178. Hare's-foot Trefoil, Trifolium arvense, Vetch family. On dunes and other sandy ground the Hare's-foot Trefoil is frequently met with: the stem is branched, often creeping, and may reach a length of about 1 ft.: the leaves are compound, with 3 harrow leaflets: the flowers are united in stalked, oval heads, of a light greyish-brown colour: flowers in late summer and autumn.
178. Hare's-foot Trefoil.
179. Cudweed, Gnaphalium sylvaticum, Daisy family. A common, but not very conspicuous, plant of dry fields and pastures, flowering in late summer: the simple stem is usually 6 to 9 ins. high, but varies greatly, and may be much taller or shorter: the small, oval flower-heads are chocolate-brown in colour, and form a spike on the upper half of the stem: the leaves are narrowly lance-shaped. The Marsh Cudweed, a related plant of moist meadows, has a shorter, branched stem and paler flower- heads.
180. Knotted Figwort, Scropkularia nodosa, Foxglove family.
The tall (2 to 4 ft.) stem is markedly square, and bears pairs of large, ovate, serrate leaves; it is thickened at the points where these arise: the flowers are small, roundish, and rich brown and green in colour: common in moist shady places, flowering in summer.
180. Knotted Figwort.
181. Ribwort, Plantago lanceolata, Plantain family. A familiar weed of road-sides and grassy places: from the rosette of long, ribbed, lance-shaped leaves spring several flower-stalks, from 3 ins. to 1 ft. high: each bears a single head of small flowers, which is dark brown or black in colour, except when the flowers are fully open, when it takes on a greyish or yellowish tinge: the Carl-Doddie of Scottish chil-dren,fromits use in an ancientwar-game of Charles against George: flowers in summer.
182. Common Rush, Juncus communis, Rush family. The short creeping stock gives rise to long, slender, cylindrical, green stems about 2 ft. high and sharply pointed: at the base of these are 2 to 3 sheaths, which represent the leaves: the stems are soft, and filled with a white pith, which is used even to-day as a lamp-wick: some of the stems are barren, but from near the apex of others springs a dense, round head of brown flowers: flowers in summer on marshy ground.
182. Common Rush.
183. Great Wood-Rush, Luzula sylvatica, Rush family. A very common plant in shady woods, where it often covers large patches of soil: the leaves, which arise in tufts, are sword-shaped, and dark, shining green, the edges covered with long, silky hairs: the flowers are small, pale brown, and occur in a branched cluster, at the apex of the flowering stem: flowers in spring and early summer.
184. Reed-Mace, Typha latifolia, Reed-mace family. A typical plant of the margins of ponds and lakes: the stem may be 6 ft. high, and bears at its tip 2 inflorescences: the lower is firm, cylindrical, dark brown, and consists of female flowers; the upper is looser, paler, and consists of male flowers: the leaves are broad and long, overtopping the inflorescences: a species with narrower and shorter leaves is also found: flowers in summer.
183. Great Wood-Rush.