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Studies of American Fungi: Mushrooms, Edible, Poisonous, Etc.



Since the issue of my "Studies and Illustrations of Mushrooms," as Bulletins 138 and 168 of the Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station, there have been so many inquiries for them and for literature dealing with a larger number of species, it seemed desirable to publish in book form a selection from the number of illustrations of these plants which I have accumulated during the past six or seven years. The selection has been made of those species representing the more important genera, and also for the purpose of illustrating, as far as possible, all the genera of agarics found in the United States. This has been accomplished except in a few cases of the more unimportant ones. There have been added, also, illustrative genera and species of all the other orders of the higher fungi, in which are included many of the edible forms.

TitleStudies of American Fungi: Mushrooms, Edible, Poisonous, Etc.
AuthorGeorge Francis Atkinson
PublisherGeo. F. Atkinson
Year1901
Copyright1901, Geo. F. Atkinson
AmazonStudies of American Fungi: Mushrooms, Edible, Poisonous, Etc.

By George Francis Atkinson

Professor of Botany in Cornell University, and Botanist of the Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station

Recipes for Cooking Mushrooms, by Mrs. Sarah Tyson Rorer Chemistry and Toxicology of Mushrooms, by J. F. Clark

With 230 Illustrations From Photographs By The Author, And Colored Plates By F. R. Rathbun

Second Edition

Studies Of American Fungi Mushrooms Edible Poisono 2

New York

-Introduction
Since the issue of my Studies and Illustrations of Mushrooms, as Bulletins 138 and 168 of the Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station, there have been so many inquiries for them and for l...
-Second Edition
In this edition have been added 10 plates of mushrooms of which I did not have photographs when the first edition was printed. It was possible to accomplish this without changing the paging of any of ...
-Chapter I. Form And Characters Of The Mushroom
Value Of Form And Characters The different kinds of mushrooms vary in form. Some are quite strikingly different from others, so that no one would have difficulty in recognizing the difference in shap...
-Form And Characters Of The Mushroom. Parts Present In Other Mushrooms
Parts Present In Other Mushrooms - The Volva Some other mushrooms, like the deadly Amanita (Amanita phalloides) and other species of the genus Amanita, have, in addition to the cap, gills, stem, and ...
-Chapter II. Development Of The Mushroom
When the stems of the mushrooms are pulled or dug from the ground, white strands are often clinging to the lower end. These strands are often seen by removing some of the earth from the young plant, a...
-Development Of The Mushroom. Part 2
From The Button Stage To The Mushroom If we split several of the buttons of different sizes down through the middle, we shall be able to see the position of the gills covered by the veil during their...
-Development Of The Mushroom. Part 3
Wood Destroying Fungi Many of the mushrooms, and their kind, grow on wood. A visit to the damp forest during the summer months, or during the autumn, will reveal large numbers of these plants growing...
-Development Of The Mushroom. Part 4
Fungi In Abandoned Coal Mines Mushrooms and bracket fungi grow in great profusion on the wood props or doors in abandoned coal mines, cement mines, etc. There is here an abundance of moisture, and th...
-Development Of The Mushroom. Part 5
Direction In Growth Of Mushrooms The direction of growth which these fungi take forms an interesting question for study. The common mushroom, the Agaricus, the amani-tas, and other central stemmed sp...
-Chapter III. Gill Bearing Fungi: Agaricaceae
The gill bearing fungi are known under the family Agaricaceae, or popularly the agarics. They are distinguished by the fruiting area being distributed over the surface of plate-like or knife-like exte...
-Chapter IV. The Purple-Brown-Spored Agarics
The members of this subdivision are recognized at maturity by the purple-brown, dark brown or nearly black spores when seen in mass. As they ripen on the surface of the gills the large number give the...
-Agaricus Linn. (Psalliota)
In the genus Agaric us the spores at maturity are either purple-brown in mass or blackish with a purple tinge. The annulus is present on the stem, though disappearing soon in some species, and the ste...
-Agaricus Linn. (Psalliota). Continued
Agaricus (Psalliota) silvicola Vittad. Edible. - The Agaricus silvicola grows in woods, groves, etc., on the ground, and has been found also in a newly made garden in the vicinity of trees near the wo...
-Agaricus (Psalliota) Comtulus
This pretty little agaric seems to be rather rare. It was found sparingly on several occasions in open woods under pines at Ithaca, N. Y., during October, 1898. Lloyd reports it from Ohio (Mycolog. No...
-Hypholoma
In the genus Hypholoma the spores are purple brown, the gills attached to the stem, and the veil when ruptured clings to the margin of the cap instead of to the stem, so that a ring is not formed, or ...
-Hypholoma Lacrymabundum
This plant was found during September and October in wet grassy places in a shallow ditch by the roadside, and in borders of woods, Ithaca, N. Y., 1898. The plants are scattered or clustered, several ...
