots or upward, and of 2,000 gross tons or more, recorded in Lloyd's Register on July 1, 1903; including a few vessels build...
-Comparative Merchant Marine Of The First Eight Maritime Nations Of The World, Tonnage Expressed In Round Figures
The following table classifies these vessels in 1903, according to speed and flag: Flag. Speed in Knots. 20 19 18 17 ...
-Motive Power And Chief Materials Of Construction Of The World's Merchant Marine. Motive Power
Year. Total Vessels. Steam. Sail. Number. Tons. Number. Gross Tons. Net Tons. Num...
-Foreign Carrying Trade - United States
The following statement of the value of imports and exports carried in United States and in foreign vessels, and the tonnage of entries and clearances from 1821 to 1903, is furnished by the Bureau of ...
-Panama Route
The following table shows the distances by the proposed Panama route from some of the principal seaports of North and South America, Europe and Africa, to San Francisco and Valparaiso. (Nautical miles...
-The Following Table Gives The Distance From New York To Ports Named By The Routes Specified
From Via Panama. Via Suez. Via Cape of Good Hope. New York to - Tientsin..... ...
-Dimensions Of The Largest Fast Ocean Steamers
The largest and in many respects the highest type of marine architecture is to be found in the modern ocean greyhound for transatlantic trade. In recent years the rival companies have vied with each o...
-Speeds Of Ocean Greyhounds
The following tables show the fast recorded times in which journeys have been made between English ports and those of the United States, Canada, India, China, Burmah, Australia, South Africa, and the ...
-Record Of Atlantic Passenger Service To New York
Year, No. of Passages. Cabin. Steerage. Total. 1896 852 99,223 252,350 351,573 ...
-Return Of Passengers Landed At New York By Five Principal Lines
Line. 1902. 1901. 1900. Cabin. Steerage. Cabin. Steerage. Cabin. Steerage. ...
-First Steamboats, Pioneer Sailings, And Earliest Lines
1707. Denis Papin experimented on River Fulda with paddle-wheel steamboat. 1736. Jonathan Hulls patented designs similar to modern paddle boat. 1769. James Watt invented a double-acting side-...
-Number Of Vessels Over 5,000 Tons Each, And Particulars Of Largest Vessels Belonging To Each Country
Country. No. Ship's Name. Gr. Tons. Speed. Owners. Austria..... 7 Austria 7,588 ...
-From Steam Packet To Steam Palace
(1) Wood Paddle-boats. (2) Iron (3) Iron Screw Steamers. (4) Steel (5) Steel Twin-Screw Steamers. Date Name of Steamer. Owners. Remarks. ...
-Largest Steamship Owners In The World. Owners Of Over 100,000 Gross Tons In Order Of Tonnage
Lines. Head Office. Total Tonnage. Over 20 knots Knots. Under 12 knots Total. 20 19 ...
-Ocean Steamers. 16 Knots And Over. Number Belonging To Each Country
Country. 20 knots & above. 19 knots. 18 1/2 kts. 18 knots. 17 1/2 knots. 17 kts. 16 knots. Total. ...
-Ocean Steamers. 20 Knots And Over. In Order Of Tonnage
Built in Names. Owners. Gross Tons. Dimensions. Spd. Builders. 1902 * Kaiser Wilhelm II........
-Short Trip Steamers (British And Foreign). 20 Knots And Over
British Boats. Owners. *Connaught, Leinster, Munster, Ulster, all 23 1/2 knots 4 City of Dublin Steam Packet Co. ...
-The New White Star Liner "Baltic" - The Largest Vessel In The World
Length, 725 feet 9 inches. Beam, 75 feet. Maximum Displacement, 40,000 tons. The New Transatlantic Steamship Baltic The Largest Vessel Afloat. The Four Upper Decks Op The Baltic. ...
-American Freight Locomotives And The Engines Of The "Oceanic " - A Comparison Of Horsepower
We are told that Comparisons are odious, and the statement would seem to he based upon a fairly correct estimate of human nature; but as soon as we get outside of the range of human susceptibilities...
-Supplies Of The "Deutschland."
Not by any means the least impressive evidence of the huge size to which the modern transatlantic steamship has grown is to be found in the graphic representation, now presented, of the bewildering am...
-Provisioning The "Kronprinz Wilhelm" For A Single Transatlantic Trip
The Book of Genesis does not record the tonnage of the huge vessel which finally stranded on Mount Ararat, after finishing the most wonderful voyage ever described in the annals of mankind. But it is ...
-The Atlantic Liners. New Cunarders - Passengers Carried - Price Of Speed - Atlantic Trust
The New Cunarders The most notable event in shipping circles during 1903 was the government agreement with the Cunard Company, for the building of two vessels of higher speed than any liners in exi...
-Steam Turbines And Speed
Growth Of The Steam Turbine The steam turbine has been applied to the propulsion of vessels, and is steadily growing in favor. The number of vessels so fitted is not large, but the development i...
-United States Life-Saving Service
The number of disasters to documented vessels within the scope of the Service was 346 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1903. On board these vessels were 3,682 persons, of whom 20 were lost. The est...
-Apportionment To Atlantic, Lake And Pacific Coasts
Disasters to Vessels. Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Lake coasts.* Pacific coast. Total. Total number of disasters 438 ...
-Life-Saving Operations: General Summary Of Disasters
Of disasters which have occurred within the scope of life-saving operations from November 1, 1871 (date of introduction of present system), to close of fiscal year ending June 30, 1903 ...
-The Lighthouse Establishment
There are under the control of the Lighthouse Establishment, Oct. 15, 1903, the following named aids to navigation: Light-houses and beacon lights......... 1,425 ...
-From Cruiser To Racing Machine
What might be called the scientific period of yacht designing in this country begins at about the period of the races of Puritan against Genesta, in 1885. The growth to the exaggerated proportions...
-From Cruiser To Racing Machine. Continued
When the Defender commenced her trials it began to be evident that in the development of the 90-foot racing yacht the limit, not merely of convenience but of actual safety, had been passed. The draf...
-Chapter III. The Navies Of The World
The subject of the navies of the world is a most important one. Schemes of classification vary, and it is difficult to obtain any figures which agree. The three English authorities are The Naval Annu...
-The Construction And Classification Of Modern Warships
The modern warship is an ever popular subject with the readers of the illustrated press. This is proved by the tenacity with which guns, ships and armor hold their place as conspicuous subjects for th...
-The Construction And Classification Of Modern Warships. Continued
In protecting warships against shell fire it is recognized that there are certain parts of the ship which are of paramount importance, inasmuch as their disablement would leave it at the mercy of the ...
-Relative Strength In Materiel: Principal Navies
A Parliamentary Return dated March 26th, 1903, was issued in May of that year, showing the Fleets of Great Britain, France, Russia, Germany, Italy, the United States of America and Japan. This return ...
-Relative Order Of War Ship Strength
At Present. Nation. Tonnage. Great Britain 1,516,040 France 576,108 Germany ...
-Sea Strength Of The Principal Naval Powers
January 1, 1904. Issued By The Office Of Naval Intelligence, U. S. N. Number And Displacement Of War Ships, Built And Building, Of 1,000 Or More Tons Displacement. Type. ...
-The Navy of Argentine Republic
Personnel There are 321 executive officers and 158 engineer officers on the active list, and from 5,000 to 6,000 men. The executive officers are divided as follows: 1 vice-admiral, 2 rear-admirals,...
-The Navy of Austria-Hungary
Personnel The number of all ranks in the Austrian Navy, including reserves, isl0,841. The officers of the Austrian Navy are distributed as follows: 1 admiral, 2 vice-admirals, 17 captains, 27 comma...
-The Navy of Brazil
Personnel The personnel of the Brazilian navy numbers about 8,500 of all ranks. The executive officers are distributed as follows: 1 admiral, 2 vice-admirals, 10 rear-admirals, 18 captains, 30 comm...
-The Navy of Chile
Personnel The numbers of officers and men on the active list are variously stated to be from 6,000 to 8,000. The executive officers are distributed as follows: 1 vice-admiral, 4 rear-admirals, 11 c...
-The Navy of Denmark
Personnel The personnel numbers about 4,000 of all ranks. The executive officers are divided as follows: 1 vice-admiral, 2 rear-admirals, 16 captains, 38 commanders, 63 lieutenants, 33 sub-lieutena...
-The Navy of France
Personnel. The number of officers and men on the active list of the French Navy in 1903 was 53,247, and in the Reserve there were 49,346 officers and men. The number of men effective during 1903 wa...
-The Navy of Germany
Personnel. The number of officers and men on the active list is 35,685, and on the regular reserve there are 5,114. The total number of able-bodied men liable for service in the Reserve, however, i...
-The Navy of Great Britain
Personnel. The number of officers, seamen, boys, and marines provided for sea and other services for the year 1903-4 amounts to 127,100, being an increase of 4,600 on the previous year. The strengt...
-The Navy of Italy
Personnel. There are 26,948 officers and men on the active list for the current financial year, and the reserve numbers 33,667 officers and men. This latter is, however, of doubtful efficiency, for...
-The Navy of Japan
Personnel. The number of officers and men available for active service is about 31,000. There is also a small reserve of some 4,000. Materiel. The strength in ships built, building, and proje...
-The Navy of Netherlands
Personnel The total of officers and men enlisted for the navy reaches 11,000, but this figure includes the marine infantry. The executive officers are divided as follows: 1 vice-admiral, 3 rear adm...
-The Navy of Norway
Personnel The personnel numbers about 2,000, of which 1,000 are permanent, and the remainder yearly conscripts. The executive officers are divided as follows: 1 rear-admiral, 4 captains, 14 command...
-The Navy of Portugal
Personnel The number of men in the Portuguese Navy is about 5,000, and, in addition, there are 2 vice-admirals, 5 rear-admirals, 16 captains, 25 commanders, 25 lieutenant-commanders, 80 lieutenants...
-The Navy of Russia
Personnel. There are 2,900 officers on the effective list of the Russian Navy, and the number of men is 61,516. In the Reserve there are about 30,000 of all ranks. The executive officers of the ...
-The Navy of Spain
Personnel There are 16,700 of all ranks in the Spanish Navy, and 9,000 marines. All these are conscripts. The officers are divided as follows: 1 admiral, 4 vice-admirals, 11 rear-admirals, 22 capta...
-The Navy of Sweden
Personnel The personnel of the Swedish Navy in 1903 numbered about 7,500 of all ranks. In addition there are about 20,000 yearly conscripts available, but the majority of these are seldom called up...
-The Navy of Turkey
Personnel There are 31,000 officers and men in the Turkish Navy and 9,000 marines. The officers are divided as follows: 2 admirals, 9 vice-admirals, 16 rear-admirals, 30 captains, 90 commanders, 30...
-Administration
The President of the United States is ex-officio Commander-in-chief of the Navy. As his executive he appoints a Secretary of the Navy, a member of his Cabinet, on a four years' term. He also appoints ...
-The United States Navy
On January 1, 1904, There Was Upon The Active List 1 Admiral, 27 Rear Admirals, 80 Captains, 120 Commanders, 192 Lieut commanders, 331 lieutenants, 24 lieutenants (junior grade), 166 ensigns, 101 m...
-Regulations Governing The Admission Of Candidates Into The Naval Academy As Midshipmen
Nomination The students of the Naval Academy are styled Midshipmen. Two Midshipmen are allowed for each Senator, Representative, and Delegate in Congress, two for the District of Columbia, and five...
-The Naval Academy Examination
All candidates for admission into the Academy shall be examined according to such regulations and at such stated times as the Secretary of the Navy may prescribe. Candidates rejected at such examinat...
-The Naval Academy Admission
Candidates who pass the physical and mental examinations will receive appointments as Midshipmen, and become students of the Academy. Each Midshipman will be required to sign articles by which he bind...
-List Of Ships Of The United States Navy
[Abbreviations. - Hull: S., steel; S. W., steel, wood sheathed; I., iron; W., wood. Propulsion: S., screw; T. S., twin screw; Tr. S., triple screw; P., paddle.] First Rate. Name. ...
-Summary Of Vessels In The United States Navy
Vessels Fit For Service, Including Those Under Repair. First-class battleships 10 Second-class battleships 1 Armored cruisers...
-Vessels Under Construction Or Authorized
First-class battleships........ 14 Armored cruisers........... 8 Protected cruisers 9 Gunboat for ...
-Vessels Unfit For Sea Service
Iron single-turret monitors............ 5 Wooden cruising vessels, steam........ 10 Wooden sailing vessels................ ...
-Submarine Boats. - Number And Description Of Each Type
Type. No. Tons. Lgth. Bdth. Motive Power. Ext. speed. Remarks. No.of Torp. tubes. ...
-The Torpedo Boat In Modern Warfare
The Russo-Japanese war has proved the wisdom of building torpedo boat destroyers of the dimensions and power that characterize the latest models. With their length of 220 feet, beam of over 20 feet an...
-The Modern Torpedo
Commenting during the late Spanish war upon the efficiency of the torpedo, we said: Although torpedo warfare has not yet achieved results at all proportionate to the amount of thought and skill that ...
-Interior Of A Battleship
The story of the complicated character of the interior of a modern battleship is one that has grown somewhat stale in the telling, and it is not the fault of the magazine writer and the occasional cor...
