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The Mechanician, A Treatise On The Construction And Manipulation Of Tools | by Cameron Knight



For the use and instruction of young engineers and scientific amateurs; comprising the arts of blacksmithing and forging; the construction and manufacture of hand tools, and the various methods of using and grinding them; the construction of machine tools and how to work them; machine fitting and erection; description of hand and machine processes: turning and screw cutting ; principles of constructing and details of making and erecting steam engines ; and the various details of setting out work incidental to the mechanical engineer's and machinist's art.

TitleThe Mechanician, A Treatise On The Construction And Manipulation Of Tools
AuthorCameron Knight
PublisherE. & F. N. Spon
Year1879
Copyright1879, E. & F. N. Spon
AmazonThe mechanician: A treatise on the construction and manipulation of tools

By Cameron Knight, Engineer.

Second Edition.

The Mechanician A Treatise On The Construction And 1

Illustrated By 1147 Engravings.

-Preface
The Mechanician is essentially a book of processes, including all operations by which the principal portions of engines are forged, planed, lined, turned, and otherwise treated. The author endeavours ...
-Introduction
An attempt is now made to illustrate and explain the details of engine-making. The author knows by experience that there is no work in any language which enumerates a sufficient number of details conc...
-Part I. Chapter I. Forging
The importance of good forgings in engine-machinery cannot be properly estimated except by those who have been intimately connected with engine-making. All the working portions of an engine that are i...
-Significations Of Technical Phrases
To Make Up A Stock The stock is that mass of coal or coke which is situated between the fire and the cast-iron plate through the opening in which the wind or blast is forced. The size and shape of th...
-Separate Forgings
By perusing the foregoing definitions, the learner will be enabled to understand the details given concerning individual forgings. Round Keys Without Heads Fig. 1, Plate 1, represents a simple kind ...
-Round Keys With Heads
Fig. 4 represents this kind of key; the thickest part of it is termed the head, and the portion of the head at right angles to the small or thin part is named the shoulder; the thin part from the shou...
-Round Keys With Heads. Continued
7.068 : 3.141 : : 11 : 4.889 The first of these terms represents the mean sectional area, in inches, of that portion of the rod which is to be forged into a key-stem. The second term denotes the mean ...
-The Learner's Duties
To give a large number of instructions to a learner before he begins to work involves a waste of time; because he cannot appreciate or understand everything that is told him until he has performed som...
-Angular Keys
Details of forging are now resumed. Angular keys are much more valuable, and more extensively used, than round ones, because, by proper forging, they may be made to fit their respective key-beds, so t...
-Split Keys
Split keys are either flat or round, and are used to promote a feeling of confidence concerning the safety of a certain joint-pin or bolt and nut. After the split key is put into its key-way, the spli...
-Square Keys
These are very much used for engine-making, and require to be made very compact by proper steam-hammering. If the iron should be too small to admit of being welded and hammered sufficient to destroy t...
-Gibs
A gib is also a kind of angular key, because it is used to prevent the two arms of the strap (Fig. 25) from opening while in use. The simplest method of making gibs is by cutting out a piece from a b...
-Strap Keys
A key for a strap is termed a cotter ; and if the name were not used for any other kind of key, the term would be significant; but it is also used for piston-rod keys, crank-pin keys, and keys in the ...
-Screw Keys
Some kinds of taper keys have screwed ends, for the convenience of having a nut to prevent the key slipping back from its place while in use. The longitudinal axis of the portion intended for the scre...
-Bolts
Bolts are made in such immense numbers, that a variety of machinery exists for producing small bolts by compression of the iron while hot into dies. But the machinery is not yet adapted to forge good ...
-Bolts. Continued
Small bolts sometimes require square holders, by which the bolts are held while being turned in a lathe, or while being ground after being hardened. The holder is similar to that shown in Fig. 59. In ...
-Key-Head Bolts
Fig. 10 represents a key-head bolt, with a slot for a key, which is driven into the slot or key-way after the bolt is put into its place; such bolts being used in circumstances that do not allow room ...
-Flange Bolts
Fig. 11 represents a collar bolt or flange bolt. Such bolts are much used in engine-making, large and small. The quickest method of forging small bolts of this character is by drawing down or reducing...
-Nut-Head Bolts
These are indicated by Fig. 12. Small bolts of this character are termed studs, when one end of the bolt is to be permanently fixed by being screwed tight into a hole, instead of a separate nut being ...
-Nuts
The simplest method of making small nuts is by punching with a small punch that is held in the left hand; this punch is driven through a bar near one end of it, which is placed upon a bolster on the a...
-Hexagonal Nuts
The most useful kind of nut at the present time is of hexagonal form, and is indicated by Fig. 13. Such nuts, if small, are made at a quick rate by being compressed and punched in steel dies, which ar...
-Flange Nuts
Fig. 14 indicates a six-sided flange nut. These are useful to obtain a large bearing for the nut's face, without using a heavy nut. And if contact with angles or corners is to be avoided, the flange i...
-Stop-Ring Nuts
Fig. 15 points out an ordinary hexagonal nut for a stop-ring, which is indicated by Fig. 16. This kind of nut is much used by engineers, who consider it a sort of safety nut, by reason of the set-scre...
-Nut Rings
These are indicated by Fig. 16, and are forged by two methods. One mode consists in marking the lengths required for the rings along a bar of iron or steel, and piercing the bar midway between every t...
-Nut Rings. Continued
22.2 : 22.2 :: 508 : 508. In forging a ring Ave do not require to measure the two-tenths of a millimetre, and the result would meet the requirement if 22 were stated instead of 22.2. But in the case ...
-Circular Nuts
When it is necessary to insert a nut into a circular recess, and to fill, or partly fill it, a circular nut is used, having holes bored into the outside face of the nut for fixing or unfixing it. Cir...
-Steel Nuts
Several classes of nuts require to be frequently fixed and unfixed, involving much wear and tear. All such are forged, either of steel, or of iron sufficiently solid and welded to allow the nuts to be...
-Excentric-Rod Guards
When the excentric-rod is disconnected from the gap-pin, the guard, which is fixed by screws to the underside of the excentric-rod, forms a parallel path, in which is the gap-pin, instead of being in ...
-Studs
A stud is a permanently fixed bolt without a head, and is fixed either by a conical portion in the middle or at one end. Studs intended for joint-pins or pivots are screwed at one end; and screwed at ...
-Rods
When speaking of engine-making, the name rod signifies a transmitter of motion or force from an active agent to a passive object. And in all cases where practicable, the sectional area of the rod is g...
-Levers
A lever which is represented by Fig. 24, if small, is easily made by drawing down the two ends from a bar which is large enough to be formed into the fulcrum boss of the lever, which is situated near ...
-Straps
The variety of strap denoted by Fig. 25 is used for connecting crank-pins with connecting-rods; also beam gudgeons with side-rods and connecting-rods. The proper arrangement of the constituent fibres...
-Weigh-Shafts
Fig. 26 indicates a weigh-shaft with the three levers, that are usually connected, by Avhich motion is transmitted from one to the other. The levers are distinct from the shaft, and are keyed to it, s...
-Weigh-Shaft Levers
Weigh-shaft levers are usually forged of tenacious iron to facilitate the fitting of them to their shafts. In some cases the levers are tightly fixed by making them hot and shrinking them while in the...
-Slide-Valve Rods
Several varieties of slide-rods are used; a few of which are represented by the Figures in Plates 1 and 2. Steel is useful for slide-rods, because it is less liable to wear by the friction of the pack...
-Ring Slide-Rods
The class of slide-rods shown by Fig. 32 is forged of three pieces. One of the three constitutes the intermediate part of the rod, indicated in the Figure by B B ; the second piece is formed into the ...
-Connecting-Rods With Inside Screws
Fig. 31 indicates a rod having an inside screw, which is occasionally used to connect the upper end, or what is sometimes the outer end, of a slide-rod. Six or eight sides are formed upon the boss for...
-Links
Links are of two principal varieties - slotted and solid. The forging of that which is termed a solid link is about equal to the forging of a slotted one, because both are forged without the slot. Th...
-Links With Bosses
Links are also forged with bosses - either one, two, or three - as represented by Fig. 35. The slot of such a link is easily made while cold, and properly shaped by a machine for the purpose; conseque...
-Link-Slots
Cutting a link-slot while on the anvil is managed by first carefully marking the two arcs which determine the width of the slot. To mark properly, the link is laid upon a table, and a radius-rod havin...
-Excentric-Rods
In an excentric-rod, represented by Fig. 36, the mouth or orifice indicated by 0 is usually cut while cold by slotting, the rod being forged solid at both ends, although a gap is shown in the Figure, ...
-Steel Gap-Liners
These are indicated by Fig. 40, and are dovetailed in the gap of Fig. 38. After these liners are worn too thin, or the openings too wide, a new steel liner is put into the rod, without interfering wit...
-Plunger Joints
Such joints are applied to what are named hollow plungers, or trunk-plungers, and consist of two principal parts - the connecting-rod and the joint-head bolt. At the end of this bolt is a screw for a ...
-Small Crank-Shafts
While speaking of crank-shafts, the three names, shaft, spindle, and axle, are synonymous, of which three axle is correct. The arm of a crank is a lever, and if a crank has two arms, it is a two-lev...
-Small Crank-Shafts. Continued
If steel ends are needed, their attachment is effected by driving in a small punch and making a hole in line with the axis of the axle, and then welding in a piece of steel, the length of which is acc...
-Hoop Excentric-Rods
These are also named band excentric-rods, and are indicated by Figs. 45 and 115. The forked or hoop portion is of one piece with the remainder of the rod; although it is first forged distinct from the...
-Semi-Hoops
The forging of the separate semicircular bands of excentric rods consists in preparing and curving a straight bar which is of proper length, width, and thickness. (See Fig. 140.) If the bar is first w...
-Connecting-Rods With Screw-Ends
A rod of this class is shown by Fig. 40. When such rods are to be short, the forging is accomplished with two pieces, which are welded together at the conclusion of the forging, the joint being in the...
-Piston-Rods With T-Ends
The brittle character of steel generally, does not prevent piston-rods, small and large, being made of it, for several reasons; among which are their comparative lightness and favourable arrangement o...
