10. Asi'id'ium

Swartz. Shield Fern. Wood Fern. * Stipes not chaffy.

1. A. thelyp'teris, Swartz. Fronds tall and narrow, lanceolate in outline, pinnate, the pinnae deeply pinnatifid, nearly at right angles to the rhachis, linear-lanceolate in outline, the margins of the lobes strongly revolute in fruit. Stipe over a foot long, and usually longer than the frond. - Common in low, wet places.

2. A. Noveboracen'se, Swartz. Fronds much lighter in colour than the preceding, tapering towards both ends, pinnate, the pinnae deeply pinnatifid, much closer together than in No. 1, and not at right angles with the rhachis. Veins simple. Lower pinnae short and deflexed. - Swamps.

* * Stipes chaffy.

3. A. Spinulo'sum, Swartz. Stipes slightly chaffy or scaly. Fronds large, ovate-lanceolate in outline, twice-pinnate, the pinnules deeply pinnatifid {nearly pinnate), and spiny-toothed. Pinnae triangular-lanceolate in outline. The variety intermedium, D. C. Eaton, which is very common in Canadian woods, has the margin of the indusium denticulate and beset with minute stalked glands, the few scales of the stipes pale brown with a dark centre, and the lower pinna unequal-sided. Var. Boottii (A. Boottii, Tuck-erman) has the scales of the stipe pale brown, the frond elongated-oblong or elongated-lanceolate and pinnules less dissected. Var. dilatatum, Hook., has the scales of the stipe brown with a dark centre, the frond broader, ovate or triangular-ovate in outline, often twice-pinnate, and the indusium smooth and naked.

4. A. fra'grans, Swartz. Fronds 4-12 inches high, fragrant, narrowly lanceolate, with narrowly-oblong pinnately-parted pinnae, their divisions nearly covered beneath by very large thin indusia. - Rocks, Atl. Prov. and northward.

5. A. cristatum, Swartz. Stipes chaffy with broad scales. Fronds large, linear-lanceolate in outline, once-pinnate, the pinnae deeply pinnatified, the upper ones triangular-lanceolate in outline, the lower considerably broader, the lobes cut-toothed. Fruit-dots large and- conspicuous, half way between the midrib of the lobe and the margin. - Swamps.

Var. Clintonia'num, D. C. Eaton, is distinguished chiefly by its greater size and more numerous pinnae and segments.

6. A. Goldia'num, Hook. A fine fern, the large fronds growing in a circular cluster from a chaffy rootstock. Frond ovate or ovate-oblong in outline, once-pinnate, the pinnae deeply pinnatifid, 6-9 inches long, broadest in the middle, the lobes slightly scythe-shaped, finely serrate. Fruit-dots large, near the midrib of the lobe. - Rich moist woods.

7. A. Fi'lix-mas, Swartz. (Male-Fern.) Fronds lanceolate, very chaffy at the base, twice-pinnate except that the upper pinnules run together. Pinnae linear-lanceolate, tapering from the base to the summit. Pinnules very obtuse, the basal ones incisely lobed. Fruit dots rather closer to the midvein than the margin. Indusium convex, persistent. - Rocky woods, Atl. Prov,

8. A. margna'le, Swartz. Stipes very chaffy at the base. Fronds ovate-oblong in outline, twice-pinnate, the pinnae lanceolate in outline, broadest above the base. Pinnules crenate-margined. Fruit-dots large, close to the margin. - Rich woods, mostly on hill-sides.

9. A. acrostichoi'des, Swartz. (See Figs. 264 and 265, and accompanying description.)- Rich woods.

10. A. Lonchi'tis, Swartz. Not unlike No. 9, but the fronds are narrower and longer, more rigid and with hardly any stipe. Pinnae densely spinulose-toothed. - Apparently not common, but plentiful in rocky woods west of Colling-wood, Ont.

11. A. aculeatum, Swartz, var. Braun'ii, Koch. Fronds twice pinnate, oblong-lanceolate, narrowing gradually toward the base. Pinnules ovate or oblong, truncate and nearly rectangular at the base (the lower short-stalked), beset with long and soft as well as chaffy hairs. Indusium fixed by the centre. Fronds evergreen, very chaffy on the stalk and rhachis. - Ravines and deep woods, Atl. Prov.

11. Cystop'teris. Bernhardi. Bladder Fern

1. C. bulbif'era, Bernh. Frond large (1-2 feet), narrow and very delicate, twice-pinnate, the pinnae nearly at right angles to the rhachis. Rhachis and pinnae usually with bulblets beneath. Pinnules toothed. - Shady, moist ravines.

2. C. fpa'gilis, Bernh. Frond only 4-8 inches long, with a stipe of the same length, twice- or thrice-pinnate. Rhachis winged. - Shady cliffs.