-Interior Of A Battleship. Continued
The protective deck is known more generally among seamen as the berth deck. Above that, at a distance of about 8 1/2 feet, comes the main deck, and 8 1/2 feet above that the upper deck, while amidship...
-Section Through The Turret And Barbette Of A Modern Battleship
In the foregoing illustration, showing the interior of a turret and barbette on a modern American battle ship, the section has been carried down through the structure of the ship to the keel. It is ta...
-The Submarine Mine
Broadly speaking, there are three different kinds of submarine mines. First, observation mines, which are fired from the shore when a ship is known to be in range; second, automatic mines, which are e...
-A Group Of Navy Projectiles
The projectiles in use by our navy may be classed as solid shot, shell and shrapnel. Although some excellent solid shot is still manufactured, such as the Johnson fluid compressed shot, solid shot hav...
-Our Navy Guns In The Civil War And To-Day
Naval ordnance has made greater strides in the forty years that have intervened since the Civil War than in several centuries preceding. As proof of this it is enough to look at the striking compariso...
-The Pay Of Naval And Marine Corps
An Admiral receives $13,500 whether on sea duty or on shore duty. The first nine Rear-Admirals receive $7,-500 while on sea duty, and $6,375 on shore duty. The second nine receives $5,500 on sea duty ...
-Chapter IV. The Army Of The United States
Twice in the history of the world we have had an example of large bodies of men who were not producers who disturbed economic conditions by living at the public, expense. We refer to the enormous mona...
-The Army Of The United States. Continued
An army is divided into two or more corps commanded by a Major-General. A corps is the largest tactical unit of a large army. A corps is usually organized with separate staff, infantry, cavalry, ...
-Appointments
How Made Each Congressional District and Territory - the District of Columbia and also Porto Rico - is entitled to have one Cadet at the Academy. Each State is also entitled to have two Cadets from...
-The United States Military Academy Admission Of Candidates
The following are extracts from the regulations of the Military Academy relating to the examination of candidates for admission and will be strictly adhered to: 19. Candidates selected for appointm...
-The United States Military Academy Academic Duties
The academic duties and exercises commence on the first of September and continue until the first of June. Examinations of the several classes are held in December and June, and, at the former, suc...
-The United States Military Academy Pay Of Cadets
The pay of a Cadet is $500 per year and one ration per day, or commutation therefor at thirty cents per day. The total is $609.50, to commence with his admission to the Academy. The actual and necessa...
-The United States Military Academy Promotion After Graduation
The attention of applicants and candidates is called to the following provisions of an Act of Congress approved May 17, 1886, to regulate the promotion of graduates of the United States Military Acade...
-The New Springfield Magazine Rifle
The New Springfield Army Rifle. Muzzle velocity, 2,300 feet per second. Weight of bullet, 220 grains. Weight of charge, 43.3 grains. Weight of gun including bayonet and scabbard, 9.47 pounds. ...
-New Springfield Magazine Rifle Compared With The Krag-Jorgensen, The Mauser And The German Military Rifle
Data. Springfield Magazine Rifle. Service Magazine Rifle. Mauser 7 Mm. Rifle. German Military Rifle. Calibe...
-The Sixteen-Inch Gun
The great 16-inch 126-ton gun. built for the United States at the Watervliet arsenal, is 49 1/4 feet long, over 6 feet in diameter at the breech, and it has an extreme range of over twenty miles. Its ...
-Foreign Armies
The latest particulars relating to the military power of the countries of Europe, Abyssinia, China, Egypt, Japan, Mexico, etc., from Hazell's Annual for 1904, will be found below. Abyssinia The ...
-Austria-Hungary Army
The active army of the Dual Monarchy is an organization common to both kingdoms, and has its Ersatz, or supplementary Reserve, with local forces for Bosnia and Herzegovina attached. There are fifteen ...
-Belgium Army
The Belgian army was recently reorganized as the outcome of a popular agitation, leading to the appointment of a mixed commission which prepared a scheme. The main feature was the adoption of voluntee...
-Brazil Army
Gradual progress is being made in the re-organization of the army, but much remains yet to be done. The strength and organization, given in the official Revista Militar, is as follows: staff, 28; engi...
-Bulgaria Army
Military service is popular, and the peasantry have a great deal of excellent military spirit. The officer is also efficient, and the Government has taken very great care in selection and training, th...
-Chile Army
The army does not exceed 6,000 men, in accordance with the law of Feb. 2d, 1892, and the formations are: 7 regiments of infantry, 4 of cavalry, 3 of artillery, and a corps of engineers. The National G...
-China Army
The Chinese army came under close observation during the Boxer Rebellion, and, although in many ways it gave proof of want of organization, it was recognized that in armament, training, and the things...
-Denmark Army
Service is obligatory on all able-bodied men who have reached the age of 22. Terms of service, eight years with the colors and eight in the extra reserve. A reorganization of the Danish army was intro...
-Egypt Army
The Egyptian army, under strong leadership and the command of British officers, has shown excellent quality. All the inhabitants are liable for service - six years in the army, five in the police, and...
-France Army
The French army is administered by the War Departments, or Ministry of War, with General Andre at its head, assisted by a military cabinet and the chiefs of various bureaux. The chief of the general s...
-Germany Army
The administration and command of the army is exercised through the great general staff, a most powerful and efficient organization, by which the work of the army is prepared for in peace and molded i...
-Great Britain Army
Under the new system, the British Army has been organized in Army Corps. It was designed to form six of these, but up to the present time only four have been constituted. The organization of a Brit...
-Militia
During the Boer War the Militia, though it was kept in the background, accomplished what no other branch of the army could do. Without external aid it provided a large number of organized and complete...
-The Volunteer Corps
Volunteer corps are raised under the Volunteer Act 1863 (26 & 27 Vict., c. 65). They are subject to the provisions of that Act and any Acts amending it, and likewise to all regulations made with regar...
-Effectives And Distribution of Army, Army Reserve, Militia, Imperial Yeomanry, and Volunteers
Establishment and Strength of Army, Army Reserve, Militia, Imperial Yeomanry, and Volunteers on Jan. 1st, 1903 (all ranks). Forces. Normal Establishment Actual Str...
-Actual Strength Of The Regular Army By Arms
Household Cavalry 1,490 Cavalry of the Line 29,297 Imperial Yeomanry 1,610 Royal Horse Artillery a...
-Changes In Establishment And Effective Of The Militia
during the last seven years, exclusive of the permanent staff; Date. Effective strength Establishment Wanting to complete 1st Jan., ...
-Strength Of The Volunteers
The conditions affecting unfavorably the strength of the Volunteers have been given above. The establishment is 346,450, and the actual strength by the latest return (Jan. 1, 1903) 250,990, leaving 95...
-Greece Army
Service is for two years with the colors and eight in the reserve, eight in the National Guard and ten in its reserve; the cavalry, however, spending ten years in the National Guard and eight in its r...
-Italy Army
The Italian army consists of the Active Army, the Mobile Militia, and the Territorial Militia. There are 12 army corps, each having 2 infantry divisions, except that in the Rome district, where are th...
-Japan Army
The military forces of Japan are the Permanent Army, with reserves and recruiting reserves, the Territorial Army, the National Militia and the militia of certain of the islands. The Permanent Army is ...
-Mexico Army
The Mexican army consists in peace time of 3,500 officers, 31,000 men, and 11,000 horses or mules. It was proposed to introduce personal or obligatory service, but the plan has been postponed, and the...
-Morocco Army
The Sultan's forces comprise about 30,000 excellent men of all arms, under command for training of Kaid Sir Harry Maclean. The infantry arm is the Martini. ...
-The Netherlands Army
Holland has at present no standing army, but a cadre of officers and non-commissioned officers (establishment about 2,200) for training the forces embodied. The Landwehr, which has replaced the old...
-Portugal Army
The army was reorganized on October 1, 1899. The peace footing is 62,427, including 33,420 militia. The infantry of the line are 18,000, the cavalry 3,032, the dragoons 1,804, the light troops 1,012, ...
-Roumania Army
The armed forces of Roumania consist of the Regular Army, the Militia, and the Opoltchenie. In peace time there only exist cadres for the regular army, which is divided into permanent and territorial ...
-Russia Army
The huge Russian army makes continual progress, and its varied composition and little-known development make it very difficult to describe. It may be said to consist of several armies: the European, t...
-Servia Army
The military forces consist of the national army and the militia (Opoltchenie). The national army is divided into three levies: 1st, men from 20 to 30 years of age, and containing permanent cadres ...
-Spain Army
Under the terms of an order of January 29, 1903, the army has been reorganized on the basis of an effective of 80,000 men; the second battalions of the infantry regiments and the fourth squadrons of t...
-Sweden And Norway Armies
Sweden The Swedish army underwent a reorganization in 1901, which is progressive and will have its full effect in 1914. General personal service has been adopted, with short periods with the colors...
-Switzerland Army
The federal forces do not constitute a standing army, the principle being that of a militia, and the liability to serve twelve years in the Elite, twelve in the Landwehr, and six in the Landsturm. Dur...
-Turkey Army
The Turkish military forces are organized on the territorial system, the whole empire being divided into seven territorial districts. By the recruiting law all Mussulmans are liable to military servic...
-Chapter V. The Railroads Of The World
In the Railroad Gazette (New York) for May 30, 1902, there appeared exhaustive tables, compiled from the Archiv fur Eisenbahnwesen of Prussia of the railroads of the world in the year 1900 and in prev...
-Railway Signals
One blast of the whistle means stop at once, or what is known as down brakes; two blasts of the whistle mean off brakes; three blasts of the whistle mean back up; a continuous blast means dan...
-The Railroad System Of The United States
If one were called upon to name the field of engineering in which the vast scale upon which things are done in this country is most strikingly shown, he would be safe in pointing to the colossal railr...
-The Railroad System Of The United States. Continued
Locomotives At the close of the fiscal year 1901, there were in service on the United States railroads 39,729 locomotives. Assuming that the average locomotive fills a block 10 feet wide by 15 feet...
-Abstract Of Statistics Of Railways In The United States For The Year Ending June 30, 1903
From summaries which appear in the Sixteenth Statistical Report of the Interstate Commerce Commission, prepared by its statistician as the complete report for the year ending June 30, 1903, this infor...
-Railway Equipment
On June 30, 1903, there were in the service of the railways 43,871 locomotives, the increase being 2,646. As classified, these locomotives were: Passenger, 10,570; freight, 25,444; switching, 7.058. T...
-Railway Employees
The number of persons on the pay rolls of the railways in the United States, as returned for June 30, 1903, was 1,312,537, or 639 per 100 miles of line. These figures, when compared with the correspon...
-Capitalization Of Railway Property
The par value of the amount of railway capital outstanding on June 30, 1903, was $12,599,990,258, which represents a capitalization of $63,186 per mile for the railways of the United States. Of this c...
-Public Service Of Railways
The number of passengers reported as carried by the railways in the year ending June 30, 1903, was 694.891,535, indicating an increase of 45,013 030 as compared with the year ending June 30. 1902. The...
-Railway Earnings And Expenses
The gross earnings of the railways in the United States from the operation of 205,313.54 miles of line were, for the year ending June 30, 1903, $1,900,-846,907, being $174,466,640 greater than for the...
-Railway Accidents
The statement of accidents to persons in the summaries in the statistical report under consideration are presented under the two general classes of accidents resulting from the movement of trains, loc...
-Interesting Facts Concerning Railways
Differences Of Gauge It is not really known what, if any, principle governed the determination in the first instance of the gauge between the rails of 4 ft. 8 /2 ins., which is the standard railway...
-Cape To Cairo Railway
The Cape to Cairo Railway, which was the late Mr. Rhodes's scheme for joining the south and north of Africa, a distance of nearly 5,000 miles, is making rapid progress. Northwards from the Cape the li...
-Trans-Siberian Railway
The opening of the Trans-Siberian Mail route promises to accelerate the transmission of European letters to and from the north of China. A letter posted from Tientsin on the 30th August, 1902, and for...
-Street And Electric Railways In The United States, 1902
The statistics contained in this section cover all street and electric railways in the United States that were in operation during any part of the year ending June 30, 1902. The term street and elect...
-Number Of Companies And Miles Of Single Track Grouped According To Motive Power: 1890 And 1902
Character Of Power. 1902 1890 Per Cent Of Increase. Number of companies. Miles of single track. Number of companie...
-Single-Track Mileage And Per Cent. Which Each Class Is Of Total: 1902
Class Of Track. Single-track mileage. Per cent of total. Total..................................................... *22,589.47 ...
-Companies Grouped According To Length Of Line: 1890 And 1902
Length Of Road Bed. 1902 1890 Number of companies. Length of line. Number of companies. Length of line. ...
-Comparative Summary, All Companies: 1890 And 1902
Items. 1902 1890 Per cent of increase. Number of companies 987 706 39.8 Cost of cons...
-Relation Of Street And Electric Railways To Population 1890 And 1902
Geographic Divisions. Year. Population.* Total number of fare passengers carried. Average number of rides per inhabitant. Uni...
-Number Of Operating And Lessor Companies By States And Territories: 1902
States and Territories Total. Operating. States and Territories. Total. Operating. United States 987 ...
