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Principal Poisonous Plants Of Canada | by Faith Fyles



The subject of poisonous plants is at all times naturally one of very great importance in every agricultural country, particularly in a country of such vast extent of fertile land as ours. It is more so, at the present time when the world-wide cry for food has turned the thoughts and intentions of farmery and stockowners to the necessity for greater production. In this greater effort, there is the danger of pasturage being restricted and overstocked and animals forced to eat plants they would otherwise avoid.

TitlePrincipal Poisonous Plants Of Canada
AuthorFaith Fyles
PublisherDominion Of Canada
Year1919
Copyright1919, Dominion Of Canada
AmazonPrincipal poisonous plants of Canada

By Faith Fyles, B.A., Assistant Botanist

Dominion Of Canada (department of agriculture )

Dominion Experimental Farms

Bulletin No. 39

Second Series

Published by direction of Hon S. F. Tolmie, Minister of Agriculture, Ottawa, Ont. Ottawa

J. De Labroquerie Tache Printer To The King's Most Excellent Majesty

The Honourable,The Minister of Agriculture, Ottawa.

Sir, - I have the honour to transmit herewith the manuscript of Bulletin 39 of the Second Series, on Poisonous Plants.

This bulletin has been prepared by Miss Faith Fyles, Assistant Botanist, and is profusely illustrated from drawings made by the author. These, with the many careful descriptions given of the various poisonous plants, make the bulletin a valuable one to those engaged in botanical studies.

The main object in its publication, however, is to give the farmer and stock-raiser a means of recognizing and identifying such poisonous plants as may occur on his pastures and ranges. Symptoms of poisoning by these plants are also described and methods of treatment indicated.

It is hoped that the bulletin will do much to lessen the present heavy annual loss among the various classes of live stock from the above cause*

