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Elements Of The Theory And Practice Of Cookery



Recipes making quantities suitable for a small family are given, as being the most practicable from all points of view. The individual recipe is not adapted to home use, nor is it so easy to multiply as it is to divide the ordinary recipe to make the latter meet the requirements of individual practice.

TitleElements Of The Theory And Practice Of Cookery
AuthorMary E. Williams
PublisherThe Macmillan Company
Year1916
Copyright1916, The Macmillan Company
AmazonElements Of The Theory And Practice Of Cookery; A Textbook Of Domestic Science For Use In Schools

Elements Of The Theory And Practice Of Cookery

A Text-Book Of Domestic Science For Use In Schools

New Edition - Revised and Enlarged

By Mary E. Williams

Late Director Of Home Economics In The Public Schools Of New York City And Director Of The Department Of Home Economics In New York University

And Katharine Rolston Fisher

Formerly Instructor In Home Economics In The Public Schools Of New York City

-Prefatory Note
The continued demand for this textbook has prompted this new edition. In preparing it, the first aim has been to bring the subject-matter up to date; the second, to adapt it for use in both rural and...
-Notes To Teachers
The plan of this textbook does not assume the employment of any one particular method of teaching cookery. The book can be used equally well whether the pupils work individually or in groups. Recipes...
-Introduction Homes And Home-Making
The Business Of Home-Making Have you ever thought what an important business home-making is? The welfare of a nation is founded upon the welfare of families, and the welfare of a family depends upon ...
-Chapter I. Preparatory Lessons. Section 1. Fire And Fuels. A Study Of Combustion
Food is cooked chiefly by means of heat. Heat is commonly obtained by burning something. Let us learn what we can about fire. Experiments. A. Into a clean bottle pour a little clear lime-water; cork...
-The Coal Range
Any cooking apparatus which burns coal is a range. The older term cooking-stove is sometimes applied to a small range on legs. A range is set, if it is built into the wall; portable, if it stands ou...
-How To Make A Fire
Cleaning The Fire-Box 1. Close all the dampers except the oven dampers. 2. Brush the ashes from the edge of the fire-box into the fire-box, and put the lid on. 3. Turn the grate over, so as to dump...
-How To Manage A Fire
For a steady hot fire, rake out the ashes with a poker from beneath the grate; or, if the grate is a revolving one, give it one turn. Fill the fire-box three-fourths full of coal. Open the draft slide...
-The Gas Range
To start a fire three things are required: oxygen, fuel, and some means of raising the fuel to its kindling-point. Cooking by gas is easy and cleanly. It saves space, unnecessary heat, and with care,...
-Fuels
Anything that unites readily with oxygen may be used as fuel. Fuels common in American households are coal, wood, coal-oil (kerosene), and gas. The Story Of Coal Coal, by composition and structure, ...
-The Fireless Cooker
A fireless cooker is a contrivance for completing the cooking of food by retaining in it the heat received from a short cooking over a fire. It consists of a box with a hinged lid, containing mineral ...
-Section 2. Water
Water In Nature Water exists not only in the ocean and in other bodies of water, but in plants, in the bodies of men and animals, and even in rocks and other things that seem quite dry. Air contains ...
-A Study Of The Effect Of Heat On Water
Experiment Put some water in a saucepan or other vessel. Take its temperature with a thermometer. Set it on the stove or over a Bunsen burner, and hold the thermometer so that its bulb is below the s...
-Some Facts About Water To Be Remembered
1. A solid dissolved in water will, in most cases, be found at the bottom of the vessel after the water has evaporated or boiled away. 1 Exception Water expands just before it freezes; hence the bur...
-Section 3. Cleanliness And Cleaning
Pure air and pure water we have seen to be simply clean air and clean water. The importance of cleanliness is better understood than ever before, now that scientists have shown the close relation betw...
-Tools And Materials For Cleaning
The necessary cleaning-tools for a kitchen, aside from those used for dishes and the sink, are broom, dust-pan and short broom, scrubbing-brush, floor-cloths and other cleaning cloths. Get a well-made...
-Chemical Cleansers
Soap. How it cleans. - It is often hard to clean and polish by main force, with the aid of water, tools, and abrasives only. What do we depend upon to start the dirt? Soap. And why does soap clean s...
-Cleaning Metals
Experiments A. Let a piece of iron lie wet in the air for several hours. Pour a little water into an old worn tin dish; allow a few drops of water to fall on a steel knife-blade; and let dish and kni...
-Care Of Floor And Woodwork
Care Of Kitchen Floor A linoleum-covered floor is the most easily kept clean. Next best is a hard-wood floor. Wipe or brush up at once anything spilled. Cover grease-spots on wood or stone with flour...
-The Sink And Its Fittings
Construction Of The Sink; The Trap Porcelain and enamelled iron are the best materials for a sink. Wood is least desirable, because hardest to keep clean. The space below the sink should be left open...
-Care Of Dishes
Dish-washing need not be an unpleasant task if these rules are observed: 1. Use hot soapy water. 2. Change the water frequently. 3. Have the dishes free from crumbs and scraps before beginning to wash...
-Care Of Kitchen Towels And Cloths
Dish-cloths, dish-towels, and sink-cloths should be hemmed. Lint and threads from unhemmed cloths are likely to obstruct the sink drain. Use each cloth only for the purpose for which it is intended. ...