-Crossheads For One Piston-Rod
In crossheads of this character the lengths of the constituent fibres should be at right angles to the length of the corresponding piston-rod, and therefore parallel to the length of the crosshead its...
-Side-Rods
These, like crossheads, are used of all lengths and diameters, and for engines of all classes. When used for small high-pressure land-engines, side-rods are at the same time connecting-rods, being con...
-The Learner
A learner who is commencing the business, and has attended to the foregoing instructions, may now be able to make a few more tools, and to understand a few remarks on welding. The easiest joint for a...
-Connecting-Rods With T-Ends And Fork-Ends
Connecting-rods are of three principal varieties, the simplest form of these being the rod with two T-ends; the next class having hollow or curved ends for circular brasses; and the third variety havi...
-Connecting-Rods With T-Ends And Fork-Ends. Part 2
A short piece of this character may also have a slit cut into one end, instead of a hollow made with a fuller. If a slit is made, it is necessary to drive a thick wedge into the opening to make it sev...
-Connecting-Rods With T-Ends And Fork-Ends. Part 3
To make a small rod of this class, it is not necessary to produce a solid head; the semicircular recess for the brass may be easily formed in the ends of the rod by broad fullers; and the rod-cap also...
-Thrust-Shafts
All thrust-shafts are forged without the grooves in the thrust portion, so that the smith makes it equal in diameter to the outer forged diameter of the intended thrust. A small thrust crank-shaft ma...
-Intermediate Shafts
The length of these shafts is sometimes twenty-five times the length of their diameters, so that it is convenient to make them of several pieces. Two or three pieces may constitute the intermediate, a...
-Propeller-Shafts
An ordinary sort of propeller-shaft for a small screw steamer is shown by Fig. 109. The number of pieces made use of in forging the shaft is about three ; but if the shaft is small, two are sufficient...
-Piston-Rods With Conical Ends
These are of various lengths and diameters, according to the lengths of cylinders and class of engines for which the rods are made. A few are indicated by the Figures, No. 1ll representing one for an ...
-Crank-Pins
A crank-pin, having a screw for a nut, is shown by Fig. 114, and another class of pins, for use without nuts, is indicated in Plate 4. Plate 4 The forging of a crank-pin principally consists in we...
-Crossheads For Two Piston-Rods
The forging of a two-piston-rod crosshead is performed by several methods, the plan selected depending upon the resources of the maker. A convenient mode to avoid bending consists in making it of thre...
-Link Connexions
A simple and also an old mode of connecting a link to its lifting or reversing rod consists in fastening the eye-part or boss of the rod to the link stud-plate, the stud-plate itself being bolted with...
-Sliding Sectors
These sectors for oscillating engines need not be forged in one piece, as indicated in the sketch No. 119; for the convenience of the turning and shaping processes, the guide-rod may be keyed or screw...
-Cranked Levers
Fig. 118 represents a lever for an ordinary oscillating engine having two slide-valves. The making of such a lever is conveniently managed, and good work produced, by forging it of one piece. The thi...
-Cranked Levers. Continued
When one boss is thus roughly shaped, the work is cut to a proper length, and the other boss is produced in a similar manner: the lump in the middle for the arm is then reduced to the requisite width,...
-Paddle-Axles
To produce a good paddle-axle, the smith commences by referring to the sketch by which he is to work, and discovers the places of the bearings in the shaft he is about to make. If no information is gi...
-Paddle-Axles. Continued
To avoid the upsetting that was stated to be necessary for welding tongue-joints, another kind of joint-making is adopted, by means of which welding is accomplished by ordinary drawing with a hammer. ...
-Beam Gudgeons
The shorter the projecting end or ends of any gudgeon, the greater is its capability of resisting the strains imposed during use; these are always at right angles to the length of the gudgeon; wrought...
-Beam Slabs
These slabs are rolled to any required thickness, according to the desired width across the middle of the intended beam ; the thinner the slab, the wider or higher is the beam. For small slabs, a bar...
-Columns
The simplest class of columns are made cylindrical, and of three pieces. Of these, one is the column itself, and the two other pieces are the collars or bearings. Each of these two is separately forge...
-Crank-Shafts
The bearings of axles of all classes demand much attention from the smith during forging, and the greater the dimensions of the work in progress, the greater is the responsibility of the workman who h...
-Crank-Shafts In Two Pieces
To forge one of this variety intended to have a separate crank-pin, only two components are necessary, one for the lever and the other for the axle proper. The forging of the axle-piece commences by e...
-Crank-Shafts Of Three Pieces
One-arm crank-shafts are sometimes made solid with the crank-pin ; in these cases, three principal components are required, instead of only two. To make a shaft of this sort, an opening may be made i...
-Two-Arm Cranks Of One Bar
A class of simply formed two-arm crank-axles is represented by the intermediate axle in Fig. 122. Short axles of this sort, having the bearings at a great distance from the keyed crank-levers, are bes...
-Cranking
After the work is suitably shaped, the thick part is formed into the crank, partly with bending and partly with chisels. The first heating for bending is given to the lump, and also to portions of th...
-Solid Cranks
An easy mode of making a crank consists in piling and welding a number of bars until the width and thickness of the mass is equal to or rather greater than the thickness and width of the intended cran...
-Crank-Axles With Discs
To make an axle represented in Fig. 121, having a disc at each end, it is necessary to use about three principal components, if the shaft is to be only three or four inches in diameter; but for axles ...
-Crank-Bars
An easy and common mode of crank-making is that by which the entire crank, with its two axle ends, is cut from a straight flat bar.' The length of this bar is equal to the total length of the crank-ax...
-Crank-Shafts Of Four Pieces
To place the fibres into their proper positions, a method may be adopted by which the two levers may be separately made, the axle and crank-pin also separately made, and the four pieces welded togethe...
-Cranks Of Two Bars
Cranks are made also of two bars welded together, so that the width and thickness, when welded, shall be about equal to the thickness and width of the crank required. By this mode, the primary axle-pi...
-Gap-Making
To avoid drilling and a part of the slotting, crank-gaps should be formed while on the anvil. For this purpose three lines may be marked upon the solid crank part to indicate the place of the gap when...
-Two-Crank Axles
Two-throw crank-shafts are made by first forging two separate cranks, either with gaps or without, and afterwards welding two of the axle ends together; the joint being between the two cranks. Whether...
-Two-Crank Axles Of One Bar
A two-throw crank-shaft may be made also of one flat bar. The length of this bar is equal to the total length of the axle ; the width equals the total length of one lever or arm ; and the thickness eq...
-Axle-Twisting
Twisting the axle is resorted to for placing the cranks into their proper positions. For small axles, this operation is conveniently performed at a bright yellow heat while the work is in a furnace or...
-Gap-Blocks
Two-crank-axles made of straight bars, or made by any other mode, may be twisted also by a method which obviates the use of levers and all their necessary attachments. This plan is applicable to an a...
-Crank Adjustments
The final adjustment of all sorts of crank-shafts includes straightening the axles, and placing the centres of the two crank-pins at right angles to each other. The entire adjustment can be effected w...
-Steel Cbank-Shafts
All crank-shafts are best when made of a hard metal that will admit beautifully polished surfaces for the crank-pins and axle-bearings. For this reason, a hard, highly tenacious steel, which will resi...
-Top Tools
Plate 20 contains a number of sketches of shapers for small work; in this Plate, Fig. 202 denotes a top rounding tool that may be used in the usual manner with another bottom rounding tool, for roundi...
-Fullers
Fullers are used in all cases that require recesses with curved bottoms to be made into any piece of work during its forging; and according to the width of the recess required, so is the width of the ...
-Carriers
These are of various shapes and dimensions, to suit both small work and large ; and are used to grip the various pieces of work while being carried about from a fire to a hammer or to a shaping implem...
-Angular Shapers
To shape angular extremities, it is often convenient to hammer the work while at yellow heat, or sometimes at welding heat, while the heated portion is in an angular gap. The angle of the gap-sides is...
-Collar Shapers
Several classes of small bolts and studs have collars or flanges near one end, or near the middle. For such studs, a shaping-block denoted by Fig. 209 is employed, together with another top tool havin...
-Drifts
It is often necessary to punch small keyways, or other slots of similar shape, into small pins and bolts, to avoid drilling; and, after punching, thin drifts of various lengths and thicknesses are dri...
-Slotted Bottom Tools
A slotted bottom tool having a half-round gap is very convenient for supporting a bolt or pin, or other cylindrical piece, while being punched or drifted. The tool may be of sufficient length to exten...
-Punches
The usual shapes of all punches are conical, and the angle subtended by two opposite sides should be about six or seven degrees. The outlines of the transverse sections of punches do not differ so muc...
-Key-Shapers
To facilitate the forging of keys of various shapes and dimensions, a number of blocks are cast having recesses and grooves of different shapes corresponding to the shapes of the keys required. For ro...
-Rounding Blocks
Instead of a separate bottom rounding tool being used for each different diameter of bolts or pins, a block having three or four gaps is often used, all the gaps being of different sizes, to suit vari...
-Bolt-Head Shapers
When great packing numbers of bolts having cylindrical heads are wanted, it is advisable to use an implement which will reduce the bolt-head to its proper diameter, also reduce the bolt-stem to its di...
-Tongs Shapers
The principal parts of a pair of tongs are the joint portions; and all the joints of tongs for small work are made about the same shape, consequently it is convenient to make recesses for forming such...
-Tables
A great number of small tools and shaping implements are used on some sort of block or surface-table. Every smithy should contain one or more of these tables; and the greater the dimensions of the usu...
-Angling Blocks
The slots and square holes in a portable table may often be conveniently used for holding the square stems of rounding tools, bending tools, and other shaping implements represented in Plates 20 and 2...
-Cup Tools
A cup tool consists of a top tool which is held on the work by means of a handle in a hole punched into the tool for the purpose, or held by an iron wire or wood handle twisted around the outside. The...
-Tube-Measures
Such measures are made of pieces of plate iron that are bent to a tubular form, to fit loosely on the bolt, pin, or rod to be measured. They are made also of thin iron pipe which is sawn into pieces o...
-Arched Fullers
Fullers whose shaping parts are arched or concave, resembling Fig. 224, may be used in pairs or singly ; when used in pairs, they become both fullers and gauges, because the work which is being reduce...