-Chapter VI. Population Of The United States
The population of the United States, according to the Twelfth Census, was 75,991,575, divided as follows: 38,-816,448 males, 37,178,127 females. Of the total, 65,653,299 were native born, and 10,341,2...
-Alabama
Area, 50,722 Square Miles. Autauga 17,915 Conecuh ..... 17,514 Jackson 30,508 Perry 31,783 ...
-Arizona
Area, 113,916 Square Miles. Apache 8,297 Graham...... 14,162 Pima........ 14,689 Yuma 4,145 ...
-Arkansas
Area, 52,198 Square Miles. Arkansas..... 12,973 Dallas 11,518 Lee 19,409 Pope....... 21,715 ...
-California
Area, 188,981 Square Miles. Alameda 130,197 Lake 6,017 Plumas 4,657 Shasta 17,318 Alpine ...
-Colorado
Area, 104,500 Square Miles. Arapahoe ... 153,017 Elbert....... 3,101 Las Animas . . 21,840 Rio Blanco .. . 1...
-Connecticut
Area, 4,674 Square Miles. Fairfield..... 184,203 Litchfield .... 63,672 New Haven . . 269,163 Tolland..... 2...
-Delaware
Area, 2,120 Square Miles. Kent........ 32,762 Newcastle. . . . 109,697 Sussex 42,276 Total........................
-District Of Columbia
Area, 60 Square Miles. The District.............................................................278,718 ...
-Florida
Area, 59,268 Square Miles. Alachua..... 32,245 Franklin..... 4,890 Levy........ 8,603 St. John..... 9,165 ...
-Georgia
Area, 58,000 Square Miles. Appling...... 12,336 Dekalb...... 21,112 Johnson..... 11,409 Richmond. . 53,735 ...
-Idaho
Area, 86,294 Square Miles. Ada 11,559 Canyon...... 7,497 Kootenai..... 10,216 Owyhee 3,804 ...
-Illinois
Area, 55,405 Square Miles. Adams...... 67,058 Ford........ 18,359 Livingston. .. . 42,035 Randolph. . . 28,0...
-Indiana
Area, 33,809 Square Miles. Adams....... 22,232 Franklin..... 16,388 Lawrence..... 25,729 Rush . 20,148 ...
-Iowa
Area, 50,914 Square Miles. Adair 16,192 Calhoun 18,569 Dallas........ 23,058 Greene 17,820 ...
-Kansas
Area, 78,418 Square Miles. Allen........ 19,507 Finney....... 3,469 Logan........ 1,962 Rooks 7,960 ...
-Kentucky
Area, 37,680 Square Miles. Adair 14,888 Casey........ 15,144 Greenup...... 15,432 Letcher 9,172 ...
-Louisiana
Area, 41,255 Square Miles. Acadia 23,483 East Carroll.. . 11,373 20,947 St. Tammany. 13,335 ...
-Maine
Area, 31,766 Square Miles. Androscoggin . 54,242 Hancock 37,241 Oxford 32,238 Somerset 33,849 ...
-Maryland
Area, 11,124 Square Miles. Allegany 53,694 Carroll 33,860 Harford 28,269 St. Mary____ 18,136 ...
-Massachusetts
Area, 7,800 Square Miles. Barnstable.... 27,826 Essex 357,030 Middlesex. .. . 565,696 Suffolk...... 611,417 ...
-Michigan
Area, 56,243 Square Miles. Alcona 5,691 Bay......... 62,378 Chippewa 21,338 Genesee 41,804 ...
-Minnesota
Area, 95,274 Square Miles. Aitkin 6,743 Freeborn 21,838 Morrison 22,891 Sibley 16,862 Ano...
-Mississippi
Area, 47,156 Square Miles. Adams 30,111 Grenada 14,112 Lowendes 29,095 Sharkey 12,178 Alc...
-Missouri
Area, 67,380 Square Miles. Adair 21,728 Dallas 13,903 Livingston. .. . 22,302 Randolph.... 24,442 ...
-Montana
Area, 143,776 Square Miles. Beaverhead.. . 5,615 Deerlodge... . 17,393 Madison 7,695 Teton 5,080 ...
-Nebraska
Area, 75,995 Square Miles. Adams 18,840 Deuel 2,630 Johnson 11,197 Redwillow. . .. 9,604 ...
-Nevada
Area, 122,090 Square Miles. Churchill..... 830 Eureka 1,954 Lyon 2,268 Washoe 9,141 Dougl...
-New Hampshire
Area, 9,280 Square Miles. Belknap 19,526 Coos........... 29,468 Merrimack ... 52,430 Sullivan 18 009 ...
-New Jersey
Area, 3,320 Square Miles. Atlantic 46,402 Essex 359,053 Monmouth . . . 82,057 Sussex 24,134 ...
-New Mexico
Area, 121,201 Square Miles. Bernalillo .... 28,630 Grant 12,883 Rio Arriba . . . 13,777 Socotto 12,195 ...
-New York
Area, 47,800 Square Miles. Albany 165,571 Fulton 42,842 Onondaga. .. 168,735 Seneca 28,114 ...
-North Carolina
Area, 50,704 Square Miles. Alamance .... 25,665 Burke....... 17,699 Clay......... 4,532 Durham 26,233 ...
-North Dakota
Area, 72,000 Square Miles. Barnes 13,159 Grand Forks. . 24,459 Oliver 990 Towner 6,491 Be...
-Ohio
Area, 39,964 Square Miles. Adams 26,328 Fairfield 34,259 Licking...... 47,070 Portage 29,246 ...
-Oklahoma
Area, 2,950 Square Miles. Beaver 3,051 Garfield 22,076 Noble........ 14,015 Woods 34,975 ...
-Oregon
Area, 102,606 Square Miles. Baker 15,597 Gilliam....... 3,201 Linn 18,603 Union 16,070 Be...
-Pennsylvania
Area, 46,000 Square Miles. Adams....... 34,496 Clinton....... 29,197 Lackawanna. . 193,831 Philadelphia. 1,2...
-Rhode Island
Area, 1,306 Square Miles. Bristol 13,144 Newport 32,599 Providence . . . 328,683 Washington.. . 24,154 ...
-South Carolina
Area, 29,385 Square Miles. Abbeville 33,400 Chesterfield. . . 20,401 Greenwood. . . 28,343 Oconee 23,634 ...
-South Dakota
Area, 78,932 Square Miles. Aurora 4,011 Davison 7,483 Hyde........ 1,492 Pennington. . . 5,610 ...
-Tennessee
Area, 45,500 Square Miles. Anderson .... 17,634 Fentress..... 6,106 Lake 7,368 Rhea...... 14,318 ...
-Texas
Area, 237,504 Square Miles. Anderson .... 28,015 Collingsworth. 1,233 Glasscock .... 286 Kerr 4,980 ...
-Utah
Area, 84,476 Square Miles. Beaver....... 3,613 Grand 1,149 Rich......... 1,946 Uinta 6,458 ...
-Vermont
Area, 10,212 Square Miles. Addison 21,912 Essex........ 8,056 Orange....... 19,313 Windham. . . . 26,660 ...
-Virginia
Area, 38,352 Square Miles. Accomac 32,570 Dickenson.... 7,747 King William 8,380 Princess Anne. 11,192 ...
-Washington
Area, 69,994 Square Miles. Adams 4,840 Ferry........ 4,562 Lewis........ 15,157 Snohomish . . . 23,950 ...
-West Virginia
Area, 23,000 Square Miles. Barbour..... 14,198 Hancock .... 6,693 Mineral...... 12,883 Ritchie...... 18,901 ...
-Wisconsin
Area, 53,924 Square Miles. Adams 9,141 Florence ..... 3,197 Marathon .... 43,256 Sauk 33006 ...
-Wyoming
Area, 97,883 Square Miles. Albany 13,084 Crook 3,137 Natrona 1,785 Weston...... 3,203 Big...
-How The Population Of The United States Are Sheltered
In the Census year 1900 there were 14,430,145 dwellings, accommodating 16,187,715 families. Of this number 611,435 dwellings accommodated one person each, 10,158,932 sheltered two to six persons, 2,99...
-Population Living In Cities Within Specified Limits Of Size And In Country Districts: 1900
Divisions. Population. Total. In cities of - In country districts. At least 100,000. 25,000 to 100,000. ...
-Population Of Cities Having At Least 25,000 Inhabitants In 1900
Cities. Rank in population. Population. Akron, Ohio.......................... 87 42,728 Albany, N. Y.........
-Death Rates From Certain Causes, For The Registration Area, 1900
Cause. Death rate per 100,000. Cause. Death rate per 100,000. Pneumonia.................................... 191.9 ...
-Foreign Born Population Classified By Principal Countries Of Birth: 1900
Country of Birth. Country of Birth. Austria 275,907 Italy 484,027 Bohemia. 156,...
-Population At Least 10 Years Of Age Engaged In Gainful Occupations, Classified By Sex And Specified Occupations: 1900
Occupation. Total. Male. Female. All occupations 29,074,117 23,754,205 5,319,912 Agr...
-Indians
In 1902 the area of Indian reservations in the United States was 75,-148,643 acres or 117,420 square miles, and the population in 1900 was 270,-544, but in 1903 the number had dwindled to 263,233. Ind...
-Number Of Pensioners On The Rolls, First Payments, And Amounts Of Disbursements For Pensions From 1861 To 1903
Year ending June 30- Number of pensioners on the rolls. Total disbursements. Cost, maintenance, and expenses. Invalids. Widow...
-Number And Nationality Of Immigrants Arrived In The United States During The Years Ending June 30, 1889, 1899, And 1903
Countries. 1889. 1899. 1903. Austria-Hungary: Bohemia...... 3,085 ...
-Labor's Death Roll
No less than 4,513 lives were lost in 1902 while in the ordinary pursuit of their calling in the United Kingdom. 112,133 persons were injured in the same period. The percentage of deaths f...
-Territorial Expansion
There have been sixteen additions to the original territory of the Union, including Alaska, the Hawaiian, Philippine and Samoan Islands and Guam, in the Pacific, and Porto Rico, in the West Indies; an...
-Area And Population Of The United States
The following table, published by the United States Census Office, shows the gross area and population of the United States at each of the decennial censuses from 1790 to 1900, exclusive of all noncon...
-The Value Of An Education
In the annual report of the United States Commissioner of Education appears a sheet of statistics showing to what extent higher education affects success in life. Particularly it shows the pre-eminenc...
-Number Of Pupils And Students Of All Grades In Both Public And Private Schools And Colleges, 1901-2
Note The classification of States made use of in the following table is the same as that adopted by the United States census, and is as follows: North Atlantic Division: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermo...
-Population, Enrollment, Average Daily Attendance, Number, And Sex Of Teachers
Division. Estimated Total Population in 1902. Pupils Enrolled in the Elementary and Secondary Common Schools. Per Cent, of the Population Enrolled ...
-Average Number Of Days Taught, Salaries Of Teachers, Value Of School Property, And State And Local Taxation, 1901-2
Division. Average Number of Days the Schools were Kept. Average Monthly Salaries of Teachers. Value of Public School Property. Raised from State...
-Enrollment, Average Attendance, Length Of School Term, Number Of Teachers, And Expenditures In Cities Of 8,000 Inhabitants And Over
Division. Number of City School Systems. Enrollment in Public Day Schools. Average Daily Attendance. Average Length of School Term. ...
-Instructors And Students In Public High Schools And In Private High Schools And Academies
Division. Number. Public High Schools. Number. Private Secondary Schools. Secondary Teachers. Secondary Students. ...
-Instructors And Students In Public And Private Normal Schools Of The United States
Division. Number. Public Normal Schools. 'Number. Private Normal Schools. Teachers of Normal Students. Stude...
-Instructors And Students In Coeducational Colleges And Universities And In Colleges For Men Only, 1901-2
Division. Number of Institutions. Professors and Instructors. Students. Preparatory. Collegiate. Resident Graduate...
-Instructors And Students In Schools Of Technology And Institutions Conferring Only The B. S. Degree. 1901-2
Division. Number of Institutions. Professors and Instructors. Students. Total Income. Preparatory. Collegiate ...
-Instructors And Students In Colleges And Seminaries For Women Which Confer Degrees, 1901-2
Division. Number of Institutions. Professors and Instructors. Female Students. Total Income. Male. Female. ...
-Summary Of Statistics Of Professional Schools For 1901-2
Division. Theological. Law. Medical. Schools. Instructors. Students. Schools. Instructors. ...
-General Summary Of Statistics Of Professional And Allied Schools For 1901-2
Class. Schools. Instructors. Students. Graduates. Theological........................ 148 1,034 ...
-Summary Of Statistics Of Public, Society, And School Libraries Of 1,000 Volumes And Over In 1900
Volumes And Pamphlets Added And Books Issued. Periodicals. Volumes Added During the Year. Pamphlets Added During the Year. Books Issued...
-Printing And Publishing
There were 18,226 publications reported to the census authorities, while 3,046 publications failed to report. This would give a remarkable total of 21,272 periodicals, and the aggregate circulation of...
-Quantity And Cost Of Paper Used
Kinds. Pounds Cost. Average cost per pound. cents. News 956,335,921 $22,197,060 2.3 ...
-Libraries Of The World
The following is a list of the principal Libraries of the world Library. City. No. of Vols. Bibliotheque nationale Paris................
