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The Fundamentals of Photography | by C. E. K. Mees



While a knowledge of the theory of photography is by no means essential for success in the making of pictures, most photographers must have felt a curiosity as to the scientific foundations of the art and have wished to know more of the materials which they use, and of the reactions which those materials undergo when exposed to light and when treated with the chemical baths by which the finished result is obtained. This book has been written with the object of providing an elementary account of the theoretical foundations of photography, in language which can be followed by readers without any specialized scientific training.

TitleThe Fundamentals of Photography
AuthorC. E. K. Mees,
PublisherEastman Kodak Company
Year1921
Copyright1921, Eastman Kodak Company
AmazonThe Fundamentals Of Photography
-Preface
While a knowledge of the theory of photography is by no means essential for success in the making of pictures, most photographers must have felt a curiosity as to the scientific foundations of the art...
-Chapter I. The Beginnings Of Photography
The first person to notice that chloride of silver was darkened by light may have been J. H. Schulze, who made the discovery in 1732. It is probable, however, that this had been observed by others. In...
-The Beginnings Of Photography. Continued
Fox Talbot was not only the first to develop a faint or invisible image; he was also the first man to make a negative and use it for printing. What is meant by a negative is this: If we look at our fi...
-Chapter II. Light And Vision
Light is the name which we give to the external agency which enables us to see. In order to see things we must have something which enters the eye and a brain to explain it to us. That which enters th...
-Chapter III. About Lenses
IN order to take a photograph we use a lens which forms an image of the object we want to photograph upon the film. The simplest lens which we could use would be a small hole. Suppose that we take a s...
-About Lenses. Part 2
The longer the focal length of a lens the larger the image, and the snorter the focal length the smaller the image. Suppose we photograph a tree and place the camera at such a distance from the tree t...
-About Lenses. Part 3
But while large lens apertures have the advantage of permitting shorter exposures, they have some disadvantages. In the first place, to get a large aperture we must have a large lens, and this means a...
-About Lenses. Part 4
This is because a non-achromatic lens bends the rays of light of different colors to different extents, so that the yellow rays which we use for focusing do not come to a focus in the same place as th...
-Chapter IV. The Light Sensitive Materials Used In Photography
AS was explained in Chapter I (The Beginnings Of Photography), the sensitive coating on films and papers consists of bromide or chloride of silver held in a thin layer of gelatine, and thus, photograp...
-Chapter V. The Structure Of The Developed Image
The silver grains which form the developed image are held in a layer of gelatine. This gelatine is used in making the emulsion which is coated on the support to make the sensitive film. Gelatine is a...
-The Structure Of The Developed Image. Continued
The swelling of a gelatine film is influenced by the temperature of the solution in which it is placed and also by the presence of other substances in the solution. A small amount of either acid or al...
-Chapter VI. Exposure
IN order to get a satisfactory photograph of any scene it is necessary that the exposure should be correct. The time of exposure required will, of course, depend upon the brightness of the image forme...
-Exposure. Continued
The relation between the density and the exposure of the plate can easily be represented as a curve, and for most of this curve the density is increased proportionally as the exposure is doubled (See ...
-Positive Printing
When printing positives either on paper or on plates for lantern slides, working conditions are somewhat different, no camera being used and the object reproduced being a negative instead of the origi...
-Chapter VII. Development
IN chapter IV (The Light Sensitive Materials Used In Photography) we saw that the chemical process of development consists of the removal of the bromine from the silver bromide in the emulsion so as t...
-Development. Continued
The analogy between the horse power of the automobile and the power of the developer is really very close. The high horse power automobile will start from rest very much more quickly than the machine ...
-Time Of Development
Fig. 58. Growth of Image During Development (to be desired) Fig. 59. Growth of Image During Development (actual) Old-time photographers used to take pride in the accuracy with which they could...
-Chapter VIII. The Reproduction Of Light And Shade In Photography
Photography is the art of making representations of natural objects by mechanical and chemical processes. These representations deal with differences of brightness, color being ignored, except in colo...
-The Reproduction Of Light And Shade In Photography. Part 2
In order to find out how closely the tones of the print follow those of the original subject we must follow the changes of these tones through both steps: we must study first how far the negative repr...
-The Reproduction Of Light And Shade In Photography. Part 3
If we join all these points together instead of representing them as a staircase effect, as is shown by dotted line in Fig. 72, we get a smooth curve, Fig 73, of which the straight line portion (B to ...
-Chapter IX. Printing
A Great number of different processes have been used at one time or another for printing negatives. The earliest printing processes depended upon the fact that silver compounds darken in light, and th...
-Printing. Part 2
The oldest of these development papers is bromide paper. This paper is coated with an emulsion very similar to the ordinary negative emulsions but of somewhat less sensitiveness. The paper is very sen...
-Printing. Part 3
In Fig. 78 is shown a range of tones made up, not as a continuous wedge, but of forty-four distinct tones. The number which can be seen in the illustration is less than the number which the eye can di...
-Enlarging
While contact prints are satisfactory to show one's friends, a time comes when we want to attempt something more ambitious and to make photographs which we can hang on our walls or submit for exhibiti...
-Toning
In the earlier printing processes used by photographers - those in which the image was obtained by the continued action of light and which were toned by the deposition of gold from a toning bath - the...
-Chapter X. The Finishing Of The Negative
After development, the undeveloped silver bromide is removed by immersion of the negative or print in what is called the fixing bath. There are only a few substances which will dissolve silver bromi...
-Reduction
Sometimes negatives are obtained which are so dense that they are difficult to print. Other negatives are so contrasty that they give harsh prints. In order to improve these negatives recourse may be ...
-Intensification
Sometimes we get negatives which are too thin and weak to print even on Contrast Velox; if we developed them in the tray perhaps we were deceived in judging the density and we under-developed them, or...
-Chapter XI. Halation
Sometimes in a photograph there appears to be a blurring of the bright parts over the dark parts of the picture, and if lamps or other very bright lights are included they may appear in the print as b...
-Chapter XII. Orthochromatic Photography
IF we take a piece of blue cloth and put an orange on it and then photograph the combination we shall find that instead of the orange being lighter than the cloth, as it looks to the eye, the photogra...
-Orthochromatic Photography. Part 2
If we look at a spectrum we shall see that the brightest part of it is the yellow-green and yellow (the position of the yellow in the spectrum being between the yellow-green and the orange) so that th...
-Orthochromatic Photography. Part 3
Since a yellow light filter removes the ultra-violet and much of the blue-violet light, it necessarily increases the exposure, because if we remove those rays to which the film is most sensitive, we m...









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previous page: Modern Photography In Theory And Practice. Hand Book For The Amateur | by Henry G. Abbott
  
page up: Art and Photography Books
  
next page: Photographics: A Series Of Lessons | by Edward L. Wilson