-Handle Shapers
Simpers for machine handles are in pairs when intended for handles of circular transverse section, so that when both top and bottom shapers are put together in their proper positions, a hole is formed...
-Bossing Tools
Bossing tools are adapted to shape bosses of levers or rods that are either round or flat. A bottom bossing tool for round rods is shown by Fig. 228 ; a tool of this class is useful for shaping severa...
-Cranking Tools
Gap-liners of steel or iron, or any other forgings of similar shape, are easily cranked by means of a couple of appropriate tools. Both the shaping tools may be used together as top and bottom tools, ...
-T-Head Shapers
After a short slit is cut at one end of a small bar or rod, for the purpose of forming a T-piece, the workman puts one of the two branches thus produced into a hole in a block, or into some convenient...
-Joint Welders
The scarf joints of bolts, rods, and bars of two or three inches thickness can be easily welded together with steam-hammering; the only manual labour involved in the process being that of placing the ...
-Springy Shapers
Fig. 234 indicates a couple of tools in their relative positions during use, having guide studs with springs around and between the two faces of the tools. The recesses or gaps in such shapers may be,...
-Fork-End Shapers
Solid fork-ends, small and large, are easily shaped by means of a mould, like Fig. 236. An implement of this shape may be used as a bottom tool without a corresponding top tool; or a pair of tools may...
-Strikers
Striker is a name given to a hammerman ; also to substitutes and superseders of hammermen, such as air-hammers and steam-hammers, whether Vertical or horizontal. A class of patent strikers invented by...
-Bar Gauges
Bar gauges are used while adjusting several classes of smiths' work to a stated length or width; for this purpose, two dots are put into two places of a rod or bar, and the work is afterwards lengthen...
-Gap Gauges
Gap gauges are used for measuring diameters or thicknesses; and are made of thin plate iron or steel. One gauge may contain several gaps, if all the gaps are to greatly differ from each other in width...
-Radius Gauges
A light radius gauge, denoted by Fig. 242, is used for measuring distances between any two places on a measure, and also for adjusting a forging to the desired length or width ; a radius gauge is ther...
-Callipers
Callipers for large forgings possess handles, and are denoted by Figs. 243, 244, and 245. The tool shown by Fig. 243 has a hole at one end to allow the tool to be hung in a safe place, after being adj...
-Chisels
In a rod chisel for cutting hot metal, the angle of the long taper portion should be ten or twelve degrees, and the angle of the short bevelled part for cutting about forty or fifty degrees. Chisels f...
-Shaper-Fastenings
In many cases, the shaping blocks and other bottom tools for large work are kept in their places by the square stems of the blocks being in a square hole in the anvil; so that one shaper may be taken ...
-Hexagon Shapers
The top and bottom shapers, indicated in Fig. 250, are in their positions during use, which is that of shaping hexagonal nuts and bolt-heads. The gaps in such implements are of various sizes to produc...
-Crank Moulds
Crank moulds are used principally for what are termed solid cranks, which are forged without, gaps. If necessary, crank moulds may be made to shape the largest cranks that are made, and are useful to ...
-Lever Moulds
The simplest sort of lever mould is that which will form only one of the lever's bosses, so that two moulds are required to shape one lever, each mould having a recess of proper size to form the parti...
-Branchers
Branchers consist of moulds having recesses that resemble the branches to be produced. By means of a brancher, the curves that may be required in the junctions of the branches are easily formed withou...
-Porter-Tongs
Porter-tongs are used when an ordinary straight porter cannot be welded to a forging which is in progress ; also after a porter is cut off for the purpose of finishing the end to which the porter was ...
-Attachments
The mode of fastening the tongs to a forging consists in lifting them to the work by means of any crane that may be near; and while suspended with two or three chains, the two jaws are brought close t...
-Rotators
The rotator shown by R in Fig. 146 may be fixed at any required place on any porter, and be handled by three or four men ; and another rotator may be fixed to some other part of the same porter, when ...
-Supporters
One of the supporters which are several times mentioned in this chapter is represented on the anvil and beneath the axle in Fig. 201. For long shafts several supporters are required during the forging...
-Upsetting-Blocks
Blocks for upsetting or thickening small work are placed on the ground in some convenient place, and are capable of being easily moved about. Blocks for upsetting large work that is short are adapted ...
-Recessed Blocks
Upsetting-blocks that are required to form the extremities of rods or levers to particular shapes are made with recesses and gaps in the upper sides. Fig. 265 represents a block of this class, having ...
-Chapter II. Tools
While speaking of engine-making or other machine-making, the name tools includes every implement and machine, small and large, simple and complicated, which is used to produce or operate upon the ...
-Tools. Part 2
An Axis Of Rotation That line which remains at rest in an axle while the axle rotates; whether the axle rotates around one of its longitudinal axes or around one of its minor axes. An excentric cam o...
-Tools. Part 3
A Centre A middle point. A centre is also any important place in an object, whether in the middle or elsewhere. The centre of magnitude or extension in or belonging to any object is a point which is ...
-Tools. Part 4
A Face A term to denote that side of a piece of work which is to be in close contact with another piece during use. To face, signifies to make a plane surface on a piece of work. To face a slide-valv...
-Tools. Part 5
A Hole An equal-sided or circular opening which extends entirely through an object from one of its surfaces to some other surface. If the opening is not circular, square, octagonal, or of similar for...
-Marking-Tools
Marking-tools include all implements for indicating lines and centres in various pieces of work, and consist of scribers, straight-edges, squares, gauges, dividers, and a few others; and it will be ob...
-Centre Punches
Centre punches consist of two principal classes, named dotting punches and coning punches. Dotting punches are made of small steel wire, not exceeding a quarter of an inch in thickness, and are used f...
-Fiddling Drills
Fiddling drills are represented by Figs. 272 and 273, and are rotated by means of a bow, shown by Fig. 274. A fiddling drill is fixed tight in a wood pulley, and is used with a plate termed a breast-p...
-Centre Gouges
Centre gouges consist of small chisels having curved cutting edges, and are of different sizes, according to their intended uses. Gouges of this character, to be held in one hand, are represented by F...
-Coners
The class of coners with which we now have to do, is represented by the cutting tool attached to the breast-brace or hand-brace, shown in Fig. 276 ; such a coner consists of a semi-conical cutter, whi...
-Scriber-Blocks
A scriber-block is an instrument consisting of two principal parts ; these are the movable scriber, and the block to which the scriber is attached; the other smaller pieces are the fastenings by which...
-Vee-Blocks
Vee-blocks consist of cast-iron pieces having gaps which are angular, similar to those in Fig. 280. When two such blocks are of the same shape and dimensions, they are named a pair, and are used to su...
-Compasses
The compasses represented by Fig. 282 possesses jointed legs, to admit two pointed pieces which are of the same length and shape, and also one leg having a thick conical foot; when this foot is fixed ...
-Dividers
The divider to be now considered consists of a pair of legs connected with a spring, and is therefore named a springy divider: such an instrument is denoted by Fig. 283. Whenever it is needful to perf...
-Measuring Tools
In this place measuring tools are considered to include such implements as divided measures, rulers, and callipers, and also tools for ascertaining qualities and conditions of various pieces of work: ...
-Squares
The tool named a square is a right angle, and consists of a steel tool whose broad side or surface is bounded by two right angles which are parallel to each other. We may say also that the simplest so...
-Tee-Squares
The implement denoted by Fig. 289 is a tee-square, and consists of a pedestal having a blade at right angles to the pedestal, but situated midway from each end instead of at one extremity, as in an el...
-Cross-Squares
Cross-squares are represented by Fig. 291. Such a tool is made of two principal pieces, one of which is the thin blade that slides through a slot which is formed in the middle of the pedestal or shoul...
-Angle Gauges
An angle gauge is a tool consisting of two arms which are at any desired angle to each other; consequently, the name of any particular gauge is the number of degrees of arc in the angle of the gauge. ...
-Cylindrical Gauges
Gauges for measuring solid cylinders and cylindrical holes are denoted by Fig. 294. Such tools are made of all sizes, and consist of plugs and rings of steel, the plugs being used as standards for mea...
-Surface-Plates
Surface-tables or plattens consist of cast iron or Bessemer steel blocks resembling Fig. 295, and a few others adjoining. Such tools are made of various sizes, from an inch across to several feet, and...
-Hobs
A hob is a fluted screw, having several narrow flutes, which are generally parallel to the length of the hob, the number of flutes in a hob two inches in diameter being usually thirteen or fifteen. A ...
-Taps
A tap is a fluted steel screw for forming screws into nuts and other work which needs inside screws. The proper number of flutes in a tap is only three, and, in a few special cases, five, the length o...
-Planing Tools. Hammers
Engineers' hammers are of two principal varieties, one class being named ball hammers, and the other class being termed pane hammers. A ball hammer is one which has a ball at one end, and at the other...
-Files
Files are planing implements for making plane surfaces upon pieces of work which have been roughly planed with a planing machine. The rough square file denoted by Fig. 324 is a quicker cutter when com...
-Scrapers
A scraper is the next tool to be used on a surface after it is smoothly filed with the object of forming a plane; after it is thus filed, a scraper will make it still smoother, and after a smoothly po...
-Drift
The particular class of drifts represented by Fig. 333 and others adjoining, are cutting drifts, and consists of angular tools having cutting teeth extending from the sides or faces ; such tools are e...
-Punch
The punch shown by Fig. 337 is a sort of drift having a short bearing with a small number of cutting edges, or with only one cutting part, which is the outer extremity of the thickest part of the tool...
-Spanners, Broaches, And Braces. Spanners
A spanner is a tool for gripping or spanning nuts and bolt-heads for the purpose of screwing and unscrewing them. Spanners are used also for rotating plugs of water-cocks, steam-cocks, and valve-spind...
-Broaches
Broaches are cutting tools for enlarging holes by rotating either the broach or the piece of work to be broached. A broach is a straight piece of steel that cuts by edges which are formed along its si...
-Wrenches
A wrench is a spanner having two or more handles, and usually consists of a straight tool having a thicker portion in the middle, in which is a square hole, or in some spanners, two or three holes of ...
-Braces
The two principal classes of braces are named crank braces and swing braces. A crank brace is used to rotate broaches and to drill small holes with drills; a brace of this sort is shown by Fig. 360. W...