-Care Of Stove And Zinc
If anything is spilled on the stove or range, wipe it off at once with soft paper. Use sapolio to remove anything not taken off by the paper. To keep it black and clean, wipe it daily with a few drops...
-Care Of Refrigerator
The waste-pipe of the refrigerator or ice-box should empty into a pan, or into the open end of a properly trapped drain-pipe. Daily Care Keep the inside of the food chamber dry. See that no food rem...
-Care Of Articles Used In Cleaning
Rinse scrubbing-brushes and dry them in the sun, bristles down. Hang up brooms, when not in use, by screw-eyes or strings tied into the handles. Wash dusters often. Do not waste soap by leaving it in ...
-Personal Cleanliness
Observe the following rules in both the school kitchen and the home kitchen: - 1. When cooking, or doing other housework, wear a washable gown short enough to clear the floor by at least two inches. ...
-Section 4. Definitions, Tables, Rules
Food And Cooking; How And Why Food Is Cooked Food is whatever nourishes the body. Cooking is making food ready to eat. This is done chiefly by means of heat. Food is exposed to the action of heat,...
-Principal Methods Of Cooking
1. Broiling: cooking over a glowing fire. 2. Roasting (toasting) : cooking before a glowing fire. 3. Baking: cooking in an oven. Direct application of heat. Application by means of heated air. 4....
-Table Of Measures
3 teaspoonfuls make............ 16 tablespoonfuls of any dry ingredient make . . . . 12 tablespoonfuls of liquid make......... 4 cupfuls make............... 1 tablespoonful 1 cupful 2 1 cupful 1...
-Directions For Measuring
1. Sift, or shake up lightly with a spoon, all dry materials (flour, baking-powder, etc.) before measuring them. Always sift mustard. 2. All measures are to be taken level unless otherwise directed.1...
-Pure Foods And Honest Weights And Measures
Pure food means honest food. It would not be honest to can spoiled fruit, to mix cracker crumbs or sawdust with spice, to substitute a cheaper oil such as cottonseed for olive-oil, or to color or blea...
-Section 5. Household Chemistry
Physical And Chemical Changes How many changes take place every day in common things! The burning candle changes from an opaque white solid to a translucent liquid, and then to a mixture of invisibl...
-Chapter II. Some Starchy Plants. Section 1. The Potato
Baked Potatoes Select medium-sized potatoes, scrub them well, and dry them. Bake them in a shallow pan on the rack in a moderately hot oven until soft (usually about forty-five minutes). Turn them oc...
-A Study Of A White Potato
What is a potato? a root? Let us see if by examining one we can find out. On its surface are little scars, called eyes. If a potato be buried in the ground in mild weather or kept in a warm, dark pl...
-A Study Of A White Potato. Continued
Potatoes Also Contain 4. More mineral matter than most other foods. Lying mostly just beneath the skin. 5. Other substances in such small quantities as to be of little food va...
-How To Cook Potatoes
1. Potatoes must be cooked till soft all through. Hard compact granules of raw starch, enclosed by walls of woody fibre, are not easily acted upon by the digestive juices. The object of cooking potato...
-Section 2. Starch Sources Of Starch
Experiments A. Put one heaping tablespoonful of cracked or rolled oats with about one cupful of cold water in a small bowl; rub the oatmeal between your thumb and fingers for a few minutes, and obser...
-A Study Of Starch
Starch Tinder The Microscope Under the microscope starch is seen to consist of irregularly shaped granules formed of layers folded around a central point. Starches from different plants differ from o...
-Starch As A Fuel For The Body
The Work Of The Body How does eating help to keep us alive? Life involves activity; work, play, activity of any sort, makes us hungry; food gives us energy to go on working and playing. Any activity ...
-Section 3. Cereals; Breakfast Foods
Cereals, or grains, are grasses, the seeds of which are used for food; among the most important are wheat, Indian-corn or maize, oats, rice, rye, and barley. From these are prepared various breakfast ...
-Directions For Cooking Cereals
1. Stir the cereal gradually into the required quantity of boiling salted water, and cook over hot water until done. (See table on p. 79.) 2. To save time and fuel, soak uncooked cereals (Irish oats,...
-Helpful Hints About Breakfast Cereals
1. Avoid eating undercooked cereals. 2. Have cooked cereal stiff enough to be chewed. If too soft, it is swallowed without being mixed with saliva. 3. Sugar, a carbohydrate, is not needed with cerea...
-Section 4. Wheat, The King Of Cereals. A Study Of Wheat. - Part I
Wheat is capable of cultivation in a greater variety of soils and climates than any other grain, and is also better suited for bread-making and for use as a constant article of diet. It has been calle...
-Chapter III. Eggs And Milk. Section 1. Eggs; Albumin
A hen's egg consists of shell, two layers of white, yolk, and two membranes, one a silky skin between shell and white, the other, so thin as to be invisible, between white and yolk. Two twisted cords ...
-The Care And Preservation Of Eggs
Eggs should be laid in clean nests and kept clean. As the shells are porous, washing may contaminate the eggs. But of course, dirty eggs must be washed, and any egg may be wiped with a clean damp clo...
-Albumin. Protein
White-of-egg consists chiefly of water and a substance called albumin (from a word meaning white). Albumin in its natural state is clear and soluble in water. In white-of-egg it seems sticky because e...
