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The American Cyclopaedia Vol11 | by George Ripley And Charles A. Dana



The American Cyclopaedia - Popular Dictionary Of General Knowledge. Vol11

TitleThe American Cyclopaedia
AuthorGeorge Ripley And Charles A. Dana
PublisherD. Appleton And Company
Year1873
Copyright1873, D. Appleton And Company
AmazonThe New American Cyclopædia. 16 volumes complete.

The American Cyclopædia

Edited By George Ripley And Charles A. Dana.

Other spellings could be: Cyclopaedia, Cyclopedia, Encyclopædia, Encyclopaedia, Encyclopedia

-Scuppaug
Scuppaug, a spiny-rayed fish of the family sparidoe and genus pagrus (Cuv.); it is also called scup and porgy in some localities. In this family the gill covers are shining and scaly, and unarmed; the...
-Scurvy Grass
Scurvy Grass, a plant of the mustard family, so called originally on account of its supposed antiscorbutic properties, cochlearia officinalis (Lat. cochlear, a spoon, from the shape of the leaves), fo...
-Scurvy, Or Scorbutus
Scurvy, Or Scorbutus, a disease depending upon insufficient and faulty nourishment, which was known to the ancients, but has been more common since long sea voyages have been undertaken. Sea scurvy de...
-Scutari
I. A Town A Town (Turk,skudar; anc. Chrysopolis) of Asiatic Turkey, on the Bosporus, opposite Constantinople and the largest suburb of that city; pop. about 70,000. It is built on several hills, and ...
-Scythe
Scythe, and Sickle, long knives with a curved edge, the former commonly used for mowing grass, bushes, etc., and the latter, called also a reaping hook, for cutting grain. These implements in ancient ...
-Scythia
Scythia, in ancient geography, a vast area, of indeterminate boundaries, in eastern Europe and western Asia. Its native population, according to Herodotus, called themselves Sco-loti. The name Scythia...
-Sea Cat
Sea Cat, the common name of the cartilaginous fishes of the order holocephala and family chimoeroidei. They seem to form a group intermediate between the sturgeons and sharks; the dorsal cord is conti...
-Sea Cucumber
Sea Cucumber, one of the popular names of the holothuria, the highest order of the echinoderms, which are the highest class of radiated animals; the name is derived from their generally elongated and ...
-Sea Horse
I. See Walrus. II. An osseous fish of the order lophobranchs (with tufted gills), of the family of pipe fishes, and of the genus hippocampus (Cuv.). The ordinal and family characters have been describ...
-Sea Kale
Sea Kale, a cruciferous plant, crambe mari-tima (Gr. , a kind of cabbage), which grows upon the western coasts of Europe and on the Baltic and Black seas, and has long been cultivated in European ga...
-Sea Of Anc. Propontis (Marmora)
Sea Of Anc. Propontis (Marmora), a body of water lying between European and Asiatic Turkey; length 172 m., greatest breadth about 50 m. Its N. E. extremity is connected with the Black sea by the Bospo...
-Sea Porcupine
Sea Porcupine, a common name of the osseous fishes of the order plectognathi (with comb-like gills), family diodontidoe or gymno-donts, and genera diodon, tetraodon, etc., so called from the spines wi...
-Sea Raven
Sea Raven, an acanthopterous fish of the bullhead or sculpin family, and genus hemi-tripterus (Cuv.), one of the ugliest of this ugly group. The head is flattened, rough, and spiny; the pectorals are ...
-Sea Serpent
Sea Serpent, a marine animal, by many considered fabulous, said to inhabit chiefly the northern seas, especially about the coasts of Norway and New England. The idea of a sea serpent originated in nor...
-Sea Sickness
Sea Sickness, an affection attended with nausea and vomiting, produced by the motion of a vessel at sea. Similar symptoms are also produced by swinging, waltzing, and riding backward in a coach; but t...
-Seabury
I. Samuel Samuel, an American clergyman, born in Groton, Conn., Nov. 30, 1729, died Feb. 25, 1796. He graduated at Yale college in 1748, studied medicine in Scotland, and then theology, and was ordai...
-Seal
Seal (Ang. Sax. seol), an aquatic carnivorous mammal,- the type of the family phocidoe, constituting the old genus phoca (Linn.), which has been variously subdivided. The group of seals is at once dis...
-Seal (2)
Seal (Lat. sigillum), a piece of metal, stone, or other hard substance on which is engraved some image or device, and sometimes a legend or inscription. It is used for making impressions on wax or lik...
-Seaman
Seaman, a sailor. Seamen may be hired in four ways. 1. They may be employed for a certain voyage and receive a certain proportion of the freight earned. This contract is probably rarely made in this c...
-Sears Cook Walker
Sears Cook Walker, an American mathematician, born in Wilmington, Mass., March 28, 1805, died in Cincinnati, Jan. 30, 1853. He graduated at Harvard college in 1825, taught school for several years nea...
-Seasons
Seasons (Fr. saisons), the quarters of the year, spring, summer, autumn, and winter. These periods are determined astronomically by the apparent movements of the sun (the real movements of the earth) ...
-Sebaldus Jnstinus Brugmans
Sebaldus Jnstinus Brugmans, a Dutch physician and naturalist, born in Franeker, March 24, 1763, died in Ley den, July 22, 1819. The academies of Dijon, Bordeaux, and Berlin awarded prizes to several o...
-Sebastian Brunner
Sebastian Brunner, a German ultramontane author, born in Vienna, Dec. 10, 1814. He was ordained in 1838, and, after holding minor clerical offices, was appointed in 1853 chaplain of the university of ...
-Sebastian De Benalcazak
Sebastian De Benalcazak, the first conqueror of Popayan, New Granada, born about the end of the 15th century at Benalcaz, in Estrema-dura, Spain, died in 1550. He set out as a common sailor in the tra...
-Sebastien Erard
Sebastien Erard, a French manufacturer of musical instruments, born in Strasburg, April 5, 1752, died in Passy near Paris, Aug. 5,1831. He went to Paris at the age of 16, and apprenticed himself to a ...
-Sebastien Leprestre Vauban
Sebastien Leprestre Vauban, marquis de, a French military engineer, born near Saulieu, Burgundy, May 15, 1633, died in Paris, March 30, 1707. In 1651 he enlisted in the army of the prince of Condé, th...
-Seckendorf
I. Veit Ludwig Von Veit Ludwig Von, a German scholar, born near Erlangen, Dec. 20, 1626, died in Halle, Dec. 18, 1692. In 1642 his father, Joachim Ludwig von Seckendorf, was executed for attempting t...
-Second Adventists, Or Adventists
Second Adventists, Or Adventists, a religious sect who believe in the speedy second advent of Christ and the end of the world. They owe their origin as a body in the United States to William Miller. (...
-Secretary Bird
Secretary Bird, a rapacious bird of the genus serpentarius (Cuv.) or gypogeranus (111.). The bill is moderate, broad, elevated at the base, and the culmen much arched to the hooked tip; nostrils with ...
-Sector
Sector, in geometry, the portion of the area of a circle included between two radii and an arc. The instrument called by this name is used for solving mechanically numerous questions of proportions in...
-Sedan
Sedan (anc. Sedanum), a fortified town of France, in the department of Ardennes, on the right bank of the Meuse, 130 m. N. E. of Paris; pop. in 1872, 14,345. It has fine squares and promenades, a Prot...
-Sedge
Sedge (A. S. secg or soecg, a dagger, formerly applied to sharp-pointed plants in general which grew in marshes), a name for plants of the genus carex, but sometimes applied in a general way to other ...
-Sedgwick
Sedgwick, a S. county of Kansas, intersected by the Arkansas river, and drained by the Little Arkansas and other affluents of that stream; area, 1,512 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 1,095. The southwestern bra...
-Sediction
Sediction, the persuading a woman to surrender her chastity. It has been often made a reproach to the common law that it does not regard the seducer as a criminal, or at least hold him to a direct res...
-Sedum
Sedum (Lat. sedere, to sit, in allusion to the manner in which some of the plants are attached to rocks), the name of a genus of plants some of which are known as orpine, stone-crop, and live-for-ever...
-Seeland
Seeland (Dan. Sjoelland), an island of Denmark, bounded N. by the Cattegat, separated E. by the Sound from Sweden, S. by the Baltic from the islands of Möen, Falster, and Laa-land, and W. by the Great...
-Segovia
I. A Central Province Of Spain A Central Province Of Spain, in Old Castile, bordering on Valladolid, Burgos, Soria, Guadalajara, Madrid, and Ávila; area, 2,714 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 150,812. The S. ...
-Segur
I. Philippe Henri Philippe Henri, marquis de, a French soldier, born Jan. 20, 1724, died in Paris, Oct. 8, 1801. He distinguished himself in various battles in 1746-7, was wounded, and lost an arm; t...
-Sehnyler Colfax
Sehnyler Colfax, 17th vice president of the United States, born in New York city, March 23, 1823. His grandfather, Capt. Colfax, was an officer of the revolutionary army and the commandant of Washingt...
-Seine
Seine (anc. Sequana), a river of France, rising in the department of Côte-d'Or, on the slope of Mt. Tasselot, flowing first N. W., then W. S. W., and again N. W., through the departments of Aube, Sein...
-Seistan
Seistan (anc. Sacastane, the country of the Sacoe), a province in the S. W. part of Afghanistan, with an adjoining part included in Persia. It is between lat. 30 and 32 N., and lon. 61 ...
-Selenium
Selenium, an elementary substance discovered by Berzelius in 1817 in the refuse of a sulphuric acid manufactory near Fahlun. It resembles sulphur in many of its physical, and tellurium in many of its ...
-Seleucia
Seleucia, the name of numerous ancient cities of Asia, situated in Assyria, Margiana, Syria, Mesopotamia, Cilicia, Pamphylia, Pisi-dia, Caria, and other countries. I. Seleucia on the Tigris was founde...
-Selina Huntingdon
Selina Huntingdon, countess of, a patron of the English Calvinistic Methodists, born in 1707, died June 17,1791. She was the daughter of Washington Shirley, earl of Ferrers, and was married to Theophi...
-Selinus
Selinus, the most westerly of the ancient Greek colonies on the S. W. coast of Sicily, at the mouth of the Selinus (now Madiuni) river. It was founded in the 7th century B. C., destroyed by the Cartha...
-Seljuks, Or Seljooks
Seljuks, Or Seljooks, a Turco-Tartaric tribe, of the Uiguric division of the race, originally inhabiting the plain N. of the Caspian sea. They received their name from Seljuk, one. of their chiefs, un...
-Selma
Selma, a city of Alabama, capital of Dallas co., on the right bank of the Alabama river, 95 m. below Montgomery by the course of the river, and about 44 m. W. in a direct line; pop. in 1870, 6,484, of...
-Seminoles
Seminoles, a nation of Florida Indians, made up chiefly of two bands of Creeks who withdrew from the main body in 1750 and 1808, and of remnants of tribes partly civilized by the Spaniards, some Micka...
-Semiramis
Semiramis, a queen of Assyria, who, according to fabulous traditions handed down by classical authors, reigned about 2000 B. C. As-syriologists suppose that she is the queen Sam-muramit, wife of Iva-l...
-Semitic Race And Languages
The Semitic race constitutes one of the most important and largest divisions of the Mediterranean or Caucasian type of mankind. (See Ethnology.) The name Semitic (properly Shemitic), first applied by ...
-Semmering, Or Sommering
Semmering, Or Sommering, a branch of the Noric chain of Alps, between Austria proper and Styria, 4,416 ft. high, containing the principal pass between Lower Austria and the more southern provinces of ...
-Semper
I. Gottfried Gottfried, a German architect, born in Hamburg in 1804. He completed his studies in Italy and Greece, and was professor at the academy of art in Dresden and at the school of architecture...
-Senate
Senate (Lat. senatus, an assembly of elders), the deliberative assembly of the Roman people. It was composed originally of 100 members, each representing one of the decurioe into which the populus Rom...
-Seneca
I. A W. Central County Of New York A W. Central County Of New York, bounded E. by Cayuga lake and Seneca river and W. chiefly by Seneca lake, and drained by the Seneca and Clyde rivers; area, 330 sq....
-Seneca (2)
I. Marcus AnnaeUs Marcus AnnaeUs, a Roman rhetorician, born in Corduba (Cordova), Spain, about 61 B. C, died in Italy probably about A. D. 35. He was a member of the equestrian order, and appears to ...
-Senegal
Senegal, a river of Senegambia in western Africa, formed in lat. 14 10' N., Ion. 10 30' W., by the junction of the Ba-fing and the Ba-Woolima, and flowing thence N. W., W., and S. W. into th...
-Senegambia
Senegambia, a region of western Africa, formerly comprising only the territory lying between the rivers Senegal and Gambia, from which it derives its name, but now held to include the whole of the cou...
-Senna
Senna (Arab, sene), a drug which consists of the dried leaves of several species of cassia, of the order leguminoseoe. In the most familiar plants of this family, as the pea, locust, lupin, and others...
-Sennaar
Sennaar, a country of Africa, forming part of the territory commonly known as Nubia, and now included in the aggregation of Nile provinces constituting the dependency of Egypt officially known as Sood...
-Seps
Seps (Daud.), a genus of saurian reptiles of the skink family, divided by modern authors into several subgenera. In the group the feet are very short, and have three or four toes, with claws; the apex...
-Sepoys
Sepoys (probably from Pers. sipahi, a soldier), the native soldiers of the British army in India. The practice of employing the natives as troops originated with the French about the middle of the 18t...
-Septimia Zenobia
Septimia Zenobia, queen of Palmyra. She was the daughter of an Arab chief, and had by her. first husband a son named Athenodorus Vaballathus, whom she is said to have invested with the purple when she...
-Sequoia
Sequoia, the botanical name of a genus of large coniferous evergreen trees, consisting of but two species, both of which are natives of our Pacific coast. The name was imposed by Endlicher, who left i...
-Serapis, Or Sarapis
Serapis, Or Sarapis, an Egyptian divinity, whose worship prevailed in the reign of the Ptolemies. The name is supposed to be a compound of Osiris and Apis, or a conversion of the name Osir Hapi given ...
-Serf
Serf (Lat. servus, a servant or slave), a term descriptive of the condition of a large portion of the people of Europe in the middle ages and in later times. Slavery and various forms of bondage preva...
-Sergipe
Sergipe, a maritime province of Brazil, the smallest in the empire, bounded N. by Alagôas, from which it is separated by the Rio São Francisco, E. by the Atlantic, and S. and W. by Bahia; area, 12,240...
-Serinagur
Serinagur, a city of India, capital of Cashmere, by which name it has also sometimes been called, in lat. 34 6' N., Ion. 74 55' E., near the centre of the valley of Cashmere, 5,246 ft. above...
-Seringapatam
Seringapatam (Hindoo, Sringa-patna), a city of India, in Mysore, 7 m. N. E. of the city of Mysore, 2,412 ft. above the sea; pop. about 13,000. It is on the upper end of an island, about 3 m. long, in ...
-Serpent, Or Snake
Serpent, Or Snake, the common name of the ophidian reptiles, including, according to the earlier naturalists, all air-breathing oviparous vertebrates, of elongated and rounded body, without limbs and ...
-Servia
Servia (Slav. Serbia; Turk. Syrp), a state of Europe, tributary to Turkey, bounded N. by Slavonia and Hungary proper, E. by Wal-lachia and Bulgaria, S. by districts of the vilayets of Prisrend and Bos...
-Servian Language And Literature
The Servian language forms, together with the Russian and Bulgarian, the eastern stem of the Slavic languages. In the wider sense of the word, in which it is frequently called the Illyrian or Illyrico...
-Service Tree
Service Tree (formerly spelled servise, from Lat. cerevisia, beer, a fermented drink having been made from the fruit), a European tree belonging to that section of the genus pyrus which includes the m...
-Servites, Or Servants Of The Virgin Mary
Servites, Or Servants Of The Virgin Mary, an order of monks in the Roman Catholic church, founded in Florence in 1233 by seven patrician Florentines. Their main object was to propagate devotion to the...
-Servius Tullius
Servius Tullius, the sixth king of Rome, reigned from about 578 to about 534 B. C. According to the legendary accounts of his life, he was brought up in the palace of Tar-quinius Priscus. One day, whi...
-Setter
Setter (canis index, Caius), a sporting dog of the hound group. The head is remarkably developed, the brain very large, and the animal evinces intelligence, affection, and docility. The figure is inte...
-Settle Eish
Settle Eish (urticaria), an eruptive der characterized by the appearance of patches whiter or redder than the surrounding skin, and attended with intense itching. The disease has been divided into thr...
-Settlement
I. Under The Poor Laws Under The Poor Laws, the right which one acquires to be considered a resident of a particular place, and to claim relief from such city, town, or village, if he stands in need ...
-Seven Years War
Seven Years' War, a contest involving the principal European powers from 1756 to 1763, and extending to the four quarters of the globe. The empress Maria Theresa, though forced in the treaty of Dresde...
-Seventh Day Baptists
Seventh Day Baptists, a religious denomination known in England as Sabbatarians, where they have existed since the early part of the 17th century. In the United States they originated at Newport, R. I...
-Sevier
I. A S. W. County Of Arkansas A S. W. County Of Arkansas, bordering on the Indian territory and bounded S. by Little river; area, about 825 sq. m.; pop. in 1870,4,492, of whom 968 were colored. The s...
-Seville
Seville (Sp. Sevilla). I. A S. W. Province Of Spain, In Andalusia In Andalusia A S. W. Province Of Spain, bordering on Bada-joz, Cordova, Malaga, Cadiz, and Huelva; area, 5,295 sq. m.; pop. in 1870,...
-Sewell
I. William William, an English clergyman, born in the isle of Wight about 1805, died at Leachford hall, near Manchester, Nov. 14, 1874. He was the son of a solicitor, was educated at Harrow and Oxfor...
-Sewellel
Sewellel, a North American rodent of the genus aplodontia (Rich.), so called from the simple structure of the molars, apparently connecting the beaver with the squirrels through the spermophiles. It r...
-Sewerage
Sewerage, a system of drainage under the streets of towns for carrying off the surface waters and the liquid refuse matters from houses. The necessity of underground channels of this character to the ...
-Sewing Machine
Sewing Machine, a mechanical contrivance for uniting fabrics by means of needle and thread. The earliest inventions for this purpose were attempts to imitate hand sewing, making a running through-and-...
-Sextant
Sextant (the sixth part), an instrument used in nautical observations and in hydrographic and land surveying for measuring the angular distance between objects. Its principle and the manipulation of i...
-Seymour
I. Edward Edward, duke of Somerset, an English statesman, known as the protector Somerset, born about 1500, beheaded on Tower hill, London, Jan. 22, 1552. He was the eldest son of Sir John Seymour, a...
-Sforza
Sforza, an Italian family, several members of which were sovereign dukes of Milan during the 15th and 16th centuries. I. Giacomuzzo Attendolo Giacomuzzo Attendolo, the son of a peasant and the found...
-Shad
Shad, a well known fish of the herring family, of the genus alosa (Cuv.), differing from the herrings proper (clupea) in having the centre of the upper jaw deeply notched. The lower jaw is the longer;...
-Shaddock
Shaddock, a fruit of the citrus or orange genus, noted for its great size. In treating of other members of this genus the difficulty of tracing the commercial varieties to botanical species has been a...
-Shaftesbury
I. Anthony Ashley Cooper Anthony Ashley Cooper, first earl of, an English statesman, born at Wim-borne St. Giles, Dorsetshire, July 22, 1621, died in Amsterdam, Jan. 22, 1683. His father was Sir John...
-Shagreen
Shagreen (Pers. sagri, shagrain), a preparation of the skins of horses, wild asses, and camels, resembling parchment more than leather. It is a product of Astrakhan in Russia and the countries of the ...
-Shakers
Shakers, the popular name of a religious sect who call themselves the United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing. They originated in England about the year 1770, but are now confined t...
-Shale
Shale (Ger. schälen, to peel, to split), a rock composed of clayey sediments consolidated in layers which are fissile like the original clay, but not often divisible into smooth sheets like the argill...
-Shamanism
Shamanism, in a wide sense, all spirit worship connected with magic arts, but commonly only that of the north Asiatic races. The name is a corruption of the Sanskrit çramana, a Buddhist ascetic or men...
-Shamyl
Shamyl (Samuel), a chieftain of the Caucasus, born at Aul Himry, in northern Daghes-tan, about 1797, died in Medina, Arabia, in March, 1871. In his youth he embraced the doctrines of Kasi-Mollah, an e...
-Shanghai, Or Shanghae
Shanghai, Or Shanghae (approaching the sea ), a city and seaport of China, in the province of Kiangsu, on the left bank of the Wu-sung river, about 12 m. above its junction with the Yangtse-kiang, ...
-Shannon
Shannon, a S. E. county of Missouri, intersected by Current river; area, about 1,150 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 2,339, nearly all white. The surface is uneven, and partly occupied by pine forests. Mines of...
-Shanny
Shanny, the name of the marine spiny-rayed fishes of the blenny family, and the genus pholis (Flem.). They differ from the blen-nies proper in having the head without crests or tentacles; the body is ...
-Sharja
Sharja, a seaport town of Oman, Arabia, capital of a province of the same name, on the Persian gulf, in lat. 25 20' N., Ion. 55 36' E., 215 m. N. W. of Muscat; pop. about 25,000. It has a wa...
-Shark
Shark, an extensive family of marine cartilaginous fishes, with the rays or skates and the chimaera or sea cat forming the order of plagiostomes or selachians, elevated under the latter name to a clas...
-Shawl
Shawl, a garment worn upon the shoulders or about the waist, and formed of wool, silk, hair, or cotton. The following are the principal varieties of shawls: those of Cashmere, woven in India or imitat...
-Shawnee
Shawnee, a N. E. county of Kansas, intersected by the Kansas river; area, 546 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 13,121. It is traversed by the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fé, and the Kansas Pacific railroads. The...
-Shearwater
Shearwater, a web-footed bird of the petrel family, and genus puffinus (Briss.). The bill is about as long as the head, slender, compressed near the end and grooved obliquely on the sides, with strong...
-Sheathbill
Sheathbill (chionis, Forst.), a genus placed by Gray among the gallinaceous birds, but by Latham, Cuvier, and Van der Hoeven among the waders. The bill is short, strong, compressed toward the tip, the...
-Sheba, Or Saba
Sheba, Or Saba, in ancient geography, the capital city of the Sabaeans in Arabia Felix. Its exact site is unknown. The territory of the Sabaeans lay near the Red sea, and ran up to the borders of the ...
-Sheboygan
Sheboygan, an E. county of Wisconsin, bordering on Lake Michigan, drained by Sheboygan river and its tributaries, and by tributaries of Milwaukee river; area, 500 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 31,749. It is t...
-Shechem
Shechem, a city of ancient Palestine, called also Sichem, Sychem, and Sychar, 30 m. N. of Jerusalem, on or near the site of the modern Nablus. The allusions to it in the Old Testament are numerous. Ab...
-Sheeahs, Or Shiites Shiahs
Sheeahs, Or Shiites Shiahs (Ar. shia a faction), a sect of Mohammedans, who believe that Ali, the son-in-law of Mohammed, was by right entitled to be his immediate successor. The proper name of the se...
-Sheep
Sheep, a hollow-horned, wool-bearing, ruminating animal, of the genus ovis (Linn.). The genus is characterized by horns common to both sexes in the wild state (though sometimes wanting in the females)...
-Sheep's Head
Sheep's Head, a spiny-rayed fish of the family sparidoe and genus sargus (Cuv.); the scup-paug (pagrus) belongs to the same family. The gill covers are unarmed, the palate toothless, the jaws not prot...
-Sheffield
Sheffield, a town of Yorkshire, England, in the West riding, at the junction of the Sheaf and three smaller streams with the Don, 141 m. N. N. W. of London; pop. in 1871, 239,-946; in 1874 reported at...
-Sheik Moslih Ed-Din Saadi
Sheik Moslih Ed-Din Saadi, a Persian poet, born in Shiraz, died in 1291, at the age of 102, or according to some authorities at a still higher age. He studied at Bagdad, became a dervish, made 15 pilg...
-Shelby
Shelby, the name of counties in nine of the United States. I. A Central County Of Alabama A Central County Of Alabama, bounded E. by the Coosa river and intersected by the Cahawba; area, about 900 s...
-Sheldrake, Or Shieldrake
Sheldrake, Or Shieldrake, the common name of the river ducks of the subfamily anatinoe and of the genera tadorna (Leach) and casarka (Bonap.). In tadorna the bill is shorter than the head, higher at t...
-Shelley
I. Percy Bysshe Percy Bysshe, an English poet, born at Field Place, near Horsham, Sussex, Aug. 4, 1792, drowned in the bay of Spezia, July 8, 1822. His ancestors had long been large landholders in Su...
-Shenandoah
Shenandoah, a river of Virginia, the principal tributary of the Potomac. The main river, or South fork, rises in Augusta and Rockingham cos. in three streams which unite near Port Republic, Rockingham...
-Sherard Osborn
Sherard Osborn, an English author, born April 25, 1822, died in May, 1875. He en-. tered the navy in 1837, served in the search for Sir John Franklin, in the Crimean war, and in Japan and China, where...
-Sheridan (2)
I. Thomas Thomas, an Irish clergyman, born in county Cavan about 1684, died in Dublin, Sept. 10, 1738. He was educated by private charity at Trinity college, Dublin, took orders, received the degree ...
-Sheriff
Sheriff (A. S. scyre, shire, and gerefa or refa, keeper or steward), in Great Britain and the United States, the chief officer of a county. The office of sheriff is of ancient Saxon origin, as appears...
-Sherlock
I. William William, an English clergyman, born in Southwark about 1641, died in Hampstead, June 19, 1707. He was educated at Eton and at Peter house, Cambridge, and became rector of the parish of St....
-Sherman
I. A Central County Of Nebraska A Central County Of Nebraska, intersected by Loup fork; area, 576 sq. m.; pop. in 1875, 496. It has been recently formed, and is not included in the census of 1870. It...
-Shetland Islands, Or Zetland
Shetland Islands, Or Zetland, a group in the Atlantic ocean, forming the northernmost part of Great Britain, mainly extending from lat. 59 50' to 60 50' N., and from Ion. 0 45' to 1°...
-Shield
Shield (Ger. Schild), a piece of defensive armor, which before the invention of gunpowder was in almost universal use, but is now employed chiefly by barbarous races. It was sometimes called also buck...
-Shilling
Shilling, an English silver coin equivalent to 12 pence sterling, or 1/20 of a pound. In reducing English money of account to United States money, a shilling is equivalent to 24.3325 cts., or, within ...
-Shiloh
Shiloh (Heb., rest, peace), a town of ancient Palestine, in the division of Ephraim, on a high mountain N. of Bethel. It was the seat of the ark of the covenant from the last days of Joshua to the tim...
-Ship
Ship, a term applied in general to all vessels navigating the sea, and in particular to sailing vessels with at least three masts carrying square sails. The masts are known as fore, main, and mizzen. ...
-Ship Worm, Or Pile Worm
Ship Worm, Or Pile Worm, the popular name of the bivalve shells of the family pholadidoe and genus teredo (Linn.), so called from their perforating ship and other timber. The shell is thick, short, gl...
-Shipping
The law of shipping, the law of marine insurance, and the law of negotiable paper have a common origin in the custom of merchants. This custom and its authority ascend to a remote antiquity, and the b...
-Shiraz
Shiraz, a city of Persia, capital of Farsistan, in a beautiful and well cultivated plain, about 4,750 ft. above the sea, 217 m. S. by E. of Ispahan, and 115 m. E. N. E. of Bushire; pop. about 40,000. ...
-Shoa
Shoa, one of the great political divisions of Abyssinia, in the S. E. corner of that country, sometimes under the same sovereignty and at others an independent state, situated between lat. 8 30' ...
-Shoddy
Shoddy, a rag wool obtained from old blankets, stockings, carpets, flannels, etc, and now largely employed together with the similar article called mungo, obtained from old woollen garments and tailor...
-Shoe
Shoe, a covering for the foot, commonly made of leather. If furnished with a top for enclosing the lower part of the leg, it is called a boot. The oldest form is that of the sandal, a flat sole to be ...
-Shoshones, Or Snakes
Shoshones, Or Snakes, a family of North American Indians, embracing the Shoshones proper, the Utes, Comanches, Moquis, Cheme-hueves, Cahuillo, and the Kechi, Kizh, and Netela of California. The Shosho...
-Shreveport
Shreveport,a city and the capital of Caddo parish, Louisiana, in the N. W. corner of the state, on the W. bank of Red river, at the head of low-water navigation, 330 m. above its mouth according to Hu...
-Shrew, Or Shrew Mouse
Shrew, Or Shrew Mouse, the common name of the insectivorous mammals of the family so-ricidce, characterized by a general rat-like or mouse-like appearance, elongated and pointed muzzle, and soft fur. ...
-Shrewsbury
Shrewsbury,the shire town of Shropshire, England, on the river Severn, 140 m. N. W. of London; pop. in 1871, 23,406. The remains of the ancient castle are still standing, and also a portion of the anc...
-Shrimp
Shrimp,a common decapod or ten-footed and long-tailed crustacean, of the genus cran-gon (Fabr.); with the prawn (palaemon) it is called crevette by the French. The integument is corneous, the carapace...
-Shropshire, Or Salop
Shropshire, Or Salop, a W. county of England, bordering on the counties of Chester, Stafford, Worcester, Hereford, Radnor, Montgomery, and Denbigh; area, 1,291 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 248,064. The surfa...
-Shrove Tide
Shrove Tide (A. S. scrifan, to absolve in confession), the days immediately preceding Ash Wednesday. These days were so designated because on them, and especially on the last of them, people were wont...
-Shubrick
I. John Templar John Templar, an American naval officer, born in South Carolina, Sept. 12, 1778, lost at sea in 1815. He entered the service as a midshipman in 1806, and was attached to the Chesapeak...
-Shumla
Shumla,a walled and strongly fortified city of European Turkey, in Bulgaria, 48 m. W. of Varna and 185 m. N. W. of Constantinople; pop. about 20,000, exclusive of the garrison. It lies on the N. slope...
-Shurtleff College
Shurtleff College,an institution of learning under the control of the Baptists, at Upper Alton, Madison co., Illinois, 1½ m. E. of the city of Alton. It was established in 1832 under the title of Alto...
-Siam
Siam, the chief kingdom of the peninsula styled Indo-China, or Further India. Siyam, from the dark color of the inhabitants or of the soil, is the ancient, and Muang T'hai, the kingdom of the free, th...
-Siberia
Siberia,a part of the Russian dominions occupying the whole of northern Asia, bounded N. by the Arctic ocean, E. and S. E. by Behring strait, Behring sea or the sea of Kam-tchatka, and the seas of Okh...
-Sibil
Sibil (Gr. ), a name applied to several women reputed prophetic in the ancient mythical period. Some authors say there were four, others ten, viz. : the Babyl...
-Sicard
Sicard,Roch Ambroise Cucurron, abbe, a French philanthropist, born at Fousseret, near Toulouse, Sept. 20, 1742, died in Paris, May 10, 1822. He was educated at the university of Toulouse, entered holy...
-Sicily
Sicily (anc. Trinacria, from its triangular shape, Sicania, and Sicilia), the largest island of the Mediterranean, forming part of the kingdom of Italy, separated from Calabria by the strait of Messin...
-Sicker
Sicker, the popular name of the soft-rayed fishes of the carp family (cyprinidoe) included in the genus catostomns (Lesueur). They are characterized by a single dorsal, three rays in the gill membrane...
-Sidney Godolpihn
Sidney Godolpihn, earl of, an English statesman, born in Cornwall about 1635, died Sept. 5, 1712. Soon after the restoration of the monarchy he was made one of the grooms of the bedchamber to Charles ...
-Sidney, Or Sydney, Sir Philip
Sidney, Or Sydney, Sir Philip, an English author, born at Penshurst, Kent, Nov. 29, 1554, died in Arnhem, Holland, Oct. 7, 1586. His father, a descendant of Sir William Sidney, chamberlain to Henry II...
-Sidon, Or Zidon
Sidon, Or Zidon (Heb. Tzidon, fishery; now Saida), an ancient city of Phoenicia, on the coast, 23 m. N. of Tyre. According to Jose-phus, it was called Sidon after the first born of Canaan, but the nam...
-Siebold
I. Philipp Franz Von Philipp Franz Von, a German traveller, born in Wiirzburg, Feb. 17, 1796, died in Munich, Oct. 18, 1866. He studied medicine, natural sciences, and geography, and in 1822 went to ...
-Siege (Fr. Siege Seat)
Siege (Fr. Siege Seat), a protracted military attack upon a fortified place. Such a place may sometimes be taken by throwing in heavy projectiles, explosive shells, incendiary balls, etc.; or by compl...
-Siege Of Petersburg
Siege Of Petersburg, a series of operations in the last ten months of the civil war in the United States. After the second battle of Cold Harbor (see Chickahominy) Grant crossed the James, June 12,186...
-Siemens
I. Ernst Werner Ernst Werner, a German inventor, born at Lenthe, near Hanover, Dec. 13, 1816. He entered the Prussian army in 1834, became an artillery officer in 1838, busied himself with researches...
-Siena, Or Sienna
I. A Central Province Of Italy A Central Province Of Italy, in Tuscany, bordering on Florence, Arez-zo, Perugia, Rome, Grosseto, and Pisa; area, 1,465 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 206,446. It is watered by ...
-Sierra
Sierra, a N. E. county of California, bounded E. by Nevada, and drained by the North and Middle forks of the Yuba river; area, 830 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 5,619, of whom 810 were Chinese. It is situated...
-Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone, a British colony on the W. coast of Africa, forming one of the West African settlements. It occupies a small peninsula terminating in Cape Sierra Leone, lat. 8 30' N., Ion. 13 ...
-Sieur De Maisonneive Paul De Chomedey
Sieur De Maisonneive Paul De Chomedey, first governor of Montreal, Canada, born in Champagne, France, died in Paris, Sept. 9, 1676. He entered the French army in his 13th year, and was esteemed alike ...