I have the honour to be, Sir,

Your obedient servant,

E. S. Archibald, May 14, 1919. Director Dominion Experimental Farms.

-Key Of Leaves
1, Jack-in-the-pulpit; 2, Green Dragon; 3, Arrow Arum; 4, Water Arum; 5, Skunk Cabbage; 6, Death Camas; 7, Smooth Camas; 8, False Hellebore; 9, Blue Flag; 10, Slender Nettle; 11, Western Nettle; 12...
-Introduction
The subject of poisonous plants is at all times naturally one of very great importance in every agricultural country, particularly in a country of such vast extent of fertile land as ours. It is more ...
-General Hints For The Eradication Of Poisonous Plants
Wherever plants known to be poisonous are found, some effort should be made to destroy them, or prevent at least their multiplication. In most cases they may be simply dealt with as weeds, as annuals,...
-Ergot Family (Hypocreaceae) - Ergot Of Rye (Spermcedia Claims [D.C.] Fries.) (Claviceps Purpurea Tul.) - Plate I
Common Names Ergot of rye is generally known and spoken of as ergot; but occasionally in European literature, reference is found to spur kernels, blight kernels, and spurred rye. Description ...
-Fern Family (Polypodiaceae) - Bracken (Pteris Aquilina L.) (Pteridium Aquilinum [L] Kuhn.) - Plate II
Common Names This plant is seldom known by any other name than common brake or bracken, sometimes modified to lady-bracken, fern-brake, or hog-brake. Plate II. Photo - F. Fyles. Bracken. Descr...
-Horsetail Family (Equisetaceae) - Common Or Field Horsetail (Equisetum Arvense L.) - Plate III (To Face Page 12)
Common Names Among the popular names of horsetail are the following, which are typical and descriptive: pine-top, meadow-pine, scouring rush, bottle brush, snake-pipes, jointed rush, and cornfield ho...
-Grass Family (Gramineae) - Darnel (Lolium Temulentum L.) Plate IV
Common Names Darnel is also called poison-darnel, white darnel, bearded darnel, and tare. The French name for it is Ivraie, derived from ivre meaning drunken, as when brewed with barley it acts a...
-Arum Family (Araceae) - Jack-In-The-Pulpit (Arisaema Triphyllum [L.] Torr.) - Plate VI
Common Names The Jack-in-the-Pulpit is also known as the Indian-turnip, three-leaved arum, dragon-turnip, devil's ear, bog-onion, and starch-wort. Plate VI. Photo - F. Fyles. Jack-in-the-pulpit...
-Green-Dragon (Arisaema Dracontium [L.] Schott.) Arum Family
The green-dragon is a near relative of Jack-in-the-Pulpit, and posesses similar acrid qualities. It may be distinguished by its solitary leaf, which is characteristically cut into seven to eleven oblo...
-Skunk Cabbage (Symplocarpus Foetidus [L.] Nutt.) Arum Family. (Spathyema Foetida [L.] Raff. )
Common Names The skunk cabbage is known by a variety of names, the most familiar being polecat-weed, swamp-cabbage, clump-foot cabbage, stinking poke. Description It is a perennial herb with a very...
-Lily Family (Liliaceae) - Zygadenus Or Death Camas (Zygadenus Venenosus Rydb.) (Toxicoscordion Gramineum Rydb) - Plate VII. Fig. B
Common Names Zygadenus is popularly known by a great variety of names, death camas being, perhaps, the most familiar. Other common names are poison-onion, poison-lily, poison-sego, camass, hog's-pota...
-Smooth Camas (Zygadenus Chloranthus Rich.) Lily Family. (Anticlea Elegans [Pursh] Rydb.) - Plate VIII
Common Names Smooth camas is also known by other common names, the most familiar being swamp-camas, cow-grass, green lily. Description It is a much more attractive plant than the death camas. It gr...
-False Hellebore (Veratrum Viride Ait.) Lily Family - Plate VII. Fig. A. (See Facing P. 20.)
Common Names Veratrum is commonly known as American white hellebore, Indian poke, devil's-bite, crow-poison, itchweed, and swamp-hellebore. Description False hellebore is a tall coarse perennial...
-Iris Family (Iridaceae) - Blue Flag (Iris Versicolor L.)
Common Names The blue flag is also known as the wild iris, poison-flag, water flag, fleur-de-lis, flower-de-luce. Description The blue flag is an erect, perennial herb from one to two feet high, sp...
-Nettle Family (Urticaceae) - Slender Nettle (Urtica Gracilis Ait.) Plate IX