-Tools For Screwing. Screwed Plates
A screw is a rod of metal, either short or long, having a helical ridge around the outside, the ridge being solid with the remainder of the screw. The ridge of a screw is named the thread, and the hel...
-Dies
Dies are employed for screwing rods and bolts, and are made in couples, termed pairs. Each pair of dies are required to make one class of screws, and a pair consists of two steel grips, having teeth o...
-Die-Nuts
A die-nut is a screwed block with or without a handle; die-nuts without handles are represented by Figs. 373 and 374, and are used for finishing a number of screws to one diameter without the need of ...
-Benches
Benches for drilling, screwing, tapping, lining, and filing are represented in Plate 31. In this Plate, Fig. 383 indicates a man who is lining a cylindrical piece of work in order to mark the centre a...
-Tools For Small Lathes
Heel Tools A heel tool is used for roughly turning iron and steel, and is a tool having a curved cutting edge. The tool is held in a wood handle, and moved to the right and to the left by the workman...
-Drills
A drill is a tool for making holes, or enlarging holes. Drills do not cut at any place along their sides, but at their ends. A drill for making holes where none exist, and which is easily made, and su...
-Screw Tools
The class of screw-forming tools to be here mentioned are hand tools, and named combs, through having a resemblance to hair combers. An outside comber for making a screw upon the outside of a bolt-end...
-Holders
A holder is a tool for gripping a rod, axle, or other piece of work while it is being turned, the holder being fastened at one end of the work, and constituting the means whereby the rotatory motion o...
-Screw-Drivers
The screw-driver denoted by Fig. 418 is a tool for fixing and unfixing small bolts having square heads or hexagonal ones. The tool is fixed in an ordinary handle, and has a boss at one end in which is...
-Parallel Callipers
A parallel calliper is also named a jaws, and consists of a sort of el-square, on the blade of which slides one of the jaws of the instrument. On the blade are two or three rows of centimetres and mil...
-Hollow Drifts
A hollow drift is a cylindrical tool of soft iron, or of copper, in one end of which is a recess of a cylindrical shape and about an inch deep. The tool is employed for protecting the centre recesses ...
-Tin Hammers
A tin hammer is used to hammer all classes of gun-metal, iron, and steel work which is smoothly finished and must not be bruised or disfigured with hammering, which would be the result if ordinary ham...
-Universal Drills
A universal drill is one which is suitable for making holes into iron, steel, brass, gun-metal, a number of other metals, and a large number of woods. The tool consists of a cylindrical piece of steel...
-Slide-Rest Tools
A slide-rest tool is bolted or fastened by some other means to the lathe, and is thus used instead of being held to the work by the hands of the workman. There are several classes of such tools, which...
-Screwing Tools
Slide-rest screwing tools include those for outside threads, and those that are necessary for inside threads. The implements for outside screwing are these: one-tooth vee-tools, one-tooth tools having...
-Springy Tools
Springy tools are provided with arched ends named springs, and each spring has a cutting end which is in a particular shape to suit its intended work. These instruments are represented by Figs. 450, 4...
-Oilstones
A small piece of stone for sharpening slide-rest tools may be occasionally held in one hand and applied to the tool without unfixing it from its tool-holder. Several classes of small tools can be thus...
-Chucks. Cutter-Bars
Two classes of cutter-bars are represented by Figs. 456 and 457, one class being cylindrical boring-bars or rods; these are used in lathes by being rotated while on the conical pivots termed lathe cen...
-Coned Plates
A coned plate is a circular plate having several conical holes of various sizes; this plate is fastened to a pedestal or standard by means of a fixing bolt which is put through the middle of the plate...
-Poppets
A poppet consists of two principal pieces, one of which is a stud fastened to the table of the machine, or to a chuck of a lathe, and the other piece is a screw-bolt that fits one or two holes in the ...
-Poppet-Chucks
Chucks that consist of cup-shaped holders having screws for holding the work are named poppet-chucks, or cup-chucks. Two or three such chucks of different sizes are made to fit one lathe, and are usef...
-Wood Chucks
Wood chucks for engineers' lathes consist of strong elm, teak, or beech discs and rings, which are of various sizes to suit various work. A wood chuck while in use is bolted to one of the disc chucks ...
-Lathes And Shaping-Machines. Small Lathes
An engineer's lathe is a machine which is principally used to produce circular boundaries on various pieces of work, and the machine consists of a long, heavy portion, named the bed, and three other p...
-Lathes For Screw-Making
A lathe for screw-making, which is represented in the left of Plate 35, has, in addition to the ordinary traversing apparatus, a few other attachments, named, respectively, the principal lathe-screw, ...
-Shaping-Machines
A simple class of shapers to be here described are those which work with a to-and-fro movement which causes the cutting tool of the machine to move in the same manner, while the work which is fixed to...
-Vices
The two general classes of vices are taper ones and those named parallel. A taper vice opens by one jaw or leg being swung on a pivot-bolt at the lower part of the instrument; consequently, the space ...
-Chapter III. Tool-Making
The entire excellence of the engines and other machines made at the present time is the result of the superior tools which are used to accomplish the work; and because good tools are available for mak...
-Construction Of Marking Tools And Tools For Centring
Scribers A straight scriber is made by sharpening and hardening one end of a piece of steel wire, and bending the other end to a form of a loop, that the tool may be hung up. To produce a twisted mid...
-Breast-Plates
A breast-plate for drilling is made of thin sheet iron or steel, and is bent to a curved form that it may fit the operator's hand or chest. If a large amount of drilling is to be performed by such mea...
-Breast-Braces
A light crank-brace for drilling small centre holes and enlarging conical holes in work to be lathe-turned is made of three principal pieces: one piece consists of the circular plate which is to be in...
-Straight-Edges
The cheapest straight-edge is that made of a piece of hoop iron which is flattened with a tin hammer, and next straightened along its edges with filing; or, if the tool is several feet in length, it i...
-Twist-Finders
Two straight-edges which are of similar dimensions are named a pair, and if they are also right-angled parallelopipeds, and are thick enough to stand on their small long sides as bases, the two tools ...
-Construction Of Squares And Plattens. El-Squares
An el-square having arms of equal thickness and width, is made of a piece of sheet steel; this is marked to show the place of the intended square, and afterwards heated to redness a few times to be cu...
-Tee-Square
A tee-square which is made of two pieces, consists of the blade and its pedestal, and in this pedestal a gap is made in the mid-part to contain one end of the blade; such a gap is shown in Fig 488, an...
-Adjustment Of Squares
The adjustment of squares of various classes is effected with scraping and by reference to right-angular blocks, to lines, and to other squares which are used as standards. To try an el-square by mean...
-Angle-Gauge
The two classes of angle-gauges now mentioned are those which are made of only one piece of steel, and those which are jointed and consist of two or three pieces for each gauge. To make one of a singl...
-Angle - Measurers
An angle - measurer which consists of a semicircular tool having degrees of arc marked on it, is made of either sheet brass or sheet steel. If to be of brass, Muntz metal is suitable, which is cut whi...
-Ring And Plug Gauges
Cylindrical gauges of this character are made of good iron which is hardened, or of steel which is not hardened. To make them of steel without hardening is the cheapest plan ; such a course avoids the...
-Plug-Turning
The lathe-turning of the rings and plugs is effected by several methods, the mode selected depending on the quantity in progress and their dimensions. Plugs that are about a quarter or half an inch in...
-Ring-Turning
Making small gauge-rings about an inch or two inches in diameter is performed by boring holes into well-forged cakes of steel while attached to a lathe-chuck. The chuck is a dog-chuck or grip-chuck, c...
-Grinding Rings
The final adjustment of the hole in a ring, whether soft or hard, must be effected by grinding. When a ring is to be ground with the same lathe in which it was bored, the ring is allowed to remain in ...
-Grinding Plugs
By means of springy tools and soapy water, also a smooth filing, a plug, whether a small one or a large one, may be nicely smoothed to fit the proper hole which allows the necessary quantity for grind...
-Standards
A standard measure is any measure that may be adopted as a standard by any individual, whether he makes it himself or purchases it from those whose business it is to make standards. The particular sta...
-Surface-Plate
A small surface-plate about three or four inches across is easily made of steel, and forged instead of cast. After the steel is cut to its length, it is trimmed with a chisel, to prevent the rugged pi...
-Finishing Of Surface-Plates
Filing is performed upon all surface-plates, whether they have been prepared with a planing-machine, chipping, or turning. Small plates are filed while in a vice, and those that are too large for a vi...
-Finishing Of Surface-Plates. Continued
By a due consideration of the processes just mentioned, it may be noticed that bad tools are the means whereby good ones are produced, and this is the secret of all good tool-makers' operations. In th...
-Surface-Blocks
The steel parallelopipeds termed surface-blocks are from two or three inches across to ten or twelve inches, but seldom any larger, through the great consumption of time necessary to make the larger s...
-Finishing Of Surface-Blocks
Although sharp tools and water may be used, and great care may be exercised while planing or turning surface-blocks, every one must be afterwards filed and scraped. Those that require the greatest att...
-Making Of Gauges, Callipers, And Taps. Radius Gauges
The long bar or rod of a radius gauge for scribing and lining, is made of wood, if a light gauge easy to make is desired, and a couple of movable scribers are attached with small bolts having thumb-nu...
-Calliper
Callipers are made of sheet steel and of small bar steel. To make an outside calliper of a short piece of bar steel, the two legs are forged together in one piece, the two thighs or joint portions bei...
-Making Of Taps And Hobs
Hobs and taps are made by four principal processes, including forging, turning, screwing, and fluting. The steel selected for taps from about an eighth to half an inch thick should be tough cast steel...
-Making Of Taps And Hobs. Continued
If the two ends of the work are properly squared at the time of forging, the extremites are easily squared with filing, but if rugged, unsound portions exist at the extremities, it is necessary to eit...
-Hob Turning And Screwing
The turning of two or three hundred hobs is managed by using a slide-rest lathe having a long traverse, although it need not have any screwing gear. Previous to commencing the turning it is necessary ...
-Tap Turning
The smaller sizes of taps have square heads, which are as thick as the screw-portions ; some of them are made in sets of three short taps each, and are termed hand taps; others are long taper taps, on...
-Tap-Screwing
The screwing of a long taper tap ought to commence by fixing a gripper to the square head, and beginning the screw at the thickest portion; this part is parallel, and is therefore screwed while the po...