-Land Lines Of The World
Below are given such particulars as we have been able to obtain of the land lines of telegraphs throughout the world, corrected up to December 31, 1903: Countries. Length of ...
-Mileage Of Lines And Wires, Number Of Offices, And Traffic Of The Western Union Telegraph Company
Year Ending June 30 - Miles of Line. Miles of Wire. Number of Offices. Number of Messages Sent. Receipts. E...
-Mileage Of Lines And Wires, Number Of Offices, And Messages Sent, Of The Postal Telegraph Cable Company
Year. Miles of Poles and Cable Operated but not Owned. Miles of Poles and Cable Owned. Miles of Wires. Offices. Mes...
-Statistics Of The American Telephone And Telegraph Company And Operating Companies Associated With It On January 1, From 1897 To 1903
Data. 1897. 1900. 1903. Exchanges 967 1,239 1,514 Branch offices 832 ...
-Telegraphic Time Signals Sent Out At Noon Daily, Except Sundays And Holidays, By The U. S. Naval Observatory
The time service of the U. S. Naval Observatory has continued regularly to send out daily telegraphic time signals at noon, seventy-fifth meridian time, with an average error for the year of only 0s 1...
-Telegraphic Time Signals As Sent Out By The U. S. Naval Observatory
that sends out the signals is corrected very accurately, shortly before noon, from the mean of three standard clocks that are rated by star sights with a meridian transit instrument. The noon signal i...
-Standard Time
The desirability of using a uniform standard of time, independent of local time, was recognized at a very early date. The differences of local time arise from the use of solar motion as a time-measure...
-Submarine Telegraphs
The submarine telegraphs of the world number 1,815. Their aggregate length is nearly 221,292,441 miles; their total cost is estimated at $300,-000,000 and the number of messages annually transmitted o...
-Summary Of Cables Owned By Government Administrations
Partly extracted from the Official Documents issued by the International Bureau of Telegraphic Administrations, Berne. With The Electrician's corrections to date and additions. Countr...
-Summary Of Cables Owned By Private Companies
Private Companies. No. of Cables with One or More Cores. Length of Cables in Nautical Miles. African Direct Telegraph Company ...
-General Summary
Ownership. No. of Cables with One or More Cores. Length of Cables in Nautical Miles. Government Administrations........................
-Miscellaneous Information Pertaining To Submarine Telegraph Lines, Their Construction And Operation, 1902
Length of first successful cable, miles......................... 25 Length of first successful Atlantic cable, miles......................... 2,134...
-The Cable Alphabet
The cut above shows the Morse Code as recorded by a syphon recorder. Syphon recorders are used for receiving cable messages. It will be observed that the spaces are represented by horizontal lines...
-Submarine Cables And International Date Line
The International Date Line is an imaginary line drawn through the Pacific Ocean irregularly, but trending generally in a north and south direction. The islands of the Pacific Ocean are separated in s...
-Wireless Telegraphy
Wireless telegraphy is, in theory, closely allied to heliography, or signaling with flashes of light. The light used, however, is produced electrically and is invisible to the naked eye, owing to the ...
-Principal Systems Of Wireless Telegraphy
The best known systems of wireless telegraphy in the United States are the Marconi, the De Forest and the Fes-senden systems, and one or two systems used by the Government. In England, aside from the ...
-The Marconi System
The Marconi system, developed by Signor Guglielmo Marconi, a young Italian inventor, is the pioneer system of Hertzian wave telegraphy. In 1896 Marconi accepted an invitation from the British Telegrap...
-Stations Equipped With Marconi Apparatus
Country. Location. Operated by Belgium Nieuport Belgian Government Canada Table Head. Cape Bret...
-Compagnie Generale Transatlantique
- La Bretagne, La Champagne, La Lorraine, La Savoie, La Touraine. Cunard Line Aurania, Campania, Carpathia, Etrurian, Ivernia, Lucania, Pannonia, Saxonia, Umbria. Hamburg-American Line Aug...
-The De Forest System
The American De Forest Wireless Telegraph Company has developed from the inventions of Dr. Lee de Forest, a young Yale graduate. His system differs from that of Marconi chiefly in the receiver. At fir...
-Flags And Pennants To Be Used In The International Code
Code Flag And Answering Pennant. When used as the Code Flag it is to be hoisted under the ensign. When used as the Answering Pennant it is to be hoisted at the masthead or where best...
-International Wireless Telegraphy Conference
On account of the rival systems in use in this country and the different countries of Europe, it was decided to hold an international conference, at which rules could be formulated to control them. Th...
-New International Code Of Signals
The new International Code of Signals came into use on January 1, 1901. and its distinguishing sign will henceforward be the code pennant hoisted in the ordinary way. Illustrations of the new signa...
-Signals Adopted From And To Be Found In International Commercial Code Signal Book Of 1899. Referred To Above
N C In distress; want immediate assistance. D C We are coming to your assistance. E Y Do not attempt to land in your own boats. B I Damaged rudder; can not steer. B J Eng...
-Distress Signals. (Article 31 Of International Rules.)
When a vessel is in distress and requires assistance from other vessels or from the shore the following shall be the signals to be used or displayed by her, either together or separately, namely: I...
-List Of Weather Bureau Stations On The United States Seacoast Telegraphic Lines
Atlantic Coast. Nantucket, Massachusetts. Narragarsett Pier, Rhode Island. Block Island, Rhode Island. Norfolk, Virginia. Cape Henry, Virginia. Currituck Inlet, North Carolina. Ki...
-These Signals May Be Made By The Semaphore, By Cones. Balls And Drums, Or By Square Flags, Balls, Pennants And Whefts
Signal. Meaning. 2 Preparative, Answering, or, Stop, after each complete signal. 1 2 Aground; want immediate assistance. 2 1 Fire, or, Leak; want immediate assistance. 2 2 Ann...
-Special Distant Signals
Made by a single hoist followed by the Stop signal. Arranged numerically for reading off a signal. 3 3 2 Enemy is closing with you, or. You are closing with the enemy. 3 4 2 Keep a good look...
-The Following Distant Signals Made With Flag And Ball, Or Pennant And Ball, Have The Special Signification Indicated Beneath Them
You are running into danger. Fire, or, Leak; want immediate assistance. Short of provisions. Starving. Aground; want immediate assistance. ...
-Semaphores
There are many semaphores established on the French, Italian, Portuguese, and some on the Spanish and Austrian coasts, where only the international Code of Signals is now used. Where practicable these...
-Boat Signals
The Symbols for Boat Signals are - 1. Two square flags, or handkerchiefs, or pieces of cloth. 2. Two long strips of cloth, or parts of a plank, or pieces of wood longer than broad. 3. Two bal...
-Cyclones
[Pilot Chart, Hydrographic Office.] Rule 1. - If the squalls freshen without any shift of wind, you are on or near the storm track: heave to on the starboard tack and watch for some indications of...
-Life-Saving Signals
The following signals recommended by the late International Marine Conference for adoption by all institutions for saving life from wrecked vessels, have been adopted by the Life-saving Service of the...
-The Weather Bureau
The Weather Bureau furnishes, when practicable, for the benefit of all interests dependent upon weather conditions, the Forecasts which are prepared daily at the Central Office in Washington, D. C, ...
-Explanation Of Weather Flags
No. 1. White Flag. No. 2. Blue Flag. No. 3. White and Blue Flag. No. 4. Black Triangular Flag. No. 5. White Flag with black square in center. When num...
-Explanation Of Whistle Signals
A warning blast of from fifteen to twenty seconds duration is sounded to attract attention. After this warning the longer blasts (of from four to six seconds duration) refer to weather, and shorter bl...
-Patents In Relation To Manufactures
The value of our patent system is eloquently outlined by Senator Platt, of Connecticut. In speaking on a bill for the reorganization of the Patent Office, he said: To my mind, the passage of the a...
-Principal Fields Of Inventive Endeavor
Federal Constitution. On the 5th of September, 1787, it was proposed to incorporate in a constitution a patent and copyright clause. The germinating principle of this clause of the Constitution has vi...
-Number Of Patents For Inventions Issued During Each Calendar Year, And Number Of Live Patents At The Beginning Of Each Calendar Year
Year. Number of Patents Issued During the Year. Number of Live Patents. 1850............. 884 6,987 185...
-Distinguished American Inventors
Benjamin Franklin; b. Boston, 1706; d. 1790; at 12, printer's apprentice, fond of useful reading; 27 to 40, teaches himself Latin, etc., makes various useful improvements; at 40, studies electricity; ...
-Progress Of Inventions
Below is given in chronological order a list of important inventions beginning with the 16th century, with the title of the invention, the year it was made, the name of the inventor and his nativity: ...
-General Information Regarding Patents
What is a Patent? The term patent or letters patent is derived from litterae patentes, signifying that which is open or disclosed in contradistinction to lettre de cache, that which is sealed or se...
-What May be Patented?
Any new and useful art, machine, manufacture or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvements thereon. The thing invented must be new and useful. These are conditions precedent to the gran...
-General Information Regarding Patents. Continued
Patented Articles Must Be Marked Articles manufactured and sold under a patent-must be so marked that the public shall have notice that the article is a patented one. This notice consists of the wo...
-Abstracts Of Decisions
Where an inventor has completed his invention, if he neither applies for a patent nor puts it to practical use. a subsequent inventor who promptly applies is entitled to the patent, and the first one ...
-Foreign Patents
Canada, Dominion Of The laws of Canada follow somewhat closely the practice in the United States. The term of a patent is 18 years. The general practice, however, is to divide the fees, making paym...
-Patent Laws Of The United States
[The Constitutional Provision. - The Congress shall have power * * * to promote the progress of Science and Useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to t...
-Courts
Sec. 629. The circuit, courts shall have original jurisdiction * * * of all suits at law or in equity arising under the patent copyright laws of the United States. Title XIII, Rev. Stat, p. 169: ...
-Patents
Title LX, Rev. Stat., 1878, chap. 1, p. 945: Sec. 4883. All patents shall be issued in the name of the United States of America, under the seal of the Patent Office, and shall be signed by the Comm...
-Patents. Part 2
Sec. 4892. The applicant shall make oath that he does verily believe himself to be the original and first inventor or discoverer of the art, machine, manufacture, composition, or improvement for which...
-Patents. Part 3
Sec. 4899. Every person who purchases of the inventor or discoverer, or, with his knowledge and consent, constructs any newly invented or discovered machine, or other patentable article, prior to the ...
-Patents. Part 4
Sec. 4909. Every applicant for a patent or for the reissue of a patent, any of the claims of which have been twice rejected, and every party to an interference, may appeal from the decision of the pri...
-Patents. Part 5
Sec. 4917. Whenever, through inadvertence, accident, or mistake, and without any fraudulent or deceptive intention, a patentee has claimed more than that of which he was the original or first inventor...
-Designs
Sec. 4929. Any person who has invented any new, original, and ornamental design for an article of manufacture, not known or used by others in this country before his invention thereof, and not patente...
-Fees
Sec. 4934. The following shall be the rates for patent fees: On filing each original application for a patent, except in design cases, $15.00. On issuing each original patent, except in design cases, ...
-Patent Rights Vest In Assignee In Bankruptcy
Sec. 5046. All property conveyed by the bankrupt in fraud of his creditors; all rights in equity, choses in action, patent rights, and copyrights; all debts due him, or any person for his use, and all...
-Labels
Chapter 301 An Act to Amend the Law Relating to Patents, Trade-marks, and Copyrights. Be it enacted, etc. [Section 1], That no person shall maintain an action for the infringement of his copyrig...
-Trade-Marks
[The Constitutional Provision. - The Congress shall have power * * * (3) to regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian tribes. Art. I, sec. 8.] the statu...
-The Statute Of 1881
Chapter 138 An Act to Authorize the Registration of Trade-Marks and Protect the Same. Be it enacted, etc. [Section 1], That owners of trade-marks used in commerce with foreign nations or with th...
-History Of The American Patent System
The century just closed stands out pre-eminently as the century of invention. It is therefore a fitting time briefly to refer to the origin, establishment, and development of our patent system, to cal...
-History Of The American Patent System. Part 2
The patent act of March 2, 1861 (section 16), provided that all patents thereafter granted should remain in force for a term of seventeen years from the date of issue, and the extension of such patent...
-History Of The American Patent System. Part 3
Thomas A. Edison 742 Francis H. Richards 619 Elihu Thomsan 444 Charles E. Scribner............ ...
-History Of The American Patent System. Part 4
Of our patent system it has been well said: It is generally recognized by the most profound students of our institutions, both at home and abroad, that no one thing has contributed more to the pre...
-History Of The American Patent System. Part 5
In the construction of this act the words engraving, cut, and print, shall be applied only to pictorial illustrations or works connected with the fine arts, and no prints or labels designed to b...
-History Of The American Patent System. Part 6
And it is hereby made the duty of the Librarian of Congress to furnish to the Secretary of the Treasury copies of the entries of titles of all books and other articles wherein the copyright has been c...
-History Of The American Patent System. Part 7
Sec. 4904. Every person who, after the recording of the title of any book and the depositing of two copies of such book as provided by this act, shall, contrary to the provisions of this act, within t...