Common Names The only other English name that seems to be given this species is tall wild nettle. Plate IX. Photo - F. Fyles. Slender Nettle. Description The slender nettle is an erect perenn...
-Pokeweed Family (Phytolaccaceae) - Poison Poke (Phytolacca Decandra L. ) Phytolacca Americana L. ) - Plate XI
Common Names Poison poke is sometimes called scoke, pokeweed pigeon-berry, and garget. Plate XI Photo - F. Fyles. Poison Poke. Description It is a tall, stout, evil-smelling, perennial herb f...
-Pink Family (Caryophyllaceae) - Purple Cockle - (Agrostemma Githago L.). Plate XII. (See P. 27-29.)
Common Names The purple cockle is also popularly known as corn cockle, corn rose, and corn campion. Description Agrostemma means the-crown-of-the-field. The richly coloured flowers waving amon...
-Soapwort. (Saponaria Officinalis L.) Pink Family
The soapwort or bouncing bet is a coarse, rather showy perennial plant, with large clusters of pale rose-coloured flowers, sometimes double, which is common along roadsides, in old gardens and neglect...
-Buttercup Family (Ranunculaceae) Cursed Crowfoot (Ranunculus Sceleratus L.)
Common Names Other popular names given to this Ranunculus are biting crowfoot, celery-leaved crowfoot, blisterwort, and among its French names are Mort au vaches, Herbe sardonique. Description The ...
-Tall Buttercup (R. Acris L.) Buttercup Family
The tall or meadow buttercup is an erect, hairy, perennial plant two to three feet high. The basal leaves are long-stalked, three to seven parted, each division cleft into linear crowded lobes. The up...
-Pasque Flower - Anemone Patens L. Var. Wolfgangiana (Bess.) Koch) (Pulsatilla Patens (L.) Mill.) - Plate XIV. Buttercup Family
Common Names This lovely flower is known under a variety of names, the most familiar being prairie anemone, American Pulsatilla, Easter-flower, wild crocus, prairie-smoke, and sand-flower. Pasque...
-Marsh Marigold. (Caltha Palustris L.) Buttercup Family
Common Names The marsh marigold is also called cowslip, kingcup, meadow-gowan, water-dragon, may blobs, soldiers-buttons, water-goggles. Description The marigold, a perennial, is one of the showy m...
-The Larkspurs (Delphinium Sp.) Buttercup Family - Plate XV
Common Names The larkspurs are sometimes referred to in literature as knight's spurs, lark's-heel, lark's-claw and stavesacre. In France the common names are pieds d'alouette, herbe Sainte-Athalie, f...
-White Baneberry (Actaea Alba [L.] Mill.) Buttercup Family
Common Names Other names given to the white baneberry are coral and pearls, white beads, necklace-weed, white berry. Description The white baneberry is a perennial herb with large, wide-spreading, ...
-Red Baneberry (Actaea Rubra [Ait.] Willd.) Buttercup Family - Plate XVI
Common Names The red baneberry is also known as the poison-berry, snake-berry, toadroot, herb-christopher. Description Like the white baneberry, this plant is a perennial with large, wide-spreading...
-Moonseed Family (Menispermaceae) - Canada Moonseed (Menispermum Canadense L.) Plate XVII. - Frontispiece
Common Names The Canada moonseed is sometimes called yellow parilla or sarsaparilla, and vine-maple. Fruiting Plant of Canada Moonseed, and Seed. Description One of our most beautiful perennial...
-Barberry Family (Berberidaceae) - Blue Cohosh (Caulophyllum Thalictroides [L.] Michx.) - Plate XVIII
Common Names The blue cohosh is also called papoose-root, squaw-root, blue ginseng, yellow ginseng, blueberry-root. Plate XVIII. Blue Cohosh Description The blue cohosh is a perennial from on...
-May Apple (Podophyllum Peltatum L.) Barberry Family - Plate XIX
Common Names The may apple is recognized by a variety of popular names, of which the most common are mandrake, umbrella-plant, duck's foot, devil's apple, vegetable calomel, wild or ground lemon. Pl...
-Poppy Family (Papaveraceae) - Bloodroot (Sanguinaria Canadensis L.) Plate XX. (Facing P. 52.)
Common Names The bloodroot is known by a variety of names, among which are red-indian paint, sweet slumber, redroot, turmeric, and snake-bite. Bloodroot - Plate XVIII Description The bloodroot ...
-Celandine (Chelidonium Majus L.) Poppy Family - Plate XXI