-Hypholoma Rugocephalum
This interesting species grows in damp places in woods. The plants are tufted or occur singly. They are 8-12 cm. high, the cap 6-10 cm. broad, and the stem 6-10 mm. in thickness. The pileus is convex...
-Stropharia
The genus Stropliaria has purple-brown spores, the gills are attached to the stem, and the veil forms a ring on the stem. Stropharia Semiglobata This species is rather common and widely distributed,...
-Chapter V. The Black-Spored Agarics
The spores are black in mass, not purple tinged. For analytical keys to the genera see Chapter XXII (Chemistry And Toxicology Of Mushrooms). ...
-Coprinus
The species of Coprinus are readily recognized from the black spores in addition to the fact that the gills, at maturity, dissolve into a black or inky fluid. The larger species especially form in thi...
-Coprinus. Part 2
There is one curious feature about the expansion of the pileus of the shaggy-mane which could not escape our attention. The pileus has become very long while comparatively little lateral expansion has...
-Coprinus. Part 3
The annulus or ring on the stem of the ink-cap is very different from that of the shaggy-mane. It forms an irregularly zigzag elevated line of threads which extend around the stem near the base. It is...
-Panaeolus
In Panceolus the pileus is somewhat fleshy, or thin, the margin even, that is, not striate. The margin extends beyond the gills, and the gills are not uniform in color, being clouded or spotted with b...
-Psathyrella
The pileus is thin, membranaceous, striate, the margin not extending beyond the edge of the gills, and when young the margin of the pileus lies straight against the stem. The gills are black to fuligi...
-Gomphidius
The genus Gomphidius has a slimy or glutinous universal veil enveloping the entire plant when young, and for a time is stretched over the gills as the pileus is expanding. The gills are somewhat mucil...
-Chapter VI. The White-Spored Agarics
The spores are white in mass, or sometimes with a faint yellowish or lilac tinge. For analytical keys to the genera see Chapter XXII (Chemistry And Toxicology Of Mushrooms). ...
-Amanita
The genus Amanita has both a volva and a veil; the spores are white, and the stem is easily separable from the cap. In the young stage the volva forms a universal veil, that is, a layer of fungus tiss...
-Amanita. Part 2
Figures 52-54 are from plants (No. 2065 C. U. herbarium) collected in an open woods near Ithaca. For the poisonous property of the plant see Chapter XX (Cultivation Of Mushrooms). Amanita frostiana P...
-Amanita. Part 3
Figure 55 Amanita phalloides, white form, showing cap, stem, ring, and cuplike volva with a free, prominent limb (natural size). Plate 14, Figure 56 Amanita phalloides, brownish, umber, or ol...
-Amanita. Part 4
The characters presented in the formation of the veil and annulus in this species are very interesting, and sometimes present two of the types in the formation of the veil and annulus found in the gen...
-Amanita. Part 5
Figure 65 Amanita velatipes. Different stages of buttons, in the right-hand plant the upper part of the volva separating to form the scales (natural size). Copyright. The stem is cylindrical, so...
-Amanita. Part 6
Figures 68-70, from plants (No. 3715, C. U. herbarium) collected at Blowing Rock, N. C, during September, 1899, illustrate certain of the features in the form and development of this plant. Plate 1...
-Amanita. Part 7
In the button stage the plant is ovate and the white color of the volva, which at this time entirely surrounds the plants, presents an appearance not unlike that of an egg. The volva splits open at th...
-Amanita. Part 8
During the latter part of August and the first three weeks of September the plants were quite common in the mountain woods at Blowing Rock. In certain features there was close agreement in the case of...
-Amanitopsis Roze
This genus has white spores, and a volva, but the annulus and inner veil are wanting. In other respects it agrees with Amanita. It is considered as a subgenus of Amanita by some. Amanitopsis vaginata...
-Amanitopsis Farinosa
The mealy agaric, or powdery ama-nita, is a pretty little species. It was first collected and described from North Carolina by de Schweinitz (Synop. fung. Car. No. 552, 1822), and the specimens illust...
-Lepiota
The genus Lepiota lacks a volva, but the veil is present forming a ring on the stem. The genus is closely related to Amanita, from which it differs in the absence of the volva, or perhaps more properl...
-Lepiota Morgani
This plant occurs from Ohio, southward and west. It grows in grassy places, especially in wet pastures. It is one of the largest of the lepiotas, ranging from 20-40 cm. high, the cap 20-30 cm. broad, ...
-Lepiota Acutesquamosa
This is a medium or small sized plant with a floccose pileus adorned with small, acute, erect scales, and has a loose, hairy or wooly veil which is often torn irregularly. The erect scales fall away f...
-Lepiota Asperula
This lepiota resembles A. asper in some respects, but it is smaller and the spores are much smaller, being very minute. The plant is 5-8 cm. high, the pileus 2-4 cm. broad, and the stem 4-6 mm. in thi...
