Small, nearly unbranched shrubs, lemon-yellow when cut. Twigs terete, moderate, smooth; pith large, round, continuous. Lateral buds solitary, sessile, ovoid-oblong, compressed and flattened against the stem, with about 3 scales; terminal buds much larger, fusiform, terete, with about 5 scales. Leaf-scars alternate, low, slightly curved, more than half encircling the twig; bundle-traces about 11; stipule-scars none.

1. X. simplicissima Marsh. Shrubby Yellowroot. (X. api-ifolia L'Her.). Stems clustered, 3-6 dm. high, glabrous; twigs gray; buds red-brown. Damp thickets, mostly in the mountains, New York to West Virginia, south to Alabama and Florida (Fig. 97).

Fig. 97. Xanthorhiza simplicissima

Fig. 97. Xanthorhiza simplicissima.