Common Names This species is sometimes called the greater celandine to distinguish it from the lesser celandine common in the Old Country. It is also known as the wart-flower, devil's-milk, and swall...
-Pulse Or Pea Family (Leguminosae) - Lupines (Lupinus Sp.) - Plate XXII
Common Names The lupines are known under a variety of names, the most familiar being wild peas, wild beans, blue pea, blue bean, old-maid's bonnets, Quaker-bonnets, and sundial. Description Most of...
-Loco Weed. (Oxytropis Lamberti Pursh.) Pea. Family. Plate XXIII. (Facing P. 60.)
Common Names The loco weed or stemless locoweed is known among stockmen as crazy weed, rattleweed, loco-vetch, and white loco. - Plate XXIII Description It is a low silky-haired perennial with...
-Spurge Family (Euphorbiaceae) - Sun Spurge - Euphorbia Helioscopia L. Tithymalus Helioscopia (L.) Hill
Common Names Among many other English names given to the sun spurge we find wartweed, sunweed, turnsole, churnstaff, cat's-milk, wolf's-milk. Description The sun spurge is a smooth annual plant wit...
-Cypress Spurge - Euphorbia Cyparissias L. Tithymalus Cyparissias (L.) Hill - Spurge Family
Common Names This species is also referred to as the balsam-spurge, graveyard-weed, Bonaparte's-crown, tree-moss, quacksalver's-spurge. Description The cypress spurge is a bright green, smooth pere...
-Cashew Family (Anacardiaceae) - Poison Ivy (Rhus Toxicodendron L.) - Poison-Oak, Poison-Vine and Three-Leaved Ivy - (Toxicodendron Toxicodendron - (L.) Brit.) - Plate XXIV
Common Names Poison-ivy is also recognized under the names poison-oak, poison-vine and three-leaved ivy. Plate. XXIV Photo - F. Fyles. Poison Ivy. Description Poison-ivy is a low shrub which ...
-Poison Sumach (Rhus Vernix L.) (Toxicodendron Vernix (L.) Kuntze) - Cashew Family
Common Names The poison sumach is also well known as the swamp-sumac. It is erroneously called poison elder and poison dogwood. Description The poison sumach is a shrub or small tree from six to tw...
-Mezereum Family (Thymelaeaceae) - Wicopy (Dirca Palustris L.) Plate XXV
Common Names This plant, so useful to the North American Indians, retains some of their original names, as leatherwood, moosewood, swampwood, rope-bark. Plate XXV Photo - F. Fyles. Wicopy. De...
-Mezereon (Daphne Mezereum L.) Mezereum Family
Common Names The popular names by which this poisonous plant is known include spurge-laurel, lady-laurel, paradise plant, mystery-plant, and dwarf bay. Description The mezereon is a small shrub fro...
-Parsley Or Carrot Family (Umbelliferae) - Poison Hemlock (Conium Maculatum L.) Plate XXVI
Common Names This plant, known from early days as hemlock or wild hemlock, has a number of other common names, a few of which are snakeweed, spotted parsley, poison-root, wode-whistle. Description ...
-Water Hemlock (Cicuta Maculata L.) Carrot Family - Plate XXVII
Common Names Other significant names given to this plant are beaver-poison, spotted cowbane, musquash-root, snakeweed, and chil-dren's-bane. Description The water hemlock is a tall perennial herb f...
-Bulbous Water Hemlock (Cicuta Bulbifera L.) Carrot Family - Plate XXVIII
Description The bulbous water hemlock is a slender perennial plant, much branched, growing from one to three feet high. The leaves are divided two or three times into narrow, saw-toothed leaflets. Th...
-Water Parsnip (Sium Cicutaefolium Schrank) Carrot Family - Plate XXX
Common Names This plant is also known as the hemlock water-parsnip. Description The water parsnip is an erect, stout, branched perennial herb from two to six feet high. The lower leaves are long-st...
-Heath Family (Ericaceae) - Mountain Laurel (Kalmia Latifolia L.)
Common Names The most familiar of the English names are broad-leaved laurel, poison-laurel, sheep-laurel, spoonwood, calico-bush. Description The mountain laurel is one of our most attractive shrub...
-Sheep Laurel (Kalmia Angustifolia L.)
Common Names Sheep-laurel is also called lambkill, sheep-poison. wicky, kill-kid, calf-kill. Description The sheep laurel differs from the mountain laurel in its lower stature, in its somewhat narr...
-Dogbane Family (Apocynaceae) - Spreading Dogbane (Apocynum Androsaemifolium L.) - Plate XXXI
