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The Herb Hunters Guide | by A. F. Sievers



Among the wild plants of the United States are many that have long been used in the practice of medicine, some only locally and to a minor extent, but others in sufficient quantity to make them commercially important. To persons without botanical training it is difficult to describe plants in sufficient detail to make identification possible unless such descriptions are accompanied by illustrations. It is the purpose of this publication to assist those interested in collecting medicinal plants to identify such plants and to furnish other useful information in connection with the work

TitleThe Herb Hunters Guide
AuthorA. F. Sievers
PublisherUnited States Department Of Agriculture
Year1930
CopyrightUSDA
AmazonHerb Hunters Guide

The Herb Hunters Guide

American Medicinal Plants Of Commercial Importance

Description Of, And Information Concerning, The Plants

Note: This publication is largely compiled from and supersedes the following publications on medicinal plants by the late Alice Henkel, published from 1904 to 1913: Farmers' Bulletin No. 188, Weeds Used in Medicine, Bureau of Plant Industry Bulletins No. 107, American Root Drugs; No. 139, American Medicinal Barks, and No. 219, American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs; Department Bulletin No. 26, American Medicinal Flowers, Fruits, and Seeds. Some of the plants included in these various publications have been eliminated because they appear to be of minor importance at the present time, while 20 others have been added. For the most part the illustrations used are the same as those given in Miss Henkel's bulletins. Others, not included in those publications, have been made from herbarium specimens lent by the U.S. National Herbarium and from negatives furnished by various offices of the Bureau of Plant Industry. Frederick V. Coville, Sidney F. Blake, and O.M. Freeman, of the offices of Botany of this bureau, have cooperated in the preparation of this bulletin by a critical reading of the manuscript with special reference to the botanical and principal common names, the habitat and range of the plants, and their descriptions.

-Preface
-Introduction
-Collection And Preparation Of Material
-Aletris. Aletris farinosa L.
This plant is an erect slender herb 1 1/2, to 3 foot tall with leaves only at the base. These are grasslike, of a yellowish green color, and from 2 to 6 inches long. They surround the base of the ...
-American Bittersweet. Celastrus scandens L.
American bittersweet is a woody and shrubby climber, growing over trees or fences. It has smooth thin leaves 2 to 4 inches long and about half as wide. The small greenish-white or greenish-yellow ...
-American Cranberrybush. Viburnum trilobum Marsh.
The American cranberrybush grows from 8 to 10 feet high with branches generally erect and smooth. The 3-lobed, broadly oval, coarsely toothed leaves are usually smooth on the upper surface, but ...
-American Elder. Sambucus canadensis L.
Elder is a shrub attaining a height of 6 to 10 feet, its light gray, numerous stems being generally smooth and the younger ones containing a large white pith. The leaves are large and consist of 5 ...
-American False-Hellebore. Veratrum viride Ait.
The large bright-green leaves of this plant make their way through the ground early in spring, followed later in the season by a stout, erect leafy stem, sometimes growing as tall as 6 feet. It is ...
-American Linden. Tilia americana L.
This native forest tree is found in rich woods, especially along the mountains, from Canada to Georgia and west to Texas and Nebraska....
-American Mountain-Ash. Sorbus americana Marsh.
The American mountain-ash occurs in swamps, low woods, or moist ground from Newfoundland south along the mountains to North Carolina and to Michigan. It is most abundant in the northern portion of ...
-American Pennyroyal. Hedeoma pulegioides (L.) Pers.
This strongly aromatic herb is of rather insignificant appearance, being a low-growing plant from 6 inches to a foot in height with a slender erect much-branched, somewhat hairy and square stem. ...
-Arborvitae. Thuja occidentalis L.
This evergreen tree, which reaches a height of 70 feet and a trunk diameter of 5 feet, needs no special description, as few people within its range are unfamiliar with its flat scalelike leaves ...
-Balm. Melissa officinalis L.
This plant is 1 to 2 1/2 feet high, its covered with fine hair, and has a rather stout, erect, or much-branched stem. The round-toothed, egg-shaped or heart-shaped leaves are from 1 to 2 1/2 ...
-Balm-Of-Gilead Poplar. Populus candicans Ait.
This is a large tree reaching a height of 100 feet with a maximum trunk diameter of about 6 1/2 feet with spreading branches, the young twigs slightly hairy, and with very resinous, fragrant buds. ...