-Albumin. Protein Recipes. Part 2
Soft-Cooked Eggs For two eggs allow one pint of water; for each additional egg three-fourths of a cup of water additional. Put the water in a saucepan, let it come to the boiling-point, lower the egg...
-Albumin. Protein Recipes. Part 3
Egg In A Nest Separate the white of an egg from the yolk. Beat the white stiff and dry; put it in a cup or small bowl, making in the top of it a hollow the size of the yolk; into this hollow slip the...
-Section 2. Milk; Butter; Cheese
What the seed is for the seedling, and the egg for the unhatched chick, the milk of an animal is for its young - that is, a perfect food. Why it comes nearer than eggs do to being a perfect food for a...
-A Study Of Milk
Analysis Of Milk; Experiments A. With a spoon remove the cream from one pint of milk that has stood overnight. Drop a little of the cream on unglazed paper. Examine the paper after it has dried for a...
-A Study Of Milk. Continued
Cottage Cheese Thick sour milk, 1 qt. Butter, 2 t. Salt, 1/4 t. Cream, enough to make cheese as moist as desired. Heat the milk in a pan set on the back of the stove or set into another pan of hot...
-Butter
Cream Fat naturally exists in milk in little spheres or globules about 1/1500 of an inch diameter. When fat or oil is suspended in this way in a liquid it is said to be emulsified. Experiment To Ill...
-Cheese
Practically all cheese is now factory-made. A few kinds are similar to cottage-cheese. But most cheese is made by adding rennet to soured, or ripened milk. The firm curd thus formed is cut up, warme...
-Chapter IV. Bread. Section 1. Quick Breads; Baking-Powders
Heretofore the dishes that you have cooked have consisted of one principal ingredient, with small quantities of others added to make this more palatable. In cooking you have had to consider the nature...
-Bread
The Griddle A soapstone griddle is best. Never grease it. Grease an iron griddle with a piece of beef suet on a fork, or drippings applied with a swab made by tying a strip of clean cloth around the ...
-A Study Of Baking-Soda And Baking-Powder
Experiments A. Dissolve half a teaspoonful of baking-powder in about two tablespoonfuls of water. What happens? B. When the solution stops bubbling (effervescing) heat it (in a saucepan on the stove ...
-Batters And Doughs
Dough means that which is moistened; batter means that which is beaten. One measure of liquid with one to one and a half measures of flour makes a thin or pour-batter. One measure of liquid to t...
-Helpful Hints About Mixing And Baking Quick Breads
1. There are several good methods of mixing batters. As a rule, sift salt, flour, and baking-powder together. Butter may be cut into the flour, or melted and added after the other liquid. 2. Mix quic...
-Muffin Recipes
Recipes Plain Muffins Flour, 2 c. Salt, 1/2 t. Baking-powder, 4 t. Butter, 1 tb. Milk, 1 c. sc. Mix and sift the flour, baking-powder, and salt. Stir in enoug...
-Bread Recipes
Quick Nut Bread Graham flour (unsifted), 2 c. White flour, 1 c. Light brown sugar, 2/3 c. Baking-powder, 1 t. Baking-soda, 1 1/8 t. Salt, 1 t. Buttermilk or sour milk, 2 c. Nut meats, cut fine, 1 c. ...
-Section 2. Flour. A Study Of Wheat. - Part II. (See P. 80.)
Analysis Of Wheat-Flour A. Make half a cup of flour into a very-stiff dough with a little water. Knead this several minutes on a very-fine strainer set in a bowl of water. Examine what is left in the...
-The Manufacture Of Flour
Cleaning If you ever visit a flour-mill you will be shown the wheat as it is shovelled from cars into bins, mixed with other seeds, and with dirt, sticks, and nails. It is freed from these by being r...
-Making Bread
Having explained the milling process, the miller may show you a quantity of yellow disks the size of a pinhead. These are germs flattened out by the smooth rollers, and sifted out. If this were not do...
-Section 3. Macaroni And Other Flour Pastes
Macaroni, spaghetti, vermicelli, and other pastes are to Italians what our various kinds of bread are to us. The best macaroni is made from semolina, the purified middlings of durum or macaroni wheat,...
-Section 4. Yeast Bread; Yeast
The perfect loaf of bread is regular in shape, has a crisp crust, evenly browned, and a tender, but rather firm crumb of even grain. It tastes sweet and nutty, smells fresh, and keeps good for several...
-Yeast Bread Recipes
Plain Bread Rolls, Finger Rolls, And Bread Sticks Shape these from white bread-dough after its first rising. For bread rolls, cut or pull off pieces the size of an egg; draw up and pinch the edges to...
-A Study Of Yeast
The Growth Of Yeast; Experiments A. Mix one tablespoonful of flour, one of sugar,1 and three-fourths of a yeast-cake to a smooth paste with four or five tablespoonfuls of cold water. Divide the mixtu...
-A Study Of Yeast. Continued
Recipe For Home-Made Yeast Flour, 1/4 c. Sugar, 1/4 c. Salt, 1 tb. Raw potatoes, 3. Boiling water, 1 to 2 qt. Compressed yeast, 1 cake, dissolved in 1 c. of water, or Liquid yeast, 1 c. Pare potat...