12. Struthiop'teris

Willd. Ostrich Fern. S. German'ica, Willd. (Onoclea Struthiopteris, Hoff.) Sterile fronds with the lower pinnae gradually much shorter than the upper ones. Pinnae deeply pinnatifid. - Common in low, wet grounds along streams.

13. Onocle'a

L. Sensitive Fern. 0. sensib'ilis, L. (See Figs. 266, 267, 268 and 269, and accompanying description.)- Common in wet grounds along streams.

14. Wood'sia. R. Brown

1. W. llven'sis, E. Brown. Stalks indistinctly jointed at some distance above the base. Fronds oblong-lanceolate, 2-6 inches long, rather smooth and green above, thickly clothed below with bristly rusty chaff, pinnate; the pinnae oblong, blunt, sessile, pinnately-parted with the segments indistinctly crenate. Fruit dots near the margin. - Exposed rocks, Atl. Prov. and northward.

2. W. hyperbo'rea, R. Brown. Stalks jointed. Fronds narrowly oblong-lanceolate. Sparingly hairy beneath with chaffy hairs, pinnate; the pinnae triangular-ovate, pinnate-ly lobed, the lobes few and almost entire. - Ravines, Atl. Prov. and northward.

3. W. glabel'la, R. Brown. Stalks jointed as in the two preceding species. Frond linear, very delicate, smooth, pinnate. Pinnae roundish-ovate, the lower somewhat distant, crenately-lobed. - Moist rocks, Atl. Prov. and northward.

4. W. obtu'sa, Torr. Stalks not jointed. Frond broadly lanceolate, beset with small glandular hairs, once or nearly twice pinnate. Pinnae pinnately parted. Segments of pinnae crenately toothed. - Cliffs and rocky places; rare.

15. Dickso'nia. L'Her. Dicksonia

D. punctilo'bula, Kunze. Pleasantly odorous. - Moist shady places.

16. Osmun'da. L. Floweking Fern

1. 0. rega'lis, L. (Flowering Fern.) Fronds twice-pinnate, fertile at the top, very smooth, pale green. Sterile pinnules oblong-oval, finely serrate towards the apex, 1-2 inches long, either sessile or short-stalked, usually oblique and truncate at the base. - Swamps, along streams and lake-margins.

2. 0. Claytonia'na, L. Fronds large, once-pinnate, pale green, densely white-woolly when unfolding from the bud, with fertile pinnae among the sterile ones. Pinnae deeply pinnatifid, the lobes entire. - Low grounds.

3. 0. cinnamo'mea, L. (Cinnamon Fern.) Fertile fronds distinct from the sterile ones, contracted, twice-pinnate, covered with cinnamon-coloured sporangia. Sterile fronds rusty-woolly when young, smooth afterwards, once-pinnate, the pinnae deeply pinnatifid. The long, sterile fronds in a cluster, with the fertile ones in the centre. - Low grounds.

17. Botrych'ium

Swartz. Moonwort. * Sterile portion of the frond not fleshy.

1. B. Virginia'num, Swartz. (See Figs. 270 and 271, and accompanying description.)- Rich woods everywhere.

* * Sterile portion of the frond more or less fleshy. + Sterile segment sessile or nearly so.

2. B. Lunaria, Swartz. Sterile segment very fleshy, nearly sessile, oblong, simply pinnate, with 5-15 lunate or fan-shaped fleshy divisions. Fertile segment panicled, 2-3-pinnate. - Rare.

3. B. sim'plex, Hitchcock. Fronds small, seldom 6 inches high, the sterile segment borne nearer the middle of the plant, short-petioled, fleshy, simple, and roundish, or pinnately lobed, with roundish lobes decurrent on the broad and flat indeterminate rhachis. Veins all forking from the base. - Atl. Prov. chiefly.

4. B. lanceolatum, Angstroem. Frond 3-10 inches high. Sterile part closely sessile at the top of the slender common stalk, very slightly fleshy, triangular, ternately twice-pin-natifid, with acute, toothed lobes. Veinlets branching from the continuous midvein. The fertile part twice- or thrice-pinnate. - Atl. Prov.

5. B. matricariaefo'lium, Braun. Resembling the preceding, but the sterile segment not quite sessile, somewhat fleshy, pinnate to twice-pinnatifid, with obtuse lobes. Mid-vein broken up into forking veinlets. - Damp woods, Atl. Prov. chiefly.

+ + Sterile segment long-stalked.

6. B. ternatum, Swartz. Very fleshy, 4-16 inches high, sparingly hairy. Sterile segment attached near the base of the plant, broadly triangular, variously-decompound, with stalked divisions. Fertile segment erect, 2-4-pinnate. - Not uncommon.

18. Ophioglos'sum

L. Adder's Tongue. 0. vulgatum, L. Sterile part of the frond ovate or elliptical-oblong, 2-3 inches long, rather fleshy, sessile, near the middle of the stalk; the latter 6-12 inches high. - Bogs and grassy meadows.