-Bamboo Greenbrier. Smilax pseudo-china L.
Bamboo greenbrier is a smooth vine with a tuberous rootstock and with the lower part of the stem smooth or sometimes beset with straight, needle-shaped prickles. The leaves, 2 1/2 to 5 1/2 inches ...
-Bayberry. Myrica cerifera L.; M. carolinensis Mill.
The southern waxmyrtle is a shrub or slender tree up to 40 feet high. The leaves are from 1 to 4 inches long, narrow, wedge-shaped, entire or with a few teeth, and have a fragrant odor when ...
-Bearberry. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.
The bearberry is a low, much-branched shrub trailing over the ground and having numerous leathery evergreen leaves about 1 inch in length. The waxy flowers, which appear in May, are few and are ...
-Bitter Nightshade. Solanum dulcamara L.
Bitter nightshade has a climbing, somewhat woody, branched stem about 2 to 8 feet long. The leaves are from 2 to 4 inches long, some entire and others having one to three lobes at the base. The ...
-Black Cherry. Prunus serotina Ehrh.
The black cherry occurs in woods or open places and is most abundant in the Southeastern States, but its range extends from Nova Scotia to Florida, westward to Texas, and north through Oklahoma, ...
-Blackhaw. Viburnum prunifolium L.
This shrub or small tree, from 10 to about 20 feet in height, has rather stout, spreading branches. The smooth bright-green, finely toothed, broadly or roundish oval leaves are 1 to 3 inches long. ...
-Black Mustard. Brassica nigra (L.) Koeh.
Black mustard was introduced from Europe and is a common weed in cultivated ground and waste places almost throughout the United States, being especially troublesome in grainfields and pastures. ...
-Black Willow. Salix nigra Marsh.
This willow is a tree attaining a height of 120 feet and a trunk diameter of 3 feet, with narrow lance-shaped leaves 2 1/2 to 5 inches long and up to three-quarters of an inch wide, finely toothed ...
-Blessed Thistle. Cnicus benedictus L.
The blessed thistle is a weed which is found sparingly in waste places and stony, uncultivated localities from Nova Scotia to Maryland and the Southern States, also on the Pacific coast....
-Bloodroot. Sanguinaria canadensis L.
This is one of our earliest spring flowers, the waxy white blossom, enfolded by the grayish-green leaf, usually making its appearance early in April. A single leaf and flower stalk are produced ...
-Blue Cohosh. Caulophyllum thalictroides (L.) Michx.
Blue cohosh is from 1 to 3 feet in height and hears at the top one large almost stemless leaf which is divided into three divisions, each of which is again divided into three divisions consisting ...
-Blueflag Iris. Iris versicolor L.
This well-known plant is from 2 to 3 feet hl height With an erect stem, sometimes branched near the top, and sword-shaped leaves, shorter than the stem, from one-half to 1 inch in width and ...
-Blue Vervain. Verbena hastata L.
-Bogbean. Menyantheas trifoliata L.
This herb arises from a long, black, creeping, scaly rootstock, the leaves being produced from the end of the same on erect stems measuring about 2 to 10 inches in height. The leaves consist of ...
-Boneset. Eupatorium perfoliatum L.
Boneset is a common weed in low, wet ground, along streams, on the edges of swamps, and in thickets from Canada to Florida and west to Texas and Nebraska....
-Bugleweed. Lycopus virginicus L.
This herb has long, threadlike runners and a bluntly 4-angled, smooth, slender, erect stem from 6 inches to 2 feet in height. The leaves are about 2 inches in length, pointed, rather narrow, and ...
-Burdock. Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh.
Burdock, one of our most common weeds, was introduced from the Old World. It grows along roadsides and in fields, pastures, and waste places, being very abundant in the Eastern and Central States ...
-Butterfly Weed. Asclepias tuberosa L.
This is an erect showy plant from 1 to 2 feet high. The stems are stout and hairy, sometimes branched near the top and bearing many lance-shaped, rather rough leaves from 2 to 6 inches long. The ...
-Butternut. Juglans cinerea L.
The butternut tree is usually from 30 to 50 feet in height and when old has a thick, rough, brownish gray, furrowed hark. The twigs, deaf stems, and leaflets, especially in the early stages of ...
-Button-Snakeroot. Eryngium aquaticum L.