-Fluting
The fluting of a hob consists in forming narrow grooves along the entire length of the screw. Each groove has a curved bottom and two straight sides that are slightly inclined to each other, in order ...
-Hob Fluting
The proper shapes of the flutes in a hob are shown by Figs. 5G6 and 567, the width and depth of each flute being indicated by Fig. 567, which denotes the flat extremity of a hob's plug-end. The flute ...
-Tap-Fluting
The processes for fluting taps are similar to those for hobs, but much more extensive, through the comparative large quantity of steel to be cut out, and through the peculiar shape of the tap-flute. T...
-Shaping Of Tap-Heads
The shaping of the heads of taps and hobs consists in squaring the four sides and finishing each head to a proper length, the length of a tap-head being longer than the head of a hob, because a much g...
-Hardening Of Taps
The hardening of a tap or hob is the simplest process of the making, and consists in heating the work to a dull red while in a clean fire of cinders or charcoal, and dipping it into water which has be...
-Wheels Fob Tap-Screws
The lathes which are used for screwing taps and hobs are those provided with screws having either half-inch steps, or quarter-inch steps. Whether the lathe-screw has a quarter-inch step or a half-inch...
-Wheels Fob Tap-Screws. Continued
Table 7. Numbers Of Steps In Bolts' And Taps' Screws Having Short Steps Extreme diameters of taps or rods. Numbers of steps per inch of length. Inches. 1/4 20 ...
-Making Of Hammers And Chisels, etc. Hammers
All hammers for hand use, whether chipping hammers or sledge hammers, should be made entirely of steel. The practice of welding steel faces to iron eye-portions in order to avoid using a larger quanti...
-Chisel
Chipping chisels for engineers seldom remain long in use, through the continual hammering and consequent vibration to which they are subjected for cutting metals, and because they are made of a granul...
-File
The processes to which files are subjected, after receiving them from the file-maker, include hardening, bending, cranking the tangs, and shaping the tangs to prevent their handles falling off. Rough...
-Scraper
A scraper having a flat extremity is easily made of a small flat file, the thin taper portion of the file being first broken off, and a straight smooth extremity produced with grinding on a grindstone...
-Cutting Drifts
Cutting drifts having teeth on their sides, similar to large file-teeth, are shaped by two methods; small ones not more than an inch thick being grooved by filing, and large ones that may be three or ...
-Cutting Drifts. Continued
In order to harden a number of small steel drifts, they are carefully heated in a clear fire of cinders, without applying any blast, the fire being heated sufficiently before the work is put in ; or t...
-A Punch
A punch with a circular extremity, for making round holes into cold sheet iron and other metals, is about six inches long, and made of an old round file, to avoid forging. The file is first thoroughly...
-Spanner Making, etc. Gap Spanners
The proper metal for spanners generally, is a soft fibrous Bessemer steel; such metal is produced by rolling and hammering the Bessemer product after being cast, that the fibrous character may be prod...
-Socket Spanners
The stems and handles of socket spanners are made of round iron or steel, and separate from the socket portions. The socket portion of the spanner consists of a tubular piece which is attached to the ...
-Spanners With Square Holes
A spanner which has a boss at one end containing a square, six-sided, or round hole, is forged at one end of a bar which is nearly as thick as the length of the boss which is to have the hole. At the ...
-Wrench
Wrenches for rotating taps, broaches, and similar tools, are made of three portions for each wrench, one piece being the boss which is to contain the hole or holes, and the other pieces being round st...
-Broach
A small three-cornered broach, which is to be fixed in a wood handle resembling a file-handle, is made of an old small saw-file, the file teeth being ground off with a grindstone, and the tool finally...
-Broach. Continued
A broach-flute requires the same careful shaping and polishing of the cutting side, as a tap-flute ; but if a broach has only three flutes, a greater amount of bearing surface behind each cutting edge...
-Making Of Screwed Plates, Dies, etc. Screwed Plates
Screwed plates have for many years been made of old flat files. Good plates are made of such materials if the steel were of the proper quality at the time the files were made, some being very brittle ...
-Die-Feames
Die-frames, small and large, should be made of a soft cast steel, and cast in their respective shapes having the openings for containing the dies formed at the time of casting, so that only a proper a...
-Making Of Screw-Dies
The metal suitable for dies is a cast steel made fibrous with a proper hammering. Small dies for screwing bolts or other work, not more than five-eighths of an inch thick, are forged in the shapes of ...
-Making Of Screw-Dies. Part 2
After drilling, and while the dies are fixed, without loosening the packing, the screwing should be done with a long taper tap. This is easily accomplished with small dies, by screwing the tap into bo...
-Making Of Screw-Dies. Part 3
A pair of dies finished with a master-tap are also much more liable to stretch the screw of a bolt while being screwed, than a pair screwed with a small hob, through the greater pressure and friction ...
-Making Of Screw-Dies. Part 4
In addition to tapering, another trimming is given to the dies after they are completely shaped with a tap or hob, and this trimming consists in cutting off all thin edges of the thread at both ends o...
-Die-Nut
Die-nuts resemble screwed plates with regard to their action while in use, but not in the objects to which they are applied. Screwed plates are never used for screwing a rod, bolt, or other piece of w...
-Chapter IV. Planing And Lining
To plane, signifies to produce a plane surface or surfaces. The original mode adopted by engineers for producing a plane surface, consisted in first using a planing chisel and hammer to roughly reduce...
-Planing And Lining. Part 2
To grip such a piece, a couple of angular-gap clamps should be used, similar to those shown in Fig. 629. These should be made of soft steel or iron, and may be provided with gaps of three or four diff...
-Planing And Lining. Part 3
Whatever plate may be selected as a standard, if a large one, it remains stationary, while the work is repeatedly applied to the plate; it is therefore necessary to frequently unfix and refix the work...
-Modes Of Lining And Hand-Planing. Lining Of Straight-Edges To Be Hand-Planed
In order to enable a learner to fully understand and appreciate the making of straight-edges in general, he should entirely make one or two by hand-planing. This will teach him the value of machine-pl...
-Right-Angled Blocks
The forging of these parallelopipeds, surface-plate?, and similar implements, of granular Bessemer steel, has been described in the third chapter; it is therefore necessary to now mention only the pla...
-Modes Of Facilitating Hand-Planing
Objects which are cast or forged so that only a very little filing will reduce them to the required dimensions, must be properly treated previous to filing, to avoid an unnecessary waste of files thro...
-Planing-Machines
Machine-planing consists in producing a plane by the aid of a machine, in addition to employing some of the means adopted for hand-planing. Strictly speaking, a machine for planing is any machine whic...
-Planing-Machines. Part 2
Because the pieces of work to be planed are of various heights and widths, and because a cutting tool cuts best at the place of greatest resistance, as before stated, it is necessary to raise or lower...
-Planing-Machines. Part 3
It is now requisite to mention the means for advancing the cutting-tool across the work and table, to effect the planing of the work while it moves to and fro. The direction in which the tool moves, a...
-Auxiliary Apparatus For Planing-Machines. Screw-Bolts
Bolts and nuts, plates, and chucks, which are employed for planing, are represented in Plate 47. Apparatus of this class are required for all planing-machines, whether they are small shavers like the ...
-Hold-Fast Plates
Plates for holding or gripping the pieces of work, are always used in conjunction with bolts and nuts, the bolts being put through the holes or slots in the plates. A middle plate is one denoted by Fi...
-El-Chucks
An el-chuck consists of a cast iron or cast steel implement resembling a letter L, and having the two outer surfaces or planes, named faces, specially smoothed and made right angular to each other. A ...
-Spindle Chucks
A spindle chuck is a plate or bar having a cylindrical portion at each end, these cylindrical parts being provided with shouldered bearings or pivots by which the chuck may swing or rotate on suitable...
-Planing And Lining Of Bosses, etc
The lining of a small simply formed article, is done either with a calliper and scriber while the article lies on a bench, or is held in a vice, or is done with a scriber-block while both the work and...
-Finding Centres With Calliper-Poixts
A large number of articles can be lined by means of a primary straight line marked on one surface of each object, and extending along its entire length. The place of this straight line along the lengt...
-Taper Square Keys
Taper square keys are seldom forged near enough to the intended finished dimensions to dispense with planing, especially if they are intended for piston-rods, crossheads, middle-shafts, or paddle-shaf...
-Bosses And Arms Of Levers
A lever, or other article having a boss, needs more consideration previous to lining and planing, than such a simply formed object as a straight rod or bar; and the more irregular, or the greater the ...
-Auxiliary Lining
Auxiliary lining is that which is performed upon all sorts of forgings and castings whose boundaries are quite different to those of the objects when finished. The difference is often sufficient to pr...
-Modes Of Fixing For Planing
Having mentioned several modes of planing and lining, also the machines and implements required for planing, it is now presumed that a planing-machine and its instruments are available for having obje...
-Modes Of Fixing For Planing. Continued
When the machine is large enough, four such bars may be fastened to the table in the position shown, and all the four may then be planed at one fixing. When such planing is to be done, the holdfast pl...
-Slide-Rest Tools And Gauges For Planing-Machines
The slide-rest tools shown by Figs. 427, 428, 429, 430, 431, 432, 433, 434, 437, 438, 439, 449, 450, 451, 452, 453, and 457, are used in all slide-rests, whether belonging to lathes or any other machi...
-Gauges For Measuring
When an object is to be machine-planed with regard to some special dimension, or planed to fit, or very nearly fit, another object with which it is to be in contact, care is necessary to so finish the...
-Height Gauges
A distance-gauge or height-gauge, is a piece of metal which serves as a kind of standard for adjusting the point of a planing-tool to a precise height above the planing-table, or to a precise height a...
-Coupled Gauges
Coupled gauges are those made in couples, each couple being fitted accurately together, so that when the two are put into contact the surfaces which adjoin each other shall exactly coincide and touch,...
-Details Of Processes For Machine-Planing
In order to thoroughly exhaust this portion of our subject, several examples of detailed processes must now be given, in which the principles, implements, and machines mentioned will be applied to the...
-Planing Op Nuts
The apparata required for planing screw-nuts, after they are screwed and turned, are shown by Figs. 733, 734, and 735. Fig. 733 denotes a nut-mandril or nut-spindle; this consists of a steel spindle w...