-Sigismond Thalberg
Sigismond Thalberg, a Swiss pianist, born in Geneva, Jan. 7, 1812, died in Naples, April 27, 1871. He was the natural son of Prince Die-trichstein, and was placed under the instruction of Hummel, whom...
-Sigismund Neekomm
Sigismund Neekomm, chevalier, a German composer, born in Salzburg, July 10, 1778, died in Paris, April 3, 1858. He was educated by his kinsmen Michael and Joseph Haydn, and became in 1804 leader of th...
-Signal Service
Organized signal services existed in armies from very early periods. Polybius (about 200 B. C.) mentions the wonderful skill acquired by the signal corps of his day. In later years semaphores were use...
-Sikhs (Hind Sikh A Disciple)
Sikhs (Hind Sikh A Disciple), a people of India, chiefly inhabiting the Punjaub. They were originally a religious sect, the founder of which was Nanak, a Hindoo of the warrior caste, born in 1469 near...
-Sikkim
Sikkim, a native state of British India, on the S. slope of the Himalaya range, bounded N. by Thibet, E. by Bhotan, S. by Bengal, and W. by Nepaul, between lat. 27 and 28 10' N., and Ion. 88...
-Silas Deane
Silas Deane, an American diplomatist, born at Groton, Conn., Dec. 24, 1737, died at Deal, England, Aug. 23,1789. He graduated at Yale college in 1758, and was a member of the first continental congres...
-Silas Wright
Silas Wright, an American statesman, born in Amherst, Mass., May 24, 1795, died in Canton, St. Lawrence co., N. Y., Aug. 27, 1847. He graduated at Middlebury college in 1815, was admitted to the bar i...
-Silicon, Or Silieinm
Silicon, Or Silieinm, the essential constituent of silex or flint. It is obtained in a dull brown amorphous powder by passing the vapor of chloride of silicon over heated potassium or sodium contained...
-Silistria (Turk. Dristra)
Silistria (Turk. Dristra), a fortified town of European Turkey, in Bulgaria, on the right bank of the Danube, 57 m. N. N. E. of Shumla and 230 m. N. N. W. of Constantinople; pop. with the garrison abo...
-Silk Spider (Nephila Plumipes Koch)
Silk Spider (Nephila Plumipes Koch), a geometric spider of the family epeiridoe, first brought to notice by Dr. B. G. Wilder in 1865; he discovered it on the sea islands off the coast of South Carolin...
-Silkworm
Silkworm, the larva of a lepidopterous insect of the moth division, family bombycidae, and genus bombyx (Schrank). Of all the silk-producing larvae, that of the common silkworm (B. mori, Schr.) is the...
-Silliman
I. Benjamin Benjamin, an American physicist, born in North Stratford (now Trumbull), Conn., Aug. 8, 1770, died in New Haven, Nov. 24,1864. He graduated at Yale college in 1796, was appointed tutor in...
-Silurian
Silurian, the name of one of the geologic ages, the age of mollusks and other invertebrates. The name is derived from that of the ancient Silures, who inhabited that portion of England and Wales where...
-Silver
Silver, one of the precious metals, distinguished by its whiteness, its brilliant lustre when polished, its malleability, and its indifference to atmospheric oxygen. It is one of the most widely distr...
-Silverside, Or Silver Fish
Silverside, Or Silver Fish, the common name of the small marine spiny-rayed fishes of the family atherinidoe, characterized by a protractile mouth, without notch in upper jaw or tubercle in lower, sma...
-Silvester
Silvester, the name of two popes, besides an antipope. I. Sylvester I., Saint Saint Sylvester I., born in Rome about 270, died there, Dec. 31, 335. He succeeded Pope Melchiades Jan. 31, 314, and con...
-Silvio Pellico
Silvio Pellico, an Italian author, born in Saluzzo, Piedmont, June 24, 1789, died at the villa of Moncaglieri near Turin, Jan. 31, 1854. His father, who owned a silk manufactory at Pinerolo, was a man...
-Simbirsk
I. An E. Government Of European Russia An E. Government Of European Russia, bordering on Kazan, Samara, Saratov, Penza, and Nizhegorod; area, 19,108 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 1,205,881. The surface consi...
-Simeon Borden
Simeon Borden, an American engineer and mechanic, born at Fall River, Mass., Jan. 29, 1798, died there, Oct. 28, 1856. With very little instruction he mastered the principles of mathematics and mechan...
-Simla
Simla, a town and the summer capital of British India, in a Himalayan district of the same name belonging to the Ambala division of the Punjaub, 170 m. N. of Delhi; lat. 31 7' N., lon. 77 8'...
-Simon Bernard
Simon Bernard, a French general and engineer, born at Dole, April 28, 1779, died in Paris, Nov. 5, 1839. He was educated at the polytechnic school,, led the assault upon Ivrea in 1800, served in vario...
-Simon Bolivar Y Ponte
Simon Bolivar Y Ponte, the liberator of Colombia, born in Caracas, July 24, 1783, died at San Pedro, near Santa Marta, Dec. 17, 1830. He was the son of one of the familias Mantuanas, which then consti...
-Simon Bradstreet
Simon Bradstreet, governor of Massachusetts, born in Lincolnshire, England, in 1603, died at Salem, Mass., March 27, 1697. He was steward to the countess of Warwick, married Anne, daughter of Thomas D...
-Simon Cameron
Simon Cameron, an American senator, born in Lancaster co., Penn., March 8, 1799. He became a printer, and in 1820 the editor of a newspaper at Doylestown. In 1822 he removed to Harrisburg, where he ed...
-Simon Episcopius
Simon Episcopius, a Dutch theologian, whose original name was Bischop, born in Amsterdam in January, 1583, died there, April 4, 1643. He was educated at Leyden, receiving theological instructions from...
-Simon Fraser Lovat
Simon Fraser Lovat, lord, a Scottish Jacobite, born near Inverness about 1670, beheaded on Tower hill, London, April 9, 1747. His father, Thomas Eraser, succeeded his grand-nephew in 1696 as Lord Lova...
-Simon Kenton
Simon Kenton, an American pioneer, born in Fauquier co., Va., April 3, 1755, died in Logan co., 0., April 29, 1836. At the age of 16 he had an affray with a young man arising out of a love affair; and...
-Simon Magus
Simon Magus, a magician of the time of the apostles, who by his skill had attained such influence as to be called the great power of God. While Philip the Evangelist preached in Samaria, in A. D. 36...
-Simon Newcomb
Simon Newcomb, an American astronomer, born at Wallace, Nova Scotia, March 12, 1835. He came to the United States in his youth, taught school several years in Maryland, and was employed as computer on...
-Simon Patrick
Simon Patrick, an English author, born in Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, Sept. 8, 1626, died May 31, 1707. He was educated at Queen's college, Cambridge, where he became a fellow in 1648, and took orders...
-Simondes
Simondes, a Greek lyric poet, born at Iulis, in the island of Ceos, about 556 B. C, died in Syracuse about 467. His family is said to have held some hereditary office in connection with the worship of...
-Simonet Caboche
Simonet Caboche, leader of a French faction in the 15th century, in the pay of John the Fearless, duke of Burgundy, against the Ar-magnac or Orleans faction. He gave his name to the gang of Cabochians...
-The Simple Charles III (Of France)
The Simple Charles III., the eighth king of the Carlovingian dynasty, born Sept. 17, 879, died at Peronne, Oct. 7, 929. A posthumous son of Louis the Stammerer, he was excluded from the throne first b...
-Simpson
I. A S. County Of Mississippi A S. County Of Mississippi, bounded W. by Pearl river, and intersected by Strong river; area, about 625 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 5,718, of whom 1,711 were colored. The soil...
-Sims Reeves
Sims Reeves, an English singer, born in Woolwich in 1821. He received his earliest instruction from his father, from H. Callcott lessons in harmony, from J. B. Cramer on the piano, and from Hobbs and ...
-Sinai
Sinai, a group of mountains in Arabia Pe-traea, in the southern portion of the peninsula of the same name, which projects between the two forks of the Red sea, the gulf of Suez separating it from Egyp...
-Sinaloa
I. A N. W. State Of Mexico A N. W. State Of Mexico, bounded N. by Sonora, E. by Chihuahua and Duran-go, S. by Jalisco, and W. by the Pacific and the gulf of California; area, 25,927 sq. m.; pop. in 1...
-Sinclair
I. Sir John Sir John, a Scottish agriculturist, born at Thurso castle, Caithness, May 10, 1754, died Dec. 21, 1835. From 1780 to 1810 he was a member of parliament. He had an estate of 100,000 acres ...
-Sing Sing
Sing Sing, a village in the township of Os-sining, Westchester co., New York, beautifully situated on high ground on the E. bank of the Hudson river, at its widest part, called Tappan bay, 30 m. above...
-Singapore
I. A Province Of The British Colony Of The Straits Settlements A Province Of The British Colony Of The Straits Settlements, consisting of the island of Singapore, and about 50 islets S. and E. of it ...
-Sinope (Turk. Smith)
Sinope (Turk. Smith), a fortified seaport town of Asia Minor, in the Turkish vilayet of Kastamuni, on the S. shore of the Black sea, 325 m. E. N. E. of Constantinople; pop. about 10,000. It stands on ...
-Sioot, Or Osioot
Sioot, Or Osioot (anc. Lycopolis), a city of Egypt, capital of a province of the same name, and residence of the governor of Upper Egypt, near the left bank of the Nile, about 250 m. above Cairo, unde...
-Sioux City
Sioux City, a city and the county seat of Woodbury co., Iowa, on the Missouri river, between Perry and Floyd's creeks, at the intersection of the Sioux City and Pacific, Sioux City and St. Paul, Illin...
-Sioux, Or Dakotas
Sioux, Or Dakotas, a tribe of American Indians, dwelling near the head waters of the Mississippi when first known by the whites. In 1640 the Algonquins informed the French of them as the Nadowessioux,...
-Sir Alan Napier Mcnab
Sir Alan Napier Mcnab, a Canadian statesman, born at Niagara, Feb. 19, 1798, died in Toronto, Aug. 8, 1862. His grandfather was a royal forester of Scotland, and his father was lieutenant of dragoons ...
-Sir Alexander Burnes
Sir Alexander Burnes, a British geographer and diplomatist, born at Montrose, Scotland, May 16,. 1805, assassinated in Cabool, Nov. 2, 1841. His father was first cousin to Robert Burns. At the age of ...
-Sir Alexander James Edmund Cocrburn
Sir Alexander James Edmund Cocrburn, an English jurist, born in 1802. His father, Alexander Cockburn, was British minister in Colombia; his mother was a daughter of Viscount do Yiguier of Santo Doming...
-Sir Alexander Mackenzie
Sir Alexander Mackenzie, a Scottish traveller, born probably in Inverness, died in 1820. He emigrated to Canada when a young man, and obtained a situation in the counting house of Mr. Gregory, one of ...
-Sir Anthony Panizzi
Sir Anthony Panizzi, librarian of the British museum, born at Brescello, in the duchy of Mo-dena, Sept. 16, 1797. He was educated at the university of Parma, which he left in 1818 and devoted himself ...
-Sir Arthur Helps
Sir Arthur Helps, an English author, born about 1817. He was educated at Trinity college, Cambridge, entered the public service as private secretary to Lord Monteagle, chancellor of the exchequer, and...
-Sir Astley Cooper
Sir Astley Cooper, an English surgeon, born at Brooke in Norfolk, Aug. 23, 1768, died in London, Feb. 12, 1841. His father was curate of the village of Brooke, and his mother, who belonged to the Past...
-Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie
Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie, an English surgeon, born at Winterslow, Wiltshire, June 9, 1783, died at Betchworth, Surrey, Oct. 21, 1862. He was educated at a free school in London, and under Sir Evera...
-Sir Charles Bell
Sir Charles Bell, a British surgeon and anatomist, born in Edinburgh in November, 1774, died at Hallow Park, Worcestershire, Aprii 29, 1842. He began his education in the high school and university of...
-Sir Charles Gavan Diffy
Sir Charles Gavan Diffy, an Irish politician, born in Ulster in 1816. He is the son of a farmer, became a journalist at the age of 18, and for several years edited a newspaper at Belfast. While thus e...
-Sir Charles James Napier
Sir Charles James Napier, a British soldier, cousin of the preceding, born in Whitehall, London, Aug. 10, 1782, died at Oaklands, near Portsmouth, Aug. 29, 1853. At an early age he received an ensign'...
-Sir Charles Lock Eastlake
Sir Charles Lock Eastlake, an English painter, born in Plymouth in 1793, died in Pisa, Italy, Dec. 23, 1865. He commenced the study of art at the royal academy, under the direction of Fuseli, and cont...
-Sir Charles Lyell
Sir Charles Lyell, a British geologist, born at Kinnordy, Forfarshire, Nov. 14, 1797. He graduated at Exeter college, Oxford, and in 1821 entered upon the practice of the law, but soon abandoned it in...
-Sir Charles Napier
Sir Charles Napier, a British admiral, born at Merchiston hall, Stirlingshire, March 6, 1786, died Nov. 6, 1860. He was a grandson of the fifth Lord Napier and a descendant of the inventor of logarith...
-Sir Charles Sturt
Sir Charles Sturt, an English explorer, died in Cheltenham, June 16, 1860. He entered the army at an early age, and in 1825 (being then a captain) was stationed at Sydney, New South Wales. At this tim...
-Sir Charles Wheatstone
Sir Charles Wheatstone, an English physicist, born in Gloucester in 1802, died in Paris, Oct. 19, 1875. He was from early youth a musical instrument maker, which led him to investigate the laws of sou...
-Sir Christopher Wren
Sir Christopher Wren, an English architect, born at East Knoyle, Wiltshire, Oct. 20, 1632, died at Hampton Court, Feb. 25, 1723. His father was chaplain in ordinary to Charles I. and dean of Windsor. ...
-Sir David Brewster
Sir David Brewster, a Scottish physicist, born at Jedburgh, Dec. 11,1781, died at Allerly, near Melrose, Feb. 10, 1868. He was educated at the university of Edinburgh, where his attention was early tu...
-Sir David Kirke
Sir David Kirke, an English colonial adventurer, born in Dieppe, France, in 1596, died at Ferryland, Newfoundland, in the winter of 1655-'6. He was the oldest son of Gervase Kirke, an English merchant...
-Sir David Wilkie
Sir David Wilkie, a Scottish painter, born at Cults, Fifeshire, Nov. 18,1785, died at sea, near Gibraltar, June 1, 1841. He was the son of the Rev. David Wilkie, who placed him in 1799 in the trustees...
-Sir De Lacy Evans
Sir De Lacy Evans, a British general, born at Moig, Ireland, in 1787, died in London, Jan. 9, 1870. Entering the army as an ensign, he served three years in India, and subsequently distinguished himse...
-Sir Edward Belcher
Sir Edward Belcher, a British naval officer and explorer, grandson of Chief Justice Belcher of Nova Scotia, born in 1799. He entered the navy at an early age, and, after having taken part as midshipma...
-Sir Edward Coke
Sir Edward Coke, an English jurist, born at Mileham, Norfolk, Feb. 1, 1552, died at Stoke Pogis, Buckinghamshire, Sept. 3, 1633. Nothing of particular interest is related of his school days at the gra...
-Sir Edward Sabine
Sir Edward Sabine, a British physicist, born in Dublin in October, 1788. He was educated in the military schools at Marlow and Woolwich, entered the royal artillery in 1803, became captain in 1813, se...
-Sir Ferdinando Gorges
Sir Ferdinando Gorges, lord proprietary of the province of Maine, born in Somersetshire, England, died at an advanced age in 1647. He was a partner in the conspiracy of the earl of Essex, against whom...
-Sir Francis Burdett
Sir Francis Burdett, an English politician, born Jan. 25, 1770, died Jan. 23, 1844. After completing his education at Oxford he passed some years on the continent. His residence in Paris during the ea...
-Sir Francis Chantrey
Sir Francis Chantrey, an English sculptor, born at Norton, Derbyshire, April 7, 1781, died in London, Nov. 25, 1841. Although designed for the law, his taste led him to be apprenticed to a wood carver...
-Sir Francis Drake
Sir Francis Drake, an English navigator, born near Tavistock, Devonshire, according to some authorities in 1539, and to others in 1545 or 1546, died near Puerto Bello, Dec. 27, 1595. He received a sca...
-Sir Francis Leopold Mcclintock
Sir Francis Leopold Mcclintock, a British naval officer and arctic explorer, born in Dun-dalk, Ireland, in 1819. He entered the navy at the age of 12, and passed his examination in 1838; and after hav...
-Sir Francis Walsingham
Sir Francis Walsingham, an English statesman, born at Chiselhurst, Kent, about 1536, died near London, April 6,1590. He was educated at Cambridge, and after the accession of Elizabeth was twice sent o...
-Sir Frauds Beaufort
Sir Frauds Beaufort, an English hydrogra-pher, born at Collon, county Lowth, Ireland, in 1774, died in Brighton, Dec. 17, 1857. He was the son of a clergyman of French extraction; entered the navy in ...
-Sir Frederick Madden
Sir Frederick Madden, an English antiquary, born in Portsmouth in 1801, died in London, March 8, 1873. In 1825 he was employed to assist Mr. Roscoe in preparing a catalogue of the MSS. at Holkham, the...
-Sir George Back
Sir George Back, an English navigator, born at Stockport, Nov. 6, 1796. He entered the royal navy in 1808, was for five years a French prisoner of war, subsequently served on the Trent, Lieutenant Com...
-Sir George Cayley
Sir George Cayley, an English philosopher, born at Brompton, Yorkshire, in 1773, died Dec. 15, 1857. He undertook the analysis of the mechanical properties of air under chemical and physical action, a...
-Sir George Cornewall Lewis
Sir George Cornewall Lewis, an English statesman, born in Radnorshire, Wales, Oct. 21,1806, died April 13, 1863. His father, Sir THomas Frankland Lewis (1780-1855), officiated successively as joint se...
-Sir George Etienne Cartier
Sir George Etienne Cartier, a Canadian statesman, of the family of Jacques Cartier, born at St. Antoine, Sept. 6, 1814, died in England, May 20, 1873. He was educated at the seminary of St. Sulpice, M...
-Sir George Rooke
Sir George Rooke, an English admiral, born at the family seat near Canterbury in. 1650, died there, Jan. 24, 1709. He entered the navy as a volunteer, and was made rear admiral of the red by William I...
-Sir Godfrey Kneller
Sir Godfrey Kneller, an English portrait painter, born in Lubeck, Germany, in 1648, died in London in October, 1723. He was instructed in painting by Rembrandt and Ferdinand Bol in Amsterdam, and afte...
-Sir Goldworthy Gurney
Sir Goldworthy Gurney, an English inventor, born in Cornwall in 1793. He was educated for a physician, but gave his attention to chemistry, and in 1822 delivered a course of lectures at the Surrey ins...
-Sir Hans Sloane
Sir Hans Sloane, a British naturalist, born at Killyleagh, county Down, Ireland, April 16, 1660, died in Chelsea, near London, Jan. 11, 1753. He studied medicine, natural history, and chemistry in Lon...
-Sir Henry Clinton
Sir Henry Clinton, an English soldier, born about 1738, died at Gibraltar in December, 1795. He was the grandson of Francis Fiennes Clinton, sixth earl of Lincoln, became a captain in the guards in 17...
-Sir Henry Ellis
Sir Henry Ellis, an English author and antiquary, born in London, Nov. 29, 1777, died Jan. 15, 1869. He graduated at St. John's college, Oxford, in 1799, in 1805 became one of the assistant librarians...
-Sir Henry Havelock
Sir Henry Havelock, a British soldier, born at Bishop Wearmouth, Durham, April 5, 1795, died near Lucknow, India, Nov. 25, 1857. Ho was educated at the Charterhouse school. In 1813 he began the study ...
-Sir Henry Holland
Sir Henry Holland, an English physician, born at Knutsford, Oct. 27, 1788, died in London, Oct. 28, 1873. He studied at the university of Glasgow, where in 1805 he gained the prize for English verse. ...
-Sir Henry James
Sir Henry James, an English engineer, born at Rose-in-Vale, near St. Agnes, Cornwall, in 1803. He studied at Woolwich, and became lieutenant of engineers in 1825, director of the geological survey of ...
-Sir Henry James Sumner Maine
Sir Henry James Sumner Maine, an English jurist, born in 1822. He graduated at Pembroke college, Cambridge, in 1844, and was regius professor of civil law at Cambridge from 1847 to 1854, when he becam...
-Sir Henry Thomas De La Beche
Sir Henry Thomas De La Beche, an English geologist, born near London in 1796, died in London, April 13, 1855. He was the only son of Col. Thomas de la Beche of Jamaica, and was educated for the army, ...
-Sir Henry Vane
Sir Henry Vane, an English statesman, governor of the colony of Massachusetts, born in 1612, executed on Tower Hill, London, June 14, 1662. He was the son of Sir Henry Vane the elder, who filled some ...
-Sir Henry Wotton
Sir Henry Wotton, an English author, born at Bocton hall, parish of Boughton Malherbe, Kent, April 9,1568, died at Eton in December, 1639. He was educated at Winchester and Oxford, left the university...
-Sir Herbert Benjamin Edwardes
Sir Herbert Benjamin Edwardes, an English soldier and author, born at Frodesley, Shropshire, Nov. 12, 1819, died Dec. 23, 1868. He studied at King's college, London, entered the East Indian service, w...
-Sir Hudson Lowe
Sir Hudson Lowe, a British soldier, born in Galway, Ireland, July 28, 1769, died in 1844. He was the son of a surgeon general in the British army, and in early childhood went to America with his fathe...
-Sir Hugh Willocghby
Sir Hugh Willocghby, an English explorer, born at Risby, Derbyshire, perished either at sea or on some portion of the arctic coast in the north of Finmark about January, 1554. In 1553 the merchants of...
-Sir Isaac Coffin
Sir Isaac Coffin, an English admiral, born in Boston, Mass., May 16, 1759, died at Cheltenham, Eng., July 23, 1839. He was educated at the public schools in Boston, and having entered the British navy...
-Sir Isaac Newton
Sir Isaac Newton, an English philosopher, born at Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire, Dec. 25, 1642, died in Kensington, a suburb of London, March 20, 1727. He was a posthumous and only child, like Kepler, and...
-Sir James Balfour
Sir James Balfour, a Scottish jurist and politician, born in Fifeshire early in the 16th century, died about 1583. He was educated for the Roman Catholic church, but joined the Protestants, took part ...
-Sir James Brooke
Sir James Brooke, rajah of Sarawak, born in Bengal, April 29, 1803, died in Devonshire, England, June 11, 1868. His father, having taken up his residence at Bath, England, procured for him a cadetship...
-Sir James Clark
Sir James Clark, a British physician, born at Cullen, Banffshire, Dec. 14, 1788, died at Bagshot Park, June 29, 1870. He studied medicine at Edinburgh, and received his degree in 1817, after which he ...
-Sir James Denhain Steiart
Sir James Denhain Steiart, a Scottish political economist, born in Edinburgh in October, 1713, died Nov. 26, 1780. He was educated at the university of Edinburgh, and in 1734 was admitted to the Scott...
-Sir James Emerson Tennent
Sir James Emerson Tennent, a British author, born in Belfast, April 7, 1804, died in London, March 6, 1869. His name was originally Emerson, Tennent being added on the succession of his wife to the es...
-Sir James Hope Grant
Sir James Hope Grant, a British soldier, brother of Sir Francis Grant, born at Kilgraston, Perthshire, July 22,1808. He entered the army in 1826, and was brigade major under Lord Sal-toun in the first...
-Sir James Mackintosh
Sir James Mackintosh, a British author, born at Aldourie, near Inverness, Scotland, Oct, 24, 1765, died in London, May 30, 1832. His father, the proprietor of a small estate, the inheritance of his fa...
-Sir James Melville
Sir James Melville, a Scottish soldier, born at Raith, Fifeshire, about 1535, died at Hal-hill, in the same county, in November, 1607. At the age of 14 he went to the continent, where he was taken int...
-Sir James Outram
Sir James Outram, a British soldier, born at Butterley Hall, Derbyshire, Jan. 29, 1803, died in Pau, France, March 11, 18G3. The son of an eminent civil engineer, he was educated at Marischal college,...
-Sir James Young Simpson
Sir James Young Simpson, a Scottish physician, born at Bathgate, Linlithgowshire, June 7, 1811, died in Edinburgh, May 6, 1870. He was educated at the university of Edinburgh, where in 1832 he receive...
-Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy
Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy, a Parsee philanthropist, born in Bombay, July 15, 1783, died there, April 14, 1859. His parents were poor, and in early life he made several voyages to China. In one of these ...
-Sir John Barnard
Sir John Barnard, an English merchant, born at Reading, Berkshire, in 1685, died at Clapham, Aug. 29, 1764. His parents were Quakers, but at the age of 19 he left the sect, and was baptized into the c...
-Sir John Bernard Burke
Sir John Bernard Burke, an English genealogist, born in London in 1815. His father, John Burke, who died in 1848, was cadet of an ancient family in Ireland, and became attached as reporter and editor ...
-Sir John Borlase Warren
Sir John Borlase Warren, an English admiral, born at Stapleford, Nottinghamshire, in 1754, died in Greenwich, Feb. 27, 1822. He was a midshipman on the Alderney sloop of war for some time in the North...
-Sir John Bowring
Sir John Bowring, an English statesman and author, born at Exeter, Oct. 17, 1792, died Nov. 22, 1872. He early applied himself to the study of modern languages, and between 1821 and 1824 published met...
-Sir John Cheke
Sir John Cheke, an English scholar, born at Cambridge, June 16, 1514, died Sept. 13, 1557. After distinguishing himself as a classical scholar at St. John's college, Cambridge, he was selected to fill...
-Sir John Francis Davis
Sir John Francis Davis, an English diplomatist and orientalist, born in London in 1795. He entered the public service at an early age, in 1816 was attached to Lord Amherst's embassy to China, and in 1...
-Sir John Gardner Wilkinson
Sir John Gardner Wilkinson, an English Egyptologist, born Oct. 5, 1797, died Oct. 29, 1875. He was educated at Harrow and at Oxford. During a residence of 12 years in Egypt he made a profound study of...
-Sir John Harington
Sir John Harington, an English poet, born at Kelston, near Bath, in 1561, died in London in 1612. His mother was an illegitimate daughter of Henry VIII., his father an officer of the court, and Queen ...
-Sir John Hawkins
Sir John Hawkins, an English navigator, born in Plymouth about 1520, died in the West Indies, Nov. 21, 1595. In his youth he made several voyages to Spain, Portugal, and the Canary islands, and was en...
-Sir John Holt
Sir John Holt, an English jurist, born at Thame, Oxfordshire, Dec. 30, 1642, died in March, 1709. Ho was educated at Oxford, became a student of law, was called to the bar in 1663, and rose to eminenc...
-Sir John Leake
Sir John Leake, an English admiral, born at Rotherhithe, Surrey, in 1656, died in Greenwich, Aug. 1, 1720. He distinguished himself in the fight with Van Tromp in 1673, when he served on board the Roy...
-Sir John Leslie
Sir John Leslie, a Scottish mathematician, born at Largo, Fifeshire, April 16, 1766, died at Coates, in the same county, Nov. 3, 1832. He was educated at the universities of St. Andrews and Edinburgh,...
-Sir John Leverett
Sir John Leverett, colonial governor of Massachusetts, born in England in 1616, died in Boston, March 16, 1679. At the age of 17 he emigrated to America with his father, and settled in Boston. He retu...
-Sir John Malcolm
Sir John Malcolm, a British diplomatist, born in Eskdale, Dumfriesshire, May 2, 1769, died in London, May 31, 1833. He was sent to India at the age of 13, in the charge of his uncle, Dr. Paisley, and ...
-Sir John Moore
Sir John Moore, a British general, eldest son of the preceding, born in Glasgow, Nov. 13, 1701, fell in battle at Corunna, Spain, Jan. 10, 1809. He was educated chiefly on the continent while his fath...
-Sir John Taylor Coleridge
Sir John Taylor Coleridge, an English judge, nephew of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, born at Tiverton, Devonshire, in 1790. He received his education at Corpus Christi college, Oxford, where he distinguish...
-Sir John Vanbrugh
Sir John Vanbrugh, an English dramatist, born probably in London in 1666, died there, March 26, 1726. He was of Flemish extraction, and received a liberal education, which was completed in France. He ...
-Sir Jonah Barrington
Sir Jonah Barrington, an Irish lawyer and author, born in Queen's county in 1767, died at Versailles, April 8, 1834. He was called to the Irish bar in 1788, and entered the Irish parliament in 1790, a...
-Sir Joseph Banks
Sir Joseph Banks, an English naturalist and traveller, born in London, Jan. 4, 1743, died June 19, 1820. At Eton school he first showed a taste for botany, which he cultivated afterward with enthusias...
-Sir Joseph Noel Paton
Sir Joseph Noel Paton, a British painter, born at Dunfermline, Scotland, in 1821. He studied at the royal academy in London, was elected associate member of the academy in 1846, academician in 1856, a...
-Sir Joseph Paxton
Sir Joseph Paxton, an English horticulturist, born at Milton-Bryant, near Woburn, Bedfordshire, Aug. 3, 1803, died at Sydenham, June 8, 1865. He was educated at the Woburn free school, and was subsequ...
-Sir Joshua Reynolds
Sir Joshua Reynolds, an English painter, born at Plympton, Devonshire, July 16, 1723, died in London, Feb. 23, 1792. He was educated in the free grammar school of Plympton, of which his father, the Re...
-Sir Julius Benedict, A German Composer
Sir Julius Benedict, A German Composer, born in Stuttgart, Nov. 27, 1804. Having early developed a talent for music, he was placed by his father, a rich Jewish banker, under the instruction of Louis A...
-Sir Matthew Digby Wyatt
Sir Matthew Digby Wyatt, an English architect, born at Rowde, near Devizes, Wiltshire, in 1820. He studied at the royal academy and on the continent, and published Specimens of the Geometrical Mosai...
-Sir Matthew Hale
Sir Matthew Hale, an English jurist, born at Alderley, Gloucestershire, Nov. 1, 1609, died there, Dec. 25, 1676. His father, originally a lawyer, abandoned his profession on account of conscientious s...
-Sir Michael Costa
Sir Michael Costa, a musical director and composer, born at the village of La Cerra, near Naples, in 1806. He received his professional education at the royal academy of music in Naples, and also unde...
-Sir Moses Montefiore
Sir Moses Montefiore, a Jewish philanthropist, born in London, Oct. 24, 178-4. His ancestors had been wealthy bankers in London for several generations. He married, June 10, 1812, Miss Judith Cohen, a...
-Sir Nicholas Bacon
Sir Nicholas Bacon, an English statesman, lord keeper of the seal during the first 20 years of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, born at Chisel-hurst, Kent, in 1510, died Feb. 20, 1579. He studied at Corp...
-Sir Nicholas Harris Nicolas
Sir Nicholas Harris Nicolas, an English antiquary, born at East Looe, in Cornwall, March 10, 1799, died near Boulogne, Aug. 3, 1848. He entered the navy as midshipman in 1808, and was made lieutenant ...
-Sir Peter Lely
Sir Peter Lely, an English painter, born in Soest, Westphalia, in 1617, died in England in 1680. His family name was originally Van Der Faes, but his father assumed the name of Lely. He was instructed...
-Sir Philip Bowes Vere Broke
Sir Philip Bowes Vere Broke, a British admiral, born Sept. 9, 1776, died in Suffolk in 1841. He was educated at the royal academy in Portsmouth, entered the navy in 1792, served in the wars between Fr...
-Sir Richard Church
Sir Richard Church, a commander in the Greek war of independence, born in England in 1780, died in Athens, March 20, 1873. He entered the army in 1800, and having spent many years in the British and N...
-Sir Richard Steele
Sir Richard Steele, a British author, born in Dublin in 1671, died at Llangunnor, near Carmarthen, Wales, Sept. 1,1729. He received his early education at the. Charterhouse, where his intimacy with Ad...
-Sir Robert Bruce Cotton
Sir Robert Bruce Cotton, an English antiquary, founder of the Cottonian library, born at Denton in Huntingdonshire, Jan. 22, 1570, died in London, May 6, 1631. He wrote many discourses and opinions up...
-Sir Robert Hermann Schomburgk
Sir Robert Hermann Schomburgk, an English traveller, born at Freiburg-on-the-Unstrut, Prussia, June 5, 1804, died at Schöneberg, near Berlin, March 11, 1865. In early life he was for some time partner...
-Sir Robert John Le Mesnrier Mcclure
Sir Robert John Le Mesnrier Mcclure, a British navigator, born in Wexford, Ireland, Jan. 28, 1807, died in London, Oct, 14, 1873. He was the son of an officer, and through the influence of Gen. Le Mes...
-Sir Robert Kane
Sir Robert Kane, an Irish chemist, born in Dublin in 1810. He was early appointed chemical clerk to the Meath hospital, and in 1830 obtained a prize for the best essay On the Pathological Condition o...
-Sir Robert Ker Porter
Sir Robert Ker Porter, an English artist, brother of Jane and Anna Maria Porter, born in Durham about 1775, died in St. Petersburg, May 4, 1842. He entered the royal academy when he was about 15 years...
-Sir Robert Strange
Sir Robert Strange, an English engraver, born in Pomona, one of the Orkney isles, July 14, 1721, died in London, July 5, 1792. While an apprentice in Edinburgh he joined the forces of the young preten...
-Sir Robert Thomas Wilson
Sir Robert Thomas Wilson, an English general, born in London in 1777, died there, May 9, 1849. He was the son of Benjamin Wilson, a painter and writer on electricity, and was educated at Westminster a...
-Sir Roger Lestrange
Sir Roger L'Estrange, an English author, born at Hunstanton hall, Norfolk, in 1616, died in London, Dec. 11, 1704. He was the youngest son of Sir Hamond L'Estrange, and is believed to have been educat...
