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The Mushroom Book | by Nina L. Marshall



A popular guide to the identification and study of our commoner fungi, with special emphasis on the edible varieties

TitleThe Mushroom Book
AuthorNina L. Marshall
PublisherDoubleday, Page & Company
Year1904
Copyright1904, Doubleday, Page & Company
AmazonMushroom Book
image 1

With Many Illustrations In Color And Black And White Photographed From Nature By J. A. & H. C. Anderson

Amanitopsis parcivolvata, Pk. See page 55.

Amanitopsis parcivolvata, Pk.

Coprinus Comatus

Coprinus Comatus.

Courtesy of Agricultural Experiment Station, Cornell

-Preface
The author of this book makes no claim to the discovery of the facts presented. The material has all been drawn from monographs written by men who have made specialties of the different divisions of f...
-Chapter I. The Homes And Habits Of Fungi
For centuries epicures have used certain fungi for food. The Greeks and Romans esteemed them highly, and gave a great deal of consideration to favourable times and places for gathering them, and to ch...
-Chapter II. The Relation Of Fungi To Other Plants
A classification or orderly arrangement of material collected for study is indispensable to true pleasure and profit. The nature student must classify both his specimens and the knowledge he may obtai...
-Chapter III. From Spore To Mushroom
The way in which a spore grows into a fungus plant is very simple: (1) The spore is a single cell, and when it is in a warm, moist place it swells. (2) The cell absorbs food through its cell wal...
-Chapter IV. The Key
What A Key Is, And Why A Name Is Desirable A key in the study of botany is a guide by which a student may trace a specimen until he finds a name for it. Having found a name, he may learn from books...
-Order Phallales. Stinkhorns
Spores borne on a more or less deliques-c e n t mass (gleba), which is at first enclosed in an egglike sac (perid-ium), but at maturity is elevated on an elastically expanding receptacle. II Recept...
-Order Lycoperdales
Peridium sessile. No sterile base. Peridium opening by an apical mouth. Peridium sessile, with sterile base. Upper surface breaking into fragments from above downwards. Peridium splitting int...
-Order Agaricales
[1] Spores borne on upper portions. [1] Spore - bearing surface normally (1st) provided with cap and central stem. Club - shaped, or forming masses of erect branches rising from a comm...
-Families
Clavariaceae. Page 98. Agaricaceae. Pages 32-40. Hydnaceae. Page 41. (2d) Bracket-like. (3d) Resupinate. Spores borne on the interior of pores or tubes or labyrinthine passages....
-Families. Continued
Lamelae adnate (a) or sinuate (b). Stem fleshy. Lamellae de-current on the stem. Stem fleshy. Stem with cartilaginous rind. Pluteus. Page 87. Entoloma. Page 88. Clitop...
-Chapter V. Fungi With Gills Genus Amanita
The fungi with gills all have this characteristic in common-that they bear their spores on radiating plates or lamellae. Their family name, Agaricacece, is derived from a typical member of the family,...
-Chapter V. Fungi With Gills Genus Amanita. Continued
Fly Amanita (poisonous). (Amanita muscaria, L.). White-spored Series Fly Amanita (Poisonous) Amanita muscaria Cap or Pileus - Orange red to pale yellow or almost white. The young plant...
-Genus Cantharellus
The members of the genus Cantharellus differ from all other gill-bearing fungi in that the gills are in the form of shallow folds growing down the stem. The folds are generally narrow and forked or br...
-Genus Amanitopsis
The genus Amanitopsis has white spores, the gills free from the stem, and at the base of the stem a volva, the remains of the wrapper which enclosed the young plant. There is no annulus or ring on the...
-Genus Mycen A
The members of this genus have white spores ; no volva nor annulus ; lamella: thin, with acute edges ; gills with a little bay cut out near the stem, sinuate, and the stem with a cartilaginous rind. C...
-Genus Lentnus
The genus Lentinus has white spores, no annulus, and no volva. The stem is central or lateral, and the lamellae are normally toothed on their margins. The species are leathery, fleshy, and tough; will...