-Helpful Hints About Bread-Making
1. To keep the dough from cooling, mix and knead it quickly. In cold weather, warm the flour, the board, and the mixing-bowl. 2. The longer the batter is beaten, the less kneading the dough will requ...
-Bread-Making Recipes
Parker House Rolls Flour, 4 c. Salt, 1 t. Butter, 2 tb. Scalded milk, 1 c. Compressed yeast, 1 cake, mixed with Lukewarm water, 1/4 c. Sugar, 1 tb. Extra butter. Reserve one-half cupful of flour. P...
-Chapter V. Food In Its Relation To Life. Section 1. Body stuffs And Food stuffs
Body, Organs, Tissues, Cells The body of a human being, like the bodies of most animals and plants, consists of parts called organs. The special work of each organ is called its function. What is the...
-Section 2. Diet
Food Requirements We eat not merely to keep our bodies alive, but to make them as fit as possible to serve us in all the activities of life. Food requirements vary with age, work, climate, and other ...
-Practical Points About Feeding A Family
1. Brain workers (teachers, students, clerks, etc.) need easily digestible food; muscle workers (working-men, etc.) find coarser food better suited to their needs. 2. No one meal need provide the dif...
-Chapter VI. Meat, Fish, And Poultry. Section 1. Meat: Its Structure, Composition, And Cooking
Although in different parts of the world the flesh of many different animals is used for food, we depend mostly upon that of cattle, sheep, and hogs. The flesh and certain edible organs of these anima...
-A Study Of The Structure And Composition Of Lean Meat
A. Examine a piece of round of beef, noting its fibrous appearance. Can you see any fat among the fibres? Scrape with, a knife first one side, then the other, of one of the pieces of meat from which t...
-How To Cook Tender Meat: Broiling, Roasting, Boiling
When the whole piece of meat is to be eaten, we desire so to cook it as to retain all the juice. This is done by exposing it for a short time to heat intense enough to harden the albumin on its surfac...
-How To Cook Tender Meat: Broiling, Roasting, Boiling. Continued
Maitre D'Hotel Butter Butter, 1/4 c. Pepper, f.g. Lemon-juice, 1 tb. sc. Parsley, cut fine, 2 t. Salt, 1/2 t. Cream the butter and stir in the other ingredients. Tomato Sauce (For Meat) Tomato...
-Directions For Roasting Beef
Time Ten or twelve minutes to the pound. The smaller the piece of meat the longer the time per pound. In properly roasted beef, the outside fat is brown and crisp, the lean brown to a depth of not m...
-Directions For "Boiling" A Leg Of Mutton
Time Fifteen minutes to the pound. Cover the leg of mutton with boiling water, let this come to the boiling-point again, and boil five minutes; skim off the coagulated albumin (scum); then simmer ...
-Uses For The Gelatinous Parts Of Meat: Soup-Stock And Soups
Soup An Economical Dish Soup, by some people mistakenly thought to be an expensive luxury, is generally a means of economy, since a soup, tempting and nutritious, can be made of the cheapest material...
-Directions For Making Soup-Stock
Raw meat and bone, about 2 lb. Cooked meat, or meat and bone, about 1 lb. Cold water (fresh, or from cooked meat or vegetables), 3 qt. To each pound of meat and bone allow of onion, carrot, cut int...
-A Study Of Bone
A. Examine the ends of a shin-bone sawed in two. Where is the bone the hardest? Where is it spongy? Where soft? The soft substance is marrow. Try to bend or break the bone. Observe the tough fibrous c...
-Helpful Hints About Making And Using Soup-Stock
1. Have all trimmings sent home by the butcher to be used in making stock. 2. On account of its strong, fatty flavor, avoid using much mutton in stock containing other meat. 3. For white stock use v...
-Meat Soups
The following soups may be made from either cleared or uncleared stock. Season them to taste before serving. For macaroni and vermicelli soups, beef stock is preferable; for rice and barley soups, mut...
-Gelatin Jellies
Gelatin is used for making many sweet jellies and desserts, also such jellies as mint jelly and tomato jelly. One ounce of gelatin will stiffen from three and one-half to four cupfuls of water in ordi...
-How To Cook Tough Meat: Stewing And Braising
We have seen that tender meat is cooked chiefly to improve its color and flavor, not to make it more digestible; but tough meat requires first of all that its connective tissue be softened to enable t...
-Helpful Hints About Braising And Stewing
1. Remnants of cooked meat may be stewed, either by themselves, or with uncooked meat. 2. Only the best portions of stew meat should be browned; very coarse or gristly pieces may be simmered by thems...
-Warmed-Over Dishes (Rechauffes 1)
Delicious meat dishes may be prepared from remnants of cooked meat such as thriftless housekeepers throw away and unskilful ones warm over carelessly in a frying-pan. Learn to combine acceptably what...
-Section 2. Meat : Cuts, Marketing, And Food Value
Section 1 has made us familiar with a number of cuts of beef and mutton, and with ways of cooking them. In the market we find all these cuts and many more; in order to select wisely from them the hous...
-A Table Of Information About Cuts Of Meat
Beef Name and Location of Cut How Sold Character and Quality op Meat Prepared for Eating Loin. All between first rib and rear end of hip-bone. In slices: a, one to ...