-Armillaria
In the genus Armillaria the inner veil which forms a ring on the stem is present. The stem is fibrous, or the outer portion cartilaginous in some species, and not easily separable from the substance o...
-Tricholoma
In the genus Tricholoma the volva and annulus are both wanting, the spores are white, and the gills are attached to the stem, but are more or less strongly notched or sinuate at the stem. Sometimes th...
-Clitocybe
The volva and annulus are wanting in this genus, and the spores are white. The stem is elastic, spongy within, the outside being elastic or fibrous, so that the fibres hold together well when the stem...
-Collybia
In the genus Collybia the annulus and volva are both wanting, the spores are white, the gills are free or notched, or sinuate. The stem is either entirely cartilaginous or has a cartilaginous rind, wh...
-Mycena
The genus Mycena is closely related to Collybia. The plants are usually smaller, many of them being of small size, the cap is usually bell-shaped, rarely umbilicate, but what is a more important chara...
-Mycena Polygramma
This plant is very closely related to M. galericulata, and has the same habit. It might be easily mistaken for it. It is easily distinguished by its peculiar bright, shining, longitudinally striate to...
-Mycena Pura
This plant is quite common and very widely distributed, and occurs in woods and grassy open places, during late summer and in the autumn. The entire plant is nearly of a uniform color, and the color v...
-Mycena Vulgaris
This common and pretty species is easily recognized by its smoky or grayish color, the umbilicate pileus and very slimy stem. It grows on decaying leaves, sticks, etc., in woods. It occurs in clusters...
-Mycena Acicula
This is one of the very small my-cenas, and with the brilliant red pileus and yellow gills and stem it makes a very pretty object growing on leaves, twigs, or rotten wood in the forest. It occurs duri...
-Mycena Cyanothrix
This is a very pretty plant growing on rotting wood in clusters, often two or three joined at the base, the base of the stem inserted in the rotten wood for 1-2 cm., and the base is clothed with blue,...
-Omphalia
The genus Omphalia is closely related to Mycena and Collybia. It differs from these mainly in the decurrent gills. In the small species of Mycena where the gills are slightly decurrent, the pileus is ...
-Pleurotus
The genus Pleurotus is usually recognized without difficulty among the fleshy, white-spored agarics, because of the eccentric (not quite in the center of the pileus) or lateral stem, or by the pileus ...
-Pleurotus Sulfureoides
This rare species, first collected in the Catskill Mountains 1869, and described by Peck in the 23rd Report, N. Y. State Mus., p. 86, 1870, was found by me on two different occasions at Ithaca, N. Y.,...
-Pleurotus Applicants
This is a pretty little species and usually occurs on much decayed wood, lying close to the ground so that it is usually directly on the under side of the log or branch. It does occur, however, on the...
-Hygrophorus Fries
The genus Hygrophorus is one which presents some difficulties in the case of some of the species, especially to beginners, and plants need to be studied in the fresh condition to understand the most i...
-Lactarius
The genus Lactarius is easily distinguished from nearly all the other agarics by the presence of a milky or colored juice which exudes from wounded, cut, or broken places on the fresh plant. There are...
-Lactarius Lignyotus
This is known as the sooty lactarius and occurs in woods along with the smoky lactarius. It is distinguished from the latter by the dark brown color of the pileus and by the presence usually of rugose...
-Lactarius Fuliginosus
The smoky or dingy lactarius occurs in woods and open grassy places. It is widely distributed. The plants are 4-7 cm. high, the cap 3-5 cm. broad, and the stem 6-10 mm. in thickness. The light smoky c...
-Lactarius Gerardii
This plant was described by Dr. Peck in the 26th Report, N. Y. State Mus., p. 65, and in the 28th Kept. p. 129. According to the descriptions it differs from Lactarius fuliginosus only in the spores b...
-Lactarius Chrysorrheus
This is a common and widely distributed species, from small to medium size. The plants are 5-8 cm. high, the cap 5-10 cm. broad, and the stem 1-1.5 cm. in thickness. It grows in woods and groves durin...
-Russula
The species of Russula are very characteristic, and the genus is easily recognized in most cases after a little experience. In the very brittle texture of the plants the genus resembles Lactarius, and...
-Cantharellus Adanson
From the other vvhite-spored agarics of a fleshy consistency Can-tharellus is distinguished by the form of the gills. The gills are generally forked, once or several times, in a dichotomous manner, th...
-Cantharellus Aurantiacus
This orange cantharellus is very common, and occurs on the ground or on very rotten wood, logs, branches, etc., from summer to very late autumn. It is widely distributed in Europe and America. It is e...
-Marasmius
In this genus the plants are tough and fleshy or membranaceous, leathery and dry. They do not easily decay, but shrivel up in dry weather, and revive in wet weather, or when placed in water. This is a...
-Marasmius Cohaerens
Marasmius cohaerens (Fr.) Bres. (Mycena cohcerens Fr. Collybia lach-nophylla Berk. Collybia spimilifera Pk.) - This plant grows in dense clusters, ten to twenty individuals with their stems closely jo...