-Genus Pleurotus
In the genus Pleurotus the stem is attached to the cap at some point to one side of the centre. The stem may be on the very margin of the cap, or may be wanting altogether. The three species to be men...
-Genus Hygrophorus
The members of this genus may be recognized by their moist caps and by the waxy nature of their gills, which usually grow downward on the stem (decurrent), and are not very closely placed side by side...
-Genus Armillaria
The members of this genus have white spores, and the gills attached by the inner extremity to the stem. The stem has a collar, but no wrapper at the base. The name is derived from the Latin armilla, a...
-Genus Lepiota
(See Plate Facing Page 64) The members of this genus have the gills free from the stem, and have no wrapper remains at the base of the stem. In some species the cap or pileus has the surface scaly,...
-Genus Marasmius
The genus Marasmius belongs to the white-spored series. The plants are small, and wither and shrivel in dry weather, to revive again when wet. The gills are thin, and have acute edges. The generic ...
-Genus Collybia
The members of this genus have white spores, and the lamellae with thin edges attached to the stem by their inner extremity. The stem has a cartilaginous rind; that is, it is hard and of a tough textu...
-Genus Panus
(See Plate Facing Page 145) The members of this genus are leathery plants, with the stems lateral or wanting. The gills are simple, not forked, and the spores are white. Panus stypticus is common ...
-Genus Trogia
But one American species is reported, this is small and leathery, brownish in colour, with the spore-bearing surface white. The lamellae are obtuse on their edges, and are not hairy The spores are whi...
-Genus Schizophyllum
The members of this genus have white spores and a leathery pileus, with the lamellae hairy and grooved, or split. Schizophyllum commune is common on twigs or branches. It varies from 1/2 to 2 inches a...
-Genus Omphalia
The members of this genus have white spores, and the gills growing down on the stem. They have a hard, tough rind to the stem, which distinguishes them from the genus Clitocybe, which has fleshy stems...
-Genus Russula
The genus Russula may usually be recognised by its brittle character, added to its fleshy stem and the fact that the lamellae are usually joined to the stem. Bright clear reds and purplish hues prevai...
-Genus Clitocybe
The members of the genus Clitocybe have the spores white, no volva nor annulus, the gills with thin edges not notched on the edge near the stem, and generally decurrent. Clitocybe laccata (Edible) ...
-Genus Tricholoma
The members of genus Tricholoma have white spores, and no collar on the stem. The gills are attached to the stem, and are notched on the edge at or near the stem. Masked Tricholoma (Edible) Tric...
-Genus Agaricus
The genus Agaricus includes all brown-spored species which have free gills and a stem with a collar. The distinctive features of several edible species may be quite satisfactorily seen by reference to...
-Genus Hypholoma
This genus has brown spores, and no volva at the base of the stem. The veil remains as a fringe attached to the margin of the pileus, but is not always apparent in old specimens; no portion remains as...
-Genus Pholiota
The members of this genus have rusty spores, and an annulus on the stem. There are about twenty known species, and some of these are edible. Fat Pholiota (Edible) Pholiota Adiposa (See Plate Fac...
-Genus Cortinarius
This genus contains many species which are distinguished by the rusty yellow colour of their spores and by the webby character of the veil. It is of the utmost importance in identifying species of Cor...
-Genus Pluteus
The members of the genus Pluteus are fleshy fungi with pink spores, and gills free from the stem. They have no volva or wrapper about the young plant, and no ring or annulus on the stem. Eleven specie...
-Genus Clitopilus
