Average Analysis of the Seed of the Six Varieties of Soya Beans.

Water,

7.70

Fibre, ....

4.60

Fresh or

Fat, ....

20.35

air-dry

Nitrogen free extract,

26.15

substance

Protein, ....

35.40

Ash, ....

5.79

100 0

In harvesting, it is better to cut the pods before they are quite mature. If too ripe, they are inclined to burst during the process of driving and carrying.

This bean is an invaluable crop in all planting districts. It can be planted in coconut plantations, to enrich the soil, give fodder to the working cattle, and be a source of profit in supplying food to the natives ; it also helps in keeping down the weeds.

Soya bean meal or cake has been found to be a most excellent food for dairy cows. It increases the quantity of the milk and improves the quality of the butter, giving it a firm texture and thus improving its keeping qualities. Two pounds of meal per day is a fair ration for a dairy cow ; the cake or meal should be first softened in water and well mixed with lucerne or any other forage given.

The following is an analysis indicating its nutritious qualities :-

Cake.

Meal.

Water, ......

12.70

3.80

Oil,.......

11. 07

11.33

Albuminoids, .....

38.52

43 .05

Digestible carbo-hydrates,

26.51

30.77

Woody fibre, .....

5.80

5.45

Mineral waters, .....

5 .05

5.35

Sand and silica, .....

0.35

0.25

Total, ....

100.0

100.0

Cotton-seed oil belongs to the class of semi-drying oils, but has recently come into use as a salad or table oil, as a substitute for lard, and in the manufacture of oleomargarine, the cheaper qualities only passing to the soap factory.

The Americans first bestowed the care on cotton-seed oil which brought it into prominence. As the seed is ginned it is removed to splendid storage accommodation in the mills. Raised to the top of the store by bucket elevators, a screw "conveyor" distributes it wherever available. As required, it drops into another distributor, which transfers the seed to the revolving "boll screen," a cylinder perforated with holes sufficiently large to pass the seed, and retain the bolls, stalks, or other large impurities. From the screen the seed passes to another revolving perforated screen, which separates smaller impurities- e.g., sand, dust, etc.

The clean seed is next conveyed to the "linters," a saw-gin which removes the short lint, thence to the "hullers," an outer cylinder and an inner drum with knives set in both. The "hullers" having broken the shells and partly cut up the kernels, a revolving screen and an oscillating separator or "shaker" eliminate the hulls. The remaining kernels are crushed between heavy rollers, heated, and shaped into cakes, which, wrapped in hair cloths, are packed into presses. The squeezed-out oil is pumped into a settling tank, where any impurities sink to the bottom. The oil cake, which fetches about a quarter of the price of the oil, is used for fattening cattle and exported. Demargarinated cottonseed oil is sometimes called 'winter oil." Kapok oil from the silk-cotton tree is similarly expressed for butter substitutes, but this is largely a Dutch industry.

Sesame or "gingelly" oil, also a semi-drying oil, is bland, nearly colourless, and without smell. It comes from the flat seed of an herb or plant which grows from 2 to 4 feet high, in India, Palestine, Siam, China, Asia Minor, and other sub-tropical countries. The plant is said to have come from the Indian Archipelago, its flowers are yellow or pink in colour, and its seeds vary from white to reddish-brown or black. The seeds contain 50 per cent, of oil, which is used in India for cooking purposes, anointing the body, for illumination, and soap manufacture. Being edible, the oil is used in many tropical countries to flavour bread and cake. The soot obtained in burning the oil is used as one of the ingredients of Indian ink. The Palestine seed is said to be the finest. In Europe it is used as a substitute for olive oil, although it is commercially more important than the latter oil. Marseilles is the greatest importer.

Hempseed.-Among minor edible oils, but of the drying class, those from hempseed and candlenuts deserve a brief notice.

Hempseed oil is produced in large quantities in Russia, and as there is a considerable demand for it on the Continent, deserves greater attention from those of our colonies which could cultivate hemp.

The seed contains from 30 to 35 per cent, of oil, yielding from 25 to 30 per cent, after the extracting process. Of a light green or greenish-yellow colour when freshly extracted, it changes, when kept, to brownish-yellow. The cold-pressed oil only is edible, the remainder is used for burning or for soft soaps, paints, and varnishes. The cake is a highly nutritious cattle food, containing 32.30 of protein.

Candlenuts. - Candlenuts (Aleurites triloba), coming chiefly from Mauritius and Hong Kong, have been found to contain over 60 per cent, of pale brownish-yellow liquid oil in their kernels, and a seed-crushing firm has estimated that the value of this oil should be almost equal to that of palm oil, while the residual cake could be used as a fertiliser. The shells are valueless, therefore the kernels alone should be exported.