-Lentinus
The plants of this genus are tough and pliant, becoming hard when old, unless very watery, and when dry. The genus differs from the other tough and pliant ones by the peculiarity of the gills, the gil...
-Schizophyllum
This is a very interesting genus, but the species are very few. The plants are tough, pliant when fresh, and dry. The gills are very characteristic, being split along the edge and generally strongly r...
-Trogia
This genus is characterized, according to Fries, by the gills being channeled along the edge, but singularly the only species attributed to the genus in Europe and in our country has not channeled gil...
-Chapter VII. The Rosy-Spored Agarics
The spores are rosy, pink, salmon colored, flesh colored, or reddish. For analytical keys to the genera see Chapter XXII (Chemistry And Toxicology Of Mushrooms). ...
-Pluteus
In the genus Pluteus the volva and annulus are both wanting, the gills are usually free from the stem, and the stem is easily broken out from the substance of the cap, reminding one in some cases of a...
-Volvaria
This genus takes its name from the volva, which means a wrapper, and which, as we know from our studies of Amanita, entirely envelops the plant at a young stage. The genus is characterized :hen by the...
-Clitopilus
In the rosy-spored agarics belonging to this genus the gills are decurrent, that is, extend for some distance down on the stem. The stem is fleshy. The gills are white at first and become pink or salm...
-Entoloma
The volva and annulus are absent in this genus, the spores are rosy, the gills adnate to sinuate or adnexed, easily separating from the stem in some species. The stem is fleshy or fibrous, sometimes w...
-Leptonia
In Leptonia the stem is cartilaginous, hollow or stuffed, smooth and somewhat shining. The pileus is thin, umbilicate or with the center darker, the surface hairy or scaly, and the margin at first inc...
-Eccilia
The genus Eccilia corresponds with Ompbalia of the white-spored agarics. The stem is cartilaginous, hollow or stuffed. The pileus is thin and somewhat membranaceous, plane or depressed at the center, ...
-Claudopus
W. Smith In the genus Claudopus, recognized by some, the pileus is eccentric or lateral, that is, the stem is attached near the side of the cap, or the cap is sessile and attached by one side to the ...
-Chapter VIII. The Ochre-Spored Agarics
The spores are ochre yellow, rusty, rusty-brown, or some shade of yellow. For analytical keys to the genera see Chapter XXII (Chemistry And Toxicology Of Mushrooms). ...
-Pholiota
The genus Pholiota has ferruginous or ferruginous brown spores. It lacks a volva, but has an annulus; the gills are attached to the stem. It then corresponds to Armillaria among white-spored agarics, ...
-Pholiota Adiposa
The fatty pholiota usually forms large clusters during the autumn, on the trunks of trees, stumps, etc. It is sometimes of large size, measuring up to 15 cm. and the pileus up to 17 cm. broad. Specime...
-Naucoria
This genus, with ferruginous spores, corresponds with Collybia among the white-spored agarics. The gills are free or attached, but not decurrent, and the stem is cartilaginous. The plants grow both on...
-Galera
Galera with ochraceous (ochraceous ferruginous) spores corresponds to Mycena among the white-spored agarics. The pileus is usually bell-shaped, and when young the margin fits straight against the stem...
-Flammula
In the genus Flammula, the pileus is fleshy, stem fleshy-fibrous, and the gills adnate to decurrent. Flammula Polychroa This is a beautiful plant with tints of violet, lavender, lilac and purple, es...
-Hebeloma
In Hebeloma the gills are either squarely set against the stem (adnate) or they are notched (sinuate), and the spores are clay-colored. The edge of the gills is usually whitish, the surface clay-color...
-Inocybe
In the genus Inocybe there is a universal veil which is fibrillose in character, and more or less closely joined with the cuticle of the pileus, and the surface of the pileus is therefore marked with ...
-Tubaria
W. Smith In the genus Tubaria the spores are rust-red, or rusty brown (ferruginous or fuscous-ferruginous), the stem is somewhat cartilaginous, hollow, and, what is more important, the gills are more...
-Crepidotus
In Crepidotus the pileus is lateral, or eccentric, and thus more or less shelving, or it is resupinate, that is, lying flat or nearly so on the wood. The species are usually of small size, thin, soft ...
-Cortinarius
The genus Cortinarius is chiefly distinguished from the other genera of the ochre-spored agarics by the presence of a spider-weblike (arachnoid) veil which is separate from the cuticle of the pileus, ...
-Bolbitius Fries
The genus Bolbitius contains a few species with yellowish or yellowish brown spores. The plants are very fragile, more or less mucilaginous when moist, usually with yellowish colors, and, what is the ...
-Paxillus
In the genus Paxillus the gills are usually easily separated from the pileus, though there are some species accredited to the genus that do not seem to possess this character in a marked degree. The s...