-Sir Rowland Hill
Sir Rowland Hill, author of the cheap postage system in Great Britain, born in Kidderminster, Dec. 3, 1795. He early showed a great fondness for figures, which was subsequently developed in the study ...
-Sir Samuel Egerton Brydges
Sir Samuel Egerton Brydges, an English author, born at Wooton Court, Kent, Nov. 30, 1762, died in Geneva, Sept. 8, 1837. He was educated at Cambridge, and studied law, but never practised. After the d...
-Sir Samuel White Baker
Sir Samuel White Baker, an English explorer, born June 8, 1821. In 1848, in conjunction with his brother, he established a model farm and coffee estate in the island of Ceylon. He gave some account of...
-Sir Symonds Dewes
Sir Symonds D'Ewes,, an English antiquary, born in Coxden, Dorsetshire, Dec. 18, 1602, died April 18, 1650. He graduated at Cambridge, and was admitted to the bar, but never practised, and lived on hi...
-Sir Thomas Bodley
Sir Thomas Bodley, the founder of the Bodleian library, born in Exeter, March 2, 1544, died in Oxford, Jan. 28, 1612. At the age of 12 he went to Geneva with his father, and studied the ancient langua...
-Sir Thomas Browne
Sir Thomas Browne, an English physician and author, born in London, Oct. 19, 1605, died at Norwich, Oct. 19, 1682. After studying at Oxford he took his degree at Leyden, returned to England, and in 16...
-Sir Thomas Button
Sir Thomas Button, an English navigator in the early part of the 17th century, the successor of Hudson in exploring the N. E. coast of North America. He sailed in 1612 with two vessels, the Resolution...
-Sir Thomas Erskine May
Sir Thomas Erskine May, an English author, born in 1815. In 1831 he was appointed assistant librarian of the house of commons, and was gradually promoted until in 1871 he became clerk of the house. H...
-Sir Thomas Gresham
Sir Thomas Gresham, an English merchant, born in London in 1519, died there, Nov. 21, 1579. He was educated at Cambridge, became a London merchant, and was employed in 1551 in negotiating foreign loan...
-Sir Thomas Herbert
Sir Thomas Herbert, an English traveller, born in York about 1606, died there in 1682. He studied at Oxford and Cambridge, and in 1626 accompanied Sir Dodmore Cotton on his embassy to Persia. He retur...
-Sir Thomas Lawrence
Sir Thomas Lawrence, an English painter, born in Bristol, May 4, 1769, died in London, Jan. 7,1830. While a child he drew likenesses with the pen and pencil, and when only six years old took portraits...
-Sir Thomas Livingstone Mitchell
Sir Thomas Livingstone Mitchell, a British engineer, born in Stirlingshire, Scotland, in 1792, died near Sydney, Australia, Oct. 5,1855. He joined the British army in the peninsula in 1808, attained t...
-Sir Thomas More
Sir Thomas More, an English statesman, born in London in 1480, executed there, July 6, 1535. He was the son of Sir John More, one of the justices of the court of king's bench, was educated in Latin un...
-Sir Thomas Noon Talfoird
Sir Thomas Noon Talfoird, an English author, born at Doxey, a suburb of Stafford, Jan. 26, 1795, died in Stafford, March 13,1854. He was called to the bar in London in 1821, and in 1833 was made serje...
-Sir Thomas Overbury
Sir Thomas Overbury, an English author, born at Hmington, Warwickshire, in 1581, died in London, Sept. 15, 1613. He graduated at Queen's college, Oxford, in 1598. After travelling on the continent, he...
-Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles
Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, an English official, born at sea, off Jamaica, July 5, 1781, died July 4, 1826. He was an assistant clerk in the India house at the age of 15, and in 1805 was appointed un...
-Sir Travers Twiss
Sir Travers Twiss, an English jurist, born in London in 1810. He graduated at Oxford in 1840, and was professor of political economy there from 1842 to 1852, afterward of international law at King's c...
-Sir Walter Scott
Sir Walter Scott, a Scottish author, born in Edinburgh, Aug. 15, 1771, died at Abbotsford, Sept. 21, 1832. He was a younger son of Walter Scott, a writer to the signet, allied to the Scotts of Harden,...
-Sir William Berkeley
Sir William Berkeley, royal governor of Virginia, born near London, died at Twickenham, July 13, 1677. He was educated at Oxford, and went to Virginia as governor in 1641. During the civil war he side...
-Sir William Betham
Sir William Betham, an English antiquary, born at Stradbroke, Suffolk, in 1779, died at Blackrock, near Dublin, Oct, 23, 1853. His father, the Rev. William Betham, was the author of Genealogical Tabl...
-Sir William Blackstone
Sir William Blackstone, an English lawyer, born in London, July 10, 1723, died there, Feb. 14, 1780. He was the posthumous son of a silk mercer, and lost his mother before he was 12 years old. His mat...
-Sir William Congreve
Sir William Congreve, an English engineer, born at Woolwich, May 20, 1772, died in Toulouse, May 15, 1828. In 1804, being then an artillery officer, he invented the rocket known by his name, which was...
-Sir William Draper
Sir William Draper, an English military officer, born in Bristol in 1721, died in Bath, Jan. 8, 1787. He was educated at Eton and Cambridge, entered the army, won distinction in the East Indies, obtai...
-Sir William Drummond
Sir William Drummond, a British author and diplomatist, born in Scotland about 1760, died in Rome, March 29, 1828. In 1794 he published A Review of the Government of Sparta and Athens, and in the f...
-Sir William Dugdale
Sir William Dugdale, an English antiquary, born in Shustoke, Warwickshire, Sept. 12, 1605, died there, Feb. 10, 1686. He was educated partly in the free school of Coventry, partly by his father, was m...
-Sir William Edmond Logan
Sir William Edmond Logan, a Canadian geologist, born in Montreal in 1798. His father belonged to a loyalist family who emigrated from Schenectady, N. Y., at the time of the war of independence. He was...
-Sir William Edward Parry
Sir William Edward Parry, an English navigator, born in Bath, Dec. 19, 1790, died in Ems, Germany, July 8, 1855. He entered the navy in 1803, and became a midshipman in 1806, serving in the Baltic fle...
-Sir William Francis Patrick Napier
Sir William Francis Patrick Napier, a British author, brother of Sir Charles James Napier, born in Castletowm, county Kildare, Ireland, in 1785, died at Clapham Park, near London, Feb. 12, 1860. He en...
-Sir William Hamilton
Sir William Hamilton, a Scottish philosopher, born in Glasgow, March 8, 1788, died in Edinburgh, May 6, 1856. At the university of Glasgow ho took a high position in the classes, and carried off the f...
-Sir William Jackson Hooker
Sir William Jackson Hooker, an English botanist, born in Norwich in 1785, died Aug. 12, 1865. He manifested a taste for botany at an unusually early age, and in 1809 he visited Iceland for the purpose...
-Sir William Jones
Sir William Jones, an English orientalist, born in London, Sept. 28, 1746, died in Calcutta, April 27, 1794. His father, an eminent mathematician, died when he was but three years old, and the care of...
-Sir William Pepperell
Sir William Pepperell, an American general, born at Kittery Point, Me., June 27,1696, died there, July 6, 1759. He was brought up as a merchant. About 1727 he was elected one of his majesty's council ...
-Sir William Reid
Sir William Reid, a British meteorologist, born at Kinglassie, Fifeshire, in 1791, died in London, Oct. 31, 1858. He entered the army as lieutenant of royal engineers in 1809, served under the duke of...
-Sir William Robert Grove
Sir William Robert Grove, an English physicist, born in Swansea, July 14, 1811. He graduated at Oxford in 1833, was called to the bar in 1835, and from 1840 to 1847 was professor of natural philosophy...
-Sir William Rowan Hamilton
Sir William Rowan Hamilton', a British philosopher, born in Dublin, Aug. 4, 1805, died at Dunsink, near Dublin, Sept. 2, 1865. He gave early indications of extraordinary intellectual powers, and when ...
-Sir William Sidney Smith
Sir William Sidney Smith, an English admiral, born at Midgham, Sussex, in 1764, died in Paris, May 26, 1840. He entered the navy at the age of 12, and before he was 20 was post captain, serving to the...
-Sir William Sternuale Bennett
Sir William Sternuale Bennett, an English composer, born in Sheffield, April 13, 1816. He is the son of Mr. Robert Bennett, for many years organist of the parish church at Sheffield. At the age of eig...
-Sir William Temple
Sir William Temple, an English statesman, born in London in 1628, died at Moor Park, Surrey, Jan. 27, 1699. He was the son of Sir John Temple, master of the rolls in Ireland. After passing two years a...
-Sir William Wallace
Sir William Wallace, a Scottish patriot, born about 1270, executed at Smithfield, Aug. 23, 1305. He was of Anglo-Norman descent, the younger son of Sir Malcolm Wallace, knight of Ellerslie. While at t...
-Sir William Waller
Sir William Waller, an English general, born in 1597, died at Osterley Park, Middlesex, Sept. 19, 1668. He was educated at Oxford and at Paris, was knighted by Charles I., and in 1640 entered parliame...
-Sir William Wyndham
Sir William Wyndham, a British statesman, born at Orchard-Wyndham, Somersetshire, in 1687, died in Wells, July 17, 1740. He was educated at Oxford, and entered the house of commons for his native coun...
-Siren
Siren, a North American long-tailed batra-chian, with stout eel-like body, naked skin, persistent branchiae, and only the two anterior legs. The best known species, the S. lacertina (Linn.), or mud ee...
-Sirhind
I. A geographical designation applied to that part of India lying between the upper courses of the Sutlej and the Jumna, but not now coterminous with any political division, being for the most part a ...
-Sisterhoods
I. Roman Catholic Roman Catholic, associations of women bound together by religious vows, and devoted to works of charity. In this article only those sisterhoods are mentioned which profess to embrac...
-Sisters Of Charity
Sisters Of Charity, a religious congregation founded by St. Vincent de Paul in the vicinity of Paris about the year 1033, with the cooperation of Mme. Le Gras, a pious and charitable lady. The object ...
-Sisters Of, Or Order Of Our Lady Of Mercy Mercy
Sisters Of, Or Order Of Our Lady Of Mercy Mercy, a religious order founded in Dublin by Miss Catharine McAuley in 1830. Miss Mc-Auley was born in Gormanstown castle, near Dublin, Sept. 29, 1787, and d...
-Siva
See India, Religions of. Sivas #1 I. A Vilayet Of Turkey A Vilayet Of Turkey, in Asia Minor, bounded N. by Trebizond, E. by Trebizond, Erzerum, and Diarbekir, S. by Marash, Adana, and Konieh, and W...
-Siwah
Siwah (anc. Ammon or Ammonium), an oasis in N. W. Egypt, near the boundary of the disputed territory between Egypt and Tripoli, about 330 m. W. S. W. of Cairo, and about 160 m. from the coast of the M...
-Six Principle Baptists
Six Principle Baptists, a small religious sect which first appeared in this country as a separate organization in Rhode Island in 1639. Their church polity and views on baptism are the same as those o...
-Sixtus
Sixtus, the name of five popes, of whom the following are the most important. I. Sixtus IV. (Francesco D'Albescola Della Ro-Vere) Sixtus IV. (Francesco D'Albescola Della Ro-Vere), born at Celle, nea...
-Skate (Dutch Schaats)
Skate (Dutch Schaats), a shoe or sandal with a steel runner for travelling over ice. It probably originated in Scandinavia. The earliest skates were made of bone, fastened to the foot with cords. Such...
-Skeleton
Skeleton (Gr., a dried body, from .-, to desiccate), the bony and cartilaginous framework of animals, and the ligneous structure of the leaves of plants...
-Skiev
Skiev, the external covering of the animal body, protecting the internal parts from external violence, and adapting itself by its elasticity to the various movements and changes of position; it also a...
-Skimmer
Skimmer (rhynchops, Linn.), a genus of web-footed birds of the gull family, and subfamily rhynchopsinae. The bill is of singular shape, broad at the base, from which it is suddenly compressed laterall...
-Skink
Skink, the common name of the scincidoe, a family of lepidosaurian, slender-tongued lizards, with elongated cylindrical body, covered above and below by imbricated fish-like scales, arranged in quincu...
-Skua
Skua, the common name of the web-footed birds of the gull family, subfamily lestridinoe, and genus stercorarius (Briss.). The bill is strong, the basal half with a membranous or corneous cere distinct...
-Skullcap
Skullcap, the common name for plants of the labiate family of the genus Scutellaria, the botanical name being derived from Lat. scu-tella, a dish, as the fruiting calyx has an appendage which closes i...
-Skunk
Skunk, an American carnivorous mammal of the weasel family, badger subfamily, and genus mephitis (Cuv.). It may be distinguished from its congeners by a more slender and elongated body, pointed nose, ...
-Skunk Cabbage
Skunk Cabbage, a plant the peculiar odor and the large clusters of luxuriant leaves of which readily suggested the common name. Botanically it has received the names pothos, ictodes, dracontium, and o...
-Skye
Skye, the largest island of the inner Hebrides, off the W. coast of Scotland, forming part of Inverness-shire, from the mainland of which it is separated by the narrow strait of Loch Alsh; area, 535 s...
-Slander
Slander, in law, defamatory words falsely and maliciously spoken, and injurious either in fact or in legal presumption. It is actionable slander: 1, to speak of one thus falsely and maliciously words ...
-Slang
Slang, a burlesque or colloquial form of expression, the language of low humor, or the jargon of thieves and vagrants. Slang is probably as old as human speech. We find traces of it in many of the ear...
-Slate
Slate, a rock of no definite composition, distinguished by its structure, which is of parallel sheets or laminae, easily separated. The term is in common use also applied to various rocks which do not...
-Slavery
Slavery, the condition of absolute bondage, in which one person is the unconditional property or chattel of another, and obliged to labor for his master's benefit, without his own consent. It has exis...
-Slavic Race And Languages
The Slavs or Slavi (in the Slavic languages, Slovene, Slo-wianie, etc, names now commonly derived from slovo or stowo, word; hence, peoples of one tongue) are one of the most numerous and powerful ...
-Slavonia, Or Selavonia
Slavonia, Or Selavonia (Hun. Totorszag), a province of the Austro-IIungarian monarchy, forming with Croatia a kingdom united with that of Hungary, bounded N. and E. by Hungary proper, W. by Croatia, a...
-Sleep
Sleep, a period of repose in the animal system, in which there is a partial suspension of nervous and muscular activity, necessary for the reparation of the vital powers. In sleep there is more or les...
-Sleidan, Or Sleidanns, Johann
Sleidan, Or Sleidanns, Johann, a German author, whose real name was Philipson, born at Schleiden, near Cologne, in 1506, died in Stras-burg, Oct. 31, 1556. After studying in many universities, he was ...
-Sligo
I. A County Of Ireland A County Of Ireland, in the province of Connaught, on the N. W. coast, bordering on Leitrim, Roscommon, Mayo, and the Atlantic ocean; area, 721 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 115,311. T...
-Sloe
Sloe (A. S. sla), a wild plum, prunus spino-sa) native in Europe and Russian and central Asia, and sparingly naturalized in the New England and some others of the older states. It is a shrub or low tr...
-Sloth
Sloth, the name of the edentate mammals of the family tardigrada (111.) and genus brady-pus (Linn.); both the family and generic names are derived from the extreme slowness of the gait; it is le pares...
-Slovaks
Slovaks, a Slavic people, belonging to the western stem of the race, and inhabiting chiefly the mountainous regions of N. W. Hungary and the adjoining portions of Moravia. Their number is estimated at...
-Slug
Slug (limax, Lam.), a genus of mollusk, belonging to the air-breathing gasteropods. The form is elongated, tapering, snail-like, the head having two long and two short tentacles which can be extended ...
-Smalcald
Smalcald (Ger. Schmalkalden), a town of Prussia, in the province of Hesse-Nassau (before 1866 of Hesse-Cassel), 34 m. E. N. E. of Fulda; pop. in 1871, 5,792. It manufactures iron, steel, and salt. - T...
-Smallpox
Smallpox (variola), a contagious fever, characterized by a pustular eruption having a depressed centre. The terms variola and paccc first occur in the Bertinian chronicle of the date 961. Variola is d...
-Smell
Smell, the special sense by which we take cognizance of the odoriferous qualities of foreign bodies. The main peculiarity of this sense is that it gives us intelligence of the physical properties of s...
-Smelt
Smelt, a soft-rayed fish of the salmon family, and genus osmerus (Artedi). The body is elongated and covered with small scales; there are two dorsals, the first with rays and the second adipose and ra...
-Smew
Smew (mergellus albellus, Selby), a web-footed bird differing from the typical mergansers, to which subfamily it belongs, in having the bill much shorter than the head and elevated at the base, and th...
-Smilax
Smilax, a genus of endogenous, mostly shrubby, often prickly plants, which climb by tendrils. They are abundant in warm climates, and are represented in the Atlantic states by several species, some of...
-Smirke
I. Sir Robert Sir Robert, an English architect, horn in London in 1780, died at Cheltenham, April 18, 1867. He was the oldest son of Robert Smirke, a popular genre painter. After a tour through Germa...
-Smith
Smith, the name of four counties in the United States. I. A Central County Of Mississippi A Central County Of Mississippi, intersected by Strong river and drained by the head streams of Leaf river; ...
-Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution, a scientific establishment in Washington, D. C, organized by act of congress in August, 1846, to carry into effect the provisions of the will of James Smith-son. The condition...
-Smolensk
I. A W. Government Of Russia A W. Government Of Russia, bordering on Tver, Moscow, Kaluga, Orel, Tehernigov, Mohilev, Vitebsk, and Pskov; area, 21,637 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 1,140,015. The surface is ...
-Smyrna
Smyrna (Turk. Ismir), a town of Asiatic Turkey, capital of the vilayet of Aidin, near the head of the gulf of Smyrna, on the W. coast of Asia Minor, 210 m. S. W. of Constantinople; pop. (according to ...
-Smyth
Smyth, a S. W. county of Virginia, bounded S. E. by the Iron mountain range and drained by the head streams of Holston river; area, about 500 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 8,898, of whom 1,244 were colored. T...
-Snail
Snail, the common name of the helicidoe, a large family of gasteropod mollusks, terrestrial and air-breathing. The number known is now so large that the treatment of the subfamilies and genera would r...
-Snakeroot
Snakeroot, a common name, usually with a prefix, for several plants which are botanical-ly very distinct, applied to them because they were supposed, especially by the Indians, to be efficacious again...
-Snapping Turtle
Snapping Turtle (chelydra serpentina, Schweig.; genus chelonura, Fleming), an American species of fresh-water chelonians, characterized by a large head, with both jaws strongly hooked and two barbels ...
-Snare River
Snare River (also called Lewis fork or river, Saptin river, and Shoshone river), a tributary of the Columbia, rising in the Rocky mountains in N. W. Wyoming, near the sources of the Yellowstone and Ma...
-Snipe
Snipe, a group of wading birds, of the subfamily scolopacinoe. It is characterized by a long, straight, slender bill, obtuse and flexible, covered with a soft, sensitive skin, abundantly supplied with...
-Snorri Sturlason, Or Snorre Sturluson
Snorri Sturlason, Or Snorre Sturluson, an Icelandic historian, born on the shores of Hvammsfiord, a bay on the W. coast of Iceland, in 1178, murdered at Reykholt, Sept. 22, 1241. He was of distinguish...
-Snow
Snow, the flocculent white masses of crystals in which the aqueous vapor of the atmosphere at low tempera-tares is precipitated from the clouds. The other forms in which atmospheric vapor appears are ...
-Snow Bird
Snow Bird, a well known member of the finch family, and genus junco (Wagler). With the general characters of the finch family, the middle toe is shorter than the short tarsus, the outer the longest; t...
-Snowberry
Snowberry, the common name for a native shrub, given on account of its large, very pure white berries, which ripen in autumn and remain after the leaves have fallen. The genus symphoricarpus (Gr. `...
-Snowdrop
Snowdrop, an early spring flower, the name being derived, according to Prior, from the German Schneetropfen, which does not refer to a drop of snow, but, so far as the drop is concerned, to the penden...
-Snowdrop Tree
Snowdrop Tree, a name given to shrubs or small trees of the genus Halesia, on account of the pure white pendulous flowers, which have also suggested the equally common name of silver-bell tree. Halesi...
-Snowflake
Snowflake, a name said to have been invented by Curtis for leucoium vernum, to distinguish it from snowdrop, to which it is nearly related and which it closely resembles. Leucoium (the ancient Greek n...
-Snsan Warxer
Snsan Warxer, an American authoress, born in New York in 1818. She is the daughter of Henry W. Warner (died in 1875), author of an Inquiry into the Moral and Religious Character of the American Gove...
-Soap
Soap (Gr. , Lat. sapo), a compound formed by the union of alkalies with oils and fats. The invention of soap is ascribed by Pliny to the Gauls, and he gives the Germans c...
-Socialism
Socialism, the doctrine that society ought to be reorganized on more harmonious and equitable principles. Communism and cooperation are its principal divisions or varieties. Communism and socialism ar...
-Society Islands
Society Islands, a group in the S. Pacific ocean, extending between lat. 16 and 18 S., and Ion. 148 and 155 W.; area, 666 sq. m.; pop. about 18,000. The group is formed of two clus...
-Society Of The Cincinnati
Society Of The Cincinnati, an association founded by the officers of the American revolutionary army after the peace of 1783. Its object was to commemorate the success of the revolution, and to perpet...
-Socinus (Ital. Sozzini)
I. Laelias Laelias, an Italian theologian, born in Siena in 1525, died in Zurich, March 16, 1562. His studies led him to doubt some of the fundamental doctrines of the church, including that of the T...
-Sociology
Sociology, the science which treats of the actions of men living together in society, and of the institutions thus created. Its scope embraces the whole history of man from the origin of language to t...
-Socotra
Socotra, an island in the Indian ocean, belonging to the sultan of Oman, about 130 m. E. N. E. of Cape Guardafui, the eastern extremity of Africa; length about 75 m., breadth about 25 m.; area, 1,309 ...
-Socrates
Socrates, a Greek philosopher, born in the immediate neighborhood of Athens between 471 and 469 B. C, died in that city in 399. He was the son of Sophroniscus, a sculptor, and of Phcenarete, a midwife...
-Soda
Soda, a name given to sodic monoxide, or common oxide of sodium, Na2O, the base of the important series of sodium salts; also to the hydrated oxide, or caustic soda, NaHO, and in commerce to the norma...
-Sodium
Sodium, the most abundant of the alkali metals, its chloride composing the principal part of the saline matter of the ocean, and also existing in extensive beds in geological strata. Large quantities ...
-Sofala
I. A Country On The E. Coast Of Africa A Country On The E. Coast Of Africa, within the territory of Mozambique, of which it forms the southern half. It extends from about lat. 18 to 24 S., ...
-Soiacii, Or Snmac
Soiacii, Or Snmac (Arab, summak), the common name for plants of the genus rhus (the ancient Greek and Latin name), of the cashew family or anacardiacece, which includes, besides the cashew, the mango ...
-Solanum
Solanum, the name (of unknown derivation) of a genus of plants which is the type of a large and important order, the Solanaceae. Some of the conspicuous species of Solanum being popularly known as nig...
-Solar Compass
Solar Compass, an instrument invented by William A. Burt of Michigan, designed for determining at any place a true N. and S. line, from which other lines may be run in any desired direction. It is fur...
-Solder
Solder (Lat. solidus, solid), a metal or alloy used for joining together different pieces of metal, whether of the same or of different kinds. Solders are divided into hard and soft. The soft solders ...
-Sole
Sole (solea, Cuv.), a genus of soft-rayed flat fishes of the family pleuronectidoe. (See Flounder.) The genus has the jaws concealed under the scaly skin, the upper rounded and longest; the eyes are b...
-Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands, a group of the S. Pacific lying S. E. of New Britain and E. of New Guinea, extending in a S. E. direction from lat. 4 50' to 11 50' S., and from Ion. 154 30' to 162°...
-Solomon's Seal
Solomon's Seal, the common name for species of polygonatum (Gr .noxvg , many, and yovu, knee, the'stems having numerous joints), a genus of the lily family, closely related to asparagus, and having th...
-Solon
Solon, the Athenian lawgiver, born about 638 B. C, died in Athens about 559. He was a lineal descendant of Cedrus. In his youth he visited many parts of Greece and Asia as a merchant, gained distincti...
-Solothurn
Solothurn (Fr. Soleure), a N. W. canton of Switzerland, bordering on Basel Country, Aargau, and Bern; area, 303 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 74,713, of whom 62,078 were Roman Catholics. The Jura mountains oc...
-Soluble, Or Water Glass Glass
Soluble, Or Water Glass Glass , an artificial silicate of soda or potash, or a double silicate of both these alkalies. It may be formed by fusing 8 or 10 parts of dry carbonate of soda or potash with ...
-Solyman II., Or Suleiman
Solyman II., Or Suleiman, called the Magnificent, an Ottoman sultan, born about 1495, died before Sziget in Hungary, Sept. 5, 1566. He was the son of Selim I., whom he succeeded in 1520. In 1521 he su...
-Somauli, Or Somal
Somauli, Or Somal, the general name of the tribes inhabiting that portion of Africa S. of the gulf of Aden, and extending from Cape Guardafui and the straits of Bab-el-Mandeb to the Doho river. The ea...
-Somerset
Somerset, the name of four counties in the United States. I. A W. County Of Maine A W. County Of Maine, bordering on Canada, intersected by the Kennebec river, and drained by the head streams of the...
-Somersworth
Somersworth, a town of Strafford co., New Hampshire, on the Salmon Falls river, which separates it from Maine, and on the Eastern and Boston and Maine railroads, 33 m. E. of Concord and 65 m. N. of Bo...
-Somerville
Somerville, a N. E. central co. of Texas, intersected by the Brazos river; area, about 300 sq. m. It was formed in 1875 from Hood co. The surface is rolling and the soil fertile. Wheat, Indian corn, a...
-Somnambulism
Somnambulism (Lat. somnus, sleep, and am-Imlare, to walk), literally, the act of walking in sleep, but usually applied to all the movements of a person who while in a condition of sleep acts his dream...
-Sonata
Sonata, a form of musical composition consisting of several independent movements, each of which is developed in accordance with certain accepted rules. The great body of instrumental music is based u...
-Sondrio
Sondrio, a N. province of Italy, in Lombardy, bounded N. W. and X. by Switzerland, N. E. by Tyrol, and S. by Brescia, Bergamo, and Como; area, 1,262 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 111,-241. It includes the val...
-Sone
Sone, a river of British India, a southern tributary of the Ganges, rises in the highlands of the Central Provinces, in lat. 22 41' N., lon. 82 7' E., near the source of the Ner-budda, and f...
-Sonnet
Sonnet (It. sonetto), a poem consisting of 14 iambic decasyllabic or endecasyllabic lines, rhyming in a peculiar manner. The first 8 lines make two quatrains, and the remaining 6 two tercets. There ar...
-Sonoma
Sonoma, a N. W. county of California, bounded S. E. by San Pablo bay and W. by the Pacific ocean, and watered by Russian, Santa Rosa, Petaluma, and Sonoma rivers; area, 1,400 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 19,...
-Sonora
Sonora, a N. W. state of Mexico, bounded N. by the United States, E. by Chihuahua, S. by Sinaloa, and W. by the gulf of California and Lower California; area, 81,022 sq. m.; pop. in 1869, 109,388. The...
-Soodan, Or Soudan
Soodan, Or Soudan (Arab. Biled es-Sudan, the country of the blacks). I. A Vast Continental Belt Of Territory (Also Called Nigritia) A Vast Continental Belt Of Territory (Also Called Nigritia), stret...
-Sooloo, Or Sulu
Sooloo, Or Sulu, the general name of a picturesque chain of islands in the Indian archipelago, known also as the Sooloo archipelago, extending about 250 m. from S. W. to N. E., between Borneo and Mind...
-Soosoo, Or Souson
Soosoo, Or Souson, the native name of the dolphin of the Ganges, a fresh-water cetacean of the genus platanista (F. Cuv.). In this, the only described species (P. Gangetica, F. Cuv.), the body is from...
-Sophocles
Sophocles, a Greek tragic poet, born in the Attic village of Colonus in 496 or 495 B. C, died probably in 406. He was about 30 years younger than Aeschylus, and 15 years older than Euripides. Having g...
-Sorbonne
Sorbonne, the principal school of theology in the ancient university of Paris. It was founded in 1253 by Robert de Sorbonne or Sorbon, so called from his birthplace in Champagne. He had been a poor st...
-Sorghum
Sorghum, a genus of grasses, of the tribe andropogoneae, and by some authors included in andropogon. In grasses of this genus the flowers are in open panicles, the spikelets two or three together, the...
-Sorrel
Sorrel, the plant rumex acetosa, a native of Europe, Asia, and arctic America, which has long been in cultivation. The genus rumex (the ancient Latin name) belongs to the Polygonacece or buckwheat fam...
-Soubise
I. Benjamin De Rohan Benjamin De Rohan, seigneur de, a French soldier, born in La Rochelle in 1583, died in London, Oct. 9, 1642. He was a son of Rene II. de Rohan by Catharine Parthenay, the heiress...
-Sound
Sound, the sensation peculiar to the organ of hearing. This sensation is the final effect of a closely connected series of mechanical actions, which have their origin in some rapidly vibrating body, w...
-South Australia
South Australia, a British colony in Australia, comprising all of the continent between the 129th and 138th meridians of E. longitude N of lat. 24 S., and between the 129th and 141st meridians S....
-South Bend
South Bend, a city and the county seat of St. Joseph co., Indiana, on the S. bank of the St. Joseph river, at its most southern bend, 130 m. N. of Indianapolis and 85 m. E. by S. of Chicago; pop. in 1...
-South Carolina
South Carolina, one of the original states of the American Union, lying between lat. 32 and 35 10' N., and lon. 78 25' and 83 19' W. It has the form of an irregular triangle, with ...
-South Sea Scheme
South Sea Scheme (often called the South sea bubble), a financial delusion of the early part of the 18th century. In 1711 Robert Har-ley, earl of Oxford, then lord treasurer, pro-posed to fund a float...
-Southampton
Southampton, a S. E. county of Virginia, bordering on North Carolina, bounded E. by the Blackwater river and S. W. by the Meher-rin, and intersected by the Nottaway; area, 600 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 12...
-Southey
I. Robert Robert, an English author, born in Bristol, Aug. 12, 1774, died at Greta hall, near Keswick, March 21, 1843. In his 14th year he was placed at Westminster school, the expenses being borne b...
-Sowerby
I. James James, an English naturalist, born in Lambeth, March 21, 1757, died Oct. 25, 1822. In early life he was a painter of portraits and miniatures, and later took up natural history in connection...
-Soy
Soy (Japanese, sooja), a sauce prepared in Ja-pan and China from the seeds of a plant formerly called soja hispida, but now glycine hispida. The plant is erect, much branched, and roughly hairy...
-Spain
Spain (anc. Iberia; Lat. Hispania; Span. Espana), a kingdom of S. W. Europe, forming with Portugal the Pyrenean or Iberian peninsula. The name Hispania came into use among the Romans after the destruc...
-Spalato, Or Spalatro
Spalato, Or Spalatro (anc. Spalatum or Spolatum), a town of Dalmatia, Austria, on a bay of the Adriatic formed by islands, 74 m. S. E. of Zara; pop. in 1870, 15,784. It has been ately much improved an...
-Spaniel
Spaniel (canis extrarius, Linn.), a well known variety of hunting dog, in form a small setter, with silky hair, long in some parts of the body, and long, soft, pendulous ears. It is figured on some of...
-Sparrow Hawk
Sparrow Hawk, a small bird of prey of the falcon subfamily, and genus tinnunculus (Vieill.), which differs from falco (Linn.) in having longer tarsi, covered in front with large transverse hexagonal s...
-Sparta, Or Lacedaemon, In Antiquity
Sparta, Or Lacedaemon, In Antiquity, the capital of Laconia and the chief city of the Peloponnesus. It was on the right bank of the Eurotas, between the tributaries Oenus and Tiasa, about 20 m. from t...
-Spartacus
Spartacus, a Roman gladiator, of Thracian birth, leader of a servile insurrection in 73-71 B. C. Originally a shepherd, he became a chief of banditti, and was captured by the Romans. He was sold and t...
-Spciner Fullerton Baird
Spciner Fullerton Baird. an American naturalist, born at Reading, Penn., Feb. 3, 1823. He was educated at Dickinson college, and in 1846 became professor of natural science in that institution. In 185...
-Speaker
Speaker, a term applied to the presiding officer of each house of the parliament of Great Britain, of the house of representatives of the United States congress, and generally of the lower houses of t...
-Special Notice
549 & 551 Broadway, New York, June 15, 1876'. It has been reported to us that certain dealers in books, in various parts of the country, have promised to supply the American CyclopAedia, when ...
-Species
Species, in its most general acceptation, a kind or sort of something, which something is the genus to which the species belongs. Thus, a black stone is a species of the genus stone; a gray horse is a...
-Specific Gravity
Specific Gravity, the ratio of the weight of one body to that of an equal volume of another, adopted as a standard of reference. For solids and liquids the standard is pure water, at a temperature of ...
-Specific Heat
(Water - 1). Lithium.......... 0.9408 Sodium.......... 0-2934 Aluminum....... 0.2143 Iron............. 0.1133 Copper........... 0.0952 Zinc............. 0.0956 Silver........... 0.0570 Tin.......
-Spectacles
Spectacles, contrivances worn to assist sight or to protect the eyes from injury. 1. Spectacles to assist Sight. These may operate in two general ways: first, by correction of some optical defects to ...
-Spectrum
Spectrum (Lat., an image), the name given to the image or colored band formed by the decomposition of a beam of light into its elementary colors. Thus, when a beam of sunlight enters a dark room throu...
-Speculum
Speculum (Lat., mirror), a term commonly applied to concave metallic reflectors, such as are used in reflecting telescopes for concentrating the rays of light from distant luminous bodies, and present...