Although sometimes occurring on dry land, button-snakeroot usually inhabits swamps and low, wet ground from Connecticut and the pine barrens of New Jersey to Illinois and South Dakota and south to ...
-Canada Wildginger. Asarum canadense L.
Canada wildginger, better known perhaps as Canada snakeroot, is a small plant, apparently stemless, and not more than 6 to 12 inches in height. It usually has but two leaves, which are borne on ...
-Carolina-Jessamine. Gelsemium sempervirens (L.) Ait. f.
This highly ornamental climbing or trailing plant grows abundantly in the woods of the Southern States, its slender stems are festooned over trees and fences, and its presence is made known by the ...
-Carolina-Vanilla. Trilisa odoratissima (Walt.) Cass.
Carolina-vanilla is found in dry or wet pine barrens from southeastern Virginia to North Carolina, Florida, and Louisiana....
-Cascara Buckthorn. Rhamnus purshiana DC.
The cascara tree is usually from 15 to 20 feet in height. The rather thin leaves are from 2 to 6 inches long and about 1 to 3 inches wide, somewhat hairy on the lower surface and rather ...
-Catnip. Nepeta cataria L.
Catnip has a somewhat whitish appearance due to the fine white hairs on the stems. It grows to a height of from 2 to 3 feet with erect, square, branched stems. The leaves, from 1 to 2 1/2 inches ...
-Celandine. Chelidonium majus L.
This erect, branched, sparingly hairy herb is from 1 to 2 feet in height, with thin leaves 4 to 8 inches in length, which have a grayish-green appearance and are deeply and variously cleft. The ...
-Chamaelirium. Chamaelirium luteum (L.) A. Gray.
Chamaelirium is an erect, fleshy herb. The male and female flowers are borne on separate plants. The male plants grow to a height of 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 feet, while the female plant is sometimes 4 ...
-Citronella Horsebalm. Collinsonia canadensis L.
This plant is a tall herb growing as high as 5 feet with a stout, erect, branched stem, smooth or the upper part hairy. The leaves are from 3 to 8 inches long, pointed, sometimes heart-shaped at ...
-Cohosh Bugbane. Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt.
Cohosh bugbane, more commonly, but incorrectly, known in the trade as black cohosh and black snakeroot, is a conspicuous woodland plant on account of its tall flowering spikes. The tall rather ...
-Coltsfoot. Tussilago farfara L.
The white woolly, scaly flowering stalks of this plant with their yellow blossoms appear in the spring before the leaves. There are several stalks, from 3 to 18 inches in height, arising directly ...
-Comfrey. Symphytum officinale L.
This coarse, hairy herb is from 2 to 3 feet high, erect and branched with thick, rough leaves. The lower leaves are 3 to 10 inches long, the upper ones smaller, lance shaped, and stemless. The ...
-Common Juniper. Juniperus communis L.
Juniper is an evergreen shrub sometimes attaining the height of a small tree, with erect trunk and spreading branches, covered with a shreddy bark. The leaves are straight and rigid, awl-shaped, ...
-Common Winterberry. Ilex verticillata (L.) A. Gray.
This native shrub is found in swamps, moist woods, and along banks of streams in Canada and the eastern United States, and westward to Wisconsin and Missouri....
-Culvers-Physic. Veronica virginica L.
This common native herb is found abundantly in moist rich woods, mountain valleys, meadows, and thickets from Nova Scotia to British Columbia and south to Alabama, Missouri, and Nebraska....
-Dandelion. Leontodon taraxacum L.
With the exception, possibly, of a few localities in the south, the dandelion is at home almost everywhere in the United States, being a familiar weed in meadows and waste places, and especially ...
-Echinacea. Echinacea angustifolia DC.
Echinacea is found in scattered patches in rich prairie soil or sandy soil from Alabama to Texas and northwestward, being most abundant in Kansas and Nebraska....
-Elecampane. Inula helenium L.
Elecampane is a rough plant growing from 3 to 6 feet in height and bearing some resemblance to the sunflower. In its first year it produces only root leaves which acquire considerable size, but in ...
-Figwort. Scrophularia marilandica L.
This plant, often galled Maryland figwort, is found in woodlands from Maine to Kansas and south to Georgia and Tennessee....
-Flowering Dogwood. Cornus florida L.
The dogwood sometimes grows to a height of 40 feet, but more frequently is a shrub. In the early spring the naked, leafless branches support numerous large, showy white flowers, so-called. The ...