-Paxillus Atro Tomentosus
This plant is not very common. It is often of quite large size, 6-15 cm. high, and the cap 5-10 cm. broad, the stem very short or sometimes long, from 1-2.5 cm. in thickness. The plant is quite easily...
-Paxillus Panuoides
This species was collected during August, 1900, on a side-walk and on a log at Ithaca. The specimens collected were sessile and the pileus lateral, somewhat broadened at the free end, or petaloid. The...
-Paxillus Corrugatus
This very interesting species was collected at Ithaca, N. Y., on decaying wood, August 4, 1899. The pileus is lateral, shelving, the stem being entirely absent in the specimens found. The pileus is 2-...
-Chapter IX. The Tube-Bearing Fungi. Polyporaceae
The plants belonging to this family are characterized especially by a honeycombed fruiting surface, that is, the under surface of the plants possesses numerous tubes or pores which stand close togethe...
-Boletus Dill
Of the few genera in the Polyporaceae which are fleshy and putrescent, Boletus contains by far the largest number of species. The entire plant is soft and fleshy, and decays soon after maturity. The s...
-Boletus Chromapes Frost
This is a pretty boletus, and has been reported from New England and from New York State. During the summer of 1899 it was quite common in the Blue Ridge mountains, North Carolina. The plant grows on ...
-Boletus Vermiculosus
This species was named B. vermiculosus because it is sometimes very wormy. This is not always the case, however. It grows in woods on the ground, in the Eastern United States. It is from 6-12 cm. hi...
-Boletus Americanus
This species occurs in woods and open places, growing on the ground in wet weather. It occurs singly or clustered, sometimes two or three joined by their bases, but usually more scattered. It is usual...
-Boletus Punctipes
This species has been reported from New York State by Peck. During September, 1899, I found it quite common in the Blue Ridge mountains of North Carolina, at an elevation of between 4000 and 5000 feet...
-Boletus Luteus
Boletus luteus Linn. (B. subluteus Pk.) This species is widely distributed in Europe and America, and grows in sandy soil, in pine or mixed woods or groves. The plants are 5-8 cm. high, the cap 3-12 c...
-Boletinus Pictus
This very beautiful plant is quite common in damp pine woods. It is easily recognized by the reddish cottony layer of mycelium threads which cover the entire plant when young, and form a veil which co...
-Fistulina
In the genus Fistulina the tubes, or pores, are crowded together, but stand separately, that is, they are not connected together, or grown together into a stratum as in Boletus and other genera of the...
-Polyporus Umbellatus
This species is also related to the frondose polyporus, but is very distinct. It is more erect, the branching more open, and the caps at the ends of the branches are more or less circular and umbilica...
-Polyporus Brumalis
Polyporus brumalis (Pers.) Fr. - This pretty plant is found at all seasons of the year, and from its frequency during the winter was named brumalis, from bruma, which means winter. It grows on sticks ...
-Polystictus Cinnamomeus
Polystictus cinnamomeus (Jacq.) Sacc, (P. oblcctans Berk. Hook. Jour. p. 51, 1845, Dec. N. A. F. No. 35: P. splendens Pk., 26th Report N. Y. State Mus., p. 26) is a closely related species with the sa...
-Polyporus Lucidus
Polyporus lucidus (Leys.) Fr. [Fomes lucidus (Leys.) Fr.] - This species is a very striking one because of the bright red or chestnut color, the hard and brittle crust over the surface of the cap, whi...
-Polyporus fomentarius
Polyporus fomentarius (L.) Fr. [Fomes fomentarius (L.) Fr.,] is hoof-shaped, smoky in color, or gray, and of various shades of dull brown. It is strongly zoned and sulcate, marking off each year's gro...
-Merulius
The genus Merulius has a fruiting surface of irregular folds or wrinkles, forming shallow, irregular pits instead of a deeply honeycombed surface. Merulius lacrymans ( Jacq.) Fr., the weeping meruli...
-Chapter X. Hedgehog Fungi: Hydnaceae
The plants belonging to this family vary greatly in size, form, and consistency. Some of them are very large, some quite small, some are fleshy in consistency, some are woody, corky; some membranaceou...
-Hydnum Linn
The only species of the Hydnaceae described here are in the genus Hydnum. In this genus the fruiting surface is on spine, or awl-shaped processes, which are either simple or in some cases the tips are...
-Hydnum Putidum
This plant grows on the ground in woods, and was collected in the Blue Ridge mountains at Blowing Rock, N. C, at an elevation of about 4000 feet. It is remarkable for its peculiar odor, resembling, wh...
-Chapter XI. Coral Fungi: Clavariaceae
This family is a very characteristic one, and very interesting from the large number of beautiful species in one genus, the genus Clavaria. The plants all are more or less erect, or at least stand out...
-Clavaria Vaill
The genus Clavaria is one of the most common ones in the family, and is one of the most attractive from the variety and beauty of several of the species. All of the plants are more or less erect, and ...