-Vices And Vice-Chucks
A vice is a very useful adjunct to a planing-table, especially for thin slender objects which can be gripped only at their edges, and which will not admit a holdfast plate at any part of a broad side....
-Bearer-Brasses
When neither a vice, nor a vice-chuck is accessible, small brasses are planed by fixing them with one plate and bolt through the gap of each brass while against an el-chuck, as shown in Fig. 738. Each...
-Guide-Bars
Guide-bars are often made singly, and planed singly, for the convenience of an easy adjustment afterwards, when the friction surfaces of the bars and guide-blocks in contact are become worn. A guide-b...
-Guide-Blocks
Guide-blocks for ends of crossheads, are easily gripped in a vice-chuck, in order to plane all those surfaces which are at right angles to the holes, or intended holes ; and the blocks may next be fix...
-Planing With Cup-Chucks
The use of a cup-chuck for planing, is analagous to that of a vice, a cup-chuck being a sort of substitute for a vice, or for a vice-chuck. Either a vice, or a vice-chuck, will hold a cylindrical obje...
-Connecting-Bars
When the arms of connecting-bars and levers are forged large enough to require planing, it is done after the bosses are bored, faced, and short adjoining portions of the arms also shaped. These short ...
-Lever-Arms
If a lever-arm is to be shaped with a planing-machine, the bosses are first bored and faced, and their ends also shaped, previous to planing, to allow the levers to be adjusted on the table by means o...
-Connecting-Rod Brasses
Flat-bottom brasses for connecting-rods should be planed previous to any other shaping being effected. The first fixing of them to the table is that by which the bottoms are planed, the bottoms being ...
-T-Heads Of Connecting-Rods
T-heads are planed while the rods are situated as denoted in Fig. 748, after the intermediate portions are lathe-turned. The holding plates are placed across the rods, having either emery-cloth, canva...
-Faces Of Slides And Valves
Guides, slides, valves, and other objects that require accurate planing, are often bent during fixing, the bending resulting from an improper attachment of the plates and poppet-screws. Such distortio...
-Uses Of Spindle-Chucks
A spindle-chuck is shown attached to its two standards or supporters, in Fig. 750. Previous to fastening the standards to the planing-table, the chuck's spindle-ends are connected and tightly gripped ...
-Clamp-Plates
Clamp-plates for planing consists of a couple of thick holdfast plates which are connected together with two or three screw-bolts and nuts. Such plates are required for gripping an object in a manner ...
-Plummer-Blocks
Plummer-blocks or pillow-blocks are usually of cast iron, and are required for supporting axles of various classes during their rotation, the gap in a pillow-block being required to contain the bearer...
-Caps Of Plummer-Blocks
Several caps of the same shape and dimensions may be planed at one fixing, by placing them close, or nearly close together, and holding them with a plate and poppets, as denoted in Fig. 755. While thu...
-Broad Sides Of Crossheads
A large number of crossheads are entirely finished by lathe-turning only, and have no flat or planed sides; but the crossheads here mentioned are those having flat broad sides which are shaped with a ...
-Faces Of Cylinders
The planing of the port-faces and other plane surfaces of cylinders is performed after the cylindrical surfaces are bored, and, in some cases, also after the outer circular surfaces are lathe-turned. ...
-Headstocks
A headstock is a species of double plummer-block, and consists of two plummer-blocks which are cast solid together, having an opening or hole between the two. Such castings are used to support crank-a...
-Crank-Shaft
The only planing which a crank-axle requires after it has been finally lathe-turned, is performed upon the narrow sides or edges of the levers. A single-crank axle to be thus planed is denoted in Fig....
-Recessed Tables
A recessed planing-table is a species of carriage having two long vee-ridges extending from its upper side and along its entire length, being also provided with a large recess situated between the two...
-Water-Cans
Soapy water is applied to the surfaces of forged iron and steel to enable the tool to cut off thick slices without becoming heated, thereby avoiding some of the friction; and is applied also to smooth...
-Double Planing
Double or binary planing, is that in which two planing-tools of one machine cut at one time, either while producing planes on two different objects, or while producing two planes on one object. This s...
-Chapter V. Shaping, Slotting, And Lining
The principal portion of the shaping to be now treated, is effected with shaping-machines, slotting-machines, and in a few cases with planing-machines. The production of surfaces which are curved, but...
-Templates
A template is a sort of gauge made either of sheet iron or sheet steel to represent the form of an object's side. They resemble gap-gauges and other sheet gauges in being used to measure objects and i...
-Hand-Shaping. Bosses
Chiselling is the principal means of reducing objects which are shaped by hand, instead of by machines. Various modes of shaping by chiselling are denoted in Plate 62, in which the ordinary portions o...
-Blocks
The hand-shaping of such articles as rectangular blocks, keys, and surface-plates, is shown by Figs. 797, 798, 799, 800, and 802. Blocks or plates which require well-formed corners and edges should, i...
-Holes Of Bosses
The cylindrical hole of a lever-boss, or other boss, can be accurately formed in cases of necessity by means of proper lining, chiselling, and filing. The lines for such a purpose should resemble thos...
-Brasses
Bearer-brasses can be quickly chipped and filed to dimensions, and if they are small, having but a small quantity to cut out, such shaping by hand is sometimes quicker than boring them with a lathe. B...
-Chiselling Of Gaps
The gaps of solid fork-ends, connecting-bars, cranks, and similar articles which are to be shaped by hand, should be formed with the aid of drilling. Such drilling consists in making holes at the bott...
-Spindle-Ends
In order to chisel a cylindrical-end or pivot-end for a shaft, rod, or spindle, the end intended for the spindle portion is made tolerably flat and square to the length of the bar, and a circle is scr...
-Chiselling Of Teeth
The forming of cogs belonging to wheels and racks by the aid of chiselling, is effected in conjunction with drilling, a circular hole being drilled at the bottom of each intended tooth-gap, previous t...
-Chiselling Of Key-Ways
To form key-ways by chipping, the object to be chipped is gripped in a vice; and if it is necessary to avoid bruising the surfaces in contact, vice-clamps of lead or copper are employed. If a key-way ...
-Spindle Key-Ways
The marking of a key-way or key-bed, at one end of a spindle, is effected with regard to its exact intended position, as in lining for one in a boss, in order that the length of the key-way may be par...
-Chiselling Of Key-Ledges
For some purposes, axles and shafts require their keys to be solid with their respective portions, instead of being separately made and fitted into key-ways. A key which is solid with an axle, is a ke...
-Chipping Of Cylinders
Chipping of the flanges belonging to steam-cylinders and similar objects, is necessary only when a planing-machine cannot be employed, or when it happens that only a very small portion of a large cyli...
-Machine-shaping
The various methods of shaping by paring-machines include cutting operations by means of drilling-machines, slotting-machines, and shaping-machines. It is therefore necessary to describe such machines...
-Slotting-Tools
The cutters or slotting-tools for use in slotting-machines, are represented in Plate 61. In this plate, Fig. 782 represents a groover having a short thin end; and is suitable for cutting key-grooves w...
-Drilling-Machines
The simplest class of drilling-machines are fiddling drills, which are represented by Fig. 272, and are rotated by the drill-bow shown by Fig. 274. The next class of what may be termed drilling-machin...
-Accessory Apparatus For Drilling-Machines
The auxiliary implements which are required for use with drilling-machines consist of drills, rosebits, guide-drills, boring-bars and their distinct cutters, el-chucks, spindle-chucks, vices, and hold...
-Rosebits
Machine-rosebits are represented by Fig. 841. It will be seen that the cylindrical part of the tool is provided with long narrow grooves, termed flutes. These are three in number, and are smoothly for...
-Guiders
A guide-drill or pin-drill is one which is furnished with a cylindrical pivot-end, such an end being solid with the cutting portion of the tool. A drill of this sort is denoted by Fig. 842, and its pi...
-Broach-Drills
A broach-drill is analagous to the conical pin-drill indicated by Fig. 843; but is without a pivot-end, therefore not steady in its action, unless it is what is termed, nearly parallel. The tool is sh...
-Drilling-Bars
A drilling-bar or drilling-rod is a cylindrical rod of steel, of any suitable length and thickness, in which is formed a slot for containing a distinct steel cutter and fixing-key. Boring-bars or dril...
-Spindle-Bosses
The bosses of drill-spindles are denoted by Figs. 850 and 852. The hole in a spindle-boss for tightly holding ends of drills, boring-rods, and other tools, may be either square or circular. In either ...
-Drills' Points
Properly shaped drills' points are represented by Figs. 854, 855, 856, and others shown near them. To make a drill cut easily, and to allow sufficient room for the shavings detached to get out of the ...
-General Machine-Shaping
The details of paring processes here given include the applications to use of the ordinary machines and implements which have been treated, and also the use of additional apparatus required for specia...
-Bolt-Heads
Hexagonal bolt-heads after being lathe-turned, require the six planes to be produced, either by means of a small shaper, or with a planing-machine, the particular machine selected being suited to the ...
-Making Of Key-Grooves
There are several modes of forming key-grooves, and any one mode selected should be suited to the characters and dimensions of the objects to be grooved. Either lathes, shapers, slotters, or planers a...
-Key-Grooves Of Bosses
The cutting of a key-way into a wheel-boss or into a lever-boss may be done with a driller, with a shaper, with a planer, or with a lathe. If to be done with a driller, the boss is placed upon the dri...
-Making Key-Ways With Slotting-Machines
All key-grooves which are to be formed along the entire lengths of their respective wheel-bosses and lever-bosses, may be easiest made with slotting-machines, because the lengths of the intended groov...
-Slotting Of Wheels
If the bosses of wheels are to have key-ways formed with a slotting-machine, they are treated in a manner similar to that for levers, being first lined to show the exact shape and place of the intende...
-Shaping Octsides Of Bosses
The outer curved surfaces of lever-bosses are shaped with shaping-machines, planing-machines, and slotting-machines. Of these machines, shapers are suited for all small levers in general, if they are ...
-Shaping Bosses On Slotting-Machines
The most rapid and effectual mode of shaping outsides of lever-bosses in large numbers is slotting; the object to be shaped being fixed on a slotting-table and rotated by means of the worm-wheel and p...