-Spencer
I. A N. County Of Kentucky A N. County Of Kentucky, intersected by Salt river; area, 280 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 5,956, of whom 1,479 were colored. The surface is hilly and the soil fertile. The chief ...
-Spencer Perceval
Spencer Perceval, an English statesman, born in London, Nov. 1, 1762, assassinated in the lobby of the house of commons, May 11, 1812. He was the second son of John, earl of Egmont. In 1786 he was cal...
-Spermaceti
Spermaceti (Gr. o, sperm, and , a whale), a solid crystalline fat, extracted from the oily fluids found in a triangular cavity by the right ...
-Sphere
Sphere (Gr. ), in geometry, a body bounded by a surface, every point of which is equally distant from a point within called the centre. The figure-may be generated ...
-Sphinx
Sphinx, a fabulous monster of Greek mythology, which was represented generally as having the winged body of a lion and the breast and head of a woman, but sometimes with a female face, the breast, fee...
-Spider
Spider, a division of the insect order aracli-nida, which also includes the mites and scorpions. The general character of the order, which seems intermediate between crustaceans and insects proper, th...
-Spider Crab, Or Sea Spider
Spider Crab, Or Sea Spider, the name of several species of ten-footed short-tailed crustaceans of the crab family, and more particularly of the libinia canalicirfata of North America and the maia squi...
-Spikenard
The ancients, under the name of nard (Heb. nerd; Gr. -, Lat. nardus), made use of several roots having properties similar to valerian; one having its flowers (or le...
-Spinach
Spinach, a plant of the chenopodiacew or goosefoot family, Spinacia oleracea, the leaves of which are used as food. According to some authors, the botanical and common names are derived from the Latin...
-Spinal Diseases
Spinal Diseases, the common appellation of diseases affecting the bony spinal column and the spinal cord and its membranes. The principal diseases of the spinal column are lateral curvature and angula...
-Spinel
Spinel (Fr. spinelle), a mineral, sometimes ranked among the precious stones, occurring in regular octahedrons and dodecahedrons, variously modified; hardness, 8; specific gravity, 3.5 to 4.9. The col...
-Spire, Or Spires
Spire, Or Spires (Ger. Speyer or Speier), a town of Bavaria, capital of the district of the Palatinate, on the left bank of the Rhine, at its junction with the Speyerbach, 16 m. N. E. of Landau; pop. ...
-Spiritualism
Spiritualism, a term formerly used to designate the doctrines and religious life of a class of mystics who professed to be under the sensible guidance of the Divine Spirit, and who were distinguished ...
-Spitzbergen
Spitzbergen, a group of islands in the Arctic ocean, between lat. 76 30' and 80 30' N., and Ion. 10 and 28 E., and nearly midway between Greenland on the west and Nova Zembla on th...
-Spleen
Spleen (Gr. ), the largest of the vascular or ductless glands, whose probable function is subsidiary to the process of sanguification. It is situated in the left hypochon...
-Spoleto
Spoleto (anc. Spoletium), a city of central Italy, formerly capital of a papal delegation of the same name, and since 1860 of a district in the province of Perugia (division of Umbria), on the Mareggi...
-Sponge
Sponge, the common name applied to the order spongida, of the class of rhizopods, the most characteristic of the subkingdom protozoa. Sponges were for a long time regarded as plants, but the best natu...
-Spontaneous Combustion
Spontaneous Combustion, the ignition of inflammable bodies without the application of fire, and without obvious cause of increase of temperature. Occurrences of this sort, formerly very mysterious, ar...
-Spontaneous Generation
Spontaneous Generation, the direct production of living beings from inanimate material, in contradistinction to the ordinary mode of generation, in which young animals or plants appear only as the pro...
-Spoonbill
Spoonbill, the common name of the wading birds of the family plataleidoe, characterized by a much depressed bill, very broad, and dilated at the end in the shape of a rounded spoon. In the genus plata...
-Sprat
Sprat, a small fish of the herring family, and genus harengula (Val.). There are teeth 'on the jaws, tongue, palate, and pterygoid bones, but none on the vomer; the branchios-tegal rays are six or sev...
-Springfield
Springfield, a city and the shire town of Hampden co., Massachusetts, on the E. bank of Connecticut river, opposite the town of West Springfield, with which it is connected by a railroad and a highway...
-Springfield (2)
Springfield, a city and the capital of Clark co., Ohio, at the junction of Lagonda creek with Mad river, 45 m. W. of Columbus and 70 m. N. E. of Cincinnati; pop. in 1850, 5,108; in 1860, 7,002; in 187...
-Spruce
Spruce, the name for coniferous trees of a section of the genus abies, which includes those with scattered leaves and pendent cones, the scales of which are persistent. (See Fir, Hemlock SPRUCE, and P...
-Spy
Spy, in war, one employed to penetrate the enemy's lines and ascertain his condition and plans. Spies have always been employed in warlike operations, and writers on the laws of war lay down the princ...
-Squash
Squash, the name of several species and varieties of cucurbita, of the order cucurbitaceoe or gourd family, called by the North American Indians askutasquash. The characters of the family are given un...
-Squash Bug
Squash Bug, a well known hemipterous insect, the coreus tristis (De Geer). It is about throe quarters of an inch long, with a triangular head; the general color is ochre yellow, rendered dusky above b...
-Squill
Squill (Lat. squilla or Scilla), a drug consisting of the sliced and dried bulbs of the Scilla maritima of Linnaeus, but the plant has been separated from this genus and is now the urginea maritima of...
-Squinting
Squinting (Lat. strabismus), a deformity consisting in a want of parallelism between the visual axes of the eyes. Except in cases where it is caused by paralysis, spasmodic or hydrop-ical affections, ...
-Squirrel
Squirrel, the popular name of the rodents of the family sciuridoe, which is very numerous in species, and widely spread over the world, except in Australia. They are characterized by a broad head, the...
-St. Ubes, Or St. Elbes Setubal
St. Ubes, Or St. Elbes Setubal, a maritime city of Portugal, in the province of Estremadura, on the N. side of a bay of the same name, 18 m. S. E. of Lisbon; pop. about 15,000. It stands in a valley, ...
-Stadium
Stadium (Gr. ), originally a Grecian course for foot races at the places where games were celebrated, and sometimes in the gymnasia of cities where there were...
-Staeimerlig
Staeimerlig, a term generally applied to all kinds of defective utterance, but more correctly restricted to the organic or symptomatic defects, in distinction from stuttering, which is properly an idi...
-Staempfli, Or Stampfli, Jakob
Staempfli, Or Stampfli, Jakob, a Swiss statesman, born at Schtipfen, canton of Bern, in 1820. He is the son of a farmer, and acted as a servant in France in order to acquire the language. Subsequently...
-Staffa
Staffa, a small uninhabited island of Scotland, one of the inner Hebrides, Argyleshire, about 8 m. W. of Mull. It is irregularly elliptical, about 1½ m. in circumfcreiice. Its surface is an uneven pla...
-Stafford
I. An E. County Of Virginia An E. County Of Virginia, bordering on the Potomac, bounded S. W. by the Rappahannock, and drained by Aquia and other creeks; area, 335 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 6,420, of who...
-Staffordshire
Staffordshire, an inland and nearly central county of England, bordering on the counties of Chester, Derby, Leicester, Warwick, Worcester, and Salop; area, 1,138 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 858,326. The riv...
-Stag
Stag, the common name of the red deer of Europe (cervus elaphus, Linn.) and its congeners. It is about 4 ft. high at the shoulders, and of a general reddish brown color, tinged with grayish in the win...
-Stag Beetle
Stag Beetle, the common name of the family Iucanidoe, of the lamellicorn pentamerous Coleoptera, of which the type is the genus lu-canus (Linn.). Many of the species are of considerable size, and have...
-Stamford
Stamford, a town and borough of Fairfield co., Connecticut, on Long Island sound and the New York and New Haven and New Canaan and Stamford railroads, 34 m. N. E. of New York; pop. in 1870, 9,714. The...
-Stamp Acts
Stamp Acts, laws for the raising of revenue by requiring the use of government stamps on the paper or parchment by means of which business is transacted or privileges conferred, or upon packages of go...
-Stanhope
I. James, Earl Earl James, a British statesman, born in 1673, died in London, Feb. 5, 1721. He was the son of Alexander Stanhope, a brother of the second carl of Chesterfield. Entering the military s...
-Stanislas Aignan Julien
Stanislas Aignan Julien, a French orientalist, born in Orleans, Sept. 20, 1799, died in Paris, Feb. 14, 1873. He was the son of a noted mechanician. After completing his classical studies in his nativ...
-Stanislas I. Leszczynski
Stanislas I. Leszczynski, king of Poland, born in Lemberg, Galicia, Oct, 20, 1677, died in Luneville, France, Feb. 23, 1766. He was palatine of Posen, and had held an office at the Polish court, where...
-Stanko, Or Stanchio Cos
Stanko, Or Stanchio Cos (called Meropis in Thucydides, and Nymphcea in Pliny), an island of Asiatic Turkey, in the Aegean sea, near the coast of Asia Minor, in lat. (W. point) 36 49' 54 N, lon. ...
-Stanley
I. A S. W. County Of North Carolina A S. W. County Of North Carolina, bounded E. by the Yadkin and S. by Rocky river; area, about 300 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 8,315. of whom 1,289 were colored. The surf...
-Stanton,Edwin Mcmasters
Stanton,Edwin Mcmasters, an American statesman, born in Steubenville, Ohio, Dec. 19, 1814, died in Washington, I). C, Dec. 24, 1869. He-was a student in Kenyon college from 1831 to 1833, was admitted ...
-Stapleton Cotton Combermere
Stapleton Cotton Combermere, viscount, a British soldier, born in Denbighshire, Nov. 17, 1773, died at Clifton, Feb. 21,1865. He entered the army at an early age, and served in India in the war agains...
-Star
Star (Gr. , ), a luminous body beyond the solar system, not nebulous. The study of the stars includes two chief divisions: 1, the dete...
-Star Fish
Star Fish, the popular name of the radiated animals of the class of echinoderms and the order asterioids, well exemplified by the common species of the New England coasts, the five-fingered Jack of th...
-Star Of Bethlehem
Star Of Bethlehem, a name for the plant Ornithogalum umbellatum, which is also called eleven-o'clock-lady (Fr. dame d'onze heures), as its flowers open about 11 o'clock; and as they close at 3 o'cl...
-Stargazer
Stargazer, a'spiny-rayed percoid fish of the family trachinidce or weevers, and genus uranoscopus (Linn.), so called from the position of the eyes, which look directly upward. The body is elongated, c...
-Stark
I. A N. E. County Of Ohio A N. E. County Of Ohio, drained by the Tuscarawas river and its branches, and traversed by the Ohio canal and several railroads; area, 570 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 52,508. The ...
-Starling, Or Stare
Starling, Or Stare, the common name of the conirostral birds of the family sturnidoe, and subfamily sturninoe, of which the genus stur-miH (Linn.) is the type; the family also includes the straight-bi...
-Staten Island
Staten Island, an island of New York, constituting with several adjacent islets the county of Richmond, 5 m. S. W. of New York city, from which it is separated by New York bay; length N. E. and S. W. ...
-States General
I. An assembly of the nation which existed in France previous to the revolution, and consisted of the representatives of the clergy, the nobility, and the third estate (tiers Stat). Before the reign o...
-Statistics
Statistics, the systematic collection and classification of facts relating to the social and industrial conditions of the people. One of the first to systematize statistics and give to them a scientif...
-Statutes Of Limitation
Statutes Of Limitation, laws which provide that certain debts or claims shall not be prosecuted after a certain time. The origin of these statutes, which are now found in every civilized community, wa...
-Staunton
Staunton, a river in the S. part of Virginia, which rises in Montgomery co., among the Alleghany mountains, flows E. and S. E. through a pass in the Blue Ridge, and with Dan river forms the Roanoke at...
-Steam Boiler
The use of steam boilers dates from antiquity. Hero, who lived in the 3d century before the Christian era, described several forms of boilers which were used in generating steam for what seem to have ...
-Steam Carriage
Road locomotives and traction engines have been frequently constructed for the transportation of both freight and passengers, and for hauling wagons carrying heavy loads. The latter application only h...
-Steam Navigation
The origin of the paddle wheel for propelling vessels antedates the Christian era. The earliest application of steam to turn the paddle wheel was anticipated by Roger Bacon. The attempt of Blasco de G...
-Stearic Acid
Stearic Acid (Gr. ', tallow), a fatty acid obtained from mutton suet, and other fats that contain stearine, by saponifying suet and decomposing the hot solution of the so...
-Steel
Steel, a malleable compound of iron and carbon, which may be hardened and tempered. Considerable confusion in the use of the word has arisen in late years, owing to the introduction of improved metall...
-Steering Apparatus
Steering Apparatus, the appliances by which vessels are guided through the water. The earliest method was by a long oar passed out of the stern. An oar is a very efficient means of steering boats, and...
-Stefano Borgia
Stefano Borgia, an Italian cardinal and statesman, born at Velletri, Dec. 3, 1731, died in Lyons, Nov. 23, 1804. He was a generous patron of science, and made valuable collections of manuscripts, coin...
-Stellio
Stellio (Daud.), a genus of iguanian lizards, characterized by a triangular, flattened head, covered with numerous small spinous plates; body depressed, the scales having intermixed some larger and ro...
-Stephan Heller
Stephan Heller, a Gorman composer, born in Pesth, Hungary, May 15, 1814. At the age of nine he played in public with his teacher Dussek's concerto for two pianos. He went soon after to Vienna, and rec...
-Stephan Ladislaus Endlicher
Stephan Ladislaus Endlicher, a Hungarian botanist and linguist, born in Presburg, June 24, 1804, died in Vienna, March 28, 1849. He studied at the universities of Pesth and Vienna, and intending to be...
-Stephen
Stephen (Gr. , a crown), Saint, the first martyr of the Christian church. He was a Hellenist by birth, and one of the seven deacons in the Christian con...
-Stephen (2)
Stephen, king of England, the fourth and last of the Ando-Norman line, born about 1100, died Oct 25, 1154. His father was Stephen, count of Blois, and his mother was Adela or Adelicia, the fourth or f...
-Stephen Arnold Douglas
Stephen Arnold Douglas, an American statesman, born at Brandon, Vt., April 23, 1813, died in Chicago, June 3, 1861. His father, who was a physician, died when Stephen was about two months old. The wid...
-Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut, an American soldier, brother of W. H. Hurlbert, born in Charleston, S. C, March 24, 1815. He served as adjutant of a South Carolina regiment in the Seminole war in 1835, and ...
-Stephen Burroughs
Stephen Burroughs, an American adventurer, born at Hanover, N. H., in 1765, died at Three Rivers, Canada, Jan. 28, 1840. At the age of 14 he ran away from home to join the army, but soon deserted. He ...
-Stephen Chapin
Stephen Chapin, D. D., an American clergyman, born in Milford, Mass., Nov. 4, 1778, died in Washington, D. C, Oct. 1, 1845. He graduated at Harvard college in 1804, studied theology with Dr. Emmons, a...
-Stephen Colwell
Stephen Colwell, an American merchant and author, born in Brooke co., W. Virginia, March 25, 1800, died in Philadelphia, Jan. 15, 1871. He was educated at Jefferson college, where he graduated in 1819...
-Stephen F Austin
Stephen F Austin., founder of the first American colony in Texas, son of Moses Austin, died Dec. 27, 1836. Setting out from Natchitoches, July 5,1821, to follow up the grant previously issued to his f...
-Stephen Grellet
Stephen Grellet, a Quaker missionary, born in France in 1773, died in Burlington, N. J., Nov. 16, 1855. He was originally a Catholic, and was educated at the military college of Lyons. At the age of 1...
-Stephen Harriman Long
Stephen Harriman Long, an American engineer, born in Hopkinton, N. II., Dec. 30, 1784, died in Alton, 111., Sept. 4, 1864. He graduated at Dartmouth college in 1809, in 1814 entered the corps of engin...
-Stephen Hopkins
Stephen Hopkins, one of the signers of the American Declaration of Independence, born in Scituate, R. I., March 7, 1707, died in Providence, July 13, 1785. In early life he took up his residence in Pr...
-Stephen Langton
Stephen Langton, an English prelate, born in Devonshire according to some authors, in Sussex according to others, about 1160, died in Slindon, Sussex, July 9, 1228. He was educated at the university o...
-Stephen Olin
Stephen Olin, an American clergyman, born in Leicester, Vt., March 3, 1797, died in Mid-dletown, Conn., Aug. 16, 1851. He graduated at Middlebury college, Vt., in 1820, and became a teacher in South C...
-Stephenson (2)
I. George George, an English railway engineer, born at Wylam, Northumberland, June 9, 1781, died at Tapton park, near Chesterfield, Derbyshire, Aug. 12, 1848. For several years he was employed at var...
-Sterling
See Pound Sterling. Sterling #1 Sterling, a city of Whitesides co., Illinois, on the N. bank of Rock river, and on the Chicago and Northwestern and the Rockford, Rock Island, and St. Louis railroads...
-Stettin
Stettin, a town of Prussia, capital of the province of Pomerania, on the left bank of the Oder, 76 m. N.E. of Berlin; pop. in 1871, 76,149. The river is crossed by two bridges, and the town and suburb...
-Steuben
I. A S. W. County Of New York A S. W. County Of New York, bordering on Pennsylvania, drained by Chemung, Canisteo, Tioga, and Conhocton rivers; area, 1,425 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 67,717; in 1875, 73,9...
-Steubenville
Steubenville, a city and the capital of Jefferson co., Ohio, on the Ohio river, here crossed by a railroad bridge, 22 m. N. by E. of Wheeling, W. Va., 35 m. W. of Pittsburgh, Fa., and 125 m. E. by N. ...
-Stevens
I. A W. County Of Minnesota A W. County Of Minnesota, intersected by the Pomme do Terre river, a tributary of the Minnesota; area, 576 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 174. The surface is rolling and is studded...
-Stewart
I. A S. W. County Of Georgia A S. W. County Of Georgia, bounded W. by the Chattahoochee river,'which separates it from Alabama, and drained by several of its tributaries; area, about 500 sq. m.; pop....
-Stickleback
Stickleback, the popular name of the acan-thopterous fishes of the mailed-cheeked family or sderogenidec, and genus gasterosteus (Linn.). They are also called banstickles, and are the epinoches of the...
-Stieglitz
I. Christian Ludwig Christian Ludwig, a German author, born in Leipsic, Dec. 12, 1756, died there, July 17, 1836. He was an architect, held important local offices, and published poetical and other w...
-Stilt
Stilt, a wading bird of the avocet family, and genus himantopus (Briss.). The bill is long, straight, slender, and pointed, with a groove on each side to the middle; wings long and pointed, first quil...
-Stirling
Stirling, a town of Scotland, capital of Stirlingshire, on the river Forth, 31 m. W. N. W. of Edinburgh; pop. in 1871, 14,279. It is on a height at the head of the navigation of the river, which is c...
-Stock Exchange
Stock Exchange, a place where stocks are bought and sold. In England the term stocks is confined to government stocks, annuities, etc, and the term shares is used for the capital or stock of railroad,...
-Stockholm
Stockholm, a city and the capital of Sweden, in lat. 59 20' N, Ion. 18 3' E., 330 m. N. E. of Copenhagen; pop. in 1874, 147,249. It is partly built on islands and intersected by many canals,...
-Stocking
Stocking, a close-fitting garment for the foot and leg, usually knit or woven. From paintings found at Pompeii, as also from notices in some of the Latin classics, it appears that stockings were known...
-Stockton
Stockton, a city and the capital of San Joaquin co., California, on a level prairie at the head of Stockton slough, a wide and deep arm of the San Joaquin river extending E. from that stream for about...
-Stoddard
Stoddard, a S. E. county of Missouri, bounded W. by the St. Francis and drained by the Castor river; area, about 800 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 8,535, of whom 70 were colored. The greater portion of the co...
-Stoics
Stoics (Gr. , porch), or philosophers of the porch, one of the speculative schools of antiquity, so called from the place at Athens ( _...
-Stolberg
I. Friedrich Leopold, Count Count Friedrich Leopold, a German poet, born at Bramstedt, Holstein, Nov. 7, 1750, died near Osnabrtick, Dec. 5, 1819. After the death of his father, the Danish chamberlai...
-Stomach
Stomach, the hollow organ in which the first part of the function of digestion is performed in every perfectly developed animal. As a general rule, throughout the vertebrate animals we find a complex...
-Stone (2)
Stone, the common, name of calculus in the urinary bladder, for the composition of which see Calculi and Gravel. The prominent symptoms are irritability of the bladder with frequent irresistible desir...
-Stone (3)
I. A N. County Of Arkansas A N. County Of Arkansas, bounded N. E. by White river, and watered by the Little Red river. It was formed in 1873 from portions of Independence, Izard, Searcy, and Van Bure...
-Stone Borer
Stone Borer, a name given to several bivalve shells, especially pholas (Linn.) and lithodomus (Cav.), from their power of boring into the hardest rocks. The pholadidae (Gr. ...
-Stonehenge
Stonehenge, a collection of huge stones on Salisbury plain, Wiltshire, England, about 8 m. N. of Salisbury. Its name is old Saxon, and signifies hanging stones. Seen from a distance, they appear to...
-Stonington
Stonington, a town, borough, and port of entry of New London co., Conn., on Long Island sound, at the S. E. extremity of the state; pop. of the town in 1870, 6,313, of the borough, 1,561. The town is ...
-Stoppage In Transitu
Stoppage In Transitu, in law, the arresting by the seller of goods on their passage to a distant purchaser who has become insolvent. When and how the doctrine of stoppage in transitu became a part of ...
-Stork
Stork, a wading bird of the heron family, subfamily ciconinoe, and genus ciconia (Linn.); other allied genera are the jabiru and marabou, described under their own names. In the storks the bill is lon...
-Storms
Storms, violent atmospheric disturbances. (See Wind.) Storm areas are in general characterized by low barometric pressure at their centres; winds increasing in force toward the central region, and by ...
-Story (2)
I. Joseph Joseph, an American jurist, born in Marblehead, Mass., Sept. 18, 1779, died in Cambridge, Sept. 10, 1845. He graduated at Harvard college in 1798, and studied law in Marblehead. In 1801 he ...
-Stowe
I. Calvin Ellis Calvin Ellis, an American clergyman, born at Natick, Mass., April 6, 1802. He graduated at Bowdoin college in 1824, and at Andover theological seminary in 1828, and in 1828-30 was ass...
-Strabo
Strabo, a Creek geographer, born at Ama-sia, in Pontus, Asia Minor, about 54 B. C, died about A. I). 24. He studied rhetoric under Aristodemus at Nysa in Caria; was a pupil at Amisus in Pontus of Tyra...
-Stradivari, Or Stradivarins, Antonio
Stradivari, Or Stradivarins, Antonio, an Italian violin maker, born in Cremona in 1644, died there, Dec. 17, 1737. He was a pupil of Nicold Amati, and his first violins, made when he was 23 years old,...
-Straits Of Magellan
Straits Of Magellan, a channel separating the southern extremity of the American continent from a group of islands called Tierra del Fuego. Those bordering on the channel are, going from E. to W., Tie...
-Straits Settlements
Straits Settlements, a British colony in Asia, consisting of islands in the strait of Malacca and detached portions of territory adjoining it. It is divided for administrative purposes into three prov...
-Stralsund
Stralsund, a strongly fortified seaport town of Prussia, in Pomerania, capital of a district of its own name, on the strait which separates the island of Rugen from the mainland, 125 m. N. by W. of Be...
-Stratford-Upon-Avon
Stratford-Upon-Avon, a town of Warwickshire, England, on the right side of the river Avon, 8 m. S. W. of Warwick, and 82 m. N. W. of London; pop. in 1871, 3,863. The town exhibits the architecture of ...
-Strauss
Strauss, the name of four German musicians, father and three sons. Johann, the father, was born in Vienna, March 14, 1804, and died there, Sept. 24, 1849. In early life he was a member of Lanner's orc...
-Straw
Straw, the stem of cereal grasses. On the farm it is used as fodder, for littering animals, as manure, and for thatching outhouses and stacks of hay and grain. It is much used for mattresses called pa...
-Strawberry
Strawberry, a well known wild and cultivated fruit, the Anglo-Saxon name of which, streawberige or streowherie, was probably derived from the straw-like stems of the plant or from the berries lying st...
-Strength Of Materials
Strength Of Materials, the resistance offered by the materials of construction to change of form or to fracture. 1. The resistance of materials to external forces tending to overcome their cohesion is...
-Striac Language And Literature
The Syriac language belongs to the northern branch of the Semitic family. (See Semitic Race and Languages.) It is an Aramaic dialect, which rose to a literary language under the name of Syriac in the ...
-Strive
I. Friedrich Georg Wilhelm Von Friedrich Georg Wilhelm Von, a Russian astronomer, born in Altona, April 15, 1793, died in St. Petersburg, Nov. 23, 1864. He was educated at Dorpat, and in November, 18...
-Strontium
Strontium, one of the three metals of the alkaline earths, barium and calcium being the other two. It was first obtained from the native carbonate of strontium by Sir Humphry Davy in 1808, in a manner...
-Strychnia, Or Strychnine
Strychnia, Or Strychnine, a poisonous vegetable alkaloid, discovered in 1818 by Pelletier and Caventou in the seed of the strychnos multiflora or St. Ignatius' bean, and the strychnos nux-vomica. (See...
-Stuart, Or Stewart
Stuart, Or Stewart, the name of a royal family of Scotland and England. According to tradition, Fleanchus, son of Banquo, on the murder of his father by Macbeth, fled into Wales in 1055, where he marr...
-Sturgeon
Sturgeon, the name of cartilaginous fishes of the class of ganoids and family sturionidae. The body is elongated and fusiform, covered with a rough skin protected by five longitudinal rows of tubercul...
-Stuttgart
Stuttgart, a city of Germany, capital of the kingdom of Wurtemberg, 2 m. S. W. of Canstatt on the Neckar, and 97 m. S. E. of Frankfort; pop. in 1876, over 107,000, including 9,000 in several villages....
-Stylites
Stylites (Gr. , belonging to a pillar), a class of anchorites who spent their lives on pillars. The originator of this mode of Christian penance was Sim...
-Styria
Styria (Ger. Steiermark), a duchy of Austria, bordering on Upper and Lower Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Carniola, Carinthia, and Salzburg; area, 8,671 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 1,137,990. It is divided into...
-Sus
Sus, a territory of Morocco, comprising the Atlantic coast of that country between the Atlas mountains and the river Asaka or Nun, and extending E. to the country called Draa; area, about 11,500 sq. m...
-Suakin, Or Suakim
Suakin, Or Suakim, a seaport town of Nubia, on the coast of the Red sea, 285 m. N. N. W. of Massowah; lat. 19 17' N., Ion. 37 20' E.; pop. about 6,000. The town proper is on an island 1½ m. ...
-Subpoena
Subpoena, a judicial process directed to a witness commanding him to appear at the court, to testify what he knows in the case therein described, under a certain penalty (sub poena) mentioned in the p...
-Subscription
Subscription, in law, a contract by which one agrees to contribute with others for a common purpose. The word is sometimes applied to the sum of money subscribed. The contract of subscription depends ...
-Succinic Acid
Succinic Acid, an acid found ready formed in amber and in certain lignites, and occasionally in the animal organism. It may be obtained in colored crystals by heating amber in retorts. It is formed ar...
-Sucking Fish
Sucking Fish, the popular name of the re-mora, a spiny-rayed fish of the genus echeneis (Linn.), so named from the Greek , to hold, and , a ship. ...
-Suez
I. An Isthmus Separating The Mediterranean And Red Seas An Isthmus Separating The Mediterranean And Red Seas, and connecting the continents of Asia and Africa. From the most northerly part of the gul...
-Suffolk
I. An E. County Of Massachusetts An E. County Of Massachusetts, bordering on Massachusetts bay; area, about 44 sq. m. It comprises the cities of Boston and Chelsea and the towns of Revere and Winthro...
-Sugar
Sugar, a name used in nearly all languages, in various forms, to designate a limited number of sweet products of plants, which is made by the chemist to include several organic com-pounds, many of whi...
-Sugar Of, Or Lactine Milk
Sugar Of, Or Lactine Milk, one of the constituents of milk. It is prepared in Switzerland as an article of food, and is used by homce-opathists as the vehicle for their medicines, and in other practic...
-Suliotes
Suliotes, a people of mixed Albanian and Greek descent, who formerly dwelt in the southern part of the pashalik of Janina, the ancient Epirus. They derive their origin from a number of families who in...
-Sulla, Or Sylla, Lucins Cornelius
Sulla, Or Sylla, Lucins Cornelius (Felix), a Roman dictator, born in 138 B. C, died in 78. The family was originally called Rufinus and belonged to the great Cornelia gens. He acquainted himself with...
-Sullivan
Sullivan, the name of six counties in the United States. I. A W. County Of New Hampshire A W. County Of New Hampshire, drained by small tributaries of the Connecticut river; area, about 820 sq. m.; ...
-Sulphates
Sulphates, salts formed by the union of sulphuric acid with bases. The union, strictly speaking, is only partial, as a portion, and in normal salts all, of the hydrogen of the sulphuric acid is displa...
-Sulphides, Or Snlpbnrots
Sulphides, Or Snlpbnrots, compounds in which sulphur forms the electro-negative element. Sulphur unites with all the metals, with most of the non-metallic elements, and with many organic radicals. The...
-Sulphites
Sulphites, salts formed by the union of sulphurous acid with bases, or more strictly speaking by the action of sulphurous acid on bases; the two atoms of hydrogen in the molecule of the acid being par...
-Sulphur
Sulphur, an elementary substance belonging to the class of metalloids. It has been known from the earliest times as the sublimed product of volcanoes, and as a natural mineral deposit in clay and marl...
-Sulphuric Acid
Sulphuric Acid, the hydrate of sulphuric anhydride, or teroxide of sulphur, S03 + H20 = H2SO4. It may also be regarded as a salt of hydrogen, this element holding the place of a basyle to the radical ...
-Sulphydric Acid, Or Sulphuretted Hydrogen Hydrosilphuric Acid
Sulphydric Acid, Or Sulphuretted Hydrogen Hydrosilphuric Acid, a gaseous compound first examined by Scheele in 1777; symbol, H2S; chemical equivalent, 34. It consists of two volumes of hydrogen and on...
-Sulpicians, Or Priests Of The Society Of St. Sul-Pice
Sulpicians, Or Priests Of The Society Of St. Sul-Pice, a congregation of priests in the Roman Catholic church founded in the parish of St. Sulpice, Paris, in 1645, by Jean Jacques Olier de Verneuil, a...
-Sumatra
Sumatra (Sans. Samudra, the ocean), an island of the Indian archipelago, in the Indo-Malay group, lying directly under the equator, S. W. of the Malay peninsula and parallel to it, between lat. 5...
-Summer
Summer, the warm season of the year, including astronomically the time between the vernal and autumnal equinoxes, or from about the 21st of June till about the 22d of September. The calendar summer co...
-Summit
I. A N. E. County Of Ohio A N. E. County Of Ohio, drained by the Cuyahoga river and the head streams of the Tuscarawas, and traversed by the Ohio canal and several railroads; area, 400 sq. m.; pop. i...
-Sumner
I. A N. Central County Of Mississippi A N. Central County Of Mississippi, formed in 1874 from Choctaw, Montgomery, and Oktibbeha counties; area, 408 sq. m.; pop. about 8,000. It is drained by the Big...
-Sumter
Sumter, the name of four counties in the United States. I. An E. County Of South Carolina An E. County Of South Carolina, bounded W. by the Wateree river, and drained by Black river and its affluent...
-Sun
Sun, the central ruling body of the planetary system, and the great source of light and heat. The visible orb of the sun, as distinguished from the complex structure of which that orb is but a part, i...
-Sun Bird
Sun Bird, the name commonly given to the promeropidoe, a family of tenuirostral birds, with a long, slender, and usually curved bill, the nostrils placed at the base and covered with a scale, wings of...
-Sun Fish
Sun Fish, the common name of the fishes of the diodon family and genus ortliago-riscus (Schn.). The skeleton is soft and only partially ossified; the body short and round, compressed laterally; the sk...
-Sunday
Sunday (Sax. Sunnan doeg), the first day of the week, identical with the Roman dies Solis (day of the sun). The keeping of this as a sacred day, in memory of Christ's resurrection and of the descent o...
-Sunday Schools
The earliest recorded Sunday schools were the schools of catechumens, organized, according to Tertullian, in A. D. 180, though less formal instruction of Christian children and novitiates prevailed ea...
-Sunderland
Sunderland, a town and parliamentary borough of Durham, England, at the mouth of the river Wear in the North sea, 12 m. N. E. of the city of Durham and 240 m. N. by W. of London; pop. of the town in 1...
-Sundew
Sundew, the common name of plants of the genus drosera (Gr. , dewy), which gives its name to the droseraceoe, a small order of remarkable plants, one of...
-Sunflower
Sunflower, the common name of plants of the genus helianthus, a word of the same meaning. The genus belongs to the composite family, and consists of about 50 species, most of which are North American;...
-Sunstroke
Sunstroke (Lat. soils ictus; Fr. coup de Soleil; Ger. Sonnenstich; also called insolation, heat apoplexy, heat asphyxia, and solar asphyxia), an affection which suddenly attacks persons exposed to the...
-Supercargo
Supercargo, a person who accompanies a cargo shipped to a foreign port, and is intrusted with the sale of it there, either as specially directed or to the best advantage, and with the investment of it...
-Surat
Surat, a walled town of British India, in the northern division of Bombay, in a collectorate of the same name (pop. in 1872. 554,000), on the left bank of the river Taptee, 20 m. from its mouth in the...
-Surety
Surety, in law, a person who binds himself to fulfil, either wholly or in part, the engagement of the principal obligor. For those cases in which the surety expressly assumes the obligation technicall...