-Chapter XII. The Trembling Fungi: Tremellineae
These fungi are called the trembling fungi because of their gelatinous consistency. The colors vary from white, yellow, orange, reddish, brownish, etc., and the form is various, often very irregular, ...
-Tremella Dill
In this genus the plants are gelatinous or cartilaginous. The form of the plant is usually very much contorted, fold-like or leaflike, and very much branched. The fruiting surface extends over the ent...
-Gyrocephalus
The genus Gyrocephalus differs from the other Tremellineae in having the fruiting surface on the lower side of the fruit body, while the upper side is sterile. Figure 208 Gyrocephalus rufus. Reddi...
-Chapter XIII. Thelephoraceae
Many of the species of the Thelephoraceae to which the following two species belong are too tough for food. A large number of these grow on wood. They are known by their hard or membranaceous characte...
-Chapter XIV. Puff-Balls: Lycoperdaceae
This is not the place for a discussion of the different genera of the puff-balls, etc., but it might be well to say that in recent years the old genus Lycoperdon has been divided into several genera. ...
-Lycoperdon Tourn
To this genus belong most of the puff-balls, as they are commonly called, or, as they are denominated in the South, Devil's snuff box. All, or a large portion, of the interior of the plant at mat...
-Calostoma Cinnabarinum
This is a remarkably beautiful plant with a general distribution in the Eastern United States. It has often been referred to in this country under the genus name Milremyces, and sometimes has been con...
-Chapter XV. The Stink-Horn Fungi: Phalloideae Fries
Most of the stink-horn fungi are characterized by a very offensive odor. Some of them at maturity are in shape not unlike that of a horn, and the vulgar name is applied because of this form and the od...
-Dictyophora Desvaux
Dictyophora means net bearer, and as one can see from Fig. 212 it is not an inappropriate name. The stem or receptacle, as one can see from the illustrations of the two species treated of here, poss...
-Chapter XVI. Morels, Cup-Fungi, Helvellas, Etc.: Discomy Cetes
The remaining fungi to be considered belong to a very different group of plants than do the mushrooms, puff-balls, etc. Nevertheless, because of the size of several of the species and the fact that se...
-Morchella Dill
The morels are all edible and they are usually easy to recognize. The plant consists of two distinct, prominent parts, the cap and the stem. The cap varies in form from rounded, ovate, conic or cylind...
-Helvella L
The helvellas are pretty and attractive plants. They are smaller than the morels, usually. They have a cap and stem, the cap being very irregular in shape, often somewhat lobed or saddle-shaped. It is...
-The True Cup-Fungi
By far the larger number of the Discomycetes are cup-shaped, and are popularly called cup-fungi. They vary from plants of very minute size, so small that they can be just seen with the eye, or some ...
-Chapter XVII. Collection And Preservation Of The Fleshy Fungi
In the collection of the higher fungi it is of the utmost importance that certain precautions be employed in obtaining all parts of the plant, and furthermore that care be exercised in handling, in or...
-Collection And Preservation Of The Fleshy Fungi. Part 2
Field Notes The field notes which may be taken upon the collection will depend on circumstances. If one goes to the sorting room soon after the collection is made, so that notes can be made there bef...
-Collection And Preservation Of The Fleshy Fungi. Part 3
To Obtain Spore Prints In many cases it is desirable to obtain spores in a mass on paper in order to know the exact tint of color produced by the species. Often the color of the spores can be satisfa...
-Memoranda
No..................... Locality, Date. Name of collector. Weather. Habitat If on ground, low or high, wet or dry, kind of soil; on fallen leaves, twigs, branches, logs, stumps, roots, whether dead...
-Chapter XVIII. Selection And Preparation Of Mushrooms For The Table
In the selection of mushrooms to eat, great caution should be employed by those who are not reasonably familiar with the means of determination of the species, or those who have not an intimate acquai...
-Chapter XIX. Uses Of Mushrooms
The most prominent and at present important use of mushrooms from the standpoint of the utilitarian is as an article of food. We have now learned that their food value as a nutrient substance is not s...
-Fungi In The Arts
A number of different species of mushrooms have been employed in the manufacture of useful articles. Their use for such purposes, however, was more common in the past than at present, and it is largel...
-Fungi In The Arts. Continued
Fungi For Medicinal Purposes A number of the fungi were formerly employed in medicine for various purposes, but most of them have been discarded. Some of the plants were once used as a purgative, as ...
-Chapter XX. Cultivation Of Mushrooms
The increasing interest in mushrooms during the past few years has not been confined to the kinds growing spontaneously in fields and woods, but the interest aroused in the collection and study of the...
-The Cave Culture Of Mushrooms In America
This has been practiced for a number of years in different parts of the Eastern United States, but perhaps only a small portion of the available caves or tunnels are at present used for this purpose. ...
-The House Culture Of Mushrooms
Where this method of cultivation is employed, as the main issue, houses are constructed especially for the purpose. In general the houses are of two kinds. Those which are largely above the ground, an...