The members of this group have neither volva nor annulus. The gills grow downward on the stem, the spores are pink, and the stem is fleshy, without a hard and tough rind as in Eccilia. There are fourt...
-Genus Coprinus. Ink Caps (Edible)
The genus Copriiuis may be readily recognised from the fact that the spore-bearing plates dissolve to an inky fluid soon after the spores mature. An amateur mushroom hunter may feel perfectly safe ...
-Genus Gomphidius
This genus has black spores. The lamellae are waxy, and grow downward on the stem. Genus Psathyrella The members of this genus are fleshy fungi, with black spores. They have no annulus, and the ...
-Genus Lactarius
A milky or coloured juice exuding from the broken gills of a fungus marks it as a Lactarius. The species are mostly stout and fleshy, the cap resembling an inverted cone ; the gills are more or less d...
-Chapter VI. Fungi With Teeth
Hydnaceae The fungi with teeth are so called because, instead of bearing their spores on the surface of gills and pores, they bear them on the surface of awl-shaped teeth, which project downward. T...
-Genus Hydnum. Spreading Hydnum (Edible)
Hydnum repandum (See Plate Facing Page 103) Cap or Pileus - Fleshy, fragile, moist, smooth or somewhat scaly in mature specimens. Variable in colour ; light red, pale buff, or rusty yellow. Convex,...
-Chapter VII. Fairy Clubs And Coral Fungi - Clavariaceae
The fairy clubs and coral fungi belong to the family Clava riacece. They are fleshy fungi of upright growth, which have their spore-bearing surface exposed on the apices of branching or simple club-li...
-Chapter VIII. Fungi With Pores. Boletaceae. Polyporaceae
The fungi with pores naturally divide into two groups. The perishable fleshy fungi with pores easily separating from the cap and from each other make the family Boletaceae. The perishable fleshy fungi...
-Genus Fistulina
The genus Fistulina contains one notable species, Fistulina hepaiica, so called from its resemblance to a liver. In its early stages it somewhat resembles a strawberry, and later it may Bo-le-ta'-c...
-Genus Boletinus
The spore-bearing surface of the genus Boletinus is composed of broad, radiating lamellae connected by numerous narrow partitions so as to form large angular pores. The tubes are not easily separable ...
-Genus Boletus
The species in the genus Boletus are numerous, and many are extremely beautiful. They are distinguished from the other pore-bearing fungi by the fact that their tubes are easily separable from each ot...
-Genus Merulius Merulius lacrymans
The simplest of these Polyporacece is the dry-rot fungus, Merulius lacrymans. The food-seeking portion consists of fine white threads, mycelium, which penetrate the woodwork of buildings, causing it t...
-Genus Polyporus
The genus Polyporus and the genus Trametes have the pores closely packed and united to together. In Trametes the uniting substance is the same as the substance of the cap, but in Polyporus the uniting...
-Genus Lenzites Polyporus Circinatus
(See Plate Facing Page 112) Polyporus circinaius quite often has one cap within another. The caps are thick, round, without zones, velvety, and of a rusty-yellow colour. The lower surfaces of the ...
-Genus Trametes
Trametes pini is brown, and grows on pines and other cone-bearing trees. Trametes cinnabarina is bright red, and common on birch and cherry. Trametes suaveolens is white, and grows on willows. ...
-Genus Lenzites
Lenzites betulina The Lenzites betulina has a somewhat corky, leathery cap, firm, and without zones, woolly and pale; the margin of uniform colour; the lamellae radial, somewhat branching, and comi...
-Genus Daedalea
The genus Daedalea has the spore-bearing surface in the form of winding and labyrinthine lamellae, so that instead of pores there are irregular branching slits on the under surface. These fungi are no...
-Genus Favolus
The genus Favolus has but few species ; one is very common on beech and hickory trees. Favolus areolarius has a lateral stem. The cap is depressed, and has a smooth, creamy-white upper surface, with l...
-Chapter IX. Gelatinous And Other Fungi