-Foxglove. Digitalis purpurea L.
During the first year of its growth the foxglove produces only a dense rosette of leaves, but in the second season it produces a tall, leafy flowering stalk from 3 to 4 feet high. The leaves, ...
-Fragrant Goldenrod. Solidago suaveolens Schoepf.
The fragrant goldenrod is found in dry, sandy soil or pinelands from Nova Scotia south to Florida and west to Arkansas and Texas....
-Fringetree. Chionanthus virginica L.
The fringetree is from 6 to 20 feet in height, with the trunk covered with a light-colored bark. It has smooth entire leaves. The white flowers, which from their drooping character give a ...
-Ginseng. Panax quinquefolium L.
Ginseng is an erect plant growing from 8 to 15 inches high and hearing three leaves at the summit, each leaf consisting of five thin, stalked leaflets. The three upper leaflets are larger than the ...
-Golden Groundsel. Senecio aureus L.
This plant is a smooth herb with rather slender, solitary or tufted stems one-half to 2 1/2 feet high. The basal leaves, which are 1 to 6 inches long, are heart-shaped or kidney-shaped with long ...
-Goldenseal. Hydrastis canadensis L.
Goldenseal has a thick, yellow rootstock which sends up an erect hairy stem about 1 foot in height which branches near the top, one branch bearing a large leaf and another a smaller leaf and a ...
-Goldthread. Coptis trifolia (L.) Salisb.
This plant, which in its general appearance somewhat resembles the strawberry plant, is of low growth, being only 3 to 6 inches in height. Its shiny, evergreen leaves, which are divided into three ...
-Ground-Ivy. Nepeta hederacea (L.) Trev.
Ground-ivy is found in dams and shady places, especially in thickets, from Newfoundland and Ontario to Georgia, Tennessee, Kansas, and Colorado....
-Gum Plant. Grindelia robusta Nutt.; (2) G. squarrosa (Pursh) Dunal.
The name gum plant is applied especially to Grindelia robusta on account of the fact that the entire plant is covered with a resinous substance, giving it a gummy, varnished ...
-Hazel Alder. Alnus rugosa (DuRoi) Spreng.
Hazel alder is found in swamps and along the marshy banks of streams from New England south to Florida and Texas and westward to Ohio and Minnesota....
-Hemlock. Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.
The hemlock tree is found in forests from Ontario south to Virginia and Alabama and west to Michigan and Wisconsin. ...
-Hemp Dogbane. Apocynum cannabinum L.
Hemp dogbane is from 2 to 4 feet high, with erect branches and sharp-pointed, short-stalked leaves from 2 to 6 inches long. The small greenish white flowers which appear from June to August are ...
-Hoarhound. Marrubium vulgare L.
This is a bushy, branching herb with a pleasant aromatic odor and a whitish, woolly appearance, due to the hairs which thickly cover the entire plant It grows from 1 to 3 feet high, with many ...
-Hophornbeam. Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch.
This slender tree sometimes attains a height of 50 feet in the western portion of its range, but farther eastward it usually grows only 15 to 20 feet high. The bark is finely furrowed in short ...
-Hoptree. Ptelea trifoliata L.
The hoptree is a shrub usually from 6 to 8 feet, sometimes 20 feet, in height, with leaves consisting of three dark green, shining leaflets 2 to 6 inches long. The leaves are glandular dotted and ...
-Horsechestnut. Aesculus hippocastanum L.
The horsechestnut is a rather large tree, usually reaching 40 feet or more in height. The large leaves are composed of five to seven leaflets from 4 to 8 inches long, pointed, and broader at the ...
-Horse Nettle. Solanum carolinense L.
This plant is easily recognized in late summer and fall by its round, smooth, orange-yellow berries about one-half to three-fourths of an inch in diameter which are borne in small drooping ...
-Horseweed. Erigeron canadensis L.
Horseweed is common in fields and waste places and along roadsides throughout almost all of North America....
-Jack-In-The-Pulpit. Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott.
Jack-in-the-pulpit inhabits moist woods from Canada to Florida and westward to Kansas and Minnesota....
-Jimson Weed. Datura stramonium L.
Jimson weed is an ill-smelling, poisonous plant with stout, much-branched, leafy stems from 2 to 5 feet high. The large, smooth, thin, wavy, toothed leaves are from 3 to 8 inches long. The flowers,...