-History Of The American Patent System. Part 8
Sec. 4971. [Revised Statutes, title 13, The Judiciary, provides as follows: Chap. 7 (sec. 629). The circuit courts shall have original jurisdiction as follows: * * * Ninth. Of all suits at law or i...
-Localization Of Specified Industries, By States: 1900
Industry. Value of Products in Continental United States. State. Value of Products in the State Named. Per Cent of Continental...
-Manufacturing In The United States
Class. Number of Establishments. Capital. Proprietors and Firm Members Wage-earners. Average Number. Total Wage...
-Summary For All Establishments: 1900
Miscellaneous Expenses. Cost of Materials Used. Total. Purchased in Raw State. Purchased in Partially Manufactured Form. ...
-Comparative Summary, By Specified Industries: 1900
[Twelfth Census, Vol. VII. page 3, and Vol. VIII. page 18.] Industry. Number of Establishments. Capital. Wage-earners. Cost of Materials ...
-Industry Groups Ranked By Capital, Number Of Wage-Earners, Wages, And Gross And Net Value Of Products: 1900
[Twelfth Census, Vol. VII, page CLXIV, and Vol. VIII, page 18.] Industry Group. Number of Establishments. Rank. Capital. Rank. Ave...
-Bank Of Industries With Products
[Twelfth Census, Vol. VII, page Industry. Number of Establishments. Rank. Capital. Rank. Iron and steel. 668 ...
-Valued At Over $50,000,000: 1900. CLXIII, and Vol. VIII, page 18.]
Average Number of Wage-earners. Rank. Wages. Rank. Value of Products. Net. Rank. Gross. Rank...
-Establishments And Products Classified By Character Of Organization, By Groups Of Industries: 1900
[Twelfth Census, Vol. VII, pages LXVI and 503.] Industry Group. Character of Organization. Total. Individual. Number of Estab...
-Establishments Classified By Number Of Employees, Not Including Proprietors And Firm Members: 1900
[Twelfth Census, Vol. VII, pages LXXIII and 582.] Industry Group. Total Number of Establishments. Number of Establishments Reporting. No. Employ...
-American Irrigation
There are in the United States some 500,000,000 acres in what is known as the Arid Belt. These are not available for agriculture until they have been irrigated. It is now estimated that at least 15,0...
-Population Of Europe
The population of Europe has been carefully estimated at recent dates by MM. Levasseur and Bodio with these results: Year. Population. 1900...................
-Cost Of Materials Used In Each Of The Fifteen Groups Of Industries: 1900
[Twelfth Census, Vol. VII. page CXXXVII.] Industry Group. Cost of Materials Used. Per Cent of Cost of Materials to Gross Value of Products. Per Cent of ...
-Tourists In Switzerland
The following figures with regard to tourists in Switzerland have been compiled by Herr Freuler, of Zurich. Money paid annually by visitors to hotel proprietors - between $15,000,000 and $20,000,00...
-Jura Tunnel
The Grand Council of the Canton of Berne, in the year 1903, agreed to grant a subvention for the construction of the projected Jura Tunnel for a line between Soleure and Munster, which will give acces...
-Values Of Domestic Merchandise Exported, Grouped According To Sources Of Production
Year ending June 30 Exports of Domestic Merchandise other than Manufactures.1 Exports of Domestic Manufactures. Total Exports of Domestic Merchandise. ...
-Division Of Industries. - Segments Are Based On Production In The Census Year 1890
-Summary Of Exports Of Domestic Merchandise During The Year Ending June 30, 1903. (Bureau Of Statistics)
Articles. Quantities. Values. Agricultural Implements: Dollars. Mowers and reapers, and parts of. . ...
-Merchandise Imported And Exported, And The Annual Excess Of Imports Or Of Exports, 1860 To 1903 Specie Values
Year ending June 30 Exports. Imports. Total Exports and Imports. Excess of Exports over Imports. Excess of Imports over Exports. ...
-Increased Trade With Canada - Trade With Great Britain And The Empire
By Hon. O. P. Austin, Chief of the United States Bureau of Statistics. The commerce of the United States in the fiscal year ending June 30, 1903, has been the largest in the history of the country....
-Trade With Great Britain And The Empire. Continued
Immigration One effect of the prosperity and general demand for labor in the United States in the past few years is noticeable in the increased immigration. The number of immigrants entering the Un...
-Analysis Of The Trade Of The U.S.A
Imports into the United States. (According to Continents.) [In millions of dollars.] Year. Europe. N. America. S. America. Asia. O...
-Imports Of Merchandise, By Principal Articles And Classes, In Order Of Magnitude In 1903
Articles. 1903. Dollars. Sugar....................... 72,088,973 Chemicals, drugs, and dyes..... ...
-Motive-Power Appliances. By Edward H. Sanborn, Expert Special Agent Twelfth Census
The 1,170 establishments covered by the report produced during the census year 40,533 steam boilers, representing an aggregate of 2,928,983 horsepower, with a total value of $25,-663,445. Of steam eng...
-Number, Aggregate Horsepower, And Value Of Primary Powers: 1900
Number of establishments....... 1,170 Steam boilers: Fire tube - Number............... 35,802...
-Power, Comparative Summary: 1870 To 1900
[Twelfth Census, Vol. VII, pages CCCXVI, and 582.] Power. Date of Census. Per Cent, of Increase. 1900. 1890. 1880. ...
-Metal-Working Machinery In The United States - Kind, Quantity, And Value Of Products: 1900
Number of establishments re- 397 Hammers - steam, power, and drop: Number.......................... 857 ...
-Our Iron And Steel Production
The statement that in 1902 forty per cent, of the pig iron in the world was produced in the United States gives one no very definite realization of the quantity of that product, though he be reminded ...
-Comparative Diagram Showing The Total Annual Amount Of Raw Materials Of The Iron And Steel Industry In The United States, As Compared With The Finished Products Shown On Pages 296, 297 And 298
1 2 3 456789 10 11 1 - Great Pyramid. 2 - Blast Furnace. 3 - Park Row Building. 4 - Coke. 5 - Coal. 6 - Charcoal. 7 - Limestone. 8 - Iron Ore. 9 - Pig Iron. 10 - Steel. 11 - Eiffel Tower. ...
-Fuel
Of the contents of the blast furnace by far the larger bulk is fuel, though the weight of the iron ore is almost twice that of the fuel. The square columns in our illustration will serve to give one s...
-Flux
The amount of limestone used for fluxing purposes last year amounted to 9.490,090 tons. This would make a column 5,500 feet high, with a cross-section 200 feet square. It may be interesting to note he...
-Iron Ore
The next column, which is of a height equal to that of the coke column, is composed of 34,636,121 tons of iron ore. However, this represents in bulk only one-quarter that of the coke. ...
-Pig Iron
All the above-mentioned materials were used last year to produce 17,-821,307 tons of pig iron. This makes a column twice the height of the Eiffel Tower, the tallest monument to human skill in the worl...
-Steel
The larger part of the pig iron production of this country is converted into steel; 14,947,250 tons represent the total output for last year. Of this, 9,138,363 tons were made by the Bessemer process,...
-Finished Products
Of the finished products for the year, 2,947,933 tons represent the amount of iron and steel formed into rails. If all this metal were rolled into a single rail of standard proportions, it would measu...
-Carriages And Wagons
The manufacture of carriages and wagons has been carried on in the United States practically since the time of the early settlers. In the Census year 1900 there were 7,632 establishments, having a cap...
-Phonographs And Talking Machines
In 1900 there were eleven establishments engaged in the manufacture of phonographs and other talking machines. The capital invested was $3,-348,282, and the industry gave employment to 1,267 wage-earn...
-Value Of Exports Of Agricultural Implements, 1896 To 1900, Inclusive
Countries and Classes. 1896. 1897. 1898. 1899. 1900. Aggregate..................................... $5,...
-Value Of Implements On Farms, By States And Territories, 1900
States and Territories. Value of Implements on Farms. United States......................... $749,776,660 Alabama...............
-Summary Of Progress Of The United States Compiled From "Territorial And Commercial Expansion Of The United States,"
Area, Population, and Industries. In 1800. 1850. ARea and Population: Area 1 Sq. m...
-In Its Area, Population, And Material Industries
Issued by the Bureau of Statistics, Department of Commerce and Labor. 1860. 1870. 1880. 1890. 1900. 1903. 3,025...
-Summary Of Progress Of The United States In Its Area, Population, and Industries
Area, Population, and Industries. In 1800. 1850. Interest on public debt. Dollars...
-Chapter XI. The Departments Of The Federal Government
The following is a brief resume of the work carried on by the Departments of the Government service, and in many cases the individual bureaus and divisions are noted. Information germane to the work o...
-The Departments Of The Federal Government. Part 2
Some Of The Military Bureaus The chiefs of the military bureaus of the War Department are officers of the Regular Army of the United States and part of the military establishment, viz.: The Adju...
-The Departments Of The Federal Government. Part 3
The Bureau Of Animal Industry The Bureau of Animal Industry makes investigations as to the existence of dangerous communicable diseases of live stock; superintends the measures for their extirpatio...
-The Departments Of The Federal Government. Part 4
Vegetable Pathological And Physiological Investigations These investigations have for their objects the study of diseases of agricultural crops and economic plants, nutrition of plants, rotation of...
-The Departments Of The Federal Government. Part 5
Bureau Of Yards And Docks The duties of the Bureau of Yards and Docks comprise all that relates to the planning, construction, and maintenance of all docks (including dry docks), wharves, slips, pi...
-The Departments Of The Federal Government. Part 6
Bureau Of Steam Engineering The duties of the Bureau of Steam Engineering comprise all that relates to the designing, building, fitting out, repairing, and engineering of the steam machinery used f...
-The Departments Of The Federal Government. Part 7
The Civil Service Commission The purpose of the civil-service act (approved January 16, 1883), as declared in its title, is to regulate and improve the civil service of the United States.It provi...
-The Departments Of The Federal Government. Part 8
The Interstate Commerce Commission This Commission, appointed under An act to regulate commerce, approved February 4, 1887, has authority to inquire into the management of the business of all com...
-The Departments Of The Federal Government. Part 9
Light-House Board The Light-House Board has charge, under the superintendence of the Secretary of Commerce and Labor, of all administrative duties relating to the construction and maintenance of li...
-The Departments Of The Federal Government. Part 10
Bureau Of Immigration The Bureau of Immigration is charged with the administration of the laws relating to immigration and of the Chinese exclusion laws. It supervises all expenditures under the ap...
-Postal Information
Revised by the New York Post Office. There are four classes of mail matter: First-Class Matter - All written matter, such as letters, postal cards. post cards and all matter in writing, whethe...
-Fees For Money Orders
Payable in the United States (which includes Guam, Hawaii, Porto Rico and Tutuila, Samoa); also for Orders payable in Canada, Cuba, Newfoundland, the United States Postal Agency at Shanghai (China), t...
-Suggestion To The Public On Postal Subjects
How To Direct And Mail Letters Mail matter should be addressed legibly and completely, giving the name of the postoffice. county and State, and the postoffice box of the person addressed, if he has...
-The United States Post Office. Postal Revenue In Detail For Year Ending June 30, 1903
The postal revenue from all sources was as follows: Sales of stamps, stamped envelopes, newspaper wrappers, and postal cards .... $123,511,549.70 Second-cl...
-Expenditures In Detail
The expenditures of the postal service for the year are shown, by items, in the following statement: Transportation of mails on railroads................. $36,195,116.18 ...
-Money Order Business
Number of money-order offices in operation, 1902 .. . 31,680 Number of money-order offices in operation, 1903 .. . 34,547 Number...
-Number Of Post Offices, Extent Of Post-Routes, And Revenue And Expenditures Of The Post Office Department, Including Amounts Paid For Transportation Of The Mail, 1877, 1887, 1897, And 1903
Year ending June 30 - Post-offices. Extent of post-routes. Revenue of the Department. Expended for transportation of - Total expendit...
-Railroad Mileage Upon Which Mail Was Carried, Annual Cost And Average Cost Per Mile Of Railroad Mail Transportation, And Expenditure For Railway Mail Service Employees
Year ending June 30. Total railroads in operation in United States Dec. 31. Railroads upon which mail was carried. Annual transportation of mail by railroa...
-The Nobel Prizes
The Nobel Foundation is based upon the last will and testament of Dr. Alfred Bernhard Nobel, engineer and inventor of dynamite, dated November 27, 1895, the stipulations of which, respecting this fund...
-The Anthony Pollok Prize
No doubt many inventors are wondering what disposition has been made of the Anthony Pollok Prize. Commun cations which have been received by the editor from Paris state that, owing to the unsatisfacto...
-International Institutions And Bureaus
Feeling that a large majority of our readers may not have access to the sources of information from which the following data are drawn, we take the liberty of presenting them with the most interesting...
-I. The Permanent Court Of Arbitration
This court, more popularly known as The Hague Tribunal, was constituted by virtue of the convention for the pacific regulation of international questions, concluded at The Hague, July 29, 1899. (Offic...
-II. The Universal International Postal Union
The Universal Postal Union, founded by the Congress at Bern in 1874. constitutes a single territory for the reciprocal exchange of correspondence between the Postal Departments of the nations present ...
-III. International Bureau Of Telegraphs
This bureau is a central organ instituted in 1868 by the International Telegraphic Conference at Vienna and placed by it under the high direction of the superior authorities of the Swiss Confederation...