-Adjusting Bosses With Arbor-Chucks
When a large number of bosses having holes of the same diameter are to be shaped, they can be quickly and accurately placed to their proper situations on the slotting-table by using an arbor-chuck. Th...
-Shaping Arms Of Levers And Connecting-Bars
The intermediate parts or arms of levers, and also of connecting-bars, are easily shaped with to-and-fro shapers, and with planing-machines, if they are not too long for the machines selected, each on...
-Shaping Of Arms By Slotting
The shaping of arms with slotting-machines is especially suited to large levers and bars. If a lever requires shaping along its arm and also around both its bosses, the bosses should be first reduced ...
-Shaping Of Junctions
The curved junctions of a boss are shaped while the lever or bar is fixed with its boss-faces parallel with the slotting-table, as when the narrow sides of its arm are being shaped. Considerable care ...
-Shaping The Broad Sides Of Arms
Broad sides of arms belonging to levers and connecting-bars are shaped either by planing or slotting. It is, however, always requisite to shape the curved junctions with the boss-ends, by using some c...
-Shaping Levers Having Three Bosses
Levers having three bosses each can be easily shaped on shaping-machines if small, and on slotting-machines if large; the several operations for lining, adjusting on the tables or on arbor-chucks, and...
-Shaping Of Crossheads
Shaping the broad sides of crossheads by planing is sufficiently treated at pages 237 and 238, and it is now requisite to here mention their shaping on slotting-machines. The treatment of a crosshead...
-Shaping Of Gaps
The gaps here treated are those belonging to levers, joint-rods, eccentric-rods, connecting-rods, and other rods and bars in general. Some of these are forged with the gaps roughly formed, but great n...
-Shaping Of Gaps By Shaping And Slotting
If a lever or rod is forged with the gap roughly formed in its fork-end, the gap-sides and bottom are afterwards entirely shaped with a shaping-machine, or with a slotting-machine; unless the depth or...
-Slotting Of Gaps
In order to finally shape the gap-surfaces of a bar on a slotting-machine, to cause the depth of the gap to be parallel with the bar's length, and the broad sides of the gap to be parallel with the br...
-Shaping Teeth Of Wheels By Planing
A planing-machine may be often used for teeth-shaping ; although other processes, which are to be given, are preferable for shaping considerable quantities. The operations here given are suited to wh...
-Shaping Teeth Of Wheels By Planing. Continued
As soon as an arbor-chuck is properly fixed, and a wheel slid thereon, all the adjustments for positions required previous to planing are completed excepting one. This adjustment consists in rotating ...
-Shaping Of Angular Holes
Angular holes are those of which the across sections and entrances possess angular boundaries. The boundary of a hole's entrance may be either rectangular, hexangular, octangular, or of some other ang...
-Shaping Of Angular Holes. Part 2
Adjusting the rod or bar for drilling consists in placing the planed boss-end upon a parallel ring or parallel block situate on a drilling-table, as seen in Figs. 886, 887, or 897, such packing being ...
-Shaping Of Angular Holes. Part 3
Holes that are partly formed by forging, are entirely machined by slotting, whether little or much metal is to be removed, because such holes do not furnish any metal for bearings on which a drill-poi...
-Tapering Of Angular Holes
The operations just given are suitable for the correct formation of any angular hole of a rod's boss-end, or other boss-part, if both entrances to the hole are to be of the same dimensions; or, in oth...
-Slotted Guide-Standards
The guides here treated are those used for containing bearer-brasses and guide-blocks, which are connected to ends of crossheads belonging to piston-rods and pump-rods. A guide of some class is requir...
-Slotted Guide-Standards. Part 2
The lining to indicate the thickness of the standard, and to show the place and width of the slot is now completed ; and if the article is cast without any slot it next requires circles to be scribed ...
-Slotted Guide-Standards. Part 3
The guide is now in position for planing both sides or faces of its slot. When such an article is made with the slot formed by casting, it should be so cast that a clearance space is formed at each en...
-Shaping Op Guide-Slots With Shaping-Machines And Slotters
In addition to the modes of forming slots by planing, given in the preceding section, it is requisite to mention a few other methods of slot-making, which are resorted to in cases of emergency. A sma...
-Semi-Cylindrical Surfaces
The half-round surfaces or gaps here mentioned are such as those belonging to bearer-brasses, concave junctions of crossheads, levers, and bars; also the gaps of U-end connecting-rods, termed gap-end ...
-Semi-Cylindrical Surfaces. Continued
The shaping of a half-round gap can be easily managed on a slotting-machine having a worm-wheel motion. On a slotting-table a brass or other object can be completely rotated if necessary, by reason of...
-Making Of Key-Slots
A key-slot is a key-way that consists of an oblong hole which is formed entirely through the thickness of a rod, bar, or other article. Consequently, a key-slot requires to be made by processes which ...
-Making Of Key-Slots. Continued
The boss is now marked with a set of lines which resemble those marked with a scriber-block on a lining-table; and lines are also scribed equidistant from the centre ones, to show the thickness of the...
-Key-Slots In Ends Of Rods And Crank-Pins
When a lever-boss or crosshead-boss has had its key-way formed, and an end of a rod or pin has been turned to fit the circular hole, the end can be marked while in the hole, which will ensure the requ...
-Chapter VI. Turning, Screw-Cutting, And Lining
Lathe-turning is an art by which circular surfaces are formed by means of lathes; and lathes are machines for rotating objects in order that their surfaces may be made circular. Although lathes are pr...
-Turning Of Pins, Keys, Screw-Studs, Small Bolts, Etc. Turning Of Pins
Pins are those small straight pieces of machines which hold or connect portions of machines together. Pins are distinct from bolts through having no heads, and are of any size to suit the work for whi...
-Sckew-Studs
A screw-stud is a cylindrical piece of metal screwed at one or both ends, and intended to be fixed in a flange, rim, or other portion. A stud having a screw at only one end is provided with a small pi...
-Small Bolts
Bolts in general are of two classes, consisting of those that have no screw-parts, and those that have them. By small bolts are here signified such as are not more than an inch, or an inch and a quart...
-Screw-Nuts
Screw-nuts are principally made of forged iron or steel, and cast gun-metal. After a nut has been either cast or forged, it requires three principal shaping processes ; these are, screwing the hole, t...
-Nut-Facing
After nuts have been screwed by some means they are ready for facing. This operation consists in making the faces or broad sides of the nut plane and parallel with each other; and also square to the n...
-Spindles
A spindle usually possesses at least two bearings or necks, which are intended to constitute friction parts on which the spindle will rotate. The necks of any such spindle require to be in line with e...
-The Rods
The rods here mentioned are those which are cylindrical along nearly their whole lengths; and the remarks principally refer to the mid-portions of joint-rods, some classes of simply formed connecting-...
-General Treatment Of Joint-Rods, Connecting-Rods, Etc
It is now needful to consider the treatment of several sorts of rods and bars in connexion with their respective joint-pins, brasses, and other portions belonging to them. Joint-Parts Of Slide-Rods A...
-Nuts Of Slide-Valves
The nuts here referred to are those by which the valves are attached to their respective slide-rods. A nut of this class is termed a tee-nut, through resembling a letter T; it is made of gun-metal, an...
-Socket-Connexions Of Rods
A great number of rods with circular ends are joined to their respective portions by means of sockets or socket-ends. A socket-end is a tubular boss or projection situated at one end, or both ends, of...
-Crosshead Nuts For Slide-Rods
An ordinary class of slide-rods are those having long screws at their outer ends. These ends are connected to their respective crossheads by means of nuts, the slide-rod screws being in the crosshead ...
-Treatment Of Straps, Strap-Brasses, Etc. Straps
Straps are used for connecting the pivot-ends of crossheads with their respective side-rods; also for connecting crank-pins with connecting-rods belonging to pumps, steam-engines, and several other cl...
-Fitting Of Strap-Brasses
Strap-brasses should be fitted to their straps with regard to the length-marks shown on the straps' edges. The bottom brass is first made to bear properly upon the bottom of the gap; after which, the ...
-Lining Of Strap-Brasses
After a couple of brasses are properly fitted into their strap, they should appear as in Fig. 982, the faces being quite close together, and both brasses tightly fixed in their places by means of pack...
-Boring Of Strap-Brasses
Strap-brasses are bored while they remain tightly keyed in their respective straps as when they were being lined. They may be bored either on an ordinary disc-chuck in a lathe, or on a table of a dril...
-Oil-Channels Of Strap-Brasses
The making of oil-channels or gutters belonging to brasses is usually the last process to which they are subjected. In the middle or other convenient part of each brass is a round hole, which is conne...
-Boss-Brasses
Boss-brasses are those that fit the holes in the bosses of levers, side-rods, joint-rods, and a few classes of connecting-rods. Such bosses are represented by Figs. 890, 891, and a few others adjacent...
-Boring Of Boss-Beasses
A couple of brasses which are tightly fixed in their boss can be bored either while they yet remain in the boss, or after they have been removed and again fastened together by some means. If they are ...
-The Varieties Of Glands, Packing-Boxes, And Other Packing Apparatus. Packing-Glands
A packing-gland is a sort of flanged tube, which so fits a slide-valve rod or a piston rod that it can be easily slid along the rod. Glands are made of either gun-metal or cast-iron, and are employed ...
-Notched Glands
A notched or grooved gland is one having a number of notches formed in its outer flange or belt, which is circular. This class are represented by Figs. 992 and 993. These are caused to operate upon th...
-Gland-Reservoirs
A gland-reservoir is also termed a gland oil-cup. Almost every gland, small and large, is furnished with an oil-vessel of some kind, the simplest of which consists of merely a concave space or dish fo...
-Worm-Wheel Glands
A worm-wheel gland is one that has an oblong flange similar to that in Fig. 991, and it has also a pair of screw-studs, similar in shape to the studs of other glands; the stem also of the gland is str...
-General Treatment Of Glands And Packing-Apparatus. Hexagonal Glands
Nearly all small glands which have six-sided flanges, are made of cast gun-metal. When a considerable number have been cast, and are ready for the lathe-process, all the comparative large ones, if the...
-Turning Of Circular Glands
Those glands with circular flanges or oblong ones, are usually much larger than those having hexagonal flanges, and therefore need a somewhat different treatment. A large gland, or a large packing-bu...