-Ladyslipper. (1) Cypripedium pubescens Willd.; (2) C. parviflorum Salisb.
These plants are readily recognized by the peculiar shape of their flowers. These appear in May and June, are very showy, and have a curiously formed lip which resembles an inflated bag, pale or ...
-Leather Woodfern. (1) Dryopteris marginalis (L.) A. Gray; (2) D. filixmas (L.) Schott.
-Liverleaf. (1) Hepatica americana Ker.; (2) H. acutiloba DC.
The hepaticas are among the earliest of our spring flowers, blossoming about March and frequently sooner. They grow only about 4 to 6 inches in height, with leaves produced from the rootstocks on ...
-Lobelia. Lobelia inflata L.
Lobelia is a poisonous plant with a milky juice. Its stem, which has but few branches, is smooth above while the lower part is rough and hairy. The lower leaves, which are about 2 inches in length,...
-Mad-Dog Skullcap. Scutellaria lateriflora L.
This plant is smooth or with very fine hair on the upper parts with slender, erect or declining, widely branching stems from one-third to 2 1/2 feet high. The thin, slender-stemmed leaves are ...
-Mayapple. Podophyllum peltatum L.
A patch of mayapple is easily distinguished from afar by the smooth, dark-green foliage and the even stand, which makes it conspicuous in the woodland. It is an erect plant about 1 foot in height ...
-Maypop. Passiflora incarnata L.
This plant is a smooth vine with finely hairy stems climbing to a height of 10 to 30 feet. Its smooth or somewhat hairy leaves, 3 to 5 inches broad, consist of three oval or egg-shaped lobes with ...
-Moonseed. Menispermum canadense L.
This woody climber reaches a length of from 6 to 12 feet, the round, rather slender stem bearing very broad slender-stalked leaves which are from 4 to 8 inches wide, roundish in shape, an] ...
-Mullein. Verbascum thapsus L.
This plant is easily recognized by its tall, straight stem, its large felty or flannellike leaves, and its long, dense spike of yellow flowers. During the first year it produces only a rosette of ...
-Narrow Dock. Rumex crispus L.
Narrow dock has a deep spindle-shaped root from which arises an erect, angular, and furrowed stem, attaining a height of from 2 to 4 feet. The stem is branched near the top and is leafy, bearing ...
-Oregon Hollygrape. Berberis aquifolium Prursh.
Oregon hollygrape is a low-growing shrub from 2 to 5 feet in height, resembling the holly of the Eastern States. The leaves are divided like those of an ash; the five to nine leaflets from 2 to 3 ...
-Peppermint. Mentha piperita L.
Peppermint propagates by means of its long, running roots from which are produced smooth, square stems from 1 to 3 feet in height, erect and branching. The leaves are from 1 to 2 inches long, ...
-Pinkroot. Spigelia marilandica L.
Pinkroot is an herb with a simple erect stem from 6 inches to 1 1/2 feet high. The pointed leaves are stemless, from 2 to 4 inches long, and one-half to 2 inches wide. The rather showy flowers are ...
-Pipsissewa. (1) Chimaphila umbellata (L.) Barton; (2) C. maculata (L.) Pursh.
Common pipsissewa is found in dry, shady woods, especially in pine forests, from New Brunswick to British Columbia and south to Georgia, Mexico, and California. Spotted pipsissewa occurs in ...
-Poison Hemlock. Conium maculatum L.
Poison hemlock is a very dangerous weed, the close resemblance of the leaves to those of parsley often causing it to be mistaken for the latter with fatal results, all parts of the plant being ...
-Pokeberry. Phytolacca americana L.
Pokeweed, a common, familiar, native weed, is found in rich, moist soil along fence rows, fields, and uncultivated land from the New England States to Minnesota and south to Florida and Texas....
-Prickly-Ash. (1) Zanthoxylum americanum Mill.; (2) Z. clava-herculis L.
The common, or northern, prickly-ash is common in woods, thickets, and along river banks from Virginia, Missouri, and Kansas northward to Canada, while the southern prickly-ash grows along streams ...
-Prickly Lettuce. Lactuca scariola L.
The prickly lettuce occurs in fields and waste places from Vermont to Georgia and westward to the Pacific coast....
-Purplestem Angelica. Angelica atropurpurea L.