-A Table Of Information About Cuts Of Meat. Continued
Veal Name and Location of Cut How Sold Character and Quality of Meat Prepared for Eating Loin. Includes what in beef is loin and rump. Sliced into chops, or sold in...
-Section 3. Poultry
Of the birds we use for food, fowls and chickens, turkeys, and tame ducks and geese are classed together as poultry. Wild fowl, like wild animals used for food, come under the head of game. Among game...
-Directions For Stuffing And Roasting Chicken
With a spoon put stuffing into the neck-opening. Do not cram the cavity full, as the crumbs will swell. Put the rest into the other end of the bird. Draw the neck-skin down and lay over upon the back....
-Section 4. Fish And Shell-Fish
The value of fish as food is likely to be better appreciated as meat becomes scarcer and higher priced. The government preserves the supply of fish for the people by collecting spawn (fish-eggs) and r...
-A Study Of The Structure Of A Fish
A. How does a fish breathe? Find the gills, - red fringes back of the head. As the water taken into the fish's mouth passes out through the gills, the air dissolved in it gives oxygen to the blood. B....
-Stuffing For Baked Fish
Stale bread crumbs, 1 c. Melted butter, 1 tb. Salt, 1/2 t. Pepper, f.g. Onion juice, a few drops. Parsley cut fine, 1 tb. Mix the ingredients in the order given. This recipe makes stuffing for a f...
-Directions For Baking A Fish Whole
Time Forty-five to sixty minutes. Fill the cavity with stuffing, allowing it room to swell slightly. Sew the slit over and over with strong thread, taking stitches deep enough not to tear out. If th...
-Directions For Broiling Fish
Time For small fish, five to ten minutes; for large fish, fifteen to twenty minutes. Use a close-barred double wire broiler. Grease it when hot with salt-pork rind. See that the fish is wiped dry; s...
-Directions For Boiling Fish
Time Varies with fish from thirty to forty-five minutes. To the water in which the fish is to be boiled, add the juice of half a lemon or one-fourth of a cupful of vinegar. Place the fish on a fish-...
-Fish Recipes
Fish Sauces Drawn Butter Butter, 1/3 c. Flour, 3 tb. Water, 1 1/2 c. Salt, 1/2 t. Pepper, f.g. Mix flour, salt, and pepper with one-half the butter, pour on the water, and stir over the fire until...
-Table Of Information About Fish
Salt-Water Fish Kind Appearance Length Weight How Sold How Prepared for Eating Cod. Color light green, with narrow white stripe down the side; spo...
-A Study Of The Structure Of An Oyster. (See Pl XI.)
Examine an oyster from which the flat shell has been removed. Has it any bones? How is its body protected? Observe the thin membrane (mantle) covering the oyster; its fringed edges form the gills. Fin...
-Chapter VII. Fats And Oils. Section 1. Fatty Foods
What foods have we found to contain fat? What uses have we made of fat in cooking? What are the uses of fat in the body? (Pp. 72, 140, 141.) Distinction Between Fats And Oils We know that fats and o...
-Section 2. Cooking In Fat: Frying And Sauteing
The difficulty of cooking food in fat without having it greasy makes this the least desirable method of cooking. Nevertheless, certain kinds of food are good fried, and, if properly fried, need not be...
-Croquettes
Materials Used The usual croquette mixture consists of two parts of chopped cooked meat, or cooked, flaked, well-seasoned fish, to one part of thick white sauce. Cheese, macaroni, and some kinds of v...
-Sauteing
Sauteing, often incorrectly called frying, is cooking in a small quantity of fat. It is a slower method than deep frying, less healthful, because the food cannot be kept from absorbing grease, and...
-Suggestions About Using Fat In Cooking
1. Save all bits of butter from the table to use in cooking. 2. It is often well to substitute a cheaper fat, wholly or in part, in recipes calling for butter. Good cake can be made with butterine, c...
-Chapter VIII. Fruits And Vegetables. Section 1. Fruits A Study Of An Apple
Apples may be said to be to other fruits what potatoes are to other vegetables. But what do we know about apples? For instance, what makes them hard? Grate and squeeze one as you did the potato, and y...
-Suggestions About Eating Fruit
1. Fruit, fresh, canned, or dried, should be used daily. It is not fruit, but bacteria in fruit not in proper condition that causes sickness. 2. Eat only sound, ripe fruit raw. Fruit slightly under-r...
-How To Prepare And Seeve Fresh Fruit
Fresh Fruit Must Be Clean Fruit and vegetables exposed for sale on the streets and sidewalks gather dirt, besides decaying quicker than they would if kept protected and cool. The law should require d...
-Cooked Fruit
Cooked fruit may be served at any meal. It is one of the best and most wholesome of desserts. Fruit loses some of its sweetness in cooking. All fruits, except the sweetest, require, when stewed, the ...
-Cooked Fruit. Continued
Lemonade Lemon juice, 1/2 c. Water, 1 qt. Sugar, 1 c. One Way Mix lemon juice and sugar, add the water, and stir until the sugar dissolves, strain, and ice. The Best Way Have the water boiling,...
-Section 2. Vegetables
We eat as vegetables the fruits, or seed-vessels, of some plants; of others the root, the leaves, or some other part. Vegetables, like fruits, contain base-forming acids and mineral matter of nutriti...
-Study Of A Carrot
Examine and analyze a carrot just as you did the potato, and make a table showing its structure and composition. Is it a root or a tuber? 1 Where is it most woody? In the spring you may be able to ge...