-IV. International Bureau Of Weights And Measures
By virtue of the Metric Convention signed at Paris, May 20, 1875, the States of Germany, Argentine Republic, Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, Spain, United States, France, Italy, Peru, Portugal, Rus...
-V. International Unions Fob The Protection Of Industrial, Literary And Artistic Properties
The Union for the Protection of Industrial Property was founded at Paris, March 20, 1883, by a convention to which 19 States were parties. They were Belgium, Brazil, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Br...
-VI. Bureau For The Repression Of The Slave Trade On The African Coast
This bureau was instituted in the execution of the General Act of the Conference of Brussels of the 2d of July, 1890, and attached to the Department for Foreign Affairs of Belgium. Article 81 Th...
-VII. International Union For The Publication Of Customs Tariffs
The International Union for the Publication of Customs Tariffs was founded by an international convention, July 5, 1890, and concluded between fifty-two states and semi-independent colonies. The objec...
-VIII. International Bureau Of Railroad Transportation
On October 14, 1890, an international convention upon the transportation of merchandise by railroad was concluded at Bern, between Germany, Belgium, France, Italy, Luxemburg, Holland, Austria-Hungary,...
-IX. Central Bureau Of International Geodesy Established Upon The Telegraphberg, Near Potsdam
This central bureau has existed since 1866. After the creation of the Prussian Geodetic Institute it was united with the latter in 1869. The object of the Geodetic Institute is to cultivate geodesy by...
-Carnegie Hero Commission
Mr. Andrew Carnegie gave $5,000,-000 for a fund to be known as the Carnegie Hero Fund Commission, the interest being devoted to the reward of those who perform heroic acts. The fund became operat...
-Rhodes Scholarships
By his will, Mr. Cecil Rhodes, in his desire to encourage and foster an appreciation of the advantages which will result from the union of the English-speaking people throughout the world, and to enco...
-The Carnegie Institution
This institution was founded by Mr. Andrew Carnegie for the promotion of original research in science, literature and art. He set aside $10,100,-000 for the purpose. The interest is used to conduct, e...
-General Remarks
In 1902, for the third time, the total value of the commercial mineral production of the United States exceeded the enormous sum of $1,000,000,-000. The exact figures for 1902 were $1,260,039,415 as c...
-Metals
Iron And Steel Twenty-two States made pig-iron in 1902, as against 21 in 1899 and 1900, and 20 in 1901. The total production of pig-iron in 1902 was 17,821,307 long tons, against 15,-878,354 tons i...
-Fuels
Coal For the first time in the history of the United States the production of coal reached a total of over 300,000,000 short tons, showing an actual output of 301,590,439 tons of 2,000 pounds, valu...
-Structural Materials
Stone The value of all kinds of building stone produced in the United States during 1902 amounted to $61,-559,099, as compared with $55,615,-926 in 1901, with $44,321,345 in 1900, and with $44,090,...
-Abrasive Materials
Carborundum There was a slight decrease in the quantity of carborundum - 3,741,500 pounds produced in 1902, as compared with 3,838,175 pounds in 1901 - due in part to lack of a sufficient supply of...
-Chemical Materials
Arsenious Oxide The domestic production of arsenious oxide (white arsenic) in 1902 was 1,353 short tons, valued at $81,180, as compared with 300 short tons, valued at $18,000, in 1901. The entire p...
-Pigments
Barytes The production of crude barytes in 1902 was considerably in excess of that of the year before, amounting to 61,668 short tons, valued at $203,154, as compared with 49,-070 tons, valued at $...
-Miscellaneous
Asbestos The commercial production of asbestos in the United States in 1902 was chiefly from the mines at Sall Mountain, White County, Georgia, with smaller quantities from Hillsdale, Berkshire Cou...
-Mineral Products Of The United States For The Calendar Year 1902
Product. 1902. Quantity. Value. Metallic. Pig iron (spot value) ..long ton...
-Mines And Quarries. Detailed Summary, United States: 1902
Number of mines, quarries, or wells..................... 151,516 Number of operators. 46,858 Salaried officials, clerks, etc: ...
-Clay Products Of The United States In 1902
In 1902 there were produced 8,475,-0G7 thousands of common brick. The value of this product was $48,885,869, and the average price per thousand was $5.77. The quantity of front brick produced was 458,...
-Petroleum, Crude, Quantities Op, Produced, Imported, Exported, And Retained For Consumption
Per Cent of Product Exported. 61.17 53.09 45.13 28.32 Remaining for Consumption. Gallons. ...
-Production Of Gas
The total quantity of gas sold for lighting and heating, as reported to the Census in 1900 by 877 gas establishments from which returns were received, was 67,093,553,471 cubic feet. The total quantity...
-Dimensions Of The Earth. According To Bessel, In The Metric System
Equatorial radius (large axis, one half), a = 6,377,397.15 m. Polar radius (small axis, one half), 6 = 6,356,078.96 m. Oblateness, A meridian-degree at the equator = 110,563.68 m. A me...
-Division Of The United States As To Land
Farms According to the Census of 1900 there are 5,737,372 farms having 414,498,487 acres of improved land and 424.093,287 acres of unimproved land. The value of all farm property was $20,439,901,16...
-The Poultry Industry
Chickens form an essential part of the stock upon many farms. The Twelfth Census shows that there were 5,737.372 farms in the United States in 1900, and it is safe to say that those which did not have...
-Dairy Farms
The Twelfth Census reports that in the year 1900 there were 5,737 372 farms in the United States, and of these 4,514,210 had dairy cows. Where a farm was found upon which at least 40 per cent, of the ...
-Mineral Constituents Absorbed Or Removed From An Acre Of Soil By The Following Crops
Minerals. Wheat, 25 Bushels. Barley, 40 Bushels. Turnips, 20 Tons. Hay, 1 1/2 Tons. Lbs. Lbs. ...
-Number And Value Of Domestic Animals: 1900
Domestic Animals. Age in Years. Total. On Farms and Ranges. Not on Farms or Ranges. Number. Value. Numb...
-Quantity And Value Of Animal Products Of Farms: 1899
Product. Unit of Measure. Quantity. Value. Total.............................. $1,718,365,561 ...
-Acreage, Quantity, And Value Of Farm Crops In 1899
From Reports of the Census. Crop. Acres. Unit of Measure. Quantity. Value. Total.............................................
-Fruit Products
(Abstracted from the United States Census Reports.) Product. Unit of Measure. Quantity. Value. Fruits (orchard).........................
-Statistics Of Principal Crops
Crop. Year. Acreage. Unit. Average Yield per Acre. Production. Corn......................................... ...
-Statistics Of Principal Animals
Animals. Year. Number. Value. Horse........................................ 1904 16,736,059 $1,136,940,...
-The Functions And Uses Of Foods
By C. F. Langworthy, PH. D. Office of Experiment Stations. In this article a number of the terms used in discussing food are defined and some of the principles of nutrition are briefly stated. T...
-Use Of Nutrients
Food is used in the body to build and repair tissue and to furnish energy. The manner in which the valuable constituents are utilized in the body may be expressed in tabular form as follows: ...
-Diagram Of Cuts Of Mutton
instance, the foot-ton, which represents the force required to raise one ton one foot. One calorie is equal to very nearly 1.53 foot-tons. The following general estimate has been made for the avera...
-Average Composition Of American Food Products
Food Materials (as purchased). Refuse. Water. Protein. Fat. Carbohydrates. Ash. Fuel Value per Lb. ...
-Dietary Standards
Dietary studies have been made in considerable numbers in different countries. The results of such studies and experiments to determine the amount of food required by men engaged in different occupati...
-Factors Used In Calculating Meals Consumed In Dietary Studies
One meal of woman equivalent to 0.8 meal of man at moderate muscular labor. One meal of boy 14 to 16 years of age, inclusive, equivalent to 0.8 meal of man. One meal of girl 14 to 16 years of ag...
-Products Of The Fisheries Of The United States
Specially prepared for the Scientific American Reference Book by the United States Fish Commission. Species. New England States, 1902. Middle Atlan...
-Legal Weights (In Pounds) Per Bushel
States and Territories. Apples. Beans. Coal. Corn. ...
-Comparison Of Canned Goods Put Up In The United States In 1000
Cans, Tin Size of sheet for from 1 to 100 gallons. For 1 gal. 10X20 in. For 25 gal. 30X56 ...
-Central Electric Light And Power Stations, United States: 1902
Items. Total. Private stations. Municipal stations. 3,620 2,805 815 Condensed statement...
-Comparative Velocities, Per Second
Snail (0.0394 inch), 1 millimeter. Pedestrian (39.37 inches) 1 meter = 1.09 ya. Horse, walking, 1.2 meters =1.31 yards. Pedestrian, quick walk, 2 meters = 2.19 ya. Horse, trotting, 3.5 meters = 3.82 y...
-Table Of Elevations Of Objects Above Sea Level, With Their Corresponding Distances Of Visibility
Height, in Feet. Distance, in Nautical Miles. Height, in Feet. Distance, in Nautical Miles. 5 2.555 50 ...
-How To Read A Gas Meter
The dial marked 1 thousand in the accompanying illustration is divided into hundreds; the dial marked 10 thousand is divided into thousands; that marked 100 thousand into ten-thousands, and that...
-Paper Currency Of Each Denomination Outstanding May 31, 1904
[Prepared by Treasurer's Office.] Denomination. United States Notes. Treasury Notes of 1890. National-bank Notes. Gold Certificates. ...
-Amounts Of Gold And Silver Coin And Certificates, United States Notes, And National Bank Notes In Circulation And In The Treasury May 1 And June 1, 1904, Respectively
[Note. - Population of the United States, June 1, 1904, estimated at 81,752,000; circulation per capita, $30.69.] Classification. General Stock of Money in the United Stat...
-Public Debt Of The United States
Classification. May 31, 1904. Dollars. Interest-bearing debt............................................. 895,157,430.00...
-Values Of Foreign Coins
Treasury Department, Office of the Secretary, Washington, July 1, 1904. In pursuance of the provisions of section 25 of the act of August 28, 1894, I hereby proclaim the following estimate by the Dire...
-World's Production Of Gold And Silver For The Calendar Year 1902
Fine oz. of gold, $20.671834 +; fine oz. silver, $1.292929 +, coining rate in U. S. silver dollars. Country. Gold. Silver. Commercial Value. ...
-Comparative Values Of English And United States Money
d $ s $ s $ $ 1 0.02 1 0.24 12 2.92...
-Height Of Buildings
Building. Total height from sidewalk, ft. Park Row Building, New York. . 386 American Surety Bldg., N. Y.. . 312 ...
-Dimensions Of The Principal Domes
Diam. Height. ft. ft. Pantheon, Rome........ 142 143 Cathedral, Florenc...
-Tunnels Of The World
Miles Under. New York Subway (1904)* 23 City. London Metropolitan........ 13 City. ...
-Balloons
In aerostation, a bag or hollow pear-shaped vessel, made of varnished silk or other light material, and inflated with some gas or vapor lighter than the air, as hydrogen, carbureted hydrogen, heated a...
-Table Showing The Relations Between The Diameters, Surfaces, And Capacities Of Spheres
Diameters. Surfaces. Cubical content 1 3.141 .523 2 12.567 4.188 ...
-Aerial Navigation
No motive power machine sufficiently light and powerful to lift itself from the ground and maintain itself in the air for any considerable time has yet been invented. Aerial navigation is therefore at...
-How To Harness A Horse
Every one should know how to harness a horse, and our second engraving shows the harness placed on a horse with the buckles unfastened and an English collar. The first engraving shows the harness ...
-Passports
Passports are granted and issued by the Secretary of State and by diplomatic representatives of the United States and foreign countries, or by United States Consuls. The fee is $1, and the necessary b...
-Accidents In Factories
The Annual Report of the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the State of New York for 1899 gives some interesting figures. In April, May, June, 1899, the figures (New York State) are as follows: ...
-Cause Or Agent Of Accidents In New York
Machinery. Engines, power transmission, belts, etc 40 Lifting apparatus. 50 Circular saws.......................
-Period Of Disability
Not over one week: Less than one day 45 One day. 85 From 2 to 7 days. ...
-Nature Of Injuries
Fatal............................... 29 Non-fatal:....................... Internal........................... 29 ...
-Fatal Accidents In Various Occupations
Period. Rate per 1,000 Railroad brakemen............ 1900-02 15.8 Gloucester fishermen........... ...
-Annual Fire Losses In The United States For Fourteen Years 1890-1903 - Chronicle Fire Tables
Years. Aggregate Property Loss. Aggregate Insurance Loss. Years'. Aggregate Property Loss. Aggregate Insurance ...
-What To Do In Case Of Fire
By Chief Edward F. Croker Of The New York Fire Department. In case of fire immediately send alarm from the nearest alarm box; wait at alarm box until the arrival of the firemen so as to notify them...
-The Cost Of Living
July 1. Bread-stuffs. Meats. Dairy and Garden. Other Food. Clothing. Metals. Miscellaneous. Total...
-Distilled Spirits, Wines, And Malt Liquors, Quantities Consumed. Consumption Per Capita In The United States
Year Ending June 30- Distilled Spirits Consumed. Wines Consumed. Malt Liquors Consumed. Total Consumption of Wines and Liquors. Total...