Common Names The spreading dogbane is also called honey-bloom, bitter root, wandering milkweed, wild ipecac, rheumatism-weed. Plate XXXI. Photo - F. Fyles. Spreading Dogbane. Description The ...
-Black Indian Hemp (Apocynum Cannabinum L.) Dogbane Family
Common Names This species is known also as wild cotton, rheumatism-root, amy-root. Description The flowers of this species differ from the above in being greenish-white, without perfume. The coroll...
-Milkweed Family (Asclepiadaceae) - Butterfly-Weed (Asclepias Tuberosa L.)
Common Names The butterfly-weed is also known by the nanus pleurisy-root, orange-root, Canada-root, orange swallow-wort, yellow milkweed, Indian-posy, silk-weed. Description The butterfly-weed is a...
-Mint Family (Labiatae) - Ground Ivy (Nepeta Hederacea (L.) Trev.) (Glechoma Hederacea L.) - Plate XXXIII
Common Names Ground ivy is also known by the following English names: Gill-over-the-ground, haymaids, creeping charlie, robin-runaway, hedge maids. Description Ground ivy is a low, creeping and tra...
-Nightshade Or Potato Family (Solanacece) - Bittersweet (Solatium Dulcamara L.) Plate XXXIV
Common Names This species of Solanum is sometimes called the woody nightshade, bittersweet-nightshade, scarlet berry, violet bloom and fever-twig. Description The bittersweet is a climbing, somewha...
-Three-Flowered Nightshade (Solarium Triflorum Nutt.) Nightshade Or Potato Family
Common Names This species is also called the spreading or prairie nightshade, the cut-leaved nightshade, and wild tomato. Description The three-flowered nightshade is a low spreading annual, widely...
-Common Nightshade (Solatium Nigrum L.) Nightshade Or - Potato Family - Plate XXXV
Common Names The common nightshade, equally well known as the black nightshade, is also sometimes referred to as stubble-berry, deadly, and garden nightshade. Description The common nightshade is a...
-Black Henbane (Hyoscyamus Niger L.) Nightshade Or Potato - Family - Plate XXXVI
Common Names The black henbane is sometimes referred to as the foetid nightshade, insane root, and poison-tobacco. Plate XXXVI. Photo - F. Fyles. Black Henbane. Description It is an annual or...
-Thorn Apple (Datura Stramonium L.) Nightshade Or - Potato Family - Plate XXXVII
Common Names Among the variety of names given to this species of Datura, the best known are Jamestown or Jimson weed, stramonium, devil's apple, mad apple, stinkwort. The Indians speak of it as the ...
-Lobelia Family (Lobeliaceae) - Indian Tobacco (Lobelia Inflata L.) Plate XXXVIII
Common Names The Indian tobacco is frequently called wild tobacco, asthma-weed, gag-root. Description The Indian tobacco is a hairy annual, with an erect branched stem from one to three feet high. ...
-Composite Or Thistle Family (Composite) - White Snakeroot (Eupatorium Ageratoides L. F.) (Eupatoriwn - Urticaefolium Reich.) - Plate XXXIX
Common Names The white snakeroot is also known by the names white sanicle, Indian sanicle, squawweed, richweed, white top, and deer-wort-boneset. Description This attractive, slender perennial of t...
-Sneezeweed (Helenium Autumnale L.) Thistle Family - Plate XL
Common Names Among the popular names by which sneezeweed is known are false sunflower, swamp sunflower, and yellow ox-eye. Description The sneezeweed is an erect, soft, downy or nearly smooth peren...
-Ragwort (Senecio Jacobaea L.) Thistle Family. Plate XLI. (Facing P. 104)
Common Names Other names given to this weed are British ragwort, tansy-ragwort, staggerwort, and stinking-willie. Description The common ragwort is a perennial (or biennial) with short, thick roots...
-Bibliography
Barton, B. S., Collections for an Essay towards a Materia Medica of the United States, 1798-1804, Bul. No. 1 Lloyd Library, 1900. Bessey, C. E., Poisonous Weeds. Rept. Nebraska Agr. Exp. Sta., 16, pp...









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previous page: A Guide To The Poisonous Plants And Weed Seeds Of Canada And The Northern United States | by Robert Boyd Thomson, H. B. Sifton
  
page up: Flora, Herb, Mushroom and Plant Books
  
next page: Fodder And Pasture Plants | by Geo. H. Clark, M. Oscar Malte