-Studies Of Growing Vegetables
X. Make drawings of a pea-plant or a bean-plant at different stages of growth, noting how the two leaves that first appear (cotyledons) shrivel as the seedling grows. Explain this (p. 81). 2. A. Cove...
-How To Cook Vegetables
Since most vegetables are eaten largely for the sake of the salts dissolved in their juices, it is a great mistake to think only about getting them soft, and not about saving these juices. Vegetables ...
-Table Of Information About Vegetables
Vegetable Selection ; Care after Buying Preparation for Cooking Method of Cooking Time Serving Remarks Asparagus. Stalks should be green; the ends sho...
-Suggestions About Cooking And Serving Vegetables
1. Strong-flavored vegetables may have to be cooked in a generous supply of water to make them palatable. As this wastes them, it is better to buy mild-flavored ones. The less well-supplied the table ...
-Section 3. Cream-Of-Vegetable Soups (Purees)
A cream-of-vegetable soup is a white sauce to which has been added the juice or pulp of some vegetable. A soup made quite thick with pulp is sometimes called a puree. Vegetables too old or too tough t...
-Cream-Of-Vegetable Soups (Purees). Continued
Vegetable Soups Seasoning Other Ingredients Special Directions for Preparing the Soups For General Directions, see pp. 256, 398. Salt, 1 t. Pepper, 1/8 t. Soda, f.g. ...
-Fruits And Vegetables
Press the pulp through a sieve, vegetable press, or strainer, using the cooking water to help wash the pulp through. Heat milk and pulp together, stir into them the binding material (cornstarch mixed ...
-Section 4. Salads
The salad, or salet, of olden times was always a dish of green herbs dressed with vinegar and other condiments. Lettuce is still eaten by some people with vinegar and sugar. But the salad of to-da...
-Salad-Making
Four Things Essential In Salad-Making A salad must be cold, the greens in it crisp; the ingredients in the dressing carefully proportioned and blended so that it shall be neither oily nor acid, and t...
-Salad Recipes
Plain French Dressing Salt, 1/2 t. Pepper, 1/4 t. Olive oil, 3 tb. or more. Vinegar (malt, wine, or tarragon), 1 tb. Onion juice (if desired), or rub the salad bowl with a clove of garlic. Stir t...
-Chapter IX. Sugar And Sweets. Section 1. Sugar - Candies A Study Of Sugar
Review a study of starch, p. 68. A. Examine granulated white sugar, and (if possible to obtain it) some solid glucose. In which are the particles most distinct? Taste each. Which is the sweeter? If s...
-Candy-Making
Syrup made by boiling sugar and water is used for most kinds of candy. The longer it boils, the thicker and hotter it becomes. At 220 F. a drop of syrup let fall from the spoon spins itself into ...
-Section 2. Cakes And Desserts
Compare the recipes for Egg Muffins (p. 113), Cottage Pudding, and Standard Cake (p. 277). Cake, you see, is only bread, with more shortening, sweetening, and eggs, in proportion to the flour. Cottage...
-Directions For Mixing Cake
Note Read Hints on How to Work, p. 52, Batters and Doughs, p. 1ll, and Helpful Hints about Mixing and Baking Quick Breads, p. 112. What is said about quick breads applies equally to cakes. See...
-Cake Recipes
Cottage Pudding Butter, 2 tb. Sugar, 1/2 c. Egg, 1. Milk, 3/4 c. Baking-powder, 3 t. Flour, 1 1/2 c. Salt, 1/4 t. Sift flour, baking-powder, and salt together. Beat the egg well, and beat the sug...
-Points To Be Remembered In Cake-Making
1. Pastry flour makes the tenderest cake, but bread flour gives satisfactory results. If you substitute bread flour for pastry flour in a recipe calling for the latter, use but seven-eighths of the me...
-Desserts
The making of elaborate desserts, except for special occasions, is a waste of time. A rich pudding is unsuitable after a hearty dinner; fruit is the best dessert after such a meal. Jellies, custards, ...
-Desserts. Continued
Plain Soft Custard Scalded milk, 2 c. Egg-yolks,1 3. Sugar, 4 tb. Salt, 1/8 t. Vanilla, 1/2 t. Beat the eggs slightly, beat into them the sugar and salt, and stir in slowly the hot milk. Pour into...
-Section 3. Ice-Cream And Water-Ices
In summer no other dessert is so welcome as ice-cream. With bread and butter, it is a sufficient lunch on a hot day. Ice And Salt Form A Freezing Mixture When ice and salt are mixed, a double action...
-Directions For Freezing Cream
Making Ready Put the ice into a strong canvas bag, or wrap it in a piece of stout cloth, and pound it fine. Use ice-cream salt; fine salt will not do. Scald can, dasher, and cover. Fit the can into t...
-Section 4. Pastry - Pies
Review Biscuit, p. 105, and Chap. 7, Fats and Oils. Tender, crisp pastry is more easily digestible than that which is tough or soggy. To make pastry flaky all the ingredients must be kept cold, and ...
-Chapter X. The Preservation Of Food. Section 1. Microorganisms In Relation To Food
Vast Hordes Of Tiny Toilers Are Working In Our Service Night And Day To Keep The World Wholesome And All The Races Of Beings Supplied With Life-Stuff T. M. Prudden. We have learned that mould, yeast...
