The orders of Greece were introduced into Rome in all their perfection. But the luxurious Romans, not satisfied with the simple elegance of their refined proportions, sought to improve upon them by lavish displays of ornament. They transformed in many instances the true elegance of the Grecian art into a gaudy splendor, better suited to their less refined taste. The Romans remodelled each of the orders: the Doric (Fig. 8) was modified by increasing the height of the column to 8 diameters; by changing the echinus of the capital for an ovolo, or quarter-round, and adding an astragal and neck below it; by placing the centre, instead of one edge, of the first triglyph over the centre of the column; and introducing horizontal instead of inclined mutules in the cornice, and in some instances dispensing with them altogether. The Ionic was modified by diminishing the size of the volutes, and, in some specimens, introducing a new capital in which the volutes were diagonally arranged (Fig. 9). This new capital has been termed modern Ionic. The favorite order at Rome and her colonies was the Corinthian (Fig. 10). But this order the Roman artists, in their search for novelty, subjected to many alterations - especially in the foliage of its capital. Into the upper part of this they introduced the modified Ionic capital; thus combining the two in one. This change was dignified with the importance of an order, and received the appellation of Composite, or Roman: the best specimen of which is found in the Arch of Titus (Fig. 11). This style was not much used among the Romans themselves, and is but slightly appreciated now.

Fig. 8.   Roman Doric.

Fig. 8. - Roman Doric.

Fig. 9.   Roman Tonic.

Fig. 9. - Roman Tonic.

44. - The Tuscan Order: is said to have been introduced to the Romans by the Etruscan architects, and to have been the only style used in Italy before the introduction of the Grecian orders. However this may be, its similarity to the Doric order gives strong indications of its having been a rude imitation of that style: this is very probable, since history informs us that the Etruscans held intercourse with the Greeks at a remote period. The rudeness of this order prevented its extensive use in Italy. All that is known concerning it is from Vitruvius, no remains of buildings in this style being found among ancient ruins.

For mills, factories, markets, barns, stables, etc., where utility and strength are of more importance than beauty, the improved modification of this order, called the modern Tuscan (Fig. 12), will be useful; and its simplicity recommends it where economy is desirable.

45 - Egyptian Style. - The architecture of the ancient Egyptians - to which that of the ancient Hindoos bears some resemblance - is characterized by boldness of outline, solidity, and grandeur. The amazing labyrinths and extensive artificial lakes, the splendid palaces and gloomy cemeteries, the gigantic pyramids and towering obelisks, of the Egyptians were works of immensity and durability; and their extensive remains are enduring proofs of the enlightened skill of this once-powerful but long since extinct nation. The principal features of the Egyptian style of architecture are - uniformity of plan, never deviating from right lines and angles; thick walls, having the outer surface slightly deviating inwardly from the perpendicular; the whole building low; roof flat, composed of stones reaching in one piece from pier to pier, these being supported by enormous columns, very stout in proportion to their height; the shaft sometimes polygonal, having no base but with a great variety of handsome capitals, the foliage of these being of the palm, lotus, and other leaves; entablatures having simply an architrave, crowned with a huge cavetto orna-

Proportions Of The Roman Corinthian

Fig. 10.   Roman Corinthian.

Fig. 10. - Roman Corinthian.

Fig. 11.   Composite Order   Arch of Titus.

Fig. 11. - Composite Order - Arch of Titus.

merited with sculpture; and the intercolumniation very narrow, usually 1 1/2 diameters and seldom exceeding 2 1/2. In the remains of a temple the walls were found to be 24 feet thick; and at the gates of Thebes, the walls at the foundation were 50 feet thick and perfectly solid. The immense stones of which these, as well as Egyptian walls generally, were built, had both their inside and outside surfaces faced, and the oints throughout the body of the wall as perfectly close as upon the outer surface. For this reason, as well as that the buildings generally partake of the pyramidal form, arise their great solidity and durability. The dimensions and extent of the buildings may be judged from the temple of Jupiter at Thebes, which was 1400 feet long and 300 feet wide - exclusive of the porticos, of which there was a great number.

It is estimated by Mr. Gliddon, U. S. Consul in Egypt, that not less than 25,000,000 tons of hewn stone were employed in the erection of the Pyramids of Memphis alone - or enough to construct 3000 Bunker Hill monuments. Some of the blocks are 40 feet long, and polished with emery to a surprising degree. It is conjectured that the stone for these pyramids was brought, by rafts and canals, from a distance of six or seven hundred miles.

The general appearance of the Egyptian style of architecture is that of solemn grandeur - amounting sometimes to sepulchral gloom. For this reason it is appropriate for cemeteries, prisons, etc.; and being adopted for these purposes, it is gradually gaining favor.

A great dissimilarity exists in the proportion, form, and general features of Egyptian columns. In some instances, there is no uniformity even in those of the same building, each differing from the others either in its shaft or capital. For practical use in this country, Fig. 13 may be taken as a standard of this style. The Halls of Justice in Centre Street, New York City, is a building in general accordance with the principles of Egyptian architecture.