This section is from the book "A Practical Treatise On The Joints Made And Used By Builders", by Wyvill J. Christy. Also available from Amazon: Practical treatise on the joints made and used by builders.
This is described in Section II.
Sunk Joint is of constant occurrence between rebated jambs and frames, rebated holes and plates or traps, and wherever the surface of a stone is in part lowered to form a junction with another.
Tabled Joint consists in cutting a broad and more or less shallow projection termed a table in one stone to interlock in a corresponding recess called an indent in the other. It is a species of joggle joint, a joggle being formed whenever one piece is notched to receive part of another, although it is only in certain instances that the term "joggle" is used to specify the joint.
This is described under its alternative title of Close Joint. It requires mortar made with fine sand.
Tie Joint is so denominated from its containing some part of an iron tie which usually takes in masonry the form of chain bond, as noticed under Bond, or else of chain bar, which will be found described under Collar Joint in Section VII. Very frequently long wrought iron bars, about 3 ft. x ½ in., with corkings, are built in at the summit of rubble walls to support the quoins, or to prevent the abutments of an arch from spreading. New masonry is likewise tied to old by building in iron straps along with the new work and attaching them to the old in due course after settlement.
This is formed between surfaces that have been smoothed with the tool or chisel sometimes called the broad axe. After the surface has been boasted or partially or roughly dressed with a chisel called a boaster, about 2 in. wide, which leaves a succession of close parallel marks at one regular acute angle with the edge, it is tooled with another chisel having a cutting edge averaging 4 in. in width, which is passed over the stone at right angles to the edge with slow careful strokes, removing all the marks of the boaster, and leaving instead numerous little ridges and furrows close together and parallel. Joints cannot be too well or too accurately tooled, with this exception that they must not be deprived of that degree of roughness which is necessary to afford a key for the mortar. It is not enough to dress the margin drafts, but where it is considered extravagant to tool the whole surface between them, the dressing should at all events be continued 6 in. or 7 in. back from the face. It is scarcely to be expected that workmen, without close watching, will go on giving the same degree of labour to the surfaces of the block which they know will be lost to sight, as they willingly do to the single and visible one constituting the face ; and, as a rule, in ashlar the latter is dressed with a higher finish than the former, though, as has been already insinuated, both proceed as it were pari passu, one being often if not always a stage or two behind the other in quality of workmanship.