-Surgery, Or Chirnrgcry
Surgery, Or Chirnrgcry (Gr. , the hand, and , labor), that department of the art of healing which appertains to the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment ...
-Surry
I. A S. E. County Of Virginia A S. E. County Of Virginia, bounded N. E. by James river and S. W. by Blackwater river; area, 340 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 5,585, of whom 3,192 were colored. The surface is...
-Surveying
Surveying (Fr. survoir, to overlook), the art of measuring portions of the surface of the earth, either for the purpose of calculating the contents of areas, of laying out tracts of required extent, o...
-Susa
Susa (Gr. ra , the city of lilies), an ancient city of Persia, the Shushan (Heb., lily) of the Scriptures, the capital of the province of Susiana, and one of the residenc...
-Susanna Centlivre
Susanna Centlivre, an English dramatic writer, born in 1667, died in London, Dec. 1, 1723. She was daughter of a Lincolnshire gentleman named Freeman. Left an orphan at the age of 13, and ill-used by ...
-Susquehanna
Susquehanna, a river of New York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland, having its source in Otsego lake, Otsego co., N. Y. It flows generally S. W. to the Pennsylvania line in Broome co., receiving the Unadill...
-Sussex
I. A N. County Of New Jersey A N. County Of New Jersey, bordering on New York and Pennsylvania, bounded N. W. by the Delaware river, and drained by the Flatkill, Paulinskill, Wallkill, and Pequest; a...
-Suttee
Suttee (Sans, sati, from sat, pure), properly, a chaste and virtuous wife, but commonly used to designate the self-immolation of a widow by burning herself with the dead body of her husband. The pract...
-Suvaroff
Suvaroff, properly Snvoroff, Alexei Vasillcviteli, count, and Prince Italiski, a Russian soldier, born Nov. 24, 1729, died in St. Petersburg, May 17, 1800. He entered the army at a very early age, ser...
-Sveaborg
Sveaborg, the principal fortress of Finland, Russia, on the gulf of Finland, in the province and 3 m. S. E. of the town of Helsingfors, the approaches to which it defends, and under its municipal auth...
-Swabia, Or Suabia
Swabia, Or Suabia (Ger. Schwaben), a duchy of the German empire during its earlier period, and subsequently one of its ten great circles or divisions. The circle was bounded N. by the Palatinate of th...
-Swallow
Swallow, the general name of the diurnal fissirostral birds of the family hirundinidoe, not including the swifts, many of which are called swallows. (See Swift.) The bill is short and weak, very broad...
-Swan
Swan, a web-footed bird of the duck family, and the type of the subfamily cygninoe, embracing some of the largest and most graceful of aquatic birds. The bill and feet are much like those of the ducks...
-Swansea
Swansea (Welsh, Abertawy), a town of Glamorganshire, Wales, on the W. bank of the river Tawy, where it falls into the bay of Swansea, Bristol channel, GO m. W. N. W. of Bristol; pop. in 1871, 51,702. ...
-Sweating Sickness
Sweating Sickness, a disease which often prevailed extensively in Europe and Asia during the middle ages, and which still frequently appears in Turkey and other parts of Europe and Asia. The older des...
-Sweden
Sweden (Swedish, /Sverige), a kingdom of northern Europe, forming with Norway the Scandinavian peninsula, and lying between lat. 55 20' and 69 N., and Ion. 11 10' and 24 10' E. It ...
-Sweet Potato
Sweet Potato, a plant of the convolvulus family, variously classed by botanists as batatas edulis, convolvvlus batatas, and preferably ipo-maa batatas. It has a large edible root, creeping smooth stem...
-Swetchine, Or Svetcliin, Anne Sophie
Swetchine, Or Svetcliin, Anne Sophie, a French writer, born in Moscow in 1782, died in Paris, Sept. 10, 1857. She was the granddaughter of Gen. Boltin, a translator of the Encyclopedic into Russian, a...
-Swift
Swift, the general name of the cypselidoe, a subfamily of birds formerly placed among the swallows, hut by modern ornithologists ranked as a separate family coming near the humming birds, on account o...
-Switzerland
Switzerland (Lat. Helvetia; Ger. Scliweiz; Fr. La Suisse), a federal republic of central Europe, between lat. 45 50' and 47 50' N., and Ion. 5 55' and 10 30' E. It is bounded N. by...
-Swmmiing
Swmmiing, the art of keeping the body afloat and propelling it by means of the hands and feet. The swimming of man is artificial, but as the specific gravity of the human body is very little greater t...
-Sword
Sword, a weapon used in hand encounters, commonly made like a large knife, and sometimes pointed like a dagger. The ancient Egyptians possessed the art of imparting to bronze extraordinary hardness an...
-Sword Fish
Sword Fish, the name of the xlphiidoe, a family of marine spiny-rayed fishes, allied to the mackerels, so called from the prolongation of the snout into a long, horizontally flattened, sword-like weap...
-Sybaris
Sybaris, an ancient Greek city of Lucania, in S. Italy, on the W. shore of the Tarentine gulf, between the rivers Crathis (now Crati) and Sybaris (Coscile), a short distance from the sea. It was found...
-Sydney
Sydney, a city of Australia, capital of the colony of New South Wales, in Cumberland county, on the S. shore of Port Jackson, about 4 m. from its entrance, 450 m. N. E. of Melbourne; lat. 33 51' ...
-Sydney Dobell
Sydney Dobell, an English poet, born at Peckham Rye, near London, April 5, 1824. In 1835 his father, a wine merchant in London, removed his business to Cheltenham. At the age of 12 he entered the coun...
-Syllabus
Syllabus (Gr. , a collection), the title given to a list of 80 propositions condemned at various times as erroneous by Pope Pius IX., which was sent by ...
-Sylvester Graham
Sylvester Graham, an American reformer, born in Suffield, Conn., in 1794, died in Northampton, Mass., Sept. 11, 1851. Almost from childhood he was dyspeptic and rheumatic, and having tried successivel...
-Sylvester Larned
Sylvester Larned, an American clergyman, born in Pittsfield, Mass., Aug. 31, 1796, died in New Orleans, Aug. 31, 1820. He received his collegiate education at Middlebury, Vt., studied theology at Prin...
-Sylvestre Francois Lacroix
Sylvestre Francois Lacroix, a French mathematician, born in Paris in 1765, died there, May 25, 1843. He belonged to a poor family, but by his own exertions acquired an education, and became such a pro...
-Symphony
Symphony (Gr. with, and voice), a term originally signifying merely a concordance of tones, but applied successively to certain vocal compositions, to compo...
-Synagogue
Synagogue (Gr. assembly, place of assembly; Heb. beth hakkeneseth, house of assembly), a building appropriated to worship and the performance of public...
-Synesius
Synesius, a philosopher of the 5th century, born in Cyrene, Africa, about 379, died at Ptolemais about 430. He was of an ancient Greek family, studied at Alexandria under Hypatia, and at Athens, and o...
-Syphax
Syphax, a Numidian prince, born about 250 B. C, died in 201. In 213 he was king of the Massaesylians, the westernmost tribe of the Numidians, and was at war with Carthage, in which he was encouraged b...
-Syphon
Syphon, an inverted U-shaped tube used to draw liquids over the containing walls of reservoirs. It acts upon the principle that the flow will be in the direction of that leg which contains the greates...
-Syra, Or Syros
I. A Grecian Island A Grecian Island, included in the Cyclades, 20 m. N. W. of Paros; area, 45 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 26,480. It is of very irregular outline, with steep and rugged coasts. The chief p...
-Syracuse
Syracuse, a city and the county seat of Onondaga co., New York, at the head of Onondaga lake, on a creek of the same name, 147½ m. by the New York Central railroad W. by N. of Albany and 150½ m. E. of...
-Syracuse (It. Siracusa Or Siragosa)
I. A Province Of Sicily A Province Of Sicily, on the E. coast, bordering on Catania and Caltanisetta, and the Mediterranean; area, 1,429 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 294,-885. It is chiefly mountainous, but...
-Syria
Syria (Turk. Suristan; Arab. Esh-Sham), a territory of Asiatic Turkey, bounded N. by Adana and Marash, E. by the Euphrates and the Syro-Arabian desert, S. by Arabia, and W. by the Mediterranean, betwe...
-Syrtis Major And Syrtis Minor
Syrtis Major And Syrtis Minor, the ancient names of two large gulfs on the N. coast of Africa, now called respectively the gulf of Sidra and the gulf of Cabes or Gabes. These gulfs were dangerous on a...
-T
20th letter and 16th consonant of , the English and other alphabets derived from the Roman, the 19th of the Greek (tau), and the 9th of the Hebrew (teth). It is of the denti-lingual class, and represe...
-Tabernacle
Tabernacle (Lat. tabernaculum, tent; Heb. ohel), the sanctuary which the Israelites carried with them through the desert, and which, after the conquest of Canaan, was set up in various towns of Palest...
-Tadeusz Thaddeus (Kosciuszko)
Tadeusz Thaddeus (Kosciuszko), a Polish patriot, born near Novogrudek, Lithuania, Feb. 12, 1746, died in Solothurn, Switzerland, Oct. 15,1817. He was descended from a noble Lithuanian family, studied ...
-Tafilet, Or Tafilelt
Tafilet, Or Tafilelt, a division of Morocco, consisting of the oasis of the same name, lying S. E. of the Atlas mountains, between lat. 30 45' and 31 10' N and Ion. 3 3' and 3 25' ...
-Taganrog
Taganrog, a city of southern Russia, in the government of Yekaterinoslav, on a promontory formed by the sea of Azov, 18 m. from the mouth of the Don and 27 m. N. W. of Azov; pop. in 1867, 25,027, incl...
-Taglioni
I. Filippo Filippo, an Italian ballet master, born in Milan in 1777, died near the lake of Como, Feb. 11, 1871. He was successively connected with the theatres at Stockholm, Cassel, and Warsaw till 1...
-Tagus
Tagus (Span. Tajo; Port, Tejo), a river of Spain and Portugal, the longest in the peninsula, and dividing it into two nearly equal parts. It rises in the Sierra de Cuenca, in the province of Teruel ne...
-Tairus
Tairus, a.range of mountains in Asia Minor, forming in the main the watershed between the waters flowing into the Mediterranean and those flowing into the Black sea. It consists of two principal chain...
-Talbot
I. An E. County Of Maryland An E. County Of Maryland, bounded W. by Chesapeake bay, and S. and E. by the Choptank river; area, 250 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 16,137, of whom 6,666 were colored. The surfac...
-Talc
Talc, a silicious mineral occurring in two forms, crystalline and massive. The massive variety was formerly called steatite (soapstone), and was regarded as a distinct species; but it has the same che...
-Talent
Talent (Gr. , Lat. talentum), a term originally applied by the ancient Greeks to a balance for weighing, afterward to the substance weighed, and finally...
-Talladega
Talladega, a N. E. county of Alabama, bounded W. by the Coosa river and drained by Ohockolocko creek and other streams; area, about 700 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 18,064, of whom 9,595 were colored. The su...
-Tallahassee
Tallahassee, a city and the capital of Florida, county seat of Leon co., on the Jacksonville, Pensacola, and Mobile railroad, at the junction of a branch to St. Mark's, 155 m. W. of Jacksonville and 2...
-Tallow
Tallow, the solid fat of various terrestrial animals, chiefly quadrupeds, which has been separated from the membranous cellular tissue by melting. The ruminants, particularly oxen and sheep, furnish t...
-Tallow Tree (Stillingia Sebifera)
Tallow Tree (Stillingia Sebifera), a Chinese tree, belonging to the spurge family (eu-pTiorbiacea?), growing from 20 to 40 ft., with long and flexible branches, and long-petioled leaves, much resembli...
-Talmud
Talmud (late Heb., study), the collective name of the Mishnah and Gemara, containing the oral law and other traditions of the Jews. (See Mishnah, and Hebrews, vol. viii., pp. 593-5.) In a limited sens...
-Tamarind
Tamarind, the fruit of a leguminous tree, tamarindus Indica, the common and botanical name being derived from the Arabs, who, having learned of the fruit from the Hindoos, called it tamare-hindi, the ...
-Tamarisk
Tamarisk, the name of ornamental shrubs of the genus tamarix (the ancient name, supposed to be from the river Tamaris), of a small family (tamariscineoe) closely related to the pink family. The genus ...
-Tamas Bakacs
Tamas Bakacs, a Hungarian statesman and prelate, died in 1521. The son of a serf, he became by his talents secretary of King Matthias Corvinus, who ennobled him, and after whose death he labored for t...
-Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas (formerly Nuevo Santandcr), an E. state of Mexico, bounded N. by Texas, E. by the gulf of Mexico, S. by Vera Cruz, and W. by San Luis Potosi and Nuevo Leon; area, 28,-059 sq. m.; pop. in 18...
-Tambov
I. A S. E. Government Of European Russia A S. E. Government Of European Russia, bordering on Vladimir, Nizhego-rod, Penza, Saratov, Voronezh, Orel, Tula, and Riazan; area, 25,683 sq. m.; pop. in 1870...
-Tamnarivo, Or Antananarivo
Tamnarivo, Or Antananarivo, a city of Madagascar, capital of the province of Imerne in the territory of Ankova, and the residence of the so-called sovereign (now queen) of Madagascar, near the middle ...
-Tanager
Tanager, a name given to the tanagrinoe, a very large division of the finch family, peculiar to America, and almost entirely confined to the southern portion of the continent, which contains nearly 20...
-Tancred
Tancred, an Italian crusader, born in 1078, died in Antioch in 1112. He was a son of the marquis Odo or Ottobonus and of Emma, a daughter of Tancred de Hauteville and sister of Robert Guiscard, duke o...
-Taney
Taney, a S. W. county of Missouri, bordering on Arkansas, and drained by White river and its affluents; area, about 700 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 4,407, of whom 10 were colored. The surface is hilly, and ...
-Tanganyika
Tanganyika (the meeting place of waters), a lake in central Africa, discovered by Burton and Speke on Feb. 13, 1858. It occupies a long depression in a region of considerable elevation, S. of the Vict...
-Tangier, Or Tangiers
Tangier, Or Tangiers (Moorish, Tanja), a city and seaport of Morocco, near the W. entrance of the strait of Gibraltar, in lat 35 47' N., Ion. 5 48' W.; pop, about 12,000. It is on high groun...
-Tanjore
I. A District Of Madras, British India British India A District Of Madras, bounded N. by Trichinopoly and South Arcot, E. and S. E. by the bay of Bengal, S. and S. W. by Madura, and W. by Trichinopol...
-Tannic Acid, Or Tannin
Tannic Acid, Or Tannin. The astringent principles existing in a great variety of plants, which render them capable of combining with the skins of animals to form leather, of precipitating gelatine, of...
-Tansy
Tansy (Fr. athanasie, contracted to tanai-sie, from Gr. , immortality, in allusion to some supposed preservative quality of the plant, or to its durable flowe...
-Tapestry
Tapestry (Gr. , a carpet), an ornamental figured cloth, used for lining the walls of apartments, or for covering articles of furniture. The Egyptians and Hebrews attained...
-Tapir
Tapir (tapirus, Cuv.), a genus of ungulate mammals, characterized by a nose prolonged into a short, movable proboscis; skin very thick and covered with close short hair, the neck furnished with a kind...
-Tar
Tar, a thick, black, viscid, impure turpentine, procured by burning the wood of pinus palustris, P. sylvestris, and other species of pine and coniferous trees; also obtained as a product of the destru...
-Tarablus, Or Tarabulus Tripoli
Tarablus, Or Tarabulus Tripoli (anc. Tripolis), a seaport town of Syria, on the Mediterranean, in lat. 34 26' N., lon. 35 49' E., 40 m. N. N. E. of Beyrout, and 70 m. N. W. of Damascus; pop....
-Taranto
Taranto (anc. Tarentum), a city of S. Italy, in the province of Leccc, in Apulia, 44 m. W. S. W. of Brindisi; pop. in 1872, 27,546. It stands on an island at the N. end of the gulf of Taranto, and is ...
-Tarantula, Or Tarentula
Tarantula, Or Tarentula, a terrestrial hunting or wolf spider of S. Europe, belonging to the genus lycosa, the L. tarentula (Latr.). It is the largest of European spiders, measuring 1½ to 2 in. in the...
-Targums
Targums (Chal. targem, to translate), the general name given to the Chaldee, or more accurately Aramaic versions and paraphrases of the Hebrew Scriptures. On account of the many vicissitudes of the Je...
-Tarifa
Tarifa, a town of Spain, in the province of Cadiz, Andalusia, on the southernmost point of the kingdom, in lat. 36 3' N., Ion. 5 35' W., 52 m. S. E. of Cadiz, and 25 m. S. E. of Cape Trafalg...
-Tarquin
I. Lucins Tarqninins Priscus (The Elder) Lucins Tarqninins Priscus (The Elder), fifth king of Rome, assassinated about 578 B. C. According to the common story, his father was a Corinthian noblema...
-Tarragona
I. A N. E. Province Of Spain A N. E. Province Of Spain, in Catalonia, bordering on the Mediterranean and the provinces of Lerida, Barcelona, Cas-tellon, Teruel, and Saragossa; area, 2,451 sq. m.; pop...
-Tarshish
Tarshish, the name of an ancient emporium, or, according to some critics, more than one, as some of the passages of Scripture in which it is mentioned appear to indicate that it was W. and others E. o...
-Tartar
Tartar (named from Tartarus, the infernal regions, according to Paracelsus, on account of its fiery heat; also called argol), the crude bitartrate of potash, precipitated from wines as they ferment, b...
-Tartaric Acid
Tartaric Acid, an organic tetratomic acid, which is now regarded as belonging to a group derived from corresponding tetratomic alcohols by the substitution of oxygen for hydrogen molecules. Only one o...
-Tartary
Tartary, a geographical designation now usually limited to Turkistan and the adjoining regions, but formerly of much wider signification, embracing a broad belt stretching across the centre of the Asi...
-Tartrates
Tartrates, salts formed by the union of tartaric acid with bases. Tartaric acid is dibasic, and forms with monatomic metals acid salts, like bitartrate of potassium, KHC4H4O6; normal salts, like norma...
-Tarudant
Tarudant, the chief city of the province of Sus, Morocco, in the valley of the Sus, about 44 m. from the Atlantic coast, and 140 m. S. W. of Morocco; pop. estimated by Rohlfs at 30,000 to 40,000. It l...
-Tashkend
Tashkend (anc. Shash), a city of Turkistan, formerly included within the boundaries of Khokan, but now under Russian rule, situated in lat. 43 N., Ion. 68 40' E., near the junction of two sm...
-Tasmania
Tasmania (formerly Van Diemen's Land), a British colony of Australasia, consisting of the island of the same name and several smaller islands, mostly in Bass strait; area, 26,215 sq. m.; pop. in 1870 ...
-Taste
Taste, the sense by which we distinguish the sapid properties of bodies, through the sensory apparatus in the mouth. Though the tongue takes the principal cognizance of gustatory sensations, the soft ...
-Tattler
Tattler, the proper name of the wading birds of the snipe family, of the division to-tanem, as distinguished from the tringem or sandpipers; they are often called sandpipers, in England gambets, and i...
-Tauchnitz
I. Karl Christoph Traugott Karl Christoph Traugott, a German publisher, born at Grosspardau, near Grimma, Oct. 29, 1761, died in Leipsic, Jan. 14, 1836. He learned the printer's trade at Leipsic, and...
-Taunton
Taunton, a city and one of the shire towns of Bristol co., Massachusetts, at the head of navigation on Taunton river, 24 m. from Nar-ragansett bay, 17 m. E. of Providence, R. I., and 32 m. S. of Bosto...
-Taurida
Taurida, a S. government of European Russia, bordering on the governments of Kherson and Yekaterinoslav, the sea of Azov, and the Black sea; area, 24,537 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 704,997, a large part Ta...
-Taxes
Taxes, the contributions levied by a government upon persons and property, for the use of the government. As a revenue for the use of the state is absolutely essential to the existence of any orderly ...
-Taxidermy
Taxidermy (Gr. arrangement, and , a skin), the art of preparing the skins of animals so that they retain their natural appearances, and also...
-Tay
Tay, a river and loch of Perthshire, Scotland. The river rises in a small loch on the border of Argyleshire, and is called the Fillan until it passes through Loch Dochart, 8 or 9 m., and thence to Loc...
-Tayler Lewis
Tayler Lewis, an American scholar, born in Northumberland, Saratoga co., N. Y., in 1802. He graduated at Union college in 1820, studied law in Albany, and began to practise at Fort Miller. Occupying h...
-Taylor
Taylor, the name of six counties in the United States. I. A N. County Of West Virginia A N. County Of West Virginia, intersected by the Tygart's Valley river; area, 130 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 9,367, ...
-Tazewell
I. A S. W. County Of Virginia A S. W. County Of Virginia, bordering on West Virginia, and drained by the head streams of Clinch and Holston rivers; area, about 600 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 10,791, of wh...
-Tchad, Or Tsad
Tchad, Or Tsad, a lake of central Africa, on the borders of Bornoo, Kanem, and Baghirmi, between lat. 12 30' and 14 30' N., and lon. 13 and 15 30' E. It is an irregular triangle, t...
-Tchuktchis
I. A Native Tribe Of Siberia A Native Tribe Of Siberia, inhabiting the E. extremity of the continent of Asia from the 160th meridian to Behring strait. They are apparently akin to the Koriaks, who oc...
-Tcrquoise
Tcrquoise, a native hydrated phosphate of aluminum, found in the mountains near Nishapur, in Khorasan, Persia, and much valued as a gem. It is called by the Persians birusa, and is probably the callai...
-Tea
Tea (Chinese, tcha, cha, or tha), a substance used in making a beverage by infusion, consisting of the dried leaves of one or more species of plants of the old genus thea. Bentham and Hooker, who have...
-Teachers Institute
Teachers' Institute, in the United States, an assemblage of the teachers of the public schools of a county or part of a county for the purpose of receiving instruction in the art and methods of teachi...
-Teal
Teal, the common name of the small river ducks of the genera nettion (Kaup) and querquedula (Stephens), called sarcelles by the French. In the genus nettion the bill is as long as the head, straight, ...
-Tear
Tear, an East Indian tree, tectona grandis (called in Malabar tecca), valuable for its timber. It belongs to the verbenacea', a family which, while its most familiar representatives with us are orname...
-Teasel
Teasel (A. S. taesel, from taesan, to tease), the ripened flower heads of dipsacus fullonum, used for raising a nap upon woollen cloths. The genus dipsacus (Gr. , t...
-Tebriz, Or Tauris Tabriz
Tebriz, Or Tauris Tabriz, a walled city of Persia, capital of the province of Azerbijan, in lat. 38 4' N., Ion. 46 15' E., near the river Aji; pop. about 120,000. It stands on a wide plain, ...
-Technology
Technology (Gr. , an art, and discourse), the systematic knowledge of the theory and practice of the industrial arts. It is divisible into ...
-Tecumseh, Or Tecumntha
Tecumseh, Or Tecumntha, a chief of the Shawnee Indians, born near the present town of Springfield, Ohio, about 1TG8, killed at the battle of the Thames, Oct. 5, 1813. His first prominent appearance wa...
-Teentsin, Or Tiensing Tientsin
Teentsin, Or Tiensing Tientsin, a town of China, in the province of Chihli, on level ground at the junction of the Pei-ho with the grand canal, about 65 m. S. E. of Peking; pop. differently estimated ...
-Teeth
Teeth, the organs in vertebrates for the seizure and mastication of food, placed at or near the entrance to the alimentary canal. In adult man there are 32, 16 in each jaw, implanted in sockets, and o...
-Teheran, Or Tehran
Teheran, Or Tehran, the capital of the kingdom of Persia, and of the province of Irak-Ajemi, 70 m. S. of the Caspian sea and about 210 m. N. of Ispahan, in lat. 35 41' N., lon. 51 23' Ol...
-Tehuantepec
I. An Isthmus Of Mexico An Isthmus Of Mexico, lying between the bay of Campeachy on the gulf and the bay of Tehuantepec on the Pacific, and comprising the states of Tabasco and Chiapas and parts of V...
-Tejada, Or Lerdo De Tejada, Sebastian
Tejada, Or Lerdo De Tejada, Sebastian, president of Mexico, born in Jalapa, April 25, 1825. He was educated in the seminary of Puebla and in the college of San Ildefonso, in the city of Mexico, became...
-Telegraph
Telegraph (Gr., afar, and , to write), an apparatus by which intelligence is communicated to a distance. It properly includes the vari...
-Teleosaurus
Teleosaurus, a genus of fossil crocodilians of the secondary epoch established by Geof-froy, differing from the living crocodiles in having biconcave vertebras. The general form of the cranium was tha...
-Telescope
Telescope (Gr. , far, and , to view), an instrument for aiding the eye in viewing distant objects. The general construction of the tel...
-Tellurium
Tellurium (Lat. tellus, the earth), an elementary substance, discovered by Muller von Reichenstein in 1782, but first investigated and named by Klaproth in 1798; symbol, Te; chemical equivalent, 129; ...
-Temperament
Temperament, a term used to express the differences in the physical and mental constitutions of individuals, referred from remote antiquity to peculiarities in the quality of the solids and fluids of ...
-Templars, Or Knights Of The Temple
Templars, Or Knights Of The Temple (Lat. milltes templi), the most celebrated and powerful of the mediaeval military orders of Christendom. Its origin dates from 11 17, when two French knights, Ungues...
-Tenasserim
Tenasserim, a commissionership of British Burmah, on the E. side of the bay of Bengal, extending 650 m. from N. to S., with a breadth of from 30 to 80 m., between lat. 10 and 19 30' N, and I...
-Tench
Tench, a soft-rayed, fresh-water fish of the carp family, and genus tinca (Cuv.), peculiar to the old world. The best known species is the T. vulgaris (Cuv.), rarely more than 14 in. long, of a deep y...
-Tenedos
Tenedos (in earliest antiquity Calydna, Leu-cophrys, Phoenice, and Lyrnessus), a small island, about 10 m. in circumference, in the Grecian archipelago, now belonging to Turkey, 13 m. from the mouth o...
-Teneriffe
Teneriffe (Sp. Tenerifa), one of the largest islands of the Canary group, about 150 m. N. TV. of Cape Bojador, Africa. It is of triangular form, the N. and S. E. sides about 60 m. long, and the TV. si...
-Teniers
I. David, Called The Elder Called The Elder David, a Flemish painter, born in Antwerp in 1582, died there in 1649. He was educated in the school of Rubens, subsequently studied in Italy, and after hi...
-Tennessee
Tennessee, one of the southern states of the American Union, the third admitted under the federal constitution, situated between lat. 35 and 36 35' N., and Ion. 81 37' and 90 15' W...
-Tennessee River
Tennessee River, the largest tributary of the Ohio, formed by the union of the Clinch and Holston rivers, which rise in S. W. Virginia, and unite near Kingston, Roane co., Tenn. At first the course of...
-Tennis
Tennis, a game of ball, played in a court built for the purpose, with a playing floor 112 by 40 ft., end walls 30 ft. high, side walls 20 ft. high, and usually lighted by skylights or windows above th...
-Tent
Tent (Lat. tentorium, from tendere, to stretch), a portable habitation, formed generally of cloth or skins stretched upon cords or frames, and supported by poles. Tents have always been the dwellings ...
-Tenure
Tenure (Lat. tenere, to hold), in its most general sense, the mode of holding property. In law it is usually confined to the manner of holding land or real property. The first grand division of tenur...
-Teratology
Teratology (Gr. , a wonder or monster, and , discourse), that branch of physiological science which treats of the malformations and monstros...
-Terence
Terence (Publius Terentius Afer), a Roman comic poet, born in Carthage about 195 B. G, died about 159. He became a slave of P. Terentius Lucanus, a Roman senator, who gave him an excellent education, ...
-Terenzio Della Rovere Mamini
Terenzio Della Rovere Mamini, count, an Italian philosopher, born in Pesaro about 1800. He received a superior education, and in 1831 took part in the revolutionary movement in the Romagna, and was pr...
-Termites
Termites, the proper name of the white ants, or the neuropterous insects of the family termitinoe. Though they resemble the common ants (formica) in their social habits, they belong to a different ord...
-Ternaux
I. Guillaume Louis, Baron Baron Guillaume Louis, a French manufacturer, born in Sedan, Oct. 8, 1763, died in St. Ouen, April 2, 1833. When scarcely 16 years old he managed his father's woollen factor...
-Terracotta
Terracotta (It., baked clay), an earthenware employed by the ancient Greeks and Egyptians in the manufacture of moulds, architectural ornaments, statuary, utensils, sarcophagi, and various other objec...
-Terrapin
Terrapin, a name commonly applied to several species of land tortoises, but in the United States generally limited to the few freshwater species of the family emydoidoe, extensively used as food. They...
-Terre Haute
Terre Haute, a city and the capital of Vigo co., Indiana, on the E. bank of the Wabash river, here spanned by three bridges, 70 m. W. S. W. of Indianapolis, and 55 m. N. of Vincennes; pop. in 1850, 4,...
-Terrestrial Magnetism
Gilbert in 1600 was the first to announce the bold hypothesis that the earth is a great magnet, and that the needle assumes a N and S. direction because it is attracted by the dissimilar and repelled ...
-Terrier
Terrier (canis terrarius, Flem.), a small variety of dog, so named from its propensity to pursue and attack its prey in subterranean retreats. It is considered by Hamilton Smith as descended from an i...
-Tertiarians
Tertiarians (Fr. tierciare, from Lat. terti-arius, containing a third part), men or women belonging to the third order in any one of the monastic orders. The tertiarians, without living in cloister...
-Tertullian
Tertullian (Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus), one of the early church fathers, born in Carthage about A. D. 150, died between 220 and 240. He was the son of a Roman centurion, became a lawyer, ...
-Teruel
I. A N. E. Province Of Spain A N. E. Province Of Spain, in Aragon, bordering on Saragossa, Tarragona, Castellon, Valencia, Cuenca, and Guadalajara; area, 5,494 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 252,201. The Alba...
-Teschen
Teschen, a town of Lower Silesia, Austria, on the right bank of the Olsa, 38 m. S. E. of Troppau; pop. in 1870, including suburbs, 9,779. There is some trade in local products. The principal manufacto...
-Testudinata
Testudinata, a term employed by Klein, and adopted by Agassiz, synonymous with chelo-nians, and embracing the reptiles known as tortoises and turtles. They are the highest of the class, approaching th...
-Tetanus
Tetanus, a spasmodic disease characterized by painful, involuntary, and protracted contraction of a greater or smaller number of the voluntary muscles. As seen in temperate climates, the disease is al...
-Teutonic Knights, Or Knights Of The Hospital Of St
Teutonic Knights, Or Knights Of The Hospital Of St. Mary in Jerusalem, a powerful religious and military order which originated during the crusades. The hospital of St. Mary in Jerusalem, from which t...
-Texas
Texas, a S. W. state of the American Union, the 15th admitted under the constitution, situated between lat. 25 50' and 36 30' N., and Ion. 93 30' and 106 40' W.; greatest length, f...
-Thaddens (Polish Bulgarin
Thaddens (Polish Bulgarin, Tadeusz Bul-haetn), a Russian author, born in Lithuania in 1789, died at Dorpat, Sept. 13, 1859. His father fought under Kosciuszko in the Polish war of independence, after ...
-Thaddens Stevens
Thaddens Stevens, an American statesman, born at Peacham, Caledonia co., Vt., April 4, 1793, died in Washington, D. C, Aug. 11,1868. His parents were poor, and he was lame and sickly from childhood; b...
-Thaddeus William Harris
Thaddeus William Harris, an American naturalist, born in Dorchester, Mass., Nov. 12, 1795, died in Cambridge, Jan. 16, 1856. He graduated at Harvard college in 1815, studied medicine, and practised hi...
-Thales
Thales, a Greek philosopher, and one of the seven wise men, born in Miletus, Ionia, about 636 B. C, died probably about 546. He took an active part in the political affairs of his native country. Ue v...
-Thaler
Thaler (Dan. and Swed. daler), a coin and money of account of Germany, Austria, Holland, Belgium, Denmark, Sweden, and Norway. Silver coins of an ounce weight were struck in the early part of the 16th...
-Thallium
Thallium (Gr. , a green bough), one of the three metals forming the class of triads, the others being iridium and gold. It was discovered by Crookes of London in 18...
-Thames
Thames, a river of Connecticut, formed by the junction of the Quinebaug (with its branch the Shetucket) and Yantic rivers at the city of Norwich, and flowing thence S. about 15 m. to Long Island sound...
-Thames, Or Isis
Thames, Or Isis (anc. Tamesis or Tamesa), the largest and most important river of England. Its source, called Thames Head, is in the Cotswold hills, about 3 m. S. W. of Cirencester, 376 ft. above the ...
-Thanksgiving Dat
Thanksgiving Dat, an annual religious festival, observed in the United States, and particularly in New England, suggested by the Hebrew feast of tabernacles, or feast of ingathering at the end of the...
-Thascins Caeilius Cyprian
Thascins Caeilius Cyprian, a Christian saint, bishop, and martyr, born at Carthage, died Sept. 14, 258. To his proper name of Thascius Cyprianus he added Caecilius, in gratitude to a Carthaginian prie...
-Thasos
Thasos (now Thasso), the most northerly island of the Grecian archipelago, belonging to Turkey, lying off the S. coast of Roumelia (vilayet of Salonica), nearly circular in form; area, about 85 sq. m ...
-Theatines
Theatines, an order of regular clerks, founded at Rome in 1524 by Gaetano di Tiene (died in 1547; canonized by Clement X.), Bonifazio di Colle, Giovanni Pietro Caraffa (afterward Pope Paul IV.), and P...
-Theatre
Theatre (Gr. , a seeing place, from , to view), a building in which plays are represented. The first theatres of the...
-Thebes
Thebes (called No or No-Ammon by the Hebrews, and Diospolis the Great by the later Greeks and the Romans), anciently the capital of Upper Egypt, and for a long time, known as the period of the middle ...