-A Study Of Bacteria
Experiment In Growing Bacteria Expose a little clear, cool soup-stock to the air for a few minutes; then cover it with a piece of clean glass, set it aside in a rather warm place, and look at it ever...
-Section 2. Canning
Review composition and food value of fruits, p. 229; fruits must be clean, p. 231; and text on Sugar, Chap. 9, Sec. 1. Fruit and tomatoes are the easiest foods to can because they are the easiest to ...
-Section 3. Jam And Jelly; Pectin
Before the principles of sterilizing were understood, fruit was preserved by cooking it with its weight of sugar. Such preserves are rarely made now. But jams, jellies, fruit butters, and marmalades...
-Helpful Hints About Jam And Jelly Making
1. Jam may be made from fruit not perfect enough to can, from fruit slightly overripe, and from small pieces left after canning. 2. Jam may be cooked in a fireless cooker. This saves watching and sti...
-Chapter XI. Food For Babies And The Sick. Section 1. Food For Babies
Review text on Milk in Chap. 3, Sec. 2, also Chap. 10, all of Sec. 1, and text relating to cleanliness and sterilization in Sec. 2. The Best Food For A Baby Is Its Mother's Milk This is as perfectly...
-Preparing The Baby's Food
To do this right, three things are essential: Good materials, extreme cleanliness, perfect accuracy. Proper utensils help to insure cleanliness and accuracy. List of utensils needed : - 8 or 10 feed...
-List Of Ingredients Commonly Used In Modifying Milk
Note The word milk, used alone, means ordinary milkman's milk containing about 4 % of fat. Milk Whole milk Top milk Skim milk Gruel Oatmeal Barley Sometimes other cereals Sugar Cane-sugar Mil...
-Mixing The Food
A recipe for modified milk is called a formula. Formulas for babies of different ages and weights have been worked out, according to several different systems. We cannot attempt to master any one of t...
-Changing The Proportion Of Fat In Milk
Increasing The Proportion Of Fat The amount of fat in milk is indicated by calling it a 4 % milk, or a 5 or 6 % milk, according to the percentage of fat it contains. Most babies cannot digest milk co...
-Pasteurized Milk For Babies
If you cannot be sure that the milk is from healthy cows and exceptionally clean, it should be pasteurized, boiled, or sterilized. What is the purpose of sterilization? of pasteurization? How would yo...
-Temporary Substitutes For Fresh Milk
Sterilized Milk If the milk must be kept for more than twenty-four hours, or kept without ice, as on a journey, all the spores in it must be killed as well as all the active micro-organisms. (See Bac...
-General Instructions About Feeding The Baby
1. Feed the baby regularly, and not too often. Until the baby is four or five months old, he should, in most cases, be fed six times during the day and once during the night. Convenient feeding hours ...
-Section 2. Food For The Sick
Importance Of Proper Diet In Cases Of Sickness Preparing and administering the patient's food is an important part of a nurse's work. Recovery, in many cases, depends more upon proper food than upon ...
-Recipes For Gruels (Review Chapter II, Sec. 3, Cereals.)
Serve gruel hot in a cup on a small plate or small tray covered with a doily. Oatmeal Gruel Oatmeal, 1/4 c. Cold water, 1 qt. Salt, 1 t. Cook these together in a double boiler for two hours. Pre...
-Egg Preparations (See Chapter III, Sec. 1.)
Raw eggs are often prescribed., Break the egg into a glass, and let the patient swallow it whole. Egg Gruel (Adapted from Mrs. Lincoln's Boston Cook-book.) Egg, 1. Hot milk (not scalded), 1 c. S...
-Milk Preparations
(See Sec. 2 of Chapter III (Eggs And Milk. Section 1. Eggs; Albumin), and paragraphs relating to Yeast in Chapter IV (Bread. Section 1. Quick Breads; Baking-Powders), Sec. 4.) Milk diet may be varied...
-Meat Preparations (See Secs. 1 And 2 Of Chapter VI, Particularly P. 152 And 154.)
Nourishing Beef Tea Lean beef, chopped fine, 1 lb. Cold water, 1 pt. Flavoring: bit of bay-leaf, sprig of parsley, slice of onion, stalk of celery, two or three cloves. (Any or all of these may be u...
-Chapter XII. Tea, Coffee, Cocoa
Review Chap. I, See. 2, Water. We drink to quench thirst. Thirst is the body's demand for water. Water is the best of beverages, other drinks satisfying thirst simply by means of the water they conta...
-Section 1. Tea A Study Of Tea
A. Put a teaspoonful of tea in each of two enamelled-ware saucepans, and pour upon one a cupful of boiling water; upon the other a cupful of water not quite boiling hot. Let them stand five minutes. W...
-Directions For Making Tea
Allow from one to three teaspoonfuls of tea to two cupfuls of water, using less of close-rolled than of coarse, loose teas. When the water boils, scald the pot, put in the tea, and pour in the boiling...
-Section 2. Coffee
A Study Of Coffee A. Compare roasted with unroasted coffee beans, observing differences in color, odor, and taste. Brown a few unroasted beans on a pan or shovel over the fire, and compare them with ...