-The Christian Advocate's Table Of Denominations
Denominations. Summary for 1903. Ministers. Churches. Communicants. Adventists (6 bodies)...............................
-Geometrical Figures
1. Acute Angle An acute angle is less than a right angle, or less than 90 degrees. 2. Alternate Angles The internal angles made by two lines with a third, on opposite sides of it. If the two ...
-Geometrical Constructions
1. To divide a given line A B into two equal parts; and to erect a perpendicular through the middle. With the end A and B as centers, draw the dotted circle arcs with a radius greater than half ...
-Geometrical Constructions. Part 2
20. To find the center and radius of a circle that will tangent the given circle A B at C, and the line D E. Through the given point C, draw the tangent G F; bisect the angle F G E; then o is th...
-Geometrical Constructions. Part 3
39. To cut off the corners of a square, so as to make of it a regular octagon. With the corners as centers, draw circle arcs through the center of the square to the side, which determines the cu...
-Formulas For The Circle
Periphery or Circumference. p = d = 3.14d. P = 2 r = 6.28r. p = 2 a = 3.54 a. p = 2a / r = 4a / d. Diameter and Radius, d = p / = p / 3.14 r = p ...
-Chapter II. Machine Elements
The Machine Elements or Powers are the Lever and the Inclined Plane. Every machine when analyzed is found to be made up of these elements, either singly or in combination; for example, pulleys, gear w...
-Levers. Common Levers
Angular Or Bellcrank Levers Wheel And Axle Or Revolving Levers Pulleys P = Power W=WElGht F=Fulcrum p = Power Arm And W = Weight Arm P = WxW/P And W=Pxp/u' Copyright, 1904,...
-Compound Leverage. Compound Common Levers
Compound Revolving Levers Compound Pulleys Inclined Plane. Simple Inclined Plane Wedge Or Moveable Inclined Plane Screw Or Revolving Inclined Plane Copyright, 19...
-Toothed Gear
1. Spur Gears The ordinary form of toothed-wheel. The smaller of two inter-meshing gear-wheels whether a spur- or bevel-wheel is called a Pinion. 2. Gear With Mortised Teeth This is what is o...
-Friction Gear
29. Flat-Faced Friction Gear A common type of friction gear. The wheels are usually faced with rubber or leather to increase the frictional hold between the wheels. One of the wheels is journaled i...
-Chain Gear
41. Sprocket Wheel The wheel is provided with teeth adapted to fit in between the links of a chain. The chain may be of the ordinary oval welded link type or of the flat riveted type used on bicycl...
-Rope Gear
49. V-Pulley The ordinary type of pulley for round ropes or cables. Owing to the V-shaped construction of the pulley groove, the rope wedges tightly into engagement with the pulley. 50. Pulley W...
-Clutches
57. Common Jaw Clutch One member of the clutch is mounted to slide on a feathered shaft, and the other member which is connected with the machinery is normally stationary on this shaft. When the sl...
-Angle Shaft Couplings And Universal Joints
73. Crank And Hinged-Pin Coupling A coupling for shafts which lie at an angle to each other. One shaft carries a hinged pin which fits into an opening in the outer end of a crank arm carried by the...
-Ratchet Movements
85. The teeth of a ratchet wheel are engaged by a pawl hinged to a rocking arm. The ratchet wheel is rotated only on the forward stroke of the arm. 86. A rocking lever carries two pawls, one on eac...
-Escapements
101. Recoil Escapement This is a common form of escapement used on clocks. The pallets carried by the pendulum are so mounted that when a tooth of the escape wheel, which is driven by the clock-tra...
-Gearing
113. A means for changing rectilinear reciprocating motion to rotary reciprocating motion and vice versa. Two intermeshing pinions engage internal racks formed on opposite sides of a frame. 114. Me...
-Cams And Cam Movements
141 and 142. Cylinder or Drum Cams. - In Figure 141 a groove is formed in the curved face of a cylinder or drum. A roller on the end of a pivoted arm fits into this groove. As the drum rotates the arm...
-Miscellaneous Movements
169. Device for transmitting reciprocating motion from one pair of rods to another pair lying at right angles thereto. The rods are all connected by links so that when two opposed rods are moved inwar...
-Miscellaneous Movements. Part 2
181. Another device for producing rectilinear movement of a pump rod. The rod, instead of being directly connected to the working beam of an engine, is connected thereto by cross links. This motion, ...
-Miscellaneous Movements. Part 3
197. Means for converting reciprocating rectilinear movement into reciprocating rotary movement. A primitive form of turning lathe. The wooden shaft or other object to be turned, is mounted to rotate ...
-Drafting Devices
218. A pantograph, or an instrument for reproducing a drawing on a larger or smaller scale. It comprises two levers hinged together and connected by a pair of hinged links. One of the levers carries ...
-Governors
A governor of a steam engine is a device for automatically operating the throttle, or for shortening the stroke of the slide valve when the engine attains a dangerous speed. 225. Watt's Governor ...
-Springs
241 and 242. Laminated or Carriage Springs, used on carriages to take up the jolts of the wheels in passing over uneven roads. 241 shows the elliptical form, and 242 the semi-elliptical form. They ...
-Transmission Of Power By Belting
The Tenacity of Good New Belt Leather varies from 3,000 lb. to 5,000 lb. per square inch of sectional area. The Coefficient of Friction between ordinary belting and cast-iron pulleys is about .423....
-Types Of Engines
1. Trunk Engine. 2 and 3 Vertical Engines. 4. Steeple Engine. 5. Inclined Frame Engine. 6. Oscillating Engines. 7. Corliss Frame or Girder Engine. 8. Horizontal Engine. 9. Radial ...
-Table Of Elements
Elements. Discoverer. Year. Antimony.............. Valentine............. 1450 Bismuth........... Valentin...
-International Atomic Weights
Elements. Symbol. 0 = 16. H = l. Aluminum.......... Al 27.1 26.9 Antimony..............
-Report Of The International Committee On Atomic Weights
The International Committee on Atomic Weights has the honor to offer the following report: In the table of atomic weights for 1904 only two changes from 1903 are recommended. The atomic weight of c...
-Chemical Substances And Their Common Names
Common Names. Chemical Names. Alum..................... Sulphate of aluminum and potassium Aqua fortis.............. ...
-Comparison Of Degrees Twaddell And Specific Gravity
In order to change degrees Twaddell into specific gravity, multiply by 5, add 1,000 and divide by 1,000. Example: Change 168 deg. Twaddell into specific gravity. 168 X 5 840 1,000 1,000)1,...
-Thermometer Scales
Much annoyance is caused by the great difference of thermometer scales in use in the different civilized countries. The scale of Reaumur prevails in Germany. As is well known, he divides the space bet...
-Comparative Scales Of Thermometer
C. R. F. C. R. F. C. R. F. -30 -24.0 -22.0 14 ...
-Value Of Rare Elements
Elements. Quantity. Value. Boron nitrate (New York)..................... lb. $1.50 Boron, pure crystals (G...
-Radium And Radio-Activity
The marvels of radium may be said to have been more or less foreshadowed by the discovery of the Roentgen rays. It was immediately determined that the emanations of a Crookes tube were not ethereal un...
-Prices Of French Radium, July, 1904
Form. Activity. Price per Gramme. Price per Ounce. Price per Milligram. Dollars Dollars ...
-Melting Points Of Chemical Elements
The melting points of chemical elements are, in many cases, somewhat uncertain, owing to the different results obtained by different observers. This table gives the probable average value. ...
-Boiling Points Of Chemical Elements
Substance. Boiling Point, Degrees C. Substance. Boiling Point Degrees C. Antimony.................... ...
-Heat Of Combustion
Heat of combustion of some common organic compounds. Products of combustion, Co2 or So2 and water, which is assumed to be in a state of vapor. Substance. Therms per Gramme...
-Sizes Of Dry Plates
3X4 inches 4 X5 4X5 4X6 4X6 l| ...
-Sizes In France And Germany
6X 9 cm 9 X12 12 X15 13 X18 12 X20 ...
-Sizes In Italy
9X12 cm 12X16 12X18 13X18 12X20 ...
-Chapter II. Astronomy
The Telescope Telescopes are of two kinds, namely, refracting and reflecting telescopes. The refracting telescope consists of an object-glass which forms an image of the object, and an eye-glass by...
-Astronomy. Part 2
Verniers Verniers are divided scales, with their divisions a little smaller than those on the main scale to which they are attached. If a length equal to nine divisions of the main scale be divided...
-Astronomy. Part 3
Revolution Of The Earth In Its Orbit The stars which are seen nearest to the sun after sunset at different times of the year are not the same, but belong to different signs of the zodiac. This chan...
-Astronomy. Part 4
The Seasons The seasons are the result of the revolution of the earth in its orbit and the inclination of the ecliptic to the equator. The sun on this account attains different heights above the ho...
-To Find The Time Of Sunrise And Sunset By Means Of The Terrestrial Globe
The time of sunrise or sunset may be found for any day by elevating the north or south pole equal to the sun's declination north or south for any given day. The place being under the brass meridian, t...
-Some Elements Of The Planetary System
Name. Mean Distance from Earth in Millions of Miles. Sidereal Period of Revolution Round Sun Time of Axial Rotation. Real Di...
-The Solar System
Mean distance from sun in miles. Mean diameter in miles. Satellites. Sun.................................. 860,000 ...
-Greek Alphabet
The different stars of the several constellations are usually indicated by the letters of the Greek alphabet. For convenience of reference, the alphabet is here given. A a ...
-Names Of The Principal Stars
The following table exhibits the names of all the Stars of the First Three Magnitudes to which Astronomers have given names, at least all those whose names are in common use- ...
-Magnitudes And Distances Of Some Of The Stars
Polaris (alpha ursAE minoris), the north Star The parallax is 0.075 + 0.015, according to Pritchard (1888). This parallax represents 2,318,000 times the distance of the Earth from the Sun, or, in...
-Directions For Using The Star Map
Traced in dot and dash lines on the accompanying star map are a series of ellipses. From the points where these ellipses come nearest to the edge of the map, arrows project radially to the names of th...
-Star Map Of The Heavens
Stars of the first magnitude are indicated by an eight-point star, those of the second magnitude by a six-point star, third magnitude stars by five-point stars, fourth magnitude stars by four-point st...
-Star Map Of The Heavens. Part 2
April The Great Bear, Ursa Major, is now nearing the point overhead, the Pointers, aiming almost directly downward toward the Pole Star. Cepheus lies north, low down; Cassiopeia on his left. Pe...
-Star Map Of The Heavens. Part 3
August The Great Bear, Ursa Major, is now in the northwest, his paws near the horizon. The Dragon, Draco, curves round from between the Pointers and the Pole, above the Little Bear toward the east,...
-The Large Refractors Of The World
Institution. Aperture in Inches. Focal Length in Feet. Date of Erection. Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, U. S. A......................
-Linear Measure
3 barleycorns, or............ 1 inch (in.) 12 lines, or.............. 72 points, or..........
-Land Measure (Linear)
7.92 inches...................... 1 link 100 links, or............. 1 chain (ch.) 66 ...
-Land Measure (Square)
144 sq. inches. .. 1 square foot (sq. ft.) 9 square feet.. 1 square yard (sq. yd.) 30...
-Cubic Measure
1,728 cubic inches...... 1 cubic foot 27 cubic feet............. 1 cubic or solid yard * T...
-Geographical And Nautical Measure
6086.44 feet, or.......... = 1 nautical mile or knot 1000 fathoms, or. 10 cables, or.....
-Dry Measure, U. S
Cu. In. 2 pints........... 1 quart (qt.) = 67.20 4 quarts.......... 1 gallon (g...
-Liquid Measure, U. S
Cu. In. 4 gills......... 1 pint (O.) = 28.875 2 ...
-Old Wine And Spirit Measure
Imperial Gals. 4 gills or quarterns.. 1 pint 2 pints......... ...
-Foreign Weights And Measures
The following table embraces only such weights and measures as are given from time to time in Consular Reports and in Commercial Relations: Foreign weights and measures, with American equivalents. ...
-Decimal System - Weights And Measures
A meter is one ten-millionth of the distance from the equator to the North Pole. South Pole The metric system, formed on the meter as the unit of length, has four other leading units, all co...
-Approximate Equivalents Of The French (Metric) And English Measures
1 yard..................... 1/1 1/2 meter. 11 meters............................. 12 yards. To convert meters into yards...........
-Metric Measures
Measures. Metric to Customary. Customary to Metric. Lengths................................................ 1 Millimeter ...
-French And English Compound Equivalents
1 kilogram per linear meter........................ .672 pound per linear foot. 2.016 pounds per yard. 1,000 kilograms (1 ton) per meter......
-Surfaces
Parallelogram Area equals base multiplied by height. Triangle Base and height given. Multiply base by height and divide by two. When three sides are given. From the half sum of the three s...
-Circular Measure
Diameter of a Circle X 3.1416 gives Circumference. Diameter Squared X .7854 gives Area of Circle. Diameter Squared X 3.1416 gives Surface of Sphere. Diameter Cubed X .5236 gives Solidity of S...