-Theiner
I. Augustin Augustin, a German historian, born in Breslau, April 11, 1804, died in Civita Vecchia, Aug. 9, 1874. He studied at Breslau and Halle, and from 1826 to 1828 assisted his brother Johann Ant...
-Themistocles
Themistocles, an Athenian general, born about 514 B. C, died in Magnesia, Asia Minor, about 449. He took part in the battle of Marathon in 490. After the exile of Aris-tides in 483 Themistocles was th...
-Theobald Mathew
Theobald Mathew, the apostle of temperance, born at Thomastown, county Tipperary, Ireland, Oct. 10, 1790, died Dec. 8, 1856. He was educated in an academy at Kilkenny and the college of Maynooth, an...
-Theobald Wolfe Tone
Theobald Wolfe Tone, an Irish revolutionist, born in Dublin, June 20, 1763, died in prison there, Nov. 19, 1798. He graduated at Trinity college, Dublin, and was called to the bar in London in 1780. I...
-Theodolite
Theodolite, a surveying instrument for measuring vertical and horizontal angles and taking levels, combining the uses of the ordinary transit, the quadrant, and the level. In the American form of the ...
-Theodor Benfey
Theodor Benfey, a German philologist and orientalist, born at Norten, near Gottingen, Jan. 28, 1809. He studied in Gottingen and Heidelberg, and has been since 1834 professor of Sanskrit and comparati...
-Theodor Von Heuglin
Theodor Von Heuglin, baron, a German traveller, born at Hirschlanden, Wurtemberg, March 20, 1824. He studied natural history and pharmacy, travelled through Europe, and went in 1850 to Egypt, and expl...
-Theodor Von Neuhof
Theodor Von Neuhof, baron, a German adventurer, born about 1686, died in London, Dec. 11, 1756. He was the son of a Westphalian nobleman, studied in Cologne, was compelled to leave that city on accoun...
-Theodore Agrippa D Aubigne
Theodore Agrippa d' Aubigne, a French Protestant soldier and historian, born at St. Maury, Feb. 8, 1550, died in Geneva, April 29, 1630. Even as a child his attachment to his religion attracted the at...
-Theodore Canot
Theodore Canot, an adventurer and slave trader, born at Florence about 1807. He was the son of a captain and paymaster in the French army. After an ordinary school education he shipped as a seaman in ...
-Theodore De Beza, Or Beze
Beza, Or Beze, Theodore De, a French religious reformer, born at Vezelay, June 24, 1519, died in Geneva, Oct. 13, 1605. He was brought up for the law by his uncle, who was a councillor of the parliame...
-Theodore Dwight Woolsey
Theodore Dwight Woolsey, an American scholar, tenth president of Yale college, born in New York, Oct. 31, 1801. He graduated at Yale college in 1820, studied theology at Princeton, and from 1823 to 18...
-Theodore Edward Hook
Theodore Edward Hook, an English author and journalist, born in London, Sept. 22, 1788, died in Fulham, Aug. 24, 1841. As a boy he showed extraordinary precocity. After a very inadequate education, te...
-Theodore Irving
Theodore Irving, an American clergyman, nephew of Washington Irving, born in New York, May 9,1809. At the age of 19 he joined his uncle in Spain, and resided for three years in Madrid, Paris, and Lond...
-Theodore Louis Auzoux
Theodore Louis Auzoux, a French physician and anatomist, born at St. Aubin d'Ecroville, department of the Euro, about 1797. He is celebrated as the inventor of a new method of making permanent models ...
-Theodore Martin
Theodore Martin, a British author, born in Edinburgh in 1816. He practised law for several years in Edinburgh, and in 1846 removed to London, where he became a parliamentary solicitor. He contributed ...
-Theodore Parker
Theodore Parker, an American clergyman, born in Lexington,*Mass., Aug. 24, 1810, died in Florence, Italy, May 10, 1860. He worked on the farm which had been in his family for 150 years, and in the too...
-Theodore Simon Jouffroy
Theodore Simon Jouffroy, a French philosopher of the eclectic school, born in the hamlet of Les Pontets, Doubs, July 6, 1796, died in Paris, Feb. 4, 1842. After attending the college of Nozeroy, he wa...
-Theodore Tilton
Theodore Tilton, an American author, born in New York, Oct. 2, 1835. He studied at the New York free academy, and in 1856 became a writer for the Independent, of which he was editor for many years. ...
-Theodoret
Theodoret (Theodoeetus), a Syrian theologian, born at Antioch probably in 393, died in 457 or 458. He was of a noble family, entered a cloister, became in 423 bishop of Cyr-rhus on the Euphrates, and ...
-Theodoric
Theodoric (Ger. Dietrich), surnamed the Great, king of the Ostrogoths, born in Pannonia about 455, died in 526. He was the son of Theodemir, one of the chiefs of the Ostrogoths settled on the banks of...
-Theodoric, Or Dirk Bry
Theodoric, Or Dirk Bry, an engraver and print and book publisher, born at Liege in 1528, died at Frankfort-on-the-Main in 1598. He appears to have received his first instruction in engraving in his na...
-Theodorif Bland
Theodorif Bland, an American patriot and soldier, born in Prince George county, Va., in 1742, died in New York, June 1, 1790. Through his grandmother, Jane Rolfe, he was fourth in descent from Pocahon...
-Theodoros Colocotroms
Theodoros Colocotroms, a modern Greek general, born in Messenia, April 3, 1770, died in Athens, Feb. 4, 1843. His father and grandfather both fell fighting against the Turks, and Theodoros was habitua...
-Theodosius
Theodosius, a Roman general, beheaded in Carthage, A. D. 376. During the reign of Va-lentinian he was sent to the defence of Britain, in 367 crossed the channel at the head of a large army, and in two...
-Theodosius I. The Great
Theodosius I. The Great, a Roman emperor, son of the preceding, born in Italica or Cauca, Spain, about A. D. 346, died in Milan, Jan. 17, 395. He learned the art of war under his father, was early giv...
-Theology
Theology (Gr. , God, and discourse), the science which treats of God and divine things. The name theologos was given by the Greeks to the authors...
-Theophile Jnles Pelouze
Theophile Jnles Pelouze, a French chemist, born at Valognes, La Manche, Feb. 26, 1807, died at Bellevue, near Paris, June 1, 1867. He completed his studies under Gay-Lussac, and in 1830 became profess...
-Theophile Malo Corret De Latour Dauvergne
Theophile Malo Corret De Latour D'Auvergne, a French soldier, born at Carhaix, Brittany, Nov. 23, 1743, fell at Oberhausen, Bavaria, June 27, 1800. He entered the French army in 1767, and subsequently...
-Theophylact
Theophylact ( ), surnamed Si-mocatta, a Byzantine historian, born of an Egyptian family in Locris in the latter part of the 6th centu...
-Theory Of Combinations
Theory Of Combinations, in mathematics, a statement of the laws which determine the possible variations in the grouping of any number of given signs. The signs and groups are known as elements and for...
-Thera
Thera (now Santorin), an island of the AEgean sea, now forming with Amorgos and other islands an eparchy of Greece, in the no-marchy of the Cyclades; length about 9 m. from N. to 8., average breadth a...
-Theramenes
Theramenes, a political leader at Athens toward the end of the 5th century B. C, born in Cos. In 411 he became a member of the council of 400; but he deserted it and beeame one of the leading agents i...
-Theresa, Or Teresa, Saint
Theresa, Or Teresa, Saint, a Spanish mystical writer, born in Avila, March 28, 1515, died at Alba, Oct. 4, 1582. She was called Teresa de Ahumada (her mother's family name) till August, 1562,' when sh...
-Thermo-Electricity
Thermo-Electricity, electricity developed by heat, and also the science which treats of the phenomena and mode of production. Prof. Seebeck of Berlin, in 1822, was the first to make any well directed ...
-Thermometer
Thermometer (Gr. , heat, and v, a moasure), an instrument to measure temperatures. It is formed of two or more different substances, t...
-Thermopylae, Or Simply Pylae
Thermopylae, Or Simply Pylae (From , hot, and , gate), a defile between Thessaly and Locris, in antiquity the only passage for an enemy from...
-Theroigae De Mericoirt
Theroigae De Mericoirt (more properly Marcourt), a French revolutionist, whose real name was Anne Josephe Terwagne, born at Marcourt, Luxemburg, Aug. 13, 1762, died in Paris, June 9, 1817. She was the...
-Theseus
Theseus, a legendary hero of Attica. He was the son of AEgeus, king of Athens, and AEthra, daughter of Pittheus, king of Trcezen. AEgeus on his departure from Trcezen hid his sword and shoes under a s...
-Thevenot
I. Melchisedech Melchisedech, a French traveller, born in Paris about 1620, died at Issy, Oct. 29, 1692. He early explored Europe, learned oriental languages, and in 1684 became keeper of the royal l...
-Thibaut Theobald (IV. Or VI)
Thibaut Theobald (IV. Or VI) as count of Champagne, I. as king of Navarre, a French trouvere or poet, born at Troyes in 1201, died there or at Pamplona, July 10, 1253. He was a posthumous son of Count...
-Thibet, Or Tibet
Thibet, Or Tibet (Sansk. Bhot; Thib. Bod; Pers. Tibet), a region of central Asia, between lat. 27 and 38 N., and Ion. 78 and 104 E., bounded N. by East Turkistan and China proper, ...
-Thierry
I. Jacques Mcolas Augustin Jacques Mcolas Augustin, a French historian, born in Blois, May 10, 1795, died in Paris, May 22, 1856. He was educated at the college of Blois and the normal school in Pari...
-Thiersch
I. Friedrich Wilhelm Friedrich Wilhelm, a German philologist, born at Kirchscheidungen, near Freiburg, June 17, 1784, died in Munich, Feb. 25, 1860. He studied in Leipsic and Gottingen, and in 1809 b...
-Thirst
Thirst, the sensation by which the want of fluid in the system is made known, dependent on the condition of the stomach, throat, and fauces, and in a state of health a tolerably faith-f ul indication ...
-Thirty Years War
Thirty Years' War, a religious and political conflict which involved the German empire, and with it the principal states of Europe, from 1618 to 1648. The causes which led to this struggle reach back ...
-Thistle
Thistle, the common name for plants of the genus cnicus (Gr., to prick), of the composite family. In most works the American species are placed under Cirsium,...
-Thomas
I. A S. W. County Of Georgia A S. W. County Of Georgia, bordering on Florida, and drained by the Ockloc-konee river and its head streams; area, 920 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 14,523, of whom 8,363 were co...
-Thomas A Becket
Thomas A Becket, an English prelate and statesman, born in London about 1117, assassinated in Canterbury, Dec. 29, 1170 His father, Gilbert Becket, a native of Rouen, was of Norman and not of Saxon bl...
-Thomas A Kempis
Thomas A Kempis, a German ascetic writer, born at Kempen, near Cologne, in 1379 or 1380, died at Mount St. Agnes, near Zwolle, July 26, 1471. His family name was Hammerken, Little Hammer (Lat. Mall...
-Thomas An English Engineer Colby
Thomas An English Engineer Colby, born at Rochester, Sept. 1 1784, died in Liverpool, Oct. 9, 1852. He was educated at the royal military academy at Woolwich, and received his first commission as seco...
-Thomas Arthur Lally
Thomas Arthur Lally, count, baron of Tul-lendally or Tollendal, in Ireland, a French soldier, born in Romans, Pauphiny, in January, 1702, beheaded in Paris, May 9, 1766. He was the son of Sir Gerard L...
-Thomas Audley
Thomas Audley, lord, lord chancellor of England in the reign of Henry VIII., supposed to have been born at Earl's Colne, in Essex, died at his London residence in 1544. In 1529 he was made speaker of ...
-Thomas Babington Macaulay
Thomas Babington Macaulay, baron, an English historian, born at Rothley Temple, in the village of Rothley, Leicestershire, Oct. 25,1800, died in Kensington, London, Dec. 28, 1859. His paternal ancesto...
-Thomas Ball
Thomas Ball, an American sculptor, born in Charlestown, Mass., June 3, 1819. He was originally a portrait painter in Boston, but about 1852 began to devote himself exclusively to modelling. His first ...
-Thomas Banks
Thomas Banks, an English sculptor, born at Lambeth, Dec. 22,1735, died in London, Feb. 2, 1805. His father gave him a good education, and then placed him under the instruction of Kent, the architect. ...
-Thomas Bewick
Thomas Bewick, reviver of wood engraving in England, born at Cherryburn, Northumberland, Aug. 12, 1753, died at Gateshead, Nov. 8, 1828. He was apprenticed at the age of 14 to Mr. Ralph Beilby, engrav...
-Thomas Binney
Thomas Binney, an English dissenting clergyman, born at Newcastle-on-Tyne in 1798. He studied at Wymondley college, was for some time minister of an Independent chapel at Newport, Isle of Wight, and f...
-Thomas Blanchard
Thomas Blanchard, an American mechanic and inventor, born at Sutton, Worcester co., Mass., June 24, 1788, died in Boston, April 16, 1864. While engaged with his brother in making tacks by hand, he con...
-Thomas Blood
Thomas Blood, an Irish adventurer, generally known as Colonel Blood, born about 1628 died in Westminster, Aug. 24, 1680. He was a disbanded officer of Cromwell's army. In 1663 he formed a conspiracy t...
-Thomas Bradbury Chandler
Thomas Bradbury Chandler,D. D., an American clergyman, born at W'oodstock, Conn., April 20, 1726, died at Elizabethtown, N J., June 17, 1790. He graduated at Yale college in 1745, in 1747 was appointe...
-Thomas Brown
Thomas Brown, commonly called Tom, an English satirist, born in Shropshire in 1663, died in 1704. He was educated at Oxford, became for a short time master of the free school at Kingston-upon-Thames...
-Thomas Bugge
Thomas Bugge, a Danish astronomer, born in Copenhagen, Oct. 12, 1740, died June 15, 1815. He was educated at Copenhagen, and in 1777, after having been employed for some years by the royal society of ...
-Thomas Burnet
Thomas Burnet, an English author, born at Croft, Yorkshire, about 1635, died at the Charterhouse, London, in September, 1715. As master of the Charterhouse school, he was the first Englishman to oppos...
-Thomas Campbell
Thomas Campbell, a British poet, born in Glasgow, July 27, 1777, died in Boulogne, France, June 15,1844. His father was a cadet of the ancient clan of Campbells in Kirnan. At the age of 13 he entered ...
-Thomas Carlyle
Thomas Carlyle, a British author, born at Ecclefechan, Dumfriesshire, Scotland, Dec.^4, 1795. He was educated at Annan and afterward at Edinburgh, where Edward Irving, three years his senior, was a fe...
-Thomas Carte
Thomas Carte, an English scholar, born near Clifton, Warwickshire, in April, 1686, died near Abingdon, Berkshire, April 2,1754. He studied at Oxford and Cambridge, received holy orders, and was appoin...
-Thomas Cartwright
Thomas Cartwright, an English Puritan divine, born in Hertfordshire about 1535, died Dec. 27, 1603. He studied divinity at St. John's college, Cambridge; but afterward he turned his attention to the l...
-Thomas Chalkley
Thomas Chalkley, a preacher of the society of Friends or Quakers, born in London, March 3, 1675, died in the island of Tortola, West Indies, Sept. 4, 1741. At the age of 20 he was pressed on board a m...
-Thomas Chalmers
Thomas Chalmers, D. D., a Scottish clergyman and author, born at Anstruther, Fifeshire, March 17, 1780, died at Morningside, near Edinburgh, May 31, 1847. His father was a shipowner and general mercha...
-Thomas Chandler Haliburton
Thomas Chandler Haliburton, a Canadian humorist, known by the nom de plume of Sam Slick, born at Windsor, Nova Scotia, in 1796, died at Isleworth, England, Aug. 27, 1865. He studied law, was called ...
-Thomas Chatterton
Thomas Chatterton, an English poet, born in Bristol, Nov. 20, 1752, died in London, Aug. 24,1770. His father, who was a school teacher, died three months before his birth. At five years of age he was ...
-Thomas Clarkson
Thomas Clarkson, an English abolitionist, born at Wisbeach, Cambridgeshire, March 26, 1760, died at Playford Hall, Suffolk, Sept, 26, 1846. He was the son of a clergyman, and was educated at St. John...
-Thomas Cochrane Dundonald
Thomas Cochrane Dundonald, earl of, more commonly known as Lord Cochrane, an English admiral, born Dec. 14, 1775, died Oct. 31, 1860. He was the eldest son of Archibald, ninth earl of Dundonald. At th...
-Thomas Cogswell Upham
Thomas Cogswell Upham, an American author, born in Deerfield, N. H., Jan. 30, 1799, died in New York, April 2, 1872. He graduated at Dartmouth college in 1818, and at Andover theological seminary in 1...
-Thomas Cole
Thomas Cole, an American painter, born at Bolton-le-Moor, Lancashire, England, Feb. 1, 1801, died at Catskill, N. Y., Feb. 11, 1848. His father, a small woollen manufacturer, after repeated reverses i...
-Thomas Colley Grattan
Thomas Colley Grattan, an Irish novelist, born in Dublin in 1796, died in London, July 4, 1864. He studied law, and procured a commission in the army, but renounced both professions on his marriage, a...
-Thomas Conway
Thomas Conway, an officer in the American revolution, born in Ireland, Feb. 27,1733, died about 1800. He was educated in France, where he entered the army and attained the rank of colonel. He came to ...
-Thomas Cooper
Thomas Cooper, an American scholar and politician, born in London, Oct. 22, 1759, died at Columbia, S. C, May 11, 1840. He was educated at Oxford, afterward studied medicine and law, and was admitted ...
-Thomas Core
Thomas Core, the first bishop of the Methodist Episcopal church, born at Brecon, South Wales, Sept. 9, 1747, died at sea, May 2, 1814. At the age of 16 he was sent to Oxford, and the succeeding year e...
-Thomas Corwin
Thomas Corwin, an American statesman, born in Bourbon co., Ky., July 29, 1794, died in Washington, Dec. 18, 1865. His immediate ancestors went from New Jersey to Pennsylvania, from thence to Kentucky,...
-Thomas Coryat
Thomas Coryat, an eccentric English traveller, who called himself the Odcombian leg-stretcher, born at Odcombe, Somersetshire, in 1577, died at Surat, India, in December, 1617. He was the son of the...
-Thomas Couture
Thomas Couture, a French painter, born in Senlis, Dec. 21, 1815. He was successively a pupil of Gros and Delaroche, but developed about the age of 25 a style very different from theirs, and distinguis...
-Thomas Cranmer
Thomas Cranmer, the first Protestant archbishop of Canterbury, born at Aslacton, Nottinghamshire, July 2, 1489, burned at the stake in Oxford, March 21, 1556. His family was ancient and respectable. A...
-Thomas Crawford
Thomas Crawford, an American sculptor, born in New York, March 22, 1814, died in London, Oct. 10, 1857. In early childhood he manifested an extraordinary fondness for art. He worked first at wood carv...
-Thomas Cromwell
Thomas Cromwell, earl of Essex, born toward the close of the 15th century, died July 28, 1540. The exact date of his birth is unknown, though one account says he was born in 1498. His father, one of t...
-Thomas Darcy Mcgee
Thomas D'Arcy Mcgee, an Irish journalist, born in Carlingford, Ireland, April 13, 1825, assassinated in Ottawa, Canada, April 7, 1868. In 1842 he emigrated to America, taking up his residence in Bosto...
-Thomas Day
Thomas Day, an English author and philanthropist, born in London in 1748, died Sept. 28, 1789. His father, a collector of the customs, died when Thomas was a year old, leaving him an ample fortune. He...
-Thomas De Quincey
Thomas De Quincey, an English author, known as the English Opium Eater, born at Greenhay, a suburb of Manchester, Aug. 15, 1786, died in Edinburgh, Dec. 8, 1859. He was the fifth child of a merchant...
-Thomas De Witt Talmage
Thomas De Witt Talmage, an American clergyman, born in Boundbrook, N. J., Jan. 7, 1832. He graduated at the New York university in 1853, and at the New Brunswick (N. J.) theological seminary in 1856, ...
-Thomas Dempster
Thomas Dempster, a Scottish professor and author, born at Muiresk, Aberdeenshire, Aug. 23, 1579, died near Bologna, Sept. 6, 1625. He was the 24th in a family of 29 children by the same mother, and at...
-Thomas Dick
Thomas Dick, a Scottish author, born near Dundee, Nov. 24, 1774, died at Broughty Ferry, July 29, 1857. He was educated for the min-istiy, and was settled at Stirling; but he relinquished his professi...
-Thomas Dowse
Thomas Dowse, an American book collector, born in Charlestown, Mass., Dec. 28, 1772, died in Cambridgeport, Nov. 4, 1856. He has sometimes been called the literary leather dresser. His father, Eleaz...
-Thomas Drummond
Thomas Drummond, a British naval officer and inventor, born in Edinburgh in October, 1797, died in Dublin, April 15, 1840. While a cadet at Woolwich he displayed unusual mathematical ability, and attr...
-Thomas Dunn English
Thomas Dunn English, an American author, born in Philadelphia, June 29, 1819. He received the degree of M. D. from the university of Pennsylvania in 1839, and was called to the bar in 1842. He has bee...
-Thomas Egerton
Thomas Egerton, baron of Ellesmere and Viscount Brackley, lord chancellor of England, born at Dobbleston, Cheshire, in 1540, died in London, March 15, 1617. He was educated at Brasenose college, Oxfor...
-Thomas Ellwood
Thomas Ellwood, an English Quaker minister, a friend of Milton, born in Crowell, Oxfordshire, in 1639, died March 1, 1713. At an early age he attached himself to the society of Friends, thereby giving...
-Thomas Emerson Bond
Thomas Emerson Bond, an American physician, editor, and preacher, born in Baltimore, Md., in February, 1782, died in New York, March 14, 1856. After studying in the medical school of the university of...
-Thomas Erastus
Thomas Erastus, a Swiss physician and theological polemic, who exchanged his original name of Lieber for its Greek equivalent, born in Baden, Sept. 7,1524, died in Basel, Dec. 31, 1583. He studied the...
-Thomas Erskine
Thomas Erskine, baron, a British jurist and statesman, the third son of Henry David, fifth earl of Buchan, born in Edinburgh, Jan. 21, 1750, died at Almondell, near Edinburgh, Nov. 17, 1823. After stu...
-Thomas Francis Meagher
Thomas Francis Meagher, an Irish revolutionist, born in Waterford, Aug. 3, 1823, drowned in the upper Missouri, near Fort Benton, Montana, July 1, 1867. He was educated at Roman Catholic colleges in I...
-Thomas Franeis Marshall
Thomas Franeis Marshall, an American politician, nephew of Chief Justice Marshall, born in Frankfort, Ky., June 7, 1801, died near Versailles, Ky., Sept. 22, 1804. In 1831 he removed to Louisville, wh...
-Thomas Godfrey
Thomas Godfrey, an American mathematician, born in Philadelphia, died in December, 1749. He had but a common education, and followed the business of a glazier in his native city; but he mastered all t...
-Thomas Graham
Thomas Graham, a Scottish chemist, born in Glasgow, Dec. 20, 1805, died in London, Sept. 15, 1869. He studied at the universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh, and after graduating opened a laboratory in ...
-Thomas Gray
Thomas Gray, an English poet, born in Cornhill, London, Dec. 26, 1716, died July 30, 1771. He was educated at Eton and Cambridge, where his expenses were borne by his mother, his father refusing to ma...
-Thomas Guthrie
Thomas Guthrie, a Scottish clergyman, born at Brechin, Forfarshire, July 12, 1803, died at St. Leonards, Fifeshire, Feb. 24, 1873. He was educated at Edinburgh, and was licensed to preach in 1825. He ...
-Thomas Guy
Thomas Guy, an English philanthropist, born at Horsleydown in 104:5, died in London, Dec. 17, 1724. In 1660 he was apprenticed to a bookseller in London, and after his apprenticeship commenced busines...
-Thomas Handasyd Perkins
Thomas Handasyd Perkins, an American merchant, born in Boston, Mass., Dec. 15, 1764, died in Brookline, Jan. 11, 1854. After spending some years in a counting house, he became associated with his brot...
-Thomas Hart Benton
Thomas Hart Benton, an American statesman, born near Hillsborough, Orange co., N. C, March 14, 1782, died in Washington, April 10, 1858. His father died when he was eight years old, and he enjoyed few...
-Thomas Haynes Bayly
Thomas Haynes Bayly, an English poet and dramatist, born near Bath, Oct. 13, 1797, died April 22, 1839. For a time he was a student at Oxford, with the intention of taking holy orders; but inheriting ...
-Thomas Henry Huxley
Thomas Henry Huxley, an English naturalist, born in Ealing, Middlesex, May 4, 1825. He spent two and a half years at Ealing school, in which his father was one of the masters, but with this exception ...
-Thomas Hewitt Key
Thomas Hewitt Key, an English scholar and educator, born in Southwark, March 20, 1799. He graduated at Trinity college, Cambridge, in 1821, and for two or three years was engaged in studying medicine ...
-Thomas Hewlings Stockton
Thomas Hewlings Stockton, an American clergyman, born at Mount Holly, N. J., June 4, 1808, died in Philadelphia, Oct. 9, 1868. He studied medicine in Philadelphia, but became a Methodist Protestant pr...
-Thomas Hicks
Thomas Hicks, an American painter, born in Newtown, Bucks co., Pa., Oct. 18, 1823. He attempted portrait painting in his 15th year, and in 1838, after copying the casts in the Pennsylvania academy of ...
-Thomas Hill
Thomas Hill, an American clergyman, born in New Brunswick, N. J., Jan. 7, 1818. He was left an orphan at 10 years of age, and at 12 was apprenticed to the printer of a newspaper, where he remained fou...
-Thomas Hobbes
Thomas Hobbes, an English philosopher, born in Malmesbury, Wiltshire, April 5, 1588, died in Derbyshire, Dec. 4, 1679. The son of a clergyman, he was sent at the age of 15 to Magdalen hall, Oxford, wh...
-Thomas Holcroft
Thomas Holcroft, an English dramatist, born in London, Dec. 10, 1745, died March 23, 1809. His father was a shoemaker who owned several horses, and added to his income by letting them. His mother deal...
-Thomas Hollis
Thomas Hollis, a benefactor of Harvard college, born in England in 1659, died in London in 1731. He was for many years a successful merchant in London, and a bequest made to Harvard college in his unc...
-Thomas Hood
Thomas Hood, an English poet, born in London, May 23, 1798, died there, May 3, 1845. His father, who was a bookseller, died when he was but 12 years old. After acquiring the rudiments of an education,...
-Thomas Hooker
Thomas Hooker, one of the founders of the colony of Connecticut, born in Markfield, Leicestershire, England, in 1586, died in Hartford, Conn., July 7, 1647. He is supposed to have been a cousin of the...
-Thomas Hughes
Thomas Hughes, an English author, born near Newbury, Berkshire, Oct. 20, 1823. He was educated at Rugby, and graduated at Oriel college, Oxford, in 1845. He studied law, was called to the bar in 1848,...
-Thomas Hutchinson
Thomas Hutchinson, governor of the province of Massachusetts, born in Boston, Sept. 9, 1711, died at Brompton, near London, in June, 1780. He was the son of a merchant of Boston who was long a member ...
-Thomas Jackson
Thomas Jackson, an English clergyman,born at Sancton, Yorkshire, Dec. 12, 1783, died in Richmond, March 11, 1873. He was early apprenticed to a carpenter, but entered the itinerant ministry of the Wes...
-Thomas James Mathias
Thomas James Mathias, an English author, born about 1750, died in Naples in 1885. He graduated at Trinity college, Cambridge, in 1774, and several years later received an appointment in the royal hous...
-Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson, third president of the United States, born at Shadwell, Albemarle co., Va., April 2, 1743, died at Monticello, July 4, 1826. His father was Col. Peter Jefferson, a planter of great f...
-Thomas John Capel
Thomas John Capel, an English Roman Catholic clergyman, born in Brompton, Kent, Oct. 28, 1835. He received his early education at Lay-ston and at Hastings. In 1852, at the age of 17, he associated him...
-Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Thomas Jonathan Jackson, an American soldier, born at Clarksburg, Va., Jan. 21,1824, died at Guinea's station, near Fredericksburg, May 10,1863. He graduated at West Point in 1846, and served in the w...
-Thomas L. Clingman
Thomas L. Clingman, an American politician, born at Huntsville, N. C, about 1812. He graduated at Chapel Hill university in 1832; became shortly after a member of the state legislature, and in 1843 wa...
-Thomas Lake Harris
Thomas Lake Harris, an American reformer, born at Fenny Stratford, England, May 15, 1823. He was brought to America when four years old by his father, who engaged in mercantile pursuits in Utica, N. Y...
-Thomas Lodge
Thomas Lodge, an English author, born in Lincolnshire about 1556, died in London in September, 1625. He was educated at Oxford, and became an actor and dramatist. In 1584 he was entered as a law stude...
-Thomas Love Peacock
Thomas Love Peacock, an English author, born in Weymouth, Oct. 18,1785, died in London, Jan. 23,1866. He entered the East India house in 1818, and was examiner of India correspondence from 1836 till M...
-Thomas Lynch
Thomas Lynch, jr., one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, born in Prince George's parish, S. C, Aug. 5, 1749, died at sea in the latter part of 1770. He was educated at Eton and at the...
-Thomas Mackean
Thomas Mackean, an American jurist, and a signer of the Declaration of Independence, born in Chester co., Pa., March 19, 1734, died in Philadelphia, June 24, 1817. In 1757 he was admitted to the bar, ...
-Thomas March Clark
Thomas March Clark, D. D., an American bishop, born in Newburyport, Mass., July 4, 1812. He graduated at Yale college in 1831, studied theology at Princeton, N. J., and was licensed to preach by the p...
-Thomas Marie Joseph Gousset
Thomas Marie Joseph Gousset, a French prelate, born at Montigny-les-Cherlieux, Haute-Saone, May 1, 1792, died in Rheims, Dec. 24, 1866. He was the son of a peasant, and labored in the field until his ...
-Thomas Mcdonough
Thomas Mcdonough, an American naval officer, born in New Castle co., Del., Dec. 23, 1783, died at sea, Nov. 16, 1825. lie entered the navy as a midshipman in February, 1800, and in 1803 was attached t...
-Thomas Mclntyrc Cooley
Thomas Mclntyrc Cooley, an American jurist, born at Attica, N. Y., Jan. 6, 1824. He began the study of law in 1842 at Palmyra, N. Y., but removed the next year to Adrian, Mich., where he was admitted ...
-Thomas Mifflin
Thomas Mifflin, an American revolutionary general, born in Philadelphia in 1744, died in Lancaster, Pa., Jan. 20, 1800. He was by birth and education a Quaker, entered public life in 1772 as a represe...
-Thomas Miller
Thomas Miller, an English author, born in Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, Aug. 31, 1807, died in London, Oct. 25, 1874. He was at first a farmer's boy, devoted his leisure hours to study, and while follow...
-Thomas Moore
Thomas Moore, an Irish poet, born in Dublin, May 28, 1779, died at Sloperton cottage, Devizes, Wiltshire, Feb. 25, 1852. By his father, John Moore, a grocer, he was brought up in the Roman Catholic fa...
-Thomas Morley
Thomas Morley, an English composer, died in London at an advanced age about 1604. He graduated as a bachelor of music at Oxford in 1588, and was made gentleman of Queen Elizabeth's chapel in 1592. He ...
-Thomas Munzer
Thomas Munzer, a German mystic, born at Stolberg in the Hartz mountains about 1490, beheaded at Mtihlhausen, Thuringia, in May, 1525. After preaching at various places, in 1520 he became pastor of the...
-Thomas Murker
Thomas Murker, a German satirist, born in Strasburg, Dec. 24, 1475, died probably in Heidelberg about 1536. He studied at the principal universities of Europe, lost a place in the conventual Latin sch...
-Thomas Nash
Thomas Nash, an English dramatist, born in Lowestoft, Suffolk, about 1560, died in London in 1600 or 1601. He took the degree of B. A. at Cambridge in 15S4, and in 1589 fixed his abode in London. The ...
-Thomas Nast
Thomas Nast, an American artist, born in Landau. Bavaria, Sept. 27, 1840. He came to the United States in 1846, and at the age of 14 found employment as a draughtsman on Frank Leslie's Illustrated Pa...
-Thomas Nelson
Thomas Nelson, an American statesman, born in York co., Va., Dec. 26, 1738, died there, Jan. 4, 1789. His father, William Nelson, for many years president of the colonial council, sent him in his 14th...
-Thomas Nuttall
Thomas Nuttall, an American naturalist, born in Yorkshire, England, in 1786, died at Nutgrove, St. Helen's, Lancashire, Sept. 10, 1859. He learned the trade of a printer, and studied natural history i...
-Thomas Osmond Summers
Thomas Osmond Summers, an American clergyman, born near Corfe Castle, Dorsetshire, England, Oct. 11, 1812. He emigrated to the United States in 1830, and became a preacher of the Methodist Episcopal c...
-Thomas Otway
Thomas Otway, an English poet, born at Trotton, Sussex, March 3, 1651, died in London, April 14, 1685. He was educated at Winchester and at Christchurch, Oxford, but left the university without taking...
-Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine, an American political writer, born at Thetford, county of Norfolk, England, Jan. 29, 1737, died in New York, June 8,1809. He learned under his father, a Quaker, the trade of staymaking. ...
-Thomas Parnell
Thomas Parnell, an Irish poet, born in Dublin in 1679, died in Chester in July, 1717. He was educated in the college of Dublin, took holy orders in 1700, and was created archdeacon of Clogher in 1705....
-Thomas Parr
Thomas Parr, commonly known as Old Parr, an English centenarian, born at Winnington, Shropshire, in 1483, died in London, Nov. 15, 1635. He was the son of poor parents, and after his father's decease ...
-Thomas Pemant
Thomas Pemant, an English naturalist, born at Downing, Flintshire, June 14, 1726, died there, Dec. 16, 1798. He was educated at Wrexham and at Oxford. His account of an earthquake in Flintshire...