Purplestem angelica is a native herb, common in swamps and damp places from Newfoundland to Delaware and west to Minnesota....
-Purple Trillium. Trillium erectum L.
Purple trillium is a low-growing plant from 8 to 16 inches in height, with a rather stout stem having three leaves arranged in a circle near the top. These are from 3 to 7 inches in length and of ...
-Quack Grass. Agropyron repens (B.) Beauv.
Quack grass is rather coarse, 1 to 3 feet high, and when in flower resembles rye or beardless wheat. Its smooth hollow stems, which are thickened at the joints, are produced from a long, creeping ...
-Sassafras. Sassafras variifolium (Salisb.) Kuntze.
Sassafras is a native tree, growing in rich woods from southern Maine to Ontario, Michigan, and Kansas and south to Florida and Texas....
-Saw Palmetto. Serenoa serrulata (Michx.) Hook. f.
This palm is found in sandy soil from North Carolina and Arkansas to Florida and Texas....
-Seneca-Snakeroot. Polygala senega L.
The root of this plant sends up a number of smooth, slender, erect stems (as many as 15 or 20 or more), sometimes slightly tinged with red, from 6 inches to a foot in height, and generally ...
-Skunkcabbage. Spathyema foetida (L.) Raf.
Swamps and other wet places from Canada to Florida, Iowa, and Minnesota abound with this ill-smelling herb....
-Slippery Elm. Ulmus fulva Michx.
The usual height of the slippery elm is from 40 to 50 feet, with a trunk about 2 1/2 feet in diameter. In open woods and fields it is spreading and irregular in growth, but in dense woods it grows ...
-Smooth Hydrangea. Hydrangea arborescens L.
Hydrangea is a shrub 5 to 6 feet high with weak twigs, slender leaf stems, and thin leaves, the latter 3 to 6 inches long, oval or heart-shaped, and sharply toothed. The flowers, which are small ...
-Smooth Sumac. Rhus glabra L.
Although sometimes attaining the height of a small tree, the smooth sumac is more frequently found as a rather handsome shrub 2 to 12 feet high, with smooth, brownish-gray trunk and branches. Its ...
-Snakeroot. (1) Aristolochia serpentaria L.; (2) A. reticulata Nutt.
This plant is nearly erect, the slender, wavy stem sparingly branched near the base growing usually to about a foot in height sometimes, however, even reaching 3 feet. It has thin leaves, heart-...
-Sourwood. Oxydendrum arboreum (L.) DC.
This is a smooth-barked tree reaching a maximum height of 60 feet with a trunk 15 inches in diameter. The pointed oblong or elliptic, finely and sharply toothed leaves are from 4 to 6 inches long ...
-Spearmint. Mentha spicata L.
Like peppermint, the spearmint has also been naturalized from Europe and may be found in moist fields and waste places from Nova Scotia to Utah and south to Florida. It is also cultivated to some ...
-Sweet Birch. Betula lenta L.
The sweet-birch tree attains a height of from 50 to 80 feet. The bark of the younger branches is a shiny, reddish brown, while that of the large trunks is very thick and rough. The bark and leaves ...
-Sweet Cudweed. Gnaphalium obtusifolium L.
This plant grows in dry, mostly open places from Nova Scotia to Manitoba and south to Florida, Kansas, and Texas....
-Sweetfern. Comptonia peregrina (L.) Coulter.
Sweetfern is usually found on hillsides, in dry soil, from Canada to North Carolina and west to Indiana and Saskatchewan....
-Sweetflag. Acorus calamus L.
The swordlike leaves of the sweetflag resemble those of other flags so much that the plant is difficult to distinguish except when it is in flower. There are reports of children having been ...
-Tamarack. Larix laricina (DuRoi) K. Koch.
This tree frequents swamps and moist places from Canada south to New Jersey, Indiana, and Minnesota....
-Tansy. Tanacetum vulgare L.
Tansy is a strong-scented herb with finely divided, fernlike leaves and yellow, buttonlike flowers. It has a stout, somewhat reddish, erect stem, usually smooth, 1 1/2 to 3 feet high, and ...
-Trailing-Arbutus. Epigaea repens L.
This plant, generally referred to in the drug trade as gravel plant but more popularly known as ''trailing-arbutus spreads on the ground with stem 6 or more in length. It has rust-colored, hairy ...
-Turtlehead. Chelone glabra L.