Jew's Ear, or Judas's Ear (Edible) Hirneola auricula-Judce The Jew's ear is a gelatinous fungus which is so lobed and folded as to resemble a human ear. It is this resemblance to an ear which has s...
-Chapter X. Offensive Fungi - Order
Phallales The Phallales are all terrestrial fungi; that is, they are found growing on the ground, and not on logs and trees. They are interesting, but too offensive to attract any but the most cour...
-Genus Phallus Stinkhorns
The genus Phallus may be readily distinguished by the cylindrical shape of the spore receptacles and the intolerable odour. No one with his sense of smell developed would think of eating the members o...
-Genus Dictyophora
The genus Dictyophora differs from the genus Phallus in having a veil suspended from the apex of the stem, underneath the pileus or cap. Dictyophora Ravenelii Stem - Tapering at both ends. Ve...
-Family Clathraceae
The members of the family Clathraceae. have a volva similar to the volva of the Phallaceoe. The volva ruptures, and the receptacle issues in a similar manner. The members of this family have the spore...
-Chapter XI. Puffballs. Order Lycoperdales
The pouch fungi include all fungi which have their spores or seeds in closed chambers until maturity - that is, until they are fully ripe and ready to be scattered by winds or animals. Collectively, t...
-Genus Lycoperdon
The Lycoperdons, or true puffballs, produce within the ball vast numbers of dust-like spores mingled with elastic threads. When the ball is compressed, the rind or peridium bursts at the summit to for...
-Genus Calvatia
The Calvatias are puffballs of large size, all with thick cordlike mycelium rooting from the base. They all eject their spores through irregular openings in the upper part of the peridium, and they al...
-Genus Bovista
In the genus Bovista the rind or peridium opens by an apical mouth, as do the species of Lycoperdon, but the species of Bovista have no sterile base. They are puff-balls of small size, growing in fiel...
-Genus Bovistella
The genus Bovistella contains but one species. Bovistella OhiensiS (Edible) (See Plate Facing Page 128) Peridium or Pouch - Globose or broadly obovoid, sometimes much depressed, wrinkled underneath...
-Genus Geaster
Earth-stars The Geasters or Earth-stars are the most picturesque forms of the puffballs. At first they are sunk deep in the soil, and are connected with it by abundant thread-like mycelium, which i...
-Genus Calostoma
This genus has but three known American species. The plants are remarkable in structure and substance. The spore mass or gleba lies at the centre of a base, and is in its young stages surrounded by fo...
-Order Nidulariales
The members of this order, Nidulariales, or bird's-nest fungi, are curious fungi of small size. They resemble, when mature, tiny birds' nests containing eggs, as the pouch in which the spores are deve...
-Order Sclerodermatales
The puffballs of the order Sclerodermatales have the rind or peridium thick. The spores remain in the peridium until maturity, when they escape from an irregular opening in the rind. The species are n...
-Genus Scleroderma
Least Earth-Star {Geaster minimus, Schw. Nat. size-. Water-Measuring Earth-Star (Geaster hygrometricus, Pers. Nat. size). Bird's Nest. (Cyatkus vernicosus, D. C. Nat. size) See pa...
-Chapter XII. Spore-Sac Fungi - Ascomycetes
All the fungi which belong in the class Ascomycetes develop their spores in little membranous sacs called asci. These asci are, as a rule, collected, together with slender empty asci, called para-phys...
-Order Tuberales - Truffles
The order Tuberales contains the truffles, which are subterranean fungi, ranging in size from an acorn to a good-sized potato. The asci or spore-sacs are formed on the interior of the fungus, the wart...
-Order Hypocreales
The order Hypocreales contains certain fungi which are parasitic on other fungi, and also on insects, in the genus Cordyceps there is a club-like form about an inch long, and of a rich red colour, whi...
-Order Spheriales
(See Plate Facing Page i 16) The Xylaria pictured is a woody fungus which is common, growing on logs or at the bases of trees or stumps. The collections of asci {perithecid) are fully imbedded in t...