-The House Culture Of Mushrooms. Part 2
Interior Structure And Position Of The Beds The beds are usually arranged in tiers, one above the other, though in some houses the beds are confined only to the floor space. Where they are arranged i...
-The House Culture Of Mushrooms. Part 3
Cultivation Of Mushrooms Under Benches In Greenhouses This method is practiced to quite a large extent by some growers. In the house of Mr. William Swayne, Kennett Square, Pa., a number of large hous...
-Curing The Manure
Selection Of Manure Horse manure is the material which is most generally used, though sometimes a small percentage of other manures, as sheep manure, is added. In the selection of the manure it is de...
-Making Up The Mushroom Beds
Making Up Beds Without The Addition Of Soil In the cave culture of mushrooms the beds are usually made from manure alone, there being no addition of soil. This is perhaps partly due to the expense of...
-Beds In Houses Constructed For The Purpose Of Growing Mushrooms
Where only the floor of the house is used, a middle bed and two side beds are sometimes formed in the same manner as described in the construction of the house for the tiers of beds, with an alley on ...
-What Spawn Is
The spawn of the mushroom is the popular word used in speaking of the mycelium of the mushroom. The term is commonly used in a commercial sense of material in which the mycelium is growing. This mater...
-What Spawn Is. Part 2
Mill Track Spawn Mill-track spawn originated from the spawn found in covered roadways at mills or along tram-car tracks where horses were used. The accumulation of manure trodden down in these plac...
-What Spawn Is. Part 3
Flake Spawn The flake spawn, or flakes, is commonly known as the French spawn, because it is so extensively manufactured in France. It is made by breaking down beds through which the mycelium has r...
-Spawning The Beds
The beds for growing the mushrooms having been made up, the spawn having been selected, the beds are ready for planting whenever the temperature has been sufficiently reduced and the material is prope...
-Spawning The Beds. Part 2
Spawning With Flake Spawn, Or Natural Spawn In the use of the tlake or natural spawn, the planting is accomplished in a similar way, but larger pieces of the spawn are used, two or three times the si...
-Spawning The Beds. Part 3
Gathering The Mushrooms In artificial cultivation, the mushrooms usually formed are very near, or on, the surface of the bed. In the case of the meadow or pasture mushrooms, they are formed further b...
-Spawning The Beds. Part 4
Packing The Mushrooms In the packing room the mushrooms are prepared for shipment to market. The method at present usually employed is to ship them in baskets. The baskets vary in size, according to ...
-Spawning The Beds. Part 5
Resoiling Once or twice a week during the harvesting period all loose earth, broken bits of spawn, free buttons, etc., should be cleaned out where the mushrooms have been picked. These places should ...
-Spawning The Beds. Part 6
Productivity Of The Beds One pound of mushrooms from every two square feet of surface is considered a very good crop. Sometimes it exceeds this, the beds bearing one pound for every square foot, thou...
-Three Methods Suggested For Growing Mushrooms In Cellars And Sheds
First Method Obtain fresh stable horse manure mixed with straw used in bedding the animals. Shake it out, separating the coarse material from the droppings. Put the droppings in a pile two to three f...
-Chapter XXI. Recipes For Cooking Mushrooms
By Mrs. Sarah Tyson Rorer. As varieties of mushrooms differ in analysis, texture and density of flesh, different methods of cooking give best results. For instance, the Coprinus micaceus, being very ...
-Agaricus Recipes
The wild or uncultivated Agaricus campestris, which is usually picked in open fields, will cook in less time than those grown in caves and sold in our markets during the winter and spring. Cut the ste...
-Coprinus Comatus And Coprinus Atramentarius Recipes
As these varieties usually grow together and are sort of companion mushrooms, recipes given for one will answer for the cooking of the other. Being soft and juicy, they must be handled with care, and ...
-Coprinus Micaceus Recipes
Wash and dry the mushrooms; put them into a deep saucepan with a tablespoonful of butter to each quart; stand over a quick fire, sort of tossing the saucepan. Do not stir, or you will break the mushro...
-Lepiota Recipes
These mushrooms, having very thin flesh and deep gills, must be quickly cooked to be good. Remove the stem, take the mushrooms in your hand, gill side down, and with a soft rag wash carefully the top,...
-Oyster Mushrooms (Pleurotus) Recipes
Wash and dry the mushrooms; cut them into strips crosswise of the gills, trimming off all the woody portion near the stem side. Throw the mushrooms into a saucepan, allowing a tablespoonful of butter ...
-Russula Recipes
While in this group we have a number of varieties, they may all be cooked after one recipe. The stems will be removed, the mushrooms carefully washed, always holding the gill side down in the water, d...
-Lactarii Recipes
Remove the stems, and wash the mushrooms. Put them into a saucepan, allowing a tablespoonful of butter and a half teaspoonful of salt to each pint. Add four tablespoonfuls of stock to the given quanti...