-Thomas Percival
Thomas Percival, an English physician, born in Warrington, Lancashire, Sept. 29, 1740, died in Manchester, Aug. 30, 1804. He was educated at the Warrington academy and at Edinburgh, and received the d...
-Thomas Percy
Thomas Percy, an English scholar, born at Bridgenorth, Shropshire, April 13, 1728, died at Dromore, Ireland, Sept. 30, 1811. He took orders, and received in 1756 the rectory of Wilby and vicarage of E...
-Thomas Perronet Thompson
Thomas Perronet Thompson, an English political reformer, born in Hull, March 15, 1783, died Sept. 6, 1869. In 1803 he entered the navy as midshipman, and in 1806 went into the army as second lieutenan...
-Thomas Posey
Thomas Posey, an American general, born on the banks of the Potomac, Va., July 9, 1750, died in Shawneetown, 111., March 19, 1818. In 1774 he took part in Lord Dunmore's expedition against the Indians...
-Thomas Pownall
Thomas Pownall, an English statesman, born in Lincoln in 1722, died in Bath, Feb. 25, 1805. He emigrated to America in 1753, and in 1757 was appointed governor of the colony of Massachusetts Bay. He w...
-Thomas Price
Thomas Price, a Welsh scholar, born at Pen-caerelin, Brecknockshire, Oct. 2, 1787, died at Cwmdu, Nov. 7, 1848. He was curate of various parishes from 1812 to 1825, when he was appointed vicar of Owmd...
-Thomas Pringle
Thomas Pringle, a Scottish author, born at Blaiklaw, Teviotdale, Jan. 5, 1789, died Dec. 5, 1834. He graduated at the university of Edinburgh, and became clerk to the commissioners on the public recor...
-Thomas Reid
Thomas Reid, a Scottish metaphysician, born at Strachan, Kincardineshire, April 26, 1710, died in Glasgow, Oct. 7, 1796. He graduated at Marischal college, Aberdeen, in 1726, was librarian of the coll...
-Thomas Ren
Thomas Ren, an English bishop, born at Berkhamstead, Hertfordshire, in July, 1637, died at Longleat, Wiltshire, March 19, 1711. He was educated at Winchester and Oxford, took orders, visited Rome in 1...
-Thomas Robert Bugeaud De La Piconnerie
Thomas Robert Bugeaud De La Piconnerie, duke of Isly, a French soldier, born at Limoges, Oct. 15, 1784, died in Paris, June 10, 1849. He entered the French army as a private in 1804, became a corporal...
-Thomas Robert Malthus
Thomas Robert Malthus, an English political economist, born at Albury, Surrey, in 1766, died in Bath, Dec. 29, 1834. I lis lather was a gentleman of fortune, interested in classical and philosophical ...
-Thomas Rymer
Thomas Rymer, an English antiquary, born in Yorkshire about 1640, died in London, Dec. 14, 1713. He became a member of Gray's Inn in 1666, and was appointed historiographer to King William in 1692. Ry...
-Thomas Rymer Jones
Thomas Rymer Jones, an English anatomist, born about 1810. He became a member of the royal college of surgeons in 1833, but on account of a defect in his hearing has never practised. Subsequently he w...
-Thomas S. Kirkbride
Thomas S. Kirkbride, an American physician, born near Morrisville, Bucks co., Pa., July 31, 1809. His ancestors were members of the society of Friends (to which he also belongs), and came to America w...
-Thomas Scott Preston
Thomas Scott Preston, an American clergyman, born in Hartford, Conn., July 23,1824. He graduated at Trinity college, Hartford, in 1843, and at the General theological seihinary, New York, in 1846. He ...
-Thomas Sidney Cooper
Thomas Sidney Cooper, an English painter, born in Canterbury, Sept. 26, 1803. He early developed a talent for drawing, and was accustomed to sketch from nature without instruction. At the age of 17 he...
-Thomas Simpson
Thomas Simpson, an English mathematician, born in Market-Bosworth, Leicestershire, Aug. 20, 1710, died there, May 14, 1761. He was a weaver, and while young married a widow 50 years of age, having two...
-Thomas Smyth
Thomas Smyth, an American clergyman, born in Belfast, Ireland, June 14, 1808, died in Charleston, S. C, Aug. 20, 1873. He was educated in Belfast and London, and in 1830 entered the theological semina...
-Thomas Southwood Smith
Thomas Southwood Smith, an English physician, born at Martock, Somersetshire, Dec. 21, 1788, died in Florence, Italy, Dec. 10, 1861. He studied medicine at the university of Edinburgh, and settled in ...
-Thomas Starr King
Thomas Starr King, an American clergyman, born in New York, Dec. 16, 1824, died in San Francisco, March 4, 1864. He was preparing to enter Harvard college when the sudden death of his father left the ...
-Thomas Sterry Hunt
Thomas Sterry Hunt, an American chemist, mineralogist, and geologist, born in Norwich, Conn., Sept. 5,1826. He studied medicine for a time, but, devoting himself to chemistry, became in 1845 a private...
-Thomas Sumter
Thomas Sumter, an American revolutionary general, born in Virginia in 1734, died near Camden, S. C, June 1, 1832. He was a volunteer in the French and Indian war, was present at Braddock's defeat, and...
-Thomas Sydenham
Thomas Sydenham, an English physician, born at Winford Eagle, Dorsetshire, in 1G24, died in London, Dec. 29, 1689. He graduated at Oxford, and in 1648 obtained a fellowship in All Souls' college, and ...
-Thomas Tflford
Thomas Tflford, a British engineer, born at Westerkirk, Eskdale, Dumfriesshire, Aug. 9, 1757, died in Westminster, Sept. 2, 1834. While working in Edinburgh as a stone mason he studied architecture an...
-Thomas Thomson
Thomas Thomson, a British chemist, born at Crieff, Perthshire, April 12, 1773, died at Kil-mun, Argyleshire, July 2, 1852. He was educated at the university of St. Andrews and at Edinburgh, and in 179...
-Thomas Ticrell
Thomas Ticrell, an English poet, born at Bridekirk, Cumberland, in 1686, died in Bath, April 23, 1740. He was educated at Queen's college, Oxford, and in 1710 was chosen fellow. He was a friend of Add...
-Thomas Tredgold
Thomas Tredgold, an English engineer, born at Brandon, near Durham, Aug. 22, 1788, died in London, Jan. 28, 1829. In 1808 he went to Scotland, where he worked five years as a journeyman carpenter and ...
-Thomas Truxtun
Thomas Truxtun, an American naval officer, born on Long Island, Feb. 15, 1755, died in Philadelphia, May 5, 1822. During the revolution he served in privateers as lieutenant and captain, and made valu...
-Thomas Tyrwhitt
Thomas Tyrwhitt, an English author, born in London, March 29, 1730, died there, Aug. 15, 1786. He graduated at Oxford in 1750, and in 1756 was appointed under secretary of war, and in 1762 clerk of th...
-Thomas Wentwortb Strafford
Thomas Wentwortb Strafford, earl of, an English statesman, born in London, April 13, 1593, executed on Tower hill, May 12, 1641. He was educated at Cambridge, travelled abroad, at the age of 21 inheri...
-Thomas Whittemore
Thomas Whittemore, an American clergyman, born in Boston, Jan. 1, 1800, died in Cambridge, Mass., March 21, 1861. He was apprenticed successively to several trades, and finally studied theology. In Ap...
-Thomas Willis
Thomas Willis, an English physician, born at Great Bed win, Wiltshire, Jan. 27, 1621, died in London, Nov. 11, 1675. He graduated at Oxford in 1639, fought in defence of Charles I., studied medicine, ...
-Thomas William Coke
Thomas William Coke, earl of Leicester of Holkham, an English agriculturist, born May 4, 1752, died June 30, 1842. He was regarded, after the death of the duke of Bedford, as the first agriculturist i...
-Thomas William Silloway
Thomas William Silloway, an American architect, born in Newburyport, Mass., Aug. 7, 1828. He began to practise his profession in Boston in 1851, and in the 20 years following more than 200 church edif...
-Thomas Winthrop Coit
Thomas Winthrop Coit, an American clergyman, born in New London, Conn., June 28, 1803. He graduated at Yale college in 1821, entered the ministry of the Episcopal church, and became rector of St. Pete...
-Thomas Wolsey
Thomas Wolsey, an English prelate, born in Ipswich in 1471, died in Leicester, Nov. 29, 1530. He graduated at Oxford, was elected a fellow, received holy orders, and obtained the living of Lymington, ...
-Thomas Wright
Thomas Wright, an English antiquary, born in Wales, April 21, 1810. He graduated at Cambridge, and was one of the founders of the Camden society and of the British archaeological association, and a me...
-Thomas Young
Thomas Young, an English physicist, born of Quaker parents at Milverton, Somersetshire, June 13, 1773, died in London, May 10, 1829. He was able to read fluently at the age of two, learned surveying a...
-Thomasius
I. Christian Christian, a German philosopher, born in Leipsic in January, 1655, died in Halle, Sept. 23, 1728. He was educated by his father, the rector of the celebrated Thomas-schule, and from 1675...
-Thomson
I. Anthony Todd Anthony Todd, a British physician, born in Edinburgh, Jan. 7, 1778, died at Ealing, Middlesex, July 3, 1849. He was educated at the high school of Edinburgh, studied medicine, in 1798...
-Thorax
Thorax (Gr. ), the chest, or upper part of the trunk of the body, situated between the neck and the abdomen. The osseous framework of the thorax consists of the 12 dorsal...
-Thorioi, Or Thorinum
Thorioi, Or Thorinum, a rare metal discovered in 1828 by Berzelius in a black mineral called thorite, found in a syenitic rock in Norway. It is obtained by reducing the chloride with potassium or sodi...
-Thorn
Thorn, a name used in combination for various spinescent plants, but by itself restricted to species of the genus Crataegus, of the rose family. The genus belongs to that division of the family (tribe...
-Thrace
Thrace, in ancient geography, originally that part of modern Turkey in Europe lying between the Danube, the Black sea, the sea of Marmora, the Grecian archipelago, the Struma, and a line, not well def...
-Thrasybijlijs
Thrasybijlijs, an Athenian general, attached to the democratic party, died about the close of 390 B. 0. In 411 he was in command of an Athenian galley in the fleet at Samos, and joined the opponents o...
-Three Rivers
Three Rivers (Fr. Trois Rivieres), a city and port of entry of the province of Quebec, Canada, on the N. bank of the river St. Lawrence, at the mouth of the St. Maurice, 02 m. S. W. of the city of Que...
-Threshing Machine
Threshing Machine, a machine for threshing and separating grain from the straw. The threshing floor of the ancients was a flat surface of ground covered with clay rolled smooth and hard. Sheaves of gr...
-Throckmorton
Throckmorton, a N. W. county of Texas, drained by the Brazos river and its affluents; area, 900 sq. m.; returned as having no population in 1870. The surface is mostly broken and hilly, suited to graz...
-Thrush
Thrush, the common name of a very large family of dentirostral birds, which contains some of the finest songsters in various parts of the world. The bill is of moderate length, rather stout, slightly ...
-Thucydides
Thucydides, a Greek historian, born in Athens probably about 471 B. C, died about 400. He was the son of Olorus, and was probably connected with the family of Cimon. He tells us that he owned gold min...
-Thugs
Thugs (Hindi, thugna, to deceive), a sect of assassins in India, now exterminated by the British government. They roamed about the country in bands of from 30 to 300, and strangled to death such perso...
-Thurgau
Thurgau, a N. E. canton of Switzerland, bounded N. and N. E. by the Rhine and the lake of Constance, separating it from Schaff-hausen, Baden, Wurtemberg, and Bavaria, S. E. and S. by the canton of St....
-Thuringia
Thuringia (Ger. Thuringen), a central region of Germany, between the Hartz mountains on the north and the Thuringian Forest on the south, the river Saale on the east and the Werra on the west, the pri...
-Thurlow Weed
Thurlow Weed, an American journalist, born at Cairo, Greene co., N. Y., Nov. 15, 1797. He learned printing in the office of Machy Croswell at Catskill. In the war of 1812 he served on the northern fro...
-Thylacine, Or Pouched Wolf
Thylacine, Or Pouched Wolf, a marsupial animal of the dasyurine family, and genus thy-lacinus (Temminck) or peracyon (Gray), peculiar to Tasmania; both of the generic names indicate the possession of ...
-Thyme
Thyme, low undershrubs or perennial herbs, of the genus thymus (Gr. , from to burn perfume, it having been used as incense), of the labiate...
-Thymus Gland
Thymus Gland (Gr. ), a double vascular or ductless gland, situated, in the human subject, in the upper part of the anterior mediastinum, extending in childhood from the ...
-Thyroid Gland
Thyroid Gland (Gr. , a shield, and , form), one of the vascular or ductless glands, situated on the anterior and lower part of the lar...
-Tiara
Tiara (Gr.), a species of high hat anciently worn by many eastern nations. Those of kings and priests were encircled by a sort of crown, whence the term tiara has been applied to the triple crown worn...
-Tiber
Tiber (It. Tevere; anc. Tiberis), a river of Italy, rising in the Tuscan Apennines, 5 m. N. of Pieve San Stefano, and thence flowing generally S. S. E. and S. S. W., through the provinces of Arezzo an...
-Tiberius Claudius Nero
Tiberius Claudius Nero, father of the emperor Tiberius, a descendant of the preceding. He served under Julius Caesar, and commanded the fleet which defeated that of Egypt at the Canopic mouth of the N...
-Tiberius, An Emperor Of Rome (Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar)
An Emperor Of Rome Tiberius, born Nov. 16, 42 B. C, died March 16, A. D. 37. His full name was Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar. He was the eldest son of Claudius Tiberius Nero and Livia Drusilla. His fa...
-Tichborne Trial
Tichborne Trial, the most celebrated conspiracy case, and the first in which the impostor assumed identity with a known person, in English legal records. Roger Charles Tich-borne, born Jan. 5, 1829, w...
-Ticonderoga
Ticonderoga, a town of Essex co., New-York, enclosing the outlet of Lake George, 88 m. N. by E. of Albany; pop. in 1870, 2,590; in 1875, 3,401. It is at the junction of the Addison railroad, a branch ...
-Tides
Tides, the alternate rising and falling of the waters of the ocean, which is to be observed on all its coasts and estuaries. The rising is designated as the flood, and the highest elevation as high wa...
-Tide Table For Some Of The Principal Ports And Headlands Of The World
Giving the vulgar establishment or time of high water at full and change, and the rise and fall or whole range at spring and neap tides, except for the United States. PLACES. Time of H. W....
-Tieck
I. Ludwig, A German Author A German Author Ludwig, born in Berlin, May 31, 1773, died there, April 28, 1853. He completed his studies at Halle, and became known in 1795 as a writer of fantastic novel...
-Tiedemann
I. Dietrich Dietrich, a German philosopher, born at Bremervorde, Hanover, April 3, 1748, died in Marburg, Sept. 24, 1803. He studied at Gottingen, and taught ancient languages at Cassel from 1776 to ...
-Tierra Del Fuego
Tierra Del Fuego (Sp., Land of Fire), a group of islands off the S. extremity of South America, between lat. 52 40' and 56 S., and lon. 63 40' and 75 W. It is separated from the ...
-Tiffin
Tiffin, a city and the county seat of Seneca co., Ohio, on the Sandusky river, 77 m. N. by W. of Columbus; pop. in 1870, 5,648. It is an important railroad centre, four lines intersecting here, viz.: ...
-Tiflis
I. A Government Of Asiatic Russia A Government Of Asiatic Russia, in Transcaucasia, comprising the central part of the former kingdom of Georgia; area, 15,614 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 606,584. (See Geoe...
-Tiger
Tiger (fells tlgrls, Linn.), one of the largest, strongest, and most active of the cat family, peculiar to Asia. It is usually about 8 ft. long and between 3 and 4 ft. high, but occasionally is consid...
-Tiger Cat
Tiger Cat, a name commonly applied to several small species of felinoe, in America, Asia, and Africa, especially to those ornamented by bands and bars. Among the American species, the ocelot has been ...
-Tiger Flower
Tiger Flower, a species of tigridia, both names referring (from Lat. tigris, a tiger) to the spotted flowers. It is a Mexican genus of bulb-bearing plants, belonging to the iris family; the long sword...
-Tigranes The Great
Tigranes The Great, a king of Armenia, ascended the throne about 96 B. C, died about 55. He was a descendant of Artaces, the reputed founder of the Armenian monarchy, and by wars during the early part...
-Tigris
Tigris, the second river of western Asia, rises in N. W. Kurdistan, S. of Goljik lake, flows S. S. E. to Diarbekir, thence S. E. to Mosul, and thence S. by E. to its junction with the Euphrates at Kor...
-Tiiessaly
Tiiessaly (Gr. or ), the largest political division of ancient Greece, comprising in its fullest exten...
-Tile
Tile, a plate of baked clay, flat, curved, or hollow, used for covering the floors, roofs, or walls of buildings, and for drains and other purposes. The Assyrians employed them as tablets, writing upo...
-Tillandsia
Tillandsia, a genus of endogenous plants of the Bromeliaceoe or pineapple family, the characters of which are given under Pineapple. It was named in honor of Prof. Tillands, a Swedish botanist. The sp...
-Timbictoo
Timbictoo, a town of central Africa, on the borders of the Sahara, about 9 m. from the river Niger, about lat. 17 40' N., Ion. 3 W.; pop. about 13,000, greatly increased during the season of...
-Timor
Timor, an island of the Indian archipelago, between Flores and Timor-Laut, extending N. E. and S. W. nearly 300 m., with a general breadth of about 50 m.; area, about 11,500 sq. m.; pop. about 200,000...
-Timotheus
Timotheus, an Athenian general, died in Chalcis in 354 B. C. He was the son of the general Conon and a pupil of Isocrates. He was made a general in 378, and in 375 defeated a Spartan fleet near Alyzia...
-Timothy Grass
Timothy Grass, an agricultural grass (phleum pratense), which takes this name from Timothy Hansen, who cultivated it extensively in Maryland, and brought it into notice. In some parts of the country i...
-Timour, Or Taimerlane
Timour, Or Taimerlane (a corruption of Ti-mour Lenk, i. e., Timour the Lame), an Asiatic conqueror, born at Sebz, a suburb of Kesh, about 40 m. S. E. of Samarcand, April 9,1336, died at Otrar on the J...
-Tin
Tin (Ger. Zinn; Fr. etain), an almost silvery white, highly lustrous, non-elastic metal; chemical symbol, Sn (Lat. stannum, tin); equivalent, 116; sp. gr. 7.29. It is softer than gold and harder than ...
-Tinamou
Tinamou, a name applied to the tinamidoe, a family of gallinaceous birds peculiar to South America. The bill is moderate, rather straight, flattened, the base covered by a membrane, and the tip sudden...
-Tinctire
Tinctire, a solution of a vegetable, animal, or in some cases mineral substance in alcohol, dilute alcohol, or ether. As tinctures present the active principles of many drugs in a small bulk, and are ...
-Tinne
Tinne, the northern branch of the great Athabascan family of American Indians, being the most northerly of all except the Esquimaux. They live north of lat. 55, and extend from central Alaska to ...
-Tintoretto, II
Tintoretto, II, an Italian painter, whose real name was Giacomo Robusti, born in Venice in 1512, died there in 1594. He was the son of a dyer, whence he received his popular name. He studied for a sho...
-Tioga
I. A S. County Of New York A S. County Of New York, bordering on Pennsylvania, and intersected by the North branch of the Susquehanna river and by several railroads; area, 480 sq. m.; pop. in 1875, 3...
-Tippecanoe
Tippecanoe, a river of Indiana, which rises in a lake of the same name in Kosciusko co., and flows generally S. W. into the Wabash river 9 m. above Lafayette, Tippecanoe co. Its length is about 200 m....
-Tipperary
Tipperary, a S. county of Ireland, in the province of Munster, bordering on the counties of Galway, King's, Queen's, Kilkenny, Waterford, Cork, Limerick, and Clare; area, 1,639 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 2...
-Tippoo Sultan, Or Tippoo Sahib
Tippoo Sultan, Or Tippoo Sahib, the last independent sovereign of Mysore, born in 1749, killed at Seringapatam, May 4, 1799. He was the son of Hyder Ali, and was first known by the appellation of Feth...
-Tipton
I. A W. County Of Tennessee A W. County Of Tennessee, bordering on the Mississippi river, and bounded N. by the Hatchie; area, 370 sq. m.; pop. in 1870,14,884, of whom 6,891 were colored. It has a le...
-Tir&Istax
Tir&Istax, a region of central Asia, extending from the Caspian sea eastward half way across the desert of Gobi, mainly between the 36th and 46th parallels of N. latitude, bounded N. by the Russian do...
-Tissaphernes
Tissaphernes, a Persian general, assassinated in Colossae, Phrygia, in 395 B. C. In 414 Darius Nothus appointed him satrap of Lower Asia, S. of the Adramyttian bay, in place of Pissuthnes, then in rev...
-Titans
Titans, in Greek mythology, the sons and daughters of Uranus (Coelus) and Gsea (Terra). They were Oceanus, Cceus, Crius, Hyperion, Japetus, Cronus, Theia, Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne, Phoebe, and Tethys. ...
-Titanium
Titanium, a metal first detected in 1789 by Gregor in titanic iron, and found by Klap-roth in 1794 in rutile, and named by him from the Titans. Dr. Wollaston in 1822 recognized it in the form of minut...
-Tithes
Tithes (Ang. Sax. teotha, a tenth), a tax of one tenth of the increase of crops, stock, and avails of personal industry, formerly and still in some countries levied for the support of the officers of ...
-Titian
Titian (Tatianus), an ecclesiastical writer of the 2d century, the time and place of whoso birth and death are uncertain, though he calls himself an Assyrian. He had received the education of a Greek,...
-Titian (2)
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio), an Italian painter, born near Pieve di Cadore, Friuli, in 1477, died in Venice, Aug. 27, 1576. He is said to have made his first attempts at coloring in his early childhood ...
-Titicaca
Titicaca, a lake of South America, partly in Bolivia and partly in Peru, in the valley of the Desaguadero, more than 12,000 ft. above the seq. From recent but incomplete surveys it is estimated to be ...
-Titlark
Titlark, the popular name of the small dentirostral birds of the family motacillidce, subfamily anthinoe, and genus anthus (Bechst.). They resemble the larks in their markings and in the long hind cla...
-Titmouse
Titmouse, the popular name of the parinoa, a subfamily of the warblers, found in all parts of the world except South America. The bill is short, strong, rather conical and straight, with the tip entir...
-Titos Maceins Plautus
Titos Maceins Plautus, a Roman dramatist, born at Sarsina in Umbria about 254 B. C, died in 184. The little we know of his life is derived from a passage in Aulus Gellius, quoted from Varro. He went t...
-Titus
Titus (Titus Flavies Sabinus Vespasla-xus), a Roman emperor, born Dec. 30, A. D. 40, died near Reate in the Sabine country, Sept. 13, 81. He was the son of Vespasian, and was educated in the imperial ...
-Titus Annius Papinianns Milo
Titus Annius Papinianns Milo, a Roman tribune and demagogue, born at Lanuvium in the early part of the 1st century B. C. In 57 he rilled the office of plebeian tribune. At that period Clodius, at the ...
-Titus Labienus
Titus Labienus, a Roman general, died in 45 B. C. He was tribune in 63, the year of Cicero's consulship, and carried some measures in the interest of Caesar, who in 58 took him as his lieutenant into ...
-Titus Manlius Imperiosns Torquatus
Titus Manlius Imperiosns Torquatus, a hero of Roman story, of the 4th century B. C. He was brought up in privacy in the country, on which account in 362 the tribune M. Pompo-nius charged his father, w...
-Titus Oates
Titus Oates, the contriver of the popish plot, born in England about 1G20, died in London, July 23, 1705. He was the son of a clergyman, was educated at Cambridge, took orders, and held several cura...
-Titusville
Titusville, a city of Crawford co., Pennsylvania, on Oil creek, 85 m. N. by E. of Pittsburgh, and 40 m. S. S. E. of Erie; pop. in 1S70, 8,639; in 1875, about 10,000. It is in the midst of a fine dairy...
-Tivoli
Tivoli (anc. Tibur), a town of Italy, in the province and 16 m. E. N. E. of the city of Rome, on the Teverone (anc. Anlo) and on the slope of Mt. Ripoli; pop. about 6,000. It is remarkable for magnifi...
-Tlaxcala, Or Tiascala
Tlaxcala, Or Tiascala (Aztec, land of bread), a state and city of the republic of Mexico. The state is bounded W. by the state of Mexico, and on all other sides by that of Puebla; area, 1,498 sq. m...
-Tlemcen
Tlemcen, a town of Algeria, in the province and 68 m. S. TV. of the city of Oran; pop. in 1872, 18,722, including 3,000 French. It is the strongest Algerian fortress on the Moroccan border, and one of...
-To Poison), Or Samiel Simoom (Arabic From Samma
To Poison), Or Samiel Simoom (Arabic From Samma (Turkish, sam, poison, and yel, wind), a hot, dry wind common in Syria, Arabia, and India. It comes from the deserts, and is characterized by its excess...
-Toad
Toad, the common name of a well known family of anourous or tailless batrachians, the general character and anatomy of which have been described under Amphibia and Frog. The bufonidoe, which comprise ...
-Toad Fish
Toad Fish, a spiny-rayed fish of the lophius family, and genus batrachus (Bloch), so named from its large head, wide gape, usually naked skin, and disgusting appearance; it is also called frog fish an...
-Tobacco
Tobacco, the plant and the dried and prepared leaves of Nicotiana tabacwn and other species of Nicotiana, a genus of the Solanaceae or nightshade family. (See Solanum.) The ( name of the genus commemo...
-Tobacco Pipe
Tobacco Pipe, a bowl and connecting tube made of baked clay, stone, wood, or other material, and used in smoking tobacco. Clay pipes, with slender stems of six inches to a foot or more in length, have...
-Tobias George Smollett
Tobias George Smollett, a British author, born in Dalquhurn house, parish of Cardross, Dumbartonshire, in 1721, died at Monte Nero, near Leghorn, Oct. 21, 1771. He was educated at the grammar school o...
-Tobias Lear
Tobias Lear, an American diplomatist, born in Portsmouth, N. II., Sept. 19, 1762, died in Washington, D. C, Oct. 11, 1816. He graduated at Harvard college in 1783, and in 1785 became private secretary...
-Tobit
Tobit, a book of the Old Testament in the Roman Catholic canon, but regarded as apocryphal by Jews and Protestants. It contains the history of Tobit or Tobias, a pious Jew of the tribe of Naphtali, li...
-Tobolsk
I. A Government Of Russia A Government Of Russia, in western Siberia, extending from the Arctic ocean to the Central Asian provinces of Akmo-linsk and Semipolatinsk, separated on the west by the Ural...
-Todd
I. A S. W. County Of Kentucky A S. W. County Of Kentucky, bordering on Tennessee, arid drained by Pond river and several large creeks; area, 350 sq, m.: pop. in 1870, 12,612, of whom 4,860 were color...
-Tokio
Tokio (formerly Yedo), a city and the capital of Japan, in the E. part of the main island, at the head of the bay of Yedo, on the Sumidagawa, in lat. 35 40' N., Ion. 139 40' E.; pop. in 1872...
-Toledo
I. A Central Province Of Spain A Central Province Of Spain, in New Castile, bordering on Avila, Madrid, Cu-enca, Ciudad Real, and Caceres; area, 5,586 sq. m.; pop. in .1870, 342;-272. The surface is ...
-Tolland
Tolland, a N. E. county of Connecticut, bordering on Massachusetts, drained by the Willimantic and Hop rivers; area, 440 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 22,000. In the W. part the surface is nearly level and th...
-Toltecs, Or Tnlhuatecas
Toltecs, Or Tnlhuatecas, a nation of Mexico, who according to Mexican annals appeared in Anahuac in the beginning of the 7th century, led in their wanderings from another continent or country by Tanub...
-Toluca
Toluca, a city of the republic, capital of the state, and 30 m. TV. S. W. of the city of Mexico; pop. about 12,000. It is in a valley about 8,800 ft. above the sea, and has spacious, well paved street...
-Tom Taylor
Tom Taylor, an English author, born in Sunderland in 1817. He graduated at Trinity college, Cambridge, and became a fellow. He ' was for two years professor of English literature in University college...
-Tome
Tome, a N. E. department of France, formed from parts of Burgundy, Champagne, and Orléanais, bordering on the departments of Seineet-Marne, Aube, Côte-d'Or, Niévre, and Loiret; area, 2,868 sq. m.; pop...
-Tommaso Bernetti
Tommaso Bernetti, an Italian cardinal and statesman, born in Fermo, Dec. 29, 1779, died there, March 21, 1852. In 1808 he followed Cardinal Brancadoro to France, and in 1810 to his exile at Rheims, wh...
-Tommaso Campanella
Tommaso Campanella, an Italian philosopher, born at Stilo in Calabria, Sept. 5, 1568, died in Paris, March 21, 1639. When very young he displayed unusual aptitude for learning, especially languages. H...
-Tommaso Salvim
Tommaso Salvim, an Italian actor, born in Milan, Jan. 1, 1833. At the age of 14 he became a pupil of the actor Gustavo Modena, made his first appearance a year later at the royal theatre in Naples, an...
-Tomomi Iwakura
Tomomi Iwakura, a Japanese statesman, born in Kioto about 1825. He is a Kuge or court noble of the Murakami branch of the Minamoto family, and was a leader as well as the instrument of the conspiracy ...
-Tompkins
Tompkins, a central county of New York, drained by several tributaries of Cayuga lake, the head of which lies in the N. part, and traversed by several railroads; area, 506 sq. m.; pop. in 1875, 32,915...
-Tomsk
I. A Government Of Western Siberia A Government Of Western Siberia, bordering on Tobolsk, Yeniseisk, China, and the Central Asian provinces of Semipolatinsk and Akmolinsk, from which it is partly sep...
-Tongue
Tongue, in the animal system, the organ, situated on the median line, at the commencement of the alimentary canal, ministering to the senses of touch and taste. Taking the tongue of man as an example,...
-Tonqua Bean
Tonqua Bean (also written Tonquin, Tonga, and Tonka), an Asiatic name applied to a South American product, the seeds of dipterix odorata, a tree belonging to the leguminosm or pulse family. The genus ...
-Tonsils, Or Amygdalae
Tonsils, Or Amygdalae, two glandular organs, of an almond shape, with the larger end upward, situated on each side of the fauces, between the anterior and posterior pillars of the soft palate, and eas...
-Tontine
Tontine, a kind of life annuity originated by Loronzo Tonti, a Neapolitan, who published his scheme and introduced it into France about the middle of the 17th century. The subscribers or their represe...
-Tonus Mejia
Tonus Mejia, a Mexican soldier, born about 1812, executed in Queretaro, June 19, 1867. lb; was of pure Indian blood and of humble origin; but he acquired such influence among the natives of the Sierra...
-Tooke
I. William William, an English clergyman, born Jan. 18, 1744, died in London, Nov. 17, 1820. In 1771 he became minister of the English church at Cronstadt, and in 1774 chaplain to the factory of the ...
-Topaz
Topaz, a precious stone, a silico-fluoride of alumina, consisting, in 100 parts, of alumina 48 to 58, silica 34 to 39, and fluorine 15 to 18'5. Its specific gravity is 3.4 to 3.65; its hardness is 8, ...
-Topeka
Topeka, a city and the capital of Kansas, county seat of Shawnee co., situated on both banks of the Kansas river, here spanned by a fine iron bridge, 45 m. S. W. of Leavenworth and' 300 m. W. of St. L...
-Torbcrn Olof Bergman
Torbcrn Olof Bergman, a Swedish chemist and naturalist, born at Katarinaberg, in West Gothland, in March, 1735, died at Medevi, July 8, 1784. Intended by his father for the law or the church, he was s...
-Torgau
Torgau, a town of Prussia, in the province of Saxony, on the left bank of the Elbe, 26 m. S. E. of Wittenberg; pop. in 1871, 10,807. The principal public building is the Hartenfels palace, containing ...
-Toronto
Toronto, a city, port of entry, and the capital of Ontario, Canada, county seat of York co., on the N. shore of Lake Ontario, 310 m. S. W. of Montreal and 36 m. N. E. of Hamilton; lat. 43 39' N.,...
-Torpedo
Torpedo, the generic and popular name of the electric rays or skates of the family torpe-dinidoe. They were called by the Greeks and torpedo by the Latins; the Germans c...
-Torpedo (2)
Torpedo, a machine for destroying hostile shipping, ponton bridges, etc, through the agency of subaqueous explosions; that is, a military mine used under water. The germ of the device is to be found i...
-Torquato Tasso
Torquato Tasso, an Italian poet, son of the preceding, born in Sorrento, March 11, 1544, died in Rome, April 25, 1595. He received his first education at Naples, and studied in Rome, Urbino, Venice, P...
-Torquemada
Torquemada (Lat. Turrecremata), Juan de, a Spanish theologian, born at Valladolid in 1388, died in Rome, Sept. 26, 1468. He became a Dominican friar in 1403, accompanied his superior to the council of...
-Torreya
Torreya, a genus of evergreen coniferous trees, named by Arnott in honor of Dr. John Torrey, from specimens collected in Florida by the late Mr. Croom. It belongs to the yew tribe of conifers, in whic...
-Tort
Tort (Lat. tortus, from torquere, to twist), in law, a private or civil wrong or injury, in contradistinction from a crime against the public or the state, but not technically including breaches of co...
-Tortoise
Tortoise, the popular name of the chelo-nian reptiles whose habits are wholly or' in part terrestrial and fluviatile, including all the testudinata except the marine species or turtles - that is, the ...
-Tortoise Plant
Tortoise Plant, a plant of the yam family, from the Cape of Good Hope, also called elephant's foot, these two common names being equivalent to its systematic name, testudinaria elephantipes. While its...