-Order Pezizales - Cup Fungi
The Pezizales or cup fungi, which are typically disk or cup-shape, comprise an extensive group, and vary in size from forms scarcely visible to the naked eye to forms several inches in diameter. One g...
-Order Helvellales - Earth Tongues
The order Helvellales contains the fleshy spore-sac fungi which have the spore-bearing body, the ascoma, open from the earliest stage of its development. Family Geoglossaceae The family Geogloss...
-Genus Spathularia
The genus Spathularia has the spore body flattened and growing down both sides of the stem. Velvety Spathularia Spathularia vellltipes (See Plate Facing Page 132) Spore Body - Flattened, tawn...
-Genus Vibrlssea
Spathularia clavata Spore Body - Clear yellow, shaped like a spatula, sometimes tinged with red. Obtuse or cleft at the apex, the surface wavy, the margin crisped, growing down the stem some distan...
-Genus Geoglossum
The genus Geoglossum has the spore body simple, erect, and club-shaped, and entirely black. The spore surface is terminal. Geoglossum hirsutum Geoglossum hirsutum is black, dry, and everywhere v...
-Genus Vibrissea
The genus Vibrissca contains fungi with vertical and simple stems, and horizontal caps with their thick margins rolled in toward the stem. The spore-sacs are borne on the upper surface. Vibrissea t...
-Genus Mitrula
The genus Mitrula has the spore body erect, black or bright coloured, and dry, spatulate, or cylindrical, often compressed laterally. The spore-bearing surface is sharply distinct from the scaly or me...
-Family Helvellaceae-Morels
A second family Helvellaceae contains three important genera, Morchella, Gyromitra, and Helvetia, in which are the largest and most highly prized spore-sac fungi known. They are distinguished from the...
-Genus Gyromitra
The genus Gyromitra contains seven species. These have the ascomata distinctly stalked, and the upper surface covered with gyrose folds. The largest spore-sac fungi belong in this genus. Gyromitra ...
-Genus Morchella
The genus Morchella has the cap covered with a network of blunt ridges enclosing irregular depressed spaces. The spore-sacs are developed in both ridges and depressions. All the species when young are...
-Genus Helvella
The genus Helvella contains twelve species. They all have lobed, irregular, or saddle-shaped caps, which are fleshy, and attached to the stem at the apex. They are contorted in such a way that no two ...
-Chapter XIII. Slime Fungi-Myxo-Mycetes
(See Plate Facing Page 136) Whether the slime fungi are plants or animals is a question not yet decided. They are living organisms which have no chlorophyll, or leaf-green, and which in their veget...
-Chapter XIV. Fungi For The Herbarium
There are no plants more difficult to preserve for an herbarium than the fleshy fungi, and yet my personal observation leads me to believe that there are many people who would be willing to undertake ...
-Remarks
Collector's Outfit. - For collecting fungi there is nothing better than a cheap splint basket with a cover. The size will depend upon the ambition and strength of the collector. In addition, a chisel ...
-Chapter XV. Fungi For The Table
Before you attempt to use fungi for the table be sure that they are edible; the consequences which follow a mistake are too serious to warrant any risks. Unless you are experienced in making careful o...
-Authorities Consulted
Atkinson. Studies and Illustrations of Mushrooms, I, II. Bull. Cornell Univ. Expt. Station, 138: 337-366 f. 87-112, 1897. 168: 491-516, . 83-97. 1899. Burnap. Notes on the Genus Calostoma. Bot. Gaz...
-Note
It is customary, when writing the name of a fungus for scientific purposes, to append the name of the author who first published the appellation. The author's name, for convenience, may be abbreviated...









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previous page: Weeds And Wild Flowers | by Lady Wilkinson
  
page up: Flora, Herb, Mushroom and Plant Books
  
next page: Studies of American Fungi: Mushrooms, Edible, Poisonous, Etc.