Turtlehead is an erect, slender herb with a 4-angled stem 1 to 4 feet in height and short-stemmed, sharp-toothed leaves from 3 to 6 inches in length. The flower clusters, which are produced in ...
-Twinleaf. Jeffersonia diphylla (L.) Pers.
Twinleaf is only about 6 or 8 inches in height when in flower but reaches a height of 18 inches at the fruiting stage. The long-stemmed, smooth leaves are almost completely divided into two ...
-Upland Cotton. Gossypium hirsutum L.
The bark of the root. The roots are taken up late in the fall but before frost, are washed, and the bark is removed with knives and dried....
-Virginia Strawberry. Fragaria virginiana Duchesne.
The Virginia strawberry is a small, rather stout, dark-green, hairy herb growing from a thick rootstock which sends out long, stout runners. The leaves, consisting of three thick, broadly oval, ...
-Wahoo. Euonymus atropurpureus Jacq.
This shrub or small tree, which is from 6 to 26 feet in height, more often reaching only 10 feet, has an ashy gray bark and rather thin, pointed leaves from 1 1/2 to 5 inches in length and about ...
-White Ash. Fraxinus americana L.
The white ash is native in rich woods, from Nova Scotia to Minnesota, south to Florida and Texas, but chiefly in the Northern States and ...
-White Mustard. Brassica alba (L.) Boiss.
White mustard is a weed found in cultivated fields and waste places, but it is not so abundant nor so widely distributed as the black mustard. It is cultivated on a commercial scale in California....
-White Oak. Quercus alba L.
This tree is usually from 60 to 80 feet high, but in dense woods it sometimes reaches a height of 150 feet. The trunk attains a diameter of 3 to 4 feet with many wide-spreading branches. The ...
-White Pine. Pinus strobus L.
This large, handsome evergreen tree is sometimes 200 feet in height, with horizontal branches. The slender pale-green leaves or needles are borne five in a sheath and are from 2 to 5 inches long. ...
-Wild Geranium. Geranium maculatum L.
This plant, although generally only about a foot in height will sometimes reach a height of 2 feet. It is erect, usually unbranched, and hairy. The leaves, which are 3 to 6 inches wide, are deeply ...
-Wild-Sarsaparilla. Aralia nudicaulis L.
This plant produces a single, long-stalked leaf and flowering stalk from a very short stem. The leafstalk is about 12 inches long and is divided at the top into three parts each bearing about five ...
-Wild Yam. Dioscorea villosa L.
Wild yam grows in moist thickets, trailing over adjacent shrubs and bushes, its range extending from Rhode Island to Minnesota and south to Florida and Texas. It is most common in the central and ...
-Wintergreen. Gaultheria procumbens L.
Wintergreen is an aromatic, evergreen plant with an underground or creeping stem producing erect branches not more than 6 inches in height, the lower part of which is smooth and naked, while near ...
-Witch-Hazel. Hamamelis virginiana L.
Witch-hazel, while it may grow to 25 feet in height, more frequently reaches a height of only 8 to 15 feet. It has a crooked stem and long forking branches with smooth, brown bark. The leaves are ...
-Wormseed. Chenopodium ambrosioides anthelminticum (L.) A. Gray.
Wormseed occurs in waste places from New England to Florida and westward to California....
-Wormwood. Artemisia absinthium L.
This shrubby, aromatic, much-branched plant grows from 2 to 4 feet in height. The growing shoots are silvery white with fine silky hairs; and the grayish-green leaves, which are from 2 to 5 inches ...
-Yarrow. Achillea millefolium L.
This weed is from 10 to 20 inches high and has many finely divided, feathery dark-green leaves. From June to September the plant produces flat-topped panicles consisting of numerous small, white ...
-Yellowroot. Xanthorhiza simplicissima Marsh
Yellowroot grows in woods from southwestern New York to Kentucky and Florida, chiefly in the ...
-Yellow Wild-Indigo. Baptisia tinctoria (L.) R. Br.
Yellow wild-indigo is an erect, much-branched, very leafy plant about 2 to 3 feet in height with cloverlike leaves. The flowers are bright yellow, one-half inch in length, and are produced in ...
-Yerba Santa. Eriodictyon californicum (Hook. and Arn.) Greene.
Yerba santa is common on the Pacific coast along the coastal ranges from central California north to Oregon....









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