-Angular Measure
There is perfect unanimity as to the standard angle (i.e., the right angle) and practical unanimity as to its subdivision, for the subdivision into grades, etc., once favored by the French, is now aba...
-Time
The unit of time measurement is the same among all nations. Practically it is 1/86400 of the mean solar day, but really it is a perfectly arbitrary unit, as the length of the mean solar day is not con...
-Table Of Decimal Equivalents Of Fractions Of An Inch
-Weights And Measures Of The Bible
Weights Avoirdupois. Troy. Lbs. Oz. Drs. Lbs. Oz. . Dwt. ...
-Jewish Money. With Its Value In English And American Money
The American Dollar Being Taken As Equal To 4s. 2d Jewish. English. American. s. d. ...
-Roman Money
Roman. English. American. d. Cents. A farthing, quadrans (Matt. v. 26) = nearly...............
-Time And Watch On Board Ship
Watch For purposes of discipline, and to divide the work fairly, the crew is mustered in two divisions: the Starboard (right side, looking forward) and the Port (left). The day commences at noon, a...
-Stones: Specific Gravity, Weight And Volume
Stones. Specific. Gravity. Weight of one Cubic Foot. Cubic Feet per Ton. Water = 1. Pounds. Cubic...
-Mineral Substances, Various: Specific Gravity, Weight, And Volume
Substances. Specific Gravity. Weight of One Cubic Foot. Cubic Feet per Ton Water = 1. Pounds. ...
-Fuels, Etc.: Specific Gravity, Weight, And Bulk
Fuels. Specific Gravity. Weight of One Cubic Foot. Volume of One Ton, Heaped. Solid. Heaped. Coals. ...
-Woods : Specific Gravity And Weight
Wood. Specific Gravity. Weight of One Cubic Foot. Water = 1. Pounds. Ash..................................
-Animal Substances: Specific Gravity And Weight. (Claudel.)
Substance. Specific Gravity. Weight of One Cu. Ft. Water = 1. Pounds. Pearls............................ ...
-Liquids: Specific Gravity And Weight
Liquids at 32 F. Specific Gravity. Weight of One Cubic Foot. Weight of One Gallon. Water = 1. Pounds. ...
-Gases And Vapors: Specific Gravity, Weight, And Volume
Gases at 32 F., and under one Atmosphere of Pressure. Specific Gravity. Weight of One Cubic Foot. Volume of One Pound Weight. ...
-Weight And Volume Of Bodies. (Tod.)
Bodies. Weight of One Cubic Foot. Weight of One Cubic Inch. Cubic Inches in One Pound. Metals. Oz. Lb. ...
-Specific Gravity
Tables showing a comparison of the degrees of Baume, Cartier, and Beck's Areometers, with specific gravity degrees. For Liquids Lighter than Water. Degrees of Baume, Cartier, ...
-Units Of Log Measure
In the United States and Canada logs are most commonly measured in board feet. Firewood and wood cut into short bolts, such as small pulpwood, excelsior wood, etc., are usually measured in cords. In t...
-Board Measure
The unit of board measure is the board foot, which is the contents of a board 1 foot square and 1 inch thick. The number of board feet which can be sawed from logs of different diameters and lengths i...
-Cord Measure
Firewood, small pulpwood, and material cut into short sticks for excelsior, etc., is usually measured by the cord. A cord is 128 cubic feet of stacked wood. The wood is usually cut into 4-foot lengths...
-Conversion Of Cord Measure Into Cubic Measure
Dealers in wood frequently wish to convert cord measure into cubic measure, and vice versa. The converting factor used depends primarily on the form of the wood. If the wood is split, there is more so...
-Conversion Of Cubic Measure Into Board Measure
The ratio between the number of board feet and cubic feet in logs depends on the species of tree, on the size of the logs, and on the method of scaling. The ratio for standing trees depends, further, ...
-Measurement Of Sawed Lumber-Board Measure
The superficial measure of inch boards is obtained by multiplying the width in inches by the length in feet and dividing by 12. Tables showing the contents of boards of different widths and lengths ar...
-Heat - Its Mechanical Equivalent
Heat is a peculiar motion of the particles of matter which prevents their contact. Heat and mechanical power are convertible forms of energy. The energy of the heat that raises one pound of water 1&de...
-Steam Pressure And Temperature
Pressure in Lbs. per Sq. In. Corresponding Temperature, Fahrenheit. Pressure in Lbs. per Sq. In. Corresponding Temperature, Fahrenheit. ...
-Table Of Temperature
Degree of Fahr. 2,786.......... Cast iron melts (Daniell). 1,996.......... Copper melts (Daniell). 1,...
-Linear Expansion Of Solids At Ordinary Temperatures
Substance. For l Fahr. For 1 Cent. Length = 1. Length = 1. Aluminium (cast)... . .000012...
-Expansion Of Liquids
The cubical expansion, or expansion of volume, of water, from 32 F. to 212 F. and upwards, is given in the following Table. The rate of expansion increases with the temperature. The expansio...
-Strength Of Materials. Metals
Name of Metal. Tensile Strength in Pounds per Sq. In. Aluminum wire 30,000-40,000 Brass wire, hard drawn 50,000-15...
-Stones And Bricks
Name of Substance. Resistance to Crushing in Pounds per Sq. In. Basalt.................... 18,000-27,000 Brick, soft......
-Timber
Name of Wood Tensile Strength in Pounds per Sq. In. Resistance to Crushing in Pounds per Sq. In. Ash......... 11,000-21,0...
-Water
1 U. S. gallon equals 231 cubic inches; .1337 cubic foot; 8.333 pounds of water at 62 F.; 3.786 liters. 1 cubic inch of water at 62 F. equals .03608 pound; .5773 ounce; 252.6 grains; .004...
-Air
1 cubic foot, at 14.7 lbs. per square inch, or 1 atmosphere, equals .080728 lb. at 32 F.; 1.29 ounce at 32 F.; 565.1 grains at 32 F.; .076097 lb. at 62 F.; 1.217 ounce at 62 F...
-Strength Of Ice
Ice 2 in. thick will bear infantry. Ice 4 in. thick will bear cavalry or light guns. Ice 6 in. thick will bear heavy field guns. Ice 8 in. thick will bear 24-pounder guns on sledges; weight n...
-Weight Of Balls
W = D3 + 00 / C ; When D = diameter of ball in inches; W = weight of ball in lbs.; C= aconstant = 733 for cast iron; = 464 for lead; = 595 for copper; = 635 for brass, or, W = D3 X C; ...
-Pipes
Usual inclination of pipes. 1 in. in 12 ft. = minimum fall for house drains; 1 16 ...
-Animal Power - Horse. A Horse Walking In A Circle At A Speed Of 176 Feet Per Minute Will Raise With A Common Deep-Well Pump
4h. per day 1,653 gals. per min.; 1ft. high. 5 1,480 ...
-Manual Power
Duration of work = l day of 8 to 10 hours. Description of Work Mean Effect in Lbs. Velocity in Feet per Minute. Lbs. Raised 1 Foot High per Minute...
-Windmills
To find the horse-power of a wind-engine. HP = A X V2 / 1,100,000 When HP = effective horse-power; A = area of sails in square feet; V = velocity of the wind in feet per second. To find the area...
-Force Of Wind When Blowing Perpendicularly Upon A Surface Of One Square Foot
Velocity of Wind. Perpendicular Force on One Square Foot in Lbs. Description. Miles per Hour. Feet per Minute. Feet per...
-Metals: Weights For Various Dimensions
Metal. Specific Weight. Weight of One Cubic Foot. Weight of One Square Foot. Weight of One Linear Foot 1 In. Sq. Weight of One ...
-Proportionate Weight Of Casting To Weight Of Wood Pattern
A Pattern Weighing One Pound, Made of (less weight of core prints) Cast Iron. Brass. Copper. Bronze. Bell Metal. Zin...
-Pulling Strength Of Men And Animals. Compiled From A Test Made By Barnum & Bailey's Circus
Number. Description. Weight of Each in Lbs. Total Pull in Lbs. Pull per Unit. Pull per Pound of Weight. ...
-Boiler Tubes
The following table gives the draught area and heating surface of the various-sized boiler tubes and flues: External Diameter. Draught Area in Square Inches. Draug...
-To Obtain Index Of A Lathe
How To Obtain The Index Of An Engine Lathe If you will note what thread the lathe will cut when two given gears are in place, you can easily construct a table that will show you just what thread an...
-United States Standard Gauge. For Sheet And Plate Iron And Steel
Number of Gauge. Thickness. Weight. Number of Gauge. Approximate Thickness in Fractions of an Inch. Approximate Thic...
-Electrical Engineering
Units Of Measurement The three most commonly used units are: I. The unit of current, called the Ampere; II. The unit of potential, called the Volt; III. The unit of resistance, called the Ohm. ...
-C.G.S. Electrical Standards
The Ohm is represented by the resistance offered by a column of mercury - at the temperature of melting ice - 14.4521 grams in mass, of a constant cross-sectional area, and of a length of 106.3 centim...
-The Electro-Magnetic System Of Electric Units
Unit Of Current That current which, flowing in a conductor 1 centimeter long, and of 1 centimeter radius, produces at the center of the arc a magnetic field of unit strength. This unit is ten ti...
-Units Of Force, Pressure, Work, Power
Force 1 dyne = that force which acting on 1 gramme for 1 second gives it a velocity of 1 centimeter per second (being absolute unit of force in the C.G.S. system, independent of local variations of...
-Resistance
Conductors Nearly all substances as they occur in nature conduct electricity - i.e., if the substance is joined to a source of electrical energy, a magnetic field is created around it. Roughly, thr...
-Resistance Of Metals And Alloys (Chemically Pure) At 32° F. In Standard Ohms
Metal. (p) Specific Resistance Cubic Centimeter Microhms. Resistance per Relative Resistance. Foot, 1/1000 Inch Diameter. Met...
-Approximate Percentage Variation In Resistance At About 20° C. (68° F.)
Metal or Alloy. (a) Per 1 C. (a) Per 1 F. Platinum Silver (1 pt. Platinum to 2 pts. Silver), hard or annealed.........................
-Heat And Electrical Conductivity
Substances. Heat Conductivity. Electrical Conductivity. Silver....... 100.0 100.0 Copper........ ...
-Resistance And Weight Table
American Gauge For Cotton And Silk-Covered And Bare Copper Wire The resistances are calculated for pure copper wire. The number of feet to the pound is only approximate for insulated wire. ...
-Weight In Pounds Per Mile Of Copper Wire
Number. Roebling. Birmingham. Brown & Sharpe. English Legal Standard. 0000 2,466 3,286 ...
-Wire Gauges, In Decimal Parts Of An Inch
Number of Wire Gauge. Roebling. Brown & Sharpe. Birmingham or Stubs. English Legal Standard. Old English, or London. ...
-Table Indicating Size, Weight, And Length Of Iron And Steel Wire
Gauge Numbers. Diameter, Ins. Wight of 100 Feet. Lbs. Wight of One Mile, Lbs. Feet in 2000 Lbs. Area, Square Ins...
-Electrical Horse-Power
Calculated from E X C / 746. Current in Amperes. E.M.F. in Volts. 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 ...
-Composition And Electromotive Force Of Battery Cells
Name. Electrodes. Solutions. E.M.F. Clark. Pure mercury and pure zinc. The mercury is covered with a paste of merc...
-Standard Table Of Height And Weight
Height. Weight. Maximum. Standard. Minimum. 4 feet 10 inches...........................
-The American Experience Table Of Mortality
Age. Expectation of Life in Years. Number Dying in Each 1,000. Age. Expectation of Life in Years. Number Dying in E...
-The Amount Of One Dollar At Compound Interest
End of Year. 3 Per Cent. 3 Per Cent. 4 Per Cent. 4 Per Cent. 5 Per Cent. 6 Per Cent. 7 Per Cent. ...
-Roman Notation
1 = I. 2 = II. 3 = III. 4 = IV. 5 = V. ...
-To the Users of this Book
How did you come to know, what you do know, about the many wonderful things mentioned in this book? You likely did not see them occur; you likely did not hear them described, but you most likely sa...
-Books and Periodicals
Send for Catalogue, 200 Illustrations, stating fully what is desired. The Most Popular Scientific Paper in the World Established 1845. Weekly, $3.00 a Year; $1.50 Six Months. This unr...
-Books and Periodicals. Part 2
Home Mechanics for Amateurs It is by far the largest and best book on the subject ever offered at such a low price. It tells how to make things the right way - the only way - at small exp...
-Books and Periodicals. Part 3
Railway Standard for Fifty Years Made Only BY Coes Wrench CO., Worcester, Mass. I. C. Mccarty & co. John H. Graham &, CO. New York Agents Suplee's Mechanical Engineering 3 ...
-Funnels And House Flags Of Some Principal Steamship Lines In American Trade
American Line. (American.) Red Star. (British-Belgian.) Cunard. (British.) North German Lloyd (German.) Compagnie Generale Trans-atlantique. (French.) New York a...
-Flags of Countries
Flag Of The President. U.S.Flag. U.S. Union Jack Revenue Flag. Belgium. Brazil Chile. Crete. Cuba Ecuador. France. Aust...









TOP
no previous pagepage up: Scientific American Journal
  
next page: Scientific American Vol II. No. 1. September 26, 1846