-Packing-Bushes
The most usual class of packing-bushes are those like the one seen in the packing-box of Fig. 998, or like the larger Figure 997. Small bushes of this form are easily bored in a cup-chuck in the same ...
-Shaping Of Notched Glands
Glands having grooved flanges are usually lathe-turned in conjunction with the turning of the cylinder-lids, or valve-box lids, to which the glands belong. A gland intended to have a screw on the out...
-Boring-Tools
It is proper to here describe the sorts of tools required for shaping the objects just mentioned, or for shaping any other objects of similar shapes. The student will perceive that the same tools are ...
-Treatment Of Worm-Wheel Glands
In consequence of the considerable wear of the screws and nuts belonging to all gland-studs in general, it is advisable to make them all of steel. But the worm-wheels of glands are made of gun-metal, ...
-Turning Of Levers, Wheels, Etc. Treatment Of Levers
In general, the bosses of a lever are both bored and their outsides turned, while the lever remains on a lathe-chuck. This avoids the necessity of fitting and handling an arbor with the lever thereon,...
-Boring Of Levers
To adjust a lever on a drilling-table for boring, it is necessary to put the planed side parallel with the table by means of parallel blocks, which are put beneath and in contact with the plane surfac...
-Boring Of Wheels
The wheels here treated are those that possess arms with which the bosses or naves are joined to their respective rims, whether they are spur-teeth wheels, bevel-wheels, or other teeth-wheels; or whet...
-Boring Of Wheels In Wood Chucks
A great variety of small wheels, not more than six, eight, or ten inches in diameter, can be easily and accurately bored in wood chucks. A wheel which is bored in such a chuck will have its hole exact...
-Boring And Turning Of A Wheel At One Fixing
Large wheels are frequently both bored and partly turned with one chucking, or, as it is termed, one setting-up, for each wheel. Some sorts of wheels, such as a grooved wheel for a foot-lathe, can be ...
-Turning Of Wheels On Arbors
It has been shown that large wheels are turned and bored while attached to disc-chucks, therefore for such wheels no arbor is required. Whenever the wheels in progress are those having spoke-spaces l...
-Treatment Of Bolts And Nuts
The operations here detailed are those by which comparative large nuts and bolts that may be three, four, or six inches in diameter, are bored, turned, and screwed. Small bolts and nuts are screwed wi...
-Boring And Turning Of Nuts
As soon as a nut is fixed the outer face should be reduced, a proper amount of metal being left for turning the opposite face. This reduction of the face at the beginning of turning is more or less re...
-Gauges For Boring Nuts
In order to accurately bore a nut so that the hole shall have the exact diameter required, the operator should make or be provided with a sheet gauge similar to Fig. 1055, especially if a number of nu...
-Screw-Cutting Of Nuts
The shapes of the screw-tools employed for nuts, are not dependent on the nuts' sizes, but on the sizes and shapes of the threads to be produced. The tools which will cut an ordinary vee-thread into a...
-Gauges For Nut-Screwing
For the purpose of properly measuring nut-screws during the screw-cutting, two or three sorts of gauges are employed. These consist of sheet gauges, wire gauges, the author's valin, and the screwed ga...
-Inclined Threads
An inclined thread is one which is not situate square to the length of the bolt. Generally speaking, all vee-threads should be square to their respective rods and bolts, if not, their nuts will not en...
-Centring Of Bolts
Bolts are centred for turning by several modes, either of which may be adopted to suit the sizes and shapes of the bolts in hand. If a bolt has several dimensions differing considerably from each othe...
-Formation Of Centre-Recesses
After the extremities of bolts are properly lined and centred, they can be immediately drilled and coned for turning, if they have been properly forged so that they are square to the bolt's lengths. I...
-Turning Of Bolts
In order to allow a short bolt to be turned and screwed along the entire length of its stem, it requires to be kept as far as convenient from the chuck by means of a comparative long centre-pivot, whi...
-Bolt-Ends
The shapes usually adopted for ends of bolts are indicated by Figs. 1094, 1095, and 1096. Bolt-ends should be formed to their respective shapes and sizes with turning-tools, previous to beginning the ...
-Plummer-Block Bolts
Bolts for pillow-blocks are turned so that their intermediate parts are no larger in diameter than the smallest diameter of the screws. A bolt of this sort is shown by Fig. 1101, and is lighter, more ...
-Screw-Cutting Of Bolts
The junction of a bolt-thread with the remainder of the stem should be taper, being so formed that the depth of the thread-groove may gradually decrease along about two steps, thus preventing the thre...
-Outside Schew-Tools
The process of cutting a large vee-shaped thread on a bolt is analogous to the cutting a similar thread in a nut. If the thread required is an ordinary Whitworth-shaped thread, the pitch, the diameter...
-Treatment Of Crossheads
There are three principal sorts of crossheads, - comprising the old crosshead having two comparative broad flat arms, the crosshead which is circular and is shaped entirely with lathe-turning, and the...
-Treatment Of Crossheads. Continued
The first centring of a two piston-rod crosshead, is conducted with regard to its planing; and the lining can therefore be executed while the article is on a planing-table. The position in which the o...
-Turning Of Crossheads
Crossheads should be turned previous to boring the holes in the bosses, because it is easy to adjust a crosshead correctly for boring, by means of its uniform surfaces, which are produced by turning. ...
-Shaping Of Links
The shaping here specially referred to, is that by which the curved slots of valve-links are produced. But it will be necessary to briefly mention also the planing of their broad sides, and the slotti...
-Middle-Shafts And Paddle-Shafts. Centring Of Shafts
Straight middle-shafts, paddle-shafts, piston-rods, and other heavy forgings of similar shapes, are all centred in about the same manner. The centring of such a piece is performed while it hangs suspe...
-Centre Recesses
The two conical recesses of a large shaft require to be well formed in order to freely admit oil to the lathe-pivots, and to avoid injurious wear of the friction surfaces, and thereby prevent the liab...
-Turning Of Straight Middle-Shafts
Middle-axles, paddle-axles, and other large axles, are rotated on the lathe-pivots by means of grippers or carriers consisting of plates and bolts. The lightest of these consist of semicircular bands....
-Shaft-Ends For Levers
Turning the lever-ends of a middle-shaft consists in making them parallel and of a suitable diameter and length for the levers which are to be connected. These ends can be finished either before the h...
-Turning Of Paddle-Axles
The turning of a paddle shaft somewhat resembles that of a straight middle-shaft, with the difference of a paddle-shaft not requiring its entire mid-portion to be smoothly finished. The turner should ...
-Gauges For Shaft-Turning
The gauges employed for turning paddle-shafts to the exact required diameters and lengths are the same as those for straight middle-shafts, and others of similar forms. The gauges for indicating the s...
-Piston-Hods And Crank-Pins. Piston-Rods
Heavy piston-rods are lined and centred while they hang suspended from a crane, either callipers, a straight-edge, or a rectol, being employed and used in the same manner as described for centring axl...
-Turning Of Crank-Pins
A crank-pin is turned in about the same manner as that described for a piston-rod, the entire pin being first rough-turned, and the cone next fitted, previous to finishing the other portions. A handle...
-Screw-Cutting Gear
In connexion with the turning of piston-rods, crank-pins, and other objects, a few general instructions must be here given concerning screw-cutting wheels, including Tables of wheels for stated pitche...
-Screw-Cutting Gear. Continued
In the case of a left-handed screw requiring to be cut with these compound wheels, only one connecting-wheel is employed, instead of the two required for a simple-gear seen in Fig. 1125. By referring...
-Selection Of Screwing-Wheels
In Tables 9, 10, 11 and 12, are given several sets of wheels for cutting all, and more than all, the various threads required for engine-making; but in order that any other desired step may be cut wit...
-Selection Of Simple-Gear Wheels
The general rule which is applicable to all screw-cutting should be thus stated: - As the step of the lathe-screw is to the step of the screw to be cut, so is the number of teeth on the driving wheel ...
-Selection Of Compound Wheels
In order to select four compound wheels to cut a stated pitch, the first and second terms should be treated in a manner similar to that described for simple gear. But when calculating for a set of com...
-Treatment Of Crank-Shafts
The two principal sorts of crank-axles are, middle axles having one crank each, used for single engines, and also for pairs of paddle-engines, and the two-crank axles which are used principally for sc...
-Large Single-Crank Axles
A large crank axle of about five, ten, or twelve inches in diameter, requires rather different treatment to that for a small one only a couple of inches in diameter, principally in consequence of its ...
-Large Two - Crank Axies
An axle having two cranks k fined and centred for the first turning of its axle-parts, in the same manner as a single-crank axle, either by placing the axle into vee-blocks and scribing with a scriber...
-Screw-Shafts And Propeller-Shafts
Screw-Shafts The screw-shafts of a pair of engines properly include the crank-shaft, all the intermediate shafts, and the propeller-shaft; but the intermediate shafts only are here meant. These are c...
-Propeller-Axles
A considerable amount of turning is executed upon a propeller-shaft; its disc being turned, its middle part turned to suit the packing-bushes, its cone turned to fit the propeller-boss, and a thread s...
-Plates #1
Plate 5 Plate 6. plate 8 Plate 9 Plate 10 Plate 11 Plate 12 Plate 14 Plate 15 ...
-Plates #2
Rate 16 Plate 17 Hale 18 Plate 22 Plate 23 Plate 24 ...
-Plates #3
Plate 25 Plate 26 Plate 28. Plate 29 Plate 30 Plate 32 ...
-Plates #4
Platte 37 Plate 38 Plate 39 Plate 40 Plate 41 Plate 42 ...
-Plates #5
Plate 43 Plate 44 Plate 45 Plate 46 Plate 49 Plate 50 ...
-Plates #6
Plate 54. Plate 55 Plate 56 Plate 57 Plate 58 Plate 59 Plate 60 ...
-Plates #7
Plate 66 Plate 67 Plate 68 Plate 69 Plate 70 Plate 71 Plate 72 Plate 73 ...
-Plates #8
Plate 74. Plate 75 Plate 76 Plate 77 Plate 78 Plate 79 Plat. 81 Plate 82 ...
-Plates #9
Plate 83 Plate 84 Plate 85 Plate 86 Plate 87 Plate 88 Plate 89 ...
-Plates #10
Plate 90 Plate 93 Plate 94 Plate 95 Plate 96 ...









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