-Section 3. Cocoa And Chocolate
The Cocoa Tree; Preparation Of The Bean For Market All cocoa and chocolate preparations {Cacao theobroma) are products of the seeds of the cocoa-tree, a native of the tropic parts of America. These s...
-Chapter XIII. The Serving Of Food. Section 1. Table Service
Food tastes better for being nicely served. A tired or delicate person may be unable to eat food placed on smeary dishes set irregularly on a crumpled, spotted cloth, when she would eat heartily of th...
-How To Lay The Table
Table Linen First lay a silence-cloth (felt or thick canton flannel or a quilted pad) to protect the wood and make the table-cloth look and wear better. Lay the table-cloth with its middle crease s...
-General Rules For Waiting On Table
Whether a daughter of the house or a waitress waits on the table, these rules hold good. Prepare for the meal so carefully and during it watch so attentively that nothing will have to be asked for. F...
-General Rules For Dishing Up
1. Have serving-dishes and plates for hot food hot, for cold food cold. To heat a dish quickly, dip it into hot water.1 2. Use dishes suitable in size and shape for the food they are to contain. Use ...
-Section 2. Preparing Meals. A Breakfast
Menu Grape-fruit. Oatmeal. Cream or milk. Soft-cooked eggs. Bacon. Whole-wheat muffins. Coffee. Allow one hour after the fire is well started to prepare this breakfast. For recipes and direction...
-A Dinner
Menu Tomato soup. Roasted leg of lamb with mint sauce. Green peas. Boiled potatoes with parsley. Lettuce with French dressing. Cheesed crackers. Caramel custards. Coffee. Allow two hours to prepar...
-A Luncheon
Scalloped meat (or fish). Baking-powder biscuit. Celery. Baked apples and cream. Gingerbread. Cocoa. Find recipes and directions for making the dishes for this luncheon. Think out and write down di...
-Chapter XIV. Laundering
Note To Teacher This chapter gives an outline of such laundry-work as may be taught in two or three lessons, incident to the work in cookery. It may provide a review of what the pupils have learned a...
-Special Instructions For Laundering Towels, Table-Linen, Sash-Curtains, Cap, And Apron
Washing Put any very soiled pieces to soak. Wash, rinse, and blue, according to directions given above. All may be washed in one water, in the following order: table-linen, dish-towels, side-towel or...
-Chapter XV. Digestion. A General View Of Digestion
What Digestion Is All foodstuffs except water, mineral salts, and two of the sugars have to undergo a process of change called digestion before they can be built into the body. Digestion means taking...
-Where Each Foodstuff Is Digested
Let us follow a meal through the alimentary canal and see what happens to each foodstuff. Digestion In The Mouth In the mouth amylase begins to digest starches, by splitting them into dextrins. If t...
-Table Of 100-Calorie Portions
That quantity of a given food which will supply just 100 calories is called the 100-calorie portion or standard portion. The following table gives standard portions of a number of common foods. It...
-A List Of All Publications Referred To In This Book, With Some Additions. Bibliographies
Langworthy, C. F. State and municipal documents as sources of information for institution managers and other students of home economics. Reprint from Journal of home economics, Feb. 1912. Langworthy, ...
-Periodicals
American food journal. Chi. Monthly $1.00. (Contains synopsis of food laws, passed or pending. Some laws given in full.) Boston cooking-school magazine. 372 Boylston St., Boston. Monthly. $1.00 - . ...
-Pamphlets
(For federal government publications see bibliographies.) American home economics association. Balto. Syllabus of home economics. Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. Cornell reading course for the farm...
-Home Economics In Relation To Life
Beard, Charles A. and Mary Ritter. American citizenship. Mac-millan. 1914. $1.00. (Text-book for high schools. Chapters 2 and 3 in particular show relation of government to food, clothing, shelter, th...
-Science
Bigelow, Maurice A. and Anna N. Applied biology. Macmillaa. 1911. $1.40. Brownlee, Hancock, Fuller, Schon, and Whitsit. First principles of chemistry. Allyn and Bacon. 1907. $1.25. (A high school ch...
-Food Products
Bailey, E. H. S. Source, chemistry, and use of food products. Blakiston. 1914. $1.60. Carpenter, Frank G. How the world is fed. Am. Book Co. 1907. $ .60. (One of a series of industrial readers. Go...
-Food Preparation. Nutrition
Bevier, Isabel and Van Meter, Anna R. Selection and preparation of food. Laboratory guide. Whitcomb and Barrows. 1907. $.75. Chittenden, Russell H. Nutrition of Man. Stokes. 1907. $3.00. Condit, Eliz...
-Household Equipment And Management
Balderston, L. Ray. Laundering. L. Ray Balderston. 1224 Cherry St., Phila. $1.25. Child, Georgie Boynton. The efficient kitchen. Robert M. McBride. 1914. (For equipment.) $1.25. Kinne, Helen. Equipm...
-Care Of Children
Cotton, Alfred C. The care of the child. American School of Home Economics. Chi. 1907. $1.50. Textbook edition. 1910. $1.25. Dennett, Roger H. The healthy baby. Macmillan. 1912. Dennett, Roger H. Si...
-Textbooks
Conley, Emma. Nutrition and diet - a textbook for secondary schools. Am. Book Co. 1913. $.60. (Useful for pupils.) Conley, Emma. Principles of cooking. Am. Book Co. 1914. (Chiefly practical. Has chap...









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