-Beefsteak Smothered With Mushrooms Recipes
Wash a dozen good sized mushrooms, either Lactam or Agarici, also wash and remove the pores from half a dozen good sized beefsteak mushrooms, cutting them into slices. Put all these into a baking pa...
-Boleti Recipes
These are more palatable baked or fried. Wash the caps and remove the pores. Dip the caps in beaten egg, then in bread crumbs, and fry them in smoking hot fat; oil is preferable to butter; even suet w...
-Hydnum Recipes
As these mushrooms are slightly bitter, they must be washed, dried, and thrown into a little boiling water, to boil for just a moment; drain, and throw away this water, add a tablespoonful of butter, ...
-Clavaria Recipes
Wash, separating the bunches, and chop or cut them rather fine, measure, and to each quart allow a half pint of Supreme sauce. Throw the clavaria into a saucepan, cover, and allow it to stew gently fo...
-Puff-Balls Recipes
To be eatable, the puff-balls must be perfectly white to the very center. Pare off the skin; cut them into slices; dust with salt and pepper. Have ready in a large, shallow pan a sufficient quantity o...
-Morchella Recipes
Select twelve large-sized morels; cut off the stalks, and throw them into a saucepan of warm water; let them stand for fifteen minutes; then take them on a skimmer one by one, and drain carefully. Cho...
-General Recipes
In the following recipes one may use Agaricus campestris, silvi-cola, arvensis, or Pleurotus ostreatus, or sapidus, or Coprinus comatus, or any kindred mushrooms. The Agaricus campestris, however, are...
-Chapter XXII. Chemistry And Toxicology Of Mushrooms
By J. F. Clark. Regarding the chemical composition of mushrooms, we have in the past been limited largely to the work of European chemists. Recently, however, some very careful analyses of American m...
-Chemistry And Toxicology Of Mushrooms. Continued
Water Like all growing plants, the mushroom contains a very large proportion of water. The actual amount present varies greatly in different species. In the above table it will be seen that Polyporus...
-Nutritive Value Of Ten Pounds Of Several Foods
Proteids. Fats. Carbohydrates. Calories. Cost. Calories For One Cent. a. Beef (round)...... 1.87 .88 - 7200 $1.50 48....
-Choline
This alkaloid is of wide occurrence in the animal and vegetable kingdoms. It has been isolated from Amanita muscaria, A. pantherina, Boletus luridus, and Helvetia esculenta. It is not very toxic, but ...
-Muscarine
This is the most important because the most dangerous alkaloid found in the mushrooms. It is most abundant in Amanita muscaria, it is also found in considerable quantity in Amanita pantherina, and to ...
-Phallin
The exact chemical nature of this extremely toxic substance is not certainly known, but it is generally conceded to be of an albuminous nature. That it is an extremely deadly poison is shown by the fa...
-Helvellic Acid
This very deadly poison is sometimes found in Helvetia esculenta Persoon (Gyromitra esculenta), particularly in old or decaying specimens. It has been studied and named by Boehm. It is quite soluble i...
-Chapter XXIII. Description Of Terms Applied To Certain Structural Characters Of Mushrooms
By H. Hasselbr1ng. In fungi, as in higher plants, each organ or part of the plant is subject to a great number of variations which appeal to the eye of the student, and by which he recognizes relatio...
-The Pileus
The pileus or cap is the first part of a mushroom which attracts the attention of the collector. It is the fleshy fruit body of the plant. This, like all other parts of the mushroom, is made up, not o...
-The Gills
The gills or lamellce are thin blades on the under side of the pileus, radiating from the stem to the margin. When the pileus is cut in halves the general outline of the gills may be observed. In outl...
-The Stem
The stem is usually fixed to the center of the pileus, but it may be eccentric, i. e., fixed to one side of the center, or entirely lateral. When the stem is wanting the pileus is sessile. With regard...
-Chapter XXIV. Analytical Keys. Class Fungi. Sub-Class Basidiomycetes
Plants of large or medium size : fleshy, membranaceous, leathery, woody or gelatinous; growing on the ground, on wood or decaying organic matter ; usually saprophytic, more rarely parasitic. Fruiting ...
-Family Agaricaceae
Pileus more or less expanded, convex, bell-shaped; stipe central or nearly so ; or the point of attachment lateral, when the stipe may be short or the pileus sessile and shelving. Fruiting surface usu...
-Fungi and Mushroom Glossary
Abbreviations : cm. = centimeter (about 2 1/2 cm. make one inch). mm.= millimeter (about 25 mm. make 1 inch). = one micron (1000 = 1 mm.). Adnate, said of the gills when they are attached squarel...
-Fungi and Mushroom Glossary. Continued
Hymenomycetes Hymenomycetes, the subdivision of the Basidiomycetes in which the fruiting surface is exposed before the spores are ripe. Hymenophore Hymenophore, the portion of the fruit body which ...









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