-Tortosa
Tortosa (anc. Dertosa), a walled city of Catalonia, Spain, in the province and 41 m. S. W. of the city of Tarragona, on the left bank of the Ebro; pop. about 25,000. It is on the slope of a hill, and ...
-Torture
Torture, properly, an infliction of severe pain upon an accused person to induce a confession of guilt, or upon a criminal to extort a revelation of his accomplices. The term is frequently used carele...
-Total Abstinence
As early as 1639 a law was made in Massachusetts to restrain intemperate drinking, and similar laws were passed about the same time in Connecticut. In 1760 the religious societies began to protest aga...
-Toucan
Toucan, a name given to the scansorial birds of the family ramphastidoe, derived from the Brazilian imitation of their note. The family is remarkable for the disproportionate size of the bill, which i...
-Touch
Touch, the modification of the common sensibility of the body, especially seated in the skin, by which through physical contact we obtain an idea of resistance or weight, temperature, size, shape, smo...
-Toulon
Toulon, a seaport city of France, in the department of Var, Provence, at the head of a double bay of the Mediterranean, in lat. 43 7' N., Ion. 5 56' E., 30 m. S. E. of Marseilles; pop. in 18...
-Toulouse
Toulouse (anc. Tolosa), a city of France, in Languedoc, capital of the department of Haute-Garonne, on the Garonne, 130 m. S. E. of Bordeaux; pop. in 1872, 124,852. It includes an island in the river,...
-Tours
Tours (anc. Civitas Tyronum and Coesaro-dunum), a city of France, capital of the department of Indre-et-Loire, chiefly on a tongue of land between the Loire and the Cher, 120 m. S. W. of Paris; pop. i...
-Tourmaline
Tourmaline, a name applied to a group of rhombohedral double silicates, composed of silica, fluorine, boric acid, alumina, manganic, ferric, and ferrous oxides, magnesia, lime, soda, potash, lithia, a...
-Tournament
Tournament (It. torniamento; Fr. tovrner, to turn), a military sport of the middle ages. It took its rise after the establishment of the feudal system, and appears to have been introduced into norther...
-Tournay, Or Tonrnai
Tournay, Or Tonrnai (Flem. DoornicTc), a town of Belgium, in the province of Hainault, on both banks of the Scheldt, 45 m. S. W. of Brussels; pop. in 1870, 31,003. It has seven suburbs, fine streets a...
-Town
Town (Ang. Sax. tun, from tynan, to enclose), originally an enclosure of the farm and farm house by a hedge, and finally of a collection of houses. Towns began to exist as municipalities in Germany in...
-Townshend
I. Charles, Second Viscount Second Viscount Charles, an English statesman, born in 1676, died at Rain-ham, Norfolk, June 21, 1738. He succeeded to his title at ten years of age, and soon after taking...
-Toxodon
Toxodon (Gr. , a bow, and ,, a tooth), a name applied by Owen to a genus of extinct mammals of the order of ungulates, with affinities to ed...
-Tracheotomy
Tracheotomy (Gr. , the windpipe, and , to cut), a surgical operation by which the trachea or windpipe is opened. Tra...
-Tract And Publication Societies
The printing of short religious treatises and narratives for cheap or gratuitous distribution was very early practised. Indeed, prior to the introduction of printing, Wycliffe circulated his views by ...
-Tractarianism
Tractarianism, a movement within the church of England, so called from a series of papers entitled Tracts for the Times, published at Oxford from 1833 to 1841. It may bo traced to the agitation of R...
-Trade Mark
Trade Mark, the name, symbol, form, or device used by a manufacturer or merchant to distinguish the merchandise which he produces or sells from that of others, in order that such merchandise may bo kn...
-Trade Winds
Trade Winds, the prevailing N. E. and S. E. winds, in the northern and southern hemispheres respectively, that blow from the parallels 30 N. and S. toward the equator. They are atmospheric curren...
-Trades Union
Trades Union, an association of workmen for concerted action upon questions of wages, hours of labor, and other conditions of employment, and for mutual relief. Apart from the mediaeval craft guilds, ...
-Tragopan
Tragopan, a name given by Cuvier to the birds of the pheasant family comprised in the genus cerlornis (Swains.). The bill resembles that of the common fowl; the wings are ample and very concave, with ...
-Trajan
Trajan (Marcus Ulpius Trajanus), a Roman emperor, born in Italica, near Seville, Spain, Sept. 18, A. D. 52, died in Selinus (afterward called Trajanopolis), Cilicia, in August, 117. He was the son of ...
-Transcendental
Transcendental (Latin transcendere, to go beyond), in metaphysics, a term applied in general to ideas and doctrines that are not suggested or limited by experience. In the scholastic philosophy, trans...
-Transfusion Of Blood
Transfusion Of Blood, the operation of introducing into the vascular system of one animal blood taken from the vessels of another. This operation was suggested and described by Libavius early in the 1...
-Transit
Transit, in astronomy, the passage of a planet across the disk of .the sun, or of a satellite across the disk of its primary; also, the passage of a heavenly body across the meridian of the place of o...
-Transit Circle
Transit Circle, an astronomical instrument for determining the absolute positions of the heavenly bodies. As these positions are given by two independent elements, the right ascension and declination,...
-Transylvania
Transylvania (Hun. Erdely; Ger. Sieben-bilrgen), a grand duchy of the Austro-IIungarian monarchy, now forming part of the lands of the Hungarian crown, bounded W. and N. by Hungary proper, N. E. and E...
-Trapani
I. A Province Of Sicily A Province Of Sicily, comprising the W. extremity of the island, bounded E. by Palermo and Girgenti, and on the other sides by the Mediterranean; area, 1,214 sq. m.; pop. in 1...
-Trappists
Trappists, a branch of the Cistercian order famed for the austere reform inaugurated by De Rance, abbot of La Trappe. (See Range.) This monastery is near Mortagne, in the French department of Orne. It...
-Travancore
Travancore, a subsidiary native state of British India, occupying the S. W. extremity of the great Indian peninsula, terminating on the south in Cape Comorin, and bounded N. by the native state of Coc...
-Treason
Treason, in general terms, any act of hostility against a state, committed by one who owes allegiance to it. There is one important difference in what may be called the form or manifestation of this c...
-Trebizond
I. A Vilayet Of Asiatic Turkey A Vilayet Of Asiatic Turkey, extending, in a generally narrow strip from 20 to 80 m. wide, about 360 m. along the S. coast of the Black sea, between Ion. 35 40' an...
-Tree Frog
Tree Frog, the name of the batrachian reptiles of the family hyladoe, distinguished from common frogs (ranidoe) by having the ends of the fingers and toes dilated into flattened disks or suckers, whic...
-Tree Sorrel, Or Properly Sorrel Tree
Tree Sorrel, Or Properly Sorrel Tree, a North American tree of the heath family (ericaceoe), formerly known as Andromeda arborea; when later botanists subdivided Linnseus's genus Andromeda, this was p...
-Trenck
I. Franz Von Der, Baron Baron Franz Von Der, an Austrian soldier, born in Reggio, Calabria, Jan. 1, 1711, died in prison at Brunn, Oct. 14, 1749. In his 17th year he entered the Austrian service, but...
-Trent
Trent, a river of England, which rises in Staffordshire, 4 m. N. of Burslem, flows through the central part of the country, and near Burton-on-Strather, Lincolnshire, joins the Ouse to form the estuar...
-Trenton
Trenton, a city and the capital of New Jersey and of Mercer co., on the left bank of the Delaware river at the confluence of Assunpink creek, and at the head of steamboat navigation, 28 m. N. E. of Ph...
-Trepan
Trepan, and Trephine (Gr. to perforate), two surgical instruments used for removing portions of bone from the skull or other parts of the bony structure. The first...
-Trespass
Trespass (Norman Fr. trespasser, from tres, beyond, and passer, to go), in law, as usually defined, a wrongful act, committed with some kind of violence, and injurious to the person, property, or righ...
-Treves
Treves (Ger. Trier), a town of Rhenish Prussia, on the right bank of the Moselle, 57 m. S. W. of Coblentz; pop. in 1871, 21,442. It is a decayed place, noted for its ultramon-tanism and for a'cathedra...
-Trevirams
I. Gottfried Reinhold Gottfried Reinhold, a German naturalist, born in Bremen, Feb. 4, 1776, died there, Feb. 16, 1837. He studied medicine at Gottingen, and after practising at Bremen became in 1797...
-Treviso
I. A N. E. Province Of Italy A N. E. Province Of Italy, in Venetia, bordering on the gulf of Venice; area, 941 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 352,538. It is level, excepting in the north, and is one of the mo...
-Tribune
Tribune (Lat. tribunus), originally, a Roman officer who presided over one of the three tribes, Ramnenses, Titienses, and Luceres. In the long course of Roman history the name came to be applied to va...
-Trichinopoly, Or Trichinapalli
Trichinopoly, Or Trichinapalli, a town of British India, capital of a district of the same name in Madras, on the right bank of the river Cavery, in lat. 10 47' K, Ion. 78 43' E., 190 m. S. ...
-Trieste (Ger. Triest)
I. A District Of Cis-Leithan Austria A District Of Cis-Leithan Austria, forming a part of the Litto-rale, and bordering on the Adriatic, Gorz, and Istria; area, 36 sq. m.; pop. about 132,000, of whom...
-Trigonometry
Trigonometry (Gr. -, a triangle, and , to measure), the branch of mathematics which treats of the measurement ...
-Trillium
Trillium (Lat. trilix, triple, the parts being in threes), a genus of North American plants, now placed in a suborder of the lily family. They are perennial herbs with a short tuberlike rootstock, fro...
-Trilobite
Trilobite (Gr., three, and , lobe), the name of a group of fossil crustaceans, so called from the three lobes into which the body is divided...
-Trim And Thummim (Heb. Urim Light; Tummim Truth Or Perfection)
Trim And Thummim (Heb. Urim Light; Tummim Truth Or Perfection) a part of the breast apparel of the high priest among the ancient Hebrews. According to one opinion, they denote the four rows of brillia...
-Trincomalee
Trincomalee, a town of Ceylon, in the N E. part of the island, in lat. 8 34' N, Ion. 81 12' E.; pop. about 20,000. It stands on the N. side of the entrance to a capacious and secure harbor a...
-Trinidad
Trinidad, one of the British West India islands, at the mouth of the gulf of Paria, off the N. E. coast of Venezuela, opposite the N. mouth of the Orinoco, between lat. 10 and 11 N. and Ion....
-Trinity
Trinity (Gr. , Lat. trinitas), a term of Christian theology denoting the coexistence in the Godhead of three persons, distinguished from each other as the Father, the Son...
-Trinity (2)
I. An E. County Of Texas An E. County Of Texas, bounded N. E. by the Neches and S. W. by the Trinity river, and drained by several creeks; area, 945 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 4,141, of whom 1,084 were co...
-Trinity College
Trinity College, an institution of learning in Hartford, Conn., under the control of the Protestant Episcopal church, chartered in 1823 and opened in 1824. Until 1845 its name was Washington college. ...
-Tripoli (Called By The Natives Tardbul)
I. A Country Of N. Africa A Country Of N. Africa, forming one of the Barbary states, and a dependency of the Turkish empire, bounded N. by the Mediterranean, E. by Barca, S. by Fezzan and the desert ...
-Tristam Surges
Tristam Surges, an American statesman, born in Rochester, Mass., Feb. 26, 1770, died in Providence, R. I., Oct. 13, 1853. He graduated at Rhode Island college (now Brown university), Providence, in 17...
-Tristan Da Cunha
Tristan Da Cunha, a cluster of three volcanic islands in the S. Atlantic. Tristan, the largest island, lies in lat. 37 3' S., lon. 12 19' W., about 1,500 m. S. by W. of St. Helena; area, abo...
-Triton
Triton, in Greek and Roman mythology, a marine deity, the son of Poseidon or Neptune and Amphitrite or Celaeno. He had the form of a man above and that of a fish below, and bore a conch-shell trumpet....
-Triumph
Triumph (Lat. triumphus, related to Gr. , a hymn sung in a procession in honor of Bacchus), generally, a solemn procession to celebrate a victory. The a...
-Triumvirate
Triumvirate, an office filled coordinately by three persons. Several magistracies of this description were recognized in the Roman government, of which the most important was that for the regulation o...
-Troezen, Or Troezene
Troezen, Or Troezene, one of the oldest cities of ancient Greece, in the Peloponnesus, in a territory named from it Trcezenia, forming the S. E. corner of Argolis. It was founded probably by the Ionia...
-Troglodytes
Troglodytes (Gr., from --, a cave, and , to ...
-Trogon
Trogon, and Conroncon, names given to the scansorial birds of the family trogonidoe, the second name being derived from their peculiar melancholy cry. The bill is short, strong, curved, broader than h...
-Trollope
I. Frances (Milton) Frances (Milton), an English novelist, born at Heckfield, Hampshire, about 1780, died in Florence, Italy, Oct, 6, 1863. She was the daughter of the Rev. William Milton, and in 180...
-Tromp
I. Maarten Harpertzoon Van Maarten Harpertzoon Van, a Dutch admiral, born in Briel in 1597, killed in battle, July 31 (N S., Aug. 10), 1653. In his boyhood he was captured by the English in a battle ...
-Tromso
I. The Northernmost Stift Or Diocese Of Norway The Northernmost Stift Or Diocese Of Norway, bordering on the Arctic and Atlantic oceans; area, 42,687 sq. m.; pop. in 1865, 155,335. It is divided into...
-Troopial (Fr. Troupiale)
Troopial (Fr. Troupiale), a name given to several species of the icterinOe and agelainOe, subfamilies of American conirostral birds, in some respects resembling the starlings of the old world, and in ...
-Trophime Gerard Lally-Tollendal
Trophime Gerard Lally-Tollendal, marquis de, a French politician, son of the preceding, born in Paris, March 5, 1751, died March 11, 1830. Although of legitimate birth, he was brought up, under the na...
-Tropic Bird (Phaeton Linn)
Tropic Bird (Phaeton Linn) a genus of web-footed oceanic birds, constituting the family pfiaëtonidm. They have a long, strong, pointed bill, broad at the base, slightly curved, without nail and the ed...
-Trout
Trout, a name popularly restricted to the species of the salmon family inhabiting exclusively or principally fresh water, and embracing members of the three subgenera of the old genus salmo made by Va...
-Trover (Fr. Trouver To Find)
Trover (Fr. Trouver To Find), the name of an action at law in common use in England and in the United States, to determine the ownership of property. The plaintiff declares, in substance, that he was ...
-Troy
Troy, a city of New York, capital of Rens-selaer co., on the E. bank of the Hudson river, at the head of steamboat navigation, and also at the head of tide water, 151 m. by the course of the river N. ...
-Troy (Troja)
Troy (Troja), the name of an ancient city in the N. W. part of Asia Minor, applied also to its territory. The latter, generally known as the Troad (Troas), comprised for a time the coast lands on the ...
-Troy Weight
Troy Weight, a scale of weights used in England and the United States for weighing gold, silver, and jewels, and in trying the strength of spirituous liquors, and legally established in both countries...
-Troyes
Troyes, a city of France, capital of the department of Aube, and formerly of Champagne, on the left bank of the Seine, 90 m. E. S. E. of Paris; pop. in 1872, 38,113. It has a cathedral with a celebrat...
-Truce Of God
Truce Of God(Lat. treuga Dei or trewa Dei, from Ger. Treue, faith), an institution of the middle ages, designed to mitigate the violence of private war by prohibiting hostilities from Thursday evening...
-Truffles
Truffles, underground fungi, used as food; those of commerce belonging to the genus tuber, while others which bear the name are of related but different genera. The early English writers called them ...
-Truman Henry Safford
Truman Henry Safford, an American mathematician, born in Royalton, Vt., Jan. 6, 1836. While a child he attracted public attention by his remarkable powers of calculation. He could mentally extract the...
-Trumbull
Trumbull, a N. E. county of Ohio, bordering on Pennsylvania, watered by Grand and Mahoning rivers; area, 625 sq.m.; pop. in 1870, 38,659. The surface is undulating and well timbered, and the soil fert...
-Trumpet Flower
Trumpet Flower, a popular name especially for tecoma radicans, used with a prefix for other related plants. The genus tecoma (from the Mexican name), separated from Big-nonia on account of a structura...
-Trunk Fish
Trunk Fish, the name of the plectognathous fishes of the genus ostracion (Linn.), derived from the bony case in which their soft parts are enclosed; they are also called coffer fishes. The head is pro...
-Truss
Truss, a contrivance for preventing the reappearance of a hernial tumor after its reduction. The general form of the truss is a flat steel spring covered with soft leather or oiled silk, and having it...
-Trusts
It is quite certain that trusts, which have now such immense importance in the law and the disposition of property in England and in the United States, originated in fraud. The feudal law of tenures e...
-Tryon Edwards
Tryon Edwards, an American clergyman and author, grandson of the younger Jonathan Edwards, born in Hartford, Conn., Aug. 7, 1809. He graduated at Yale college in 1828, studied law in New York and theo...
-Tschud
I. Aegldins (Gilles) Aegldins (Gilles), a Swiss historian, born in Glarus in 1505, died there, Feb. 28, 1572. He served in the French army from 1536 to 1544, held several important offices in his can...
-Tsetse
Tsetse, the native name of a proboscidian dipterous insect of the genus glossina (Wiedemann), peculiar to Africa, and especially to the tropical portions. This genus comes near stomoxys (Fabr.), and r...
-Tuberose
Tuberose, a plant of the amaryllis family, polianthes tuberosa, cultivated for its fragrant flowers. The generic name, from the supposition that it refers to many flowers, is frequently written poly-a...
-Tuckahoe
Tuckahoe, the aboriginal name of a curious subterraneous vegetable production, also called Indian bread and Indian loaf, found from New Jersey southward to the gulf and westward to Arkansas. It is in ...
-Tucker
Tucker, a N. E. county of West Virginia, touching Maryland on the northeast; area, about 400 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 1,907, of whom 27 were colored. It is drained by Cheat river, a tributary of the Mono...
-Tucson
Tucson, a city and the capital of the territory of Arizona, county seat of Pima co., in lat. 32 12' N., Ion. 110 52' W., 370 m. S. W. of Santa Fé, N. M., and the same distance E. by S. of Sa...
-Tucuman
I. A N. Province Of The Argentine Republic A N. Province Of The Argentine Republic, bordering on Salta, the Gran Chaco, Santiago, and Catamarca; area, about 28,000 sq. m.; pop. in 1869, 108,602. In t...
-Tudor
Tudor, the surname of a line of English sovereigns, consisting of Henry VII., 1485-1509; Henry VIII., 1509-'47; Edward VI., 1547-'53; Mary L, 1553-'8; and Elizabeth, 1558-1603. The family descended fr...
-Tufts College
Tufts College, an institution of learning in Medford, Mass., founded by Universalists. The corner stone of the original edifice was laid July 19, 1853, and the building finished in the spring of 1854....
-Tuileries
Tuileries, a royal palace in Paris, between the Seine and the rue de Rivoli, and E. of the Place de la Concorde, so named because it stood on the site of a former manufactory of tiles (Fr. tuilerie). ...
-Tulip (Thulyban, Tulipan, Tulipa)
Tulip (Pers. Thulyban; Written Tulipan By The Old Authors And Latinized As Tulipa), a 'genus of plants of the lily family, of which numerous cultivated forms are derived from several distinct species,...
-Tulip Tree
Tulip Tree, the popular name for lirioden-dron tulipifera, a large tree of the magnolia family; one of its distinctive characters, its large and showy flowers, being recognized in its botanical and co...
-Tullus Hostilius
Tullus Hostilius, the third king of Rome, said to have reigned from about 673 to about 641 B. C. The most memorable event of his reign, according to the legend, is the war with Alba, celebrated by the...
-Tulpin, Or Tilpin Turpin
Tulpin, Or Tilpin Turpin, archbishop of Rheims, a friend and companion of Charlemagne, died Sept. 2, 800. He was originally a Benedictine monk of the convent of St. Denis, and was made archbishop abou...
-Tumor (Lat. Tumere To Swell)
Tumor (Lat. Tumere To Swell), an excessive growth of tissue confined to a limited region, not inflammatory. Tumors are described as benign or malignant, as homologous or heterologous. A benign...
-Tungsten (Swed. Tung Heavy And Sten, Stone)
Tungsten (Swed. Tung Heavy And Sten, Stone), a metal existing in the form of an acid combined with lime in the mineral scheelite or tungstate of lime, and also combined with iron and manganese in the ...
-Tunguses
Tunguses, a tribe of N. E. Siberia, of Mongolian origin, extending as far W. as the Yenisei and as far E. as Anadyrsk, in Ion. 171. They number about 70,000. Among their allied tribes are the Mon...
-Tunis
I. One Of The Barbary States Of N. Africa One Of The Barbary States Of N. Africa, bounded N. and E. by the Mediterranean, S. E. by Tripoli, S. by the desert of Sahara, and W. by Algeria, between lat....
-Tunnel
Tunnel, a subterranean or subaqueous way, constructed for purposes of passage. In mining, the term is often applied to horizontal excavations, especially to such as are known by the designations gangw...
-Tunny
Tunny, a marine fish of the mackerel family, and genus thynnus (Cuv.). The body is elongated and compressed, with a slender tail keeled in the middle, and with two oblique cutaneous folds at the base ...
-Tunstall, Or Tonstall, Cuthbert
Tunstall, Or Tonstall, Cuthbert, an English prelate, born at Hatchford, Yorkshire, in 1474 or 1475, died at Lambeth palace, Nov. 18, 1559. He was educated at Oxford and Cambridge, became a fellow of t...
-Tupelo
Tupelo, a name given by some tribes of Indians to species of nyssa, especially N. multiflora; this is also called sour gum and black gum, and is described, together with the characters of the genus, u...
-Tupi-Gcaranis
Tupi-Gcaranis, a widely extended family of Indians in South America, embracing the Guaranis proper in Paraguay, among whom the Jesuits established their famous missions described by Muratori and Charl...
-Turanian Race And Languages
The constituent members of this race (whose ethnological appellation has been chosen in reference to the Turan of the Persians, the land of the northern nomads, in contradistinction to Iran) are as fo...
-Turbine (Lat. Turdo A Whirling, Or That Which Whirls)
Turbine (Lat. Turdo A Whirling, Or That Which Whirls), a water wheel through which the water passes, guided by channels in the wheel itself, and usually by other passages exterior to the wheel which c...
-Turbot
Turbot, a marine, soft-rayed fish of the flatfish family, and genus rhombus (Cuv.), characterized by minute sharp teeth on the jaws and pharynx, the dorsal fin commencing on the head in front of the e...
-The Turf
The Turf, a term signifying horse racing in all its forms, except the few trotting matches which are decided on turnpike roads in England. It was no doubt derived from the level ground and short close...
-Turgeneff
I. Alexei Alexei, a Russian historian, born in 1785, died in Moscow in December, 1845. He was early engaged in collecting materials in foreign countries relating to the ancient history of Russia, and...
-Turin (It. Torino)
I. A N W. Province Of Italy A N W. Province Of Italy, in Piedmont, bounded W. by France; area, 4,068 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 972,986. It is watered by the Po and its numerous affluents. The eastern and...
-Turks
Turks, one of the most important branches of the Turanian family. (See Turanian Race and Languages, and Turkish Language and Literature.) In former ethnological classifications they were sometimes set...
-Turkey (Meleagris Linn)
Turkey (Meleagris Linn), a well known gallinaceous bird, the type of the family meleagridce, of the group alecteromorpTim of Huxley. The bill is moderate and strong, shorter than the head, compressed ...
-Turkey Buzzard
Turkey Buzzard, the popular name of one of the common American vultures, cathartes (rhinogryphus) aura (Illig.). It is about 2½ ft. long and 6 ft. in extent of wings; the bill is long and comparativel...
-Turkey, Or, The Ottoman Empire (Turk. Osmanli Vilayeti)
Turkey, Or, The Ottoman Empire (Turk. Osmanli Vilayeti), a country extending over parts of southeastern Europe, western Asia, and northern Africa. It consists of the absolute possessions of the sultan...
-Turkish Language And Literature
The languages spoken by the different tribes of Turkish or Tartar origin form a principal division of the great Uralo-Altaic or Turanian family, of which the chief common characteristics have been poi...
-Turmeric
Turmeric, a name of unknown origin, given to the rootstocks of several species of curcuma (Pers. IcurJcum, the name also for saffron, and applied to this because of its similarly yellow color), especi...
-Turner
Turner, a S. E. county of Dakota, recently formed, and not included in the census of 1870; area, 648 sq. m. It is intersected by Vermilion river, and consists of fertile prairies and bottom lands. Cap...
-Turning
Turning, the art of shaping wood, metal, or other hard substances into forms having usually curved, and most commonly circular outlines, and also of executing figures composed of curved lines upon pla...
-Turnip
Turnip, a variety of trassica campestris, having two very marked forms: one with small root, but abundant stems and leaves, cultivated for its foliage and its oleiferous seeds, as rape; the other with...
-Turnip Fly
Turnip Fly, a name given to several insects of different orders, but especially to the small chrysomelian beetles of the genus haltica (Illig.), which attack the turnip in its various parts and stages...
-Turnstone
Turnstone, a wading bird of the oystercatcher family Qiazmatopodidoe) and genus strepsilas (Illig.), so named from its turning over by its strong bill the stones and weeds along the margins of the sea...
-Turpentine
Turpentine, a term applied to several oleoresins which exude from coniferous trees, and also from the pistacia terebinthus, the tree called by the Greeks Tepe(3ivdoc, which furnished the principal var...
-Turtle
Turtle, the name popularly applied to the marine chelonian reptiles, equivalent to the suborder chelonii (Oppel), including the families sphargididoe and chelonioidoe; in these the dermal ossification...
-Turtle Dove
Turtle Dove, the common name of several small pigeons, especially of the genera turtvr and ana, characterized by a smaller size than the domestic pigeon, weaker bill, longer toes (the inner exceeding ...
-Tuscaloosa
Tuscaloosa, a W. county of Alabama, intersected by the Black Warrior and Sipsey rivers; area, 1,450 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 20,081, of whom 8,294 were colored. The surface is hilly and the soil highly f...
-Tuscany (It. Toscatia)
Tuscany (It. Toscatia), a division of central Italy, bordering on the Mediterranean, and including the provinces of Arezzo, Florence, Grosseto, Leghorn with the island of Elba, Lucca, Massa e Carrara,...
-Tuscarawas
Tuscarawas, an E. county of Ohio, intersected by the Tuscarawas river, one of the head streams of the Muskingum; area, 520 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 33,840. The surface is undulating and the soil fertile....
-Tuscaroras
Tuscaroras, one of the Six Nations of Iroquois, which separated from the others at an early period, and according to tradition went southwest and then southeast to North Carolina. They were divided in...
-Tver
I. A Central Government Of Russia A Central Government Of Russia, bordering on Novgorod, Yaroslav, Vladimir, Moscow, Smolensk, and Pskov; area, 25,223 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 1,528,881. The surface is ...
-Twesten
I. August Detlev Christian August Detlev Christian, a German theologian, born in Gluckstadt, April 11, 1789, died in Berlin, Jan. 8, 1876. He studied at Kiel, and taught at Berlin, where he adopted t...
-Twilight
Twilight, the faint light which appears in the sky a little before sunrise, and again for some time after sunset, the amount and duration of the light varying materially in different latitudes and at ...
-The Two Sicilies
The Two Sicilies (It., Regno delle Due Si-cilie), formerly a kingdom of southern Italy, including the island of Sicily, with various smaller islands, and the kingdom of Naples. At the time of its inco...
-Tyeho Or Tyge De Brahe
Tyeho Or Tyge De Brahe, a Danish astronomer, of Swedish origin, born at Knudstorp, in Scania, which then belonged to Denmark, Dec. 4, 1546, died in Prague, Oct. 13, 1601. He came of an ancient princel...
-Tyler
I. A N. Tv. County Of Tvest Virginia A N. Tv. County Of Tvest Virginia, bordering on the Ohio river, and intersected by Middle Island creek; area, 390 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 7,832, of whom 10 were col...
-Tyng
I. Stephen Higginson Stephen Higginson, an American clergyman, born in Newburyport,'Mass., March 1, 1800. He graduated at Harvard college in 1817, for two years was engaged in mercantile pursuits, th...
-Type (Gr. Tvttteiv To Stamp)
Type (Gr. Tvttteiv To Stamp), a piece of metal or wood having the form of a letter or other character in relief upon one end, used in printing. The various forms of type have been described in the art...
-Type Writers
Type Writers, mechanical contrivances for writing or printing with a system of movable types instead of a pen. They involve: 1, a position movement, for bringing type to a printing point; 2, an inking...
-Typhi (Gr. A Fen)
Typhi (Gr. A Fen), a genus of monocotyledonous plants, growing in fenny or marshy places, in this country popularly called cat-tail, and in England bulrush (a name here given exclusively to scirpus) a...
-Tyre (In Classical Writers Tyrus; In The Hebrew Scriptures Tzor, Rock)
Tyre (In Classical Writers Tyrus; In The Hebrew Scriptures Tzor, Rock), the wealthiest and most powerful city of Phoenicia, founded by the Sidonians, in a naturally strong position on the coast of the...
-Tyrol (Ger. Also Tirol)
Tyrol (Ger. Also Tirol), a crownland or province of Cisleithan Austria, bounded N. by Bavaria, E. by Salzburg and Carinthia, S. by Italy, and W. by Switzerland; area, including Vorarlberg, 11,325 sq. ...
-Tyrone Power
Tyrone Power, an Irish actor, born in county Waterford in 1795, perished at sea in 1841. His mother, left a widow during his infancy, removed to Glamorganshire, South Wales, and in the theatre of the ...
-Tytler
I. William, A Scottish Author A Scottish Author William, born in Edinburgh, Oct. 12, 1711, died Sept. 12, 1792. He was a writer to the signet, but his reputation rests chiefly upon his Historical a...
-Tzarsroie Selo (Rus. "The Czar's Village")
Tzarsroie Selo (Rus. The Czar's Village) or Sofia, a town of Russia and the imperial summer residence, in the government and 15 m. S. of the city of St. Petersburg; pop. about 12,000. It grew out of...
-Udine
I. A N. E. Province Of Italy A N. E. Province Of Italy, in Yenetia, embracing the larger portion of the former duchy of Friuli, and bordering on Austria and the Adriatic; area, 2,515 sq. m.; pop. i...
-Ufa
I. An E. Government Of European Russia An E. Government Of European Russia, bordering on Perm, Orenburg (of which till 1865 it formed the N. W. part), Samara, Kazan, and Viatka; area, 47,031 sq. m.; ...
-Ujiji
Ujiji, a district of central Africa, on the E. shore of Lake Tanganyika, about half way between its centre and N. extremity, bounded N. by the district of Urundi, E. by Ubuha, S. by Ukaranga, and W. b...
-Ujvcas
Ujvcas, a North American Indian, sachem of the Mohegan tribe in Connecticut, died about 1682, at a great age. He was originally a war chief of the Pequot nation, but about 1635 revolted from the Pequo...
-Ulex
Ulex, a genus of much branched, very thorny shrubs of the leguminosce, popularly called furze and gorse, and sometimes whin. The simple leaves are mostly reduced to mere prickles, and the numerous sho...
-Ulfila, Or Wulfila Ulfilas Ulphilas
Ulfila, Or Wulfila Ulfilas Ulphilas, a Gothic bishop, born among the Goths in 310 or 311, died in Constantinople about 381. He is believed to have belonged to a family of Cappadocian Christians, whom ...
-Ulm
Ulm, a city of Würtemberg, capital of the circle of the Danube, situated in a fertile valley on the left bank of the Danube at its junction with the Iller and Blau, and at the foot of the E. spurs of ...
-Ulrich Von Hutten
Ulrich Von Hutten, a German scholar and reformer, born in the castle of Steckelberg, near Fulda, April 20 or 22, 1488, died in Switzerland, Aug. 29, 1523. When 11 years old he was placed in the monast...
-Ulster
Ulster, a S. E. county of New York, bounded E. by the Hudson river, and drained by the Esopus, Rondout, and Wallkill creeks; area, 1,204 sq. m.; pop. in 1875, 88,271. The surface is broken by the Cats...
-Ultramarine
Ultramarine, a beautiful blue pigment originally made from lapis lazuli (see Lapis Lazuli), but now prepared in large quantities artificially. Its fabrication was suggested by the discovery of blue ma...
-Ultramarine Lazulite Lapis Lazuli
Ultramarine Lazulite Lapis Lazuli, or Blue Spar, a mineral distinguished for its beautiful azure-blue color, highly esteemed as an ornamental stone. It is commonly obtained of massive form, and of com...
-Ultramontanists (Lat. Ultra Montes Beyond The Mountains)
Ultramontanists (Lat. Ultra Montes Beyond The Mountains), the name formerly applied to all theologians in the Roman Catholic church who advocated the highest spiritual and temporal power of the papacy...
-Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant, eighteenth president of the United States, born at Point Pleasant, O., April 27, 1822. His ancestors were Scotch. In 1823 his parents removed to the village of Georgetown, ()., where...
-Umbrella (Diminutive Of Lat. Umbra A Shade)
Umbrella (Diminutive Of Lat. Umbra A Shade), a folding shade or screen, carried over the head as a protection from rain or sun. When small and used by ladies only as a sunshade, it is called a parasol...
-Umbrella Bird
Umbrella Bird, the popular name of a singular South American bird, placed by the latest authors among the chatterers (ampelidoe), subfamily gymnoderince or fruit birds, and genus cephalopterus (Geoffr...
-Umbria
Umbria, a country of ancient Italy, bounded N. by Cisalpine Gaul, E. and S. by the Adriatic, Picenum, and the territory of the Sabines, and W. by the Tiber, separating it from Etruria. Its principal c...
-Ungues Bernard Maret Bassano
Ungues Bernard Maret Bassano, duke of, a French statesman, born in Dijon, March 1, 1763, died in- Paris, May 13, 1839. He was the son of a physician, received an excellent education, and went to Paris...









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