A complete and systematic course of instruction in the modern methods of developing and cutting the patterns for sheet metal work

Title | The New Metal Worker Pattern Book |

Author | George Watson Kittredge |

Publisher | David Williams Company |

Year | 1901 |

Copyright | 1896, David Williams |

Amazon | The new metal worker pattern book |

- Introduction
- FOR the benefit of those who may contemplate making use of this work, wholly or in part, it is well to lay before them at the outset a general statement of the plan upon which it is written, together ...

- Chapter I. Terms And Definitions
- Pattern cutting as applied to sheet-metal work. by its very nature, involves the application of geo-metrical principles. Any treatise on descriptive geometry presents in a general way all the principl...

- Lines
- 4. A Line is that which has length merely, and may be straight or curved. 5. A Straight Line, or, as it is sometimes called, a right line, is the shortest, line that can be drawn between two given ...

- Straight Sided Figures
- 16. A Surface is that which has length and breadth without thickness. 17. A Plane is a surface such that if any two of its points be joined by a straight line, such line will be wholly in the surfa...

- Circles And Their Properties
- 52. A Circle is a plane figure bounded by a curved line, everywhere equidistant from its center. (Fig. 29.) The term circle is also used to designate the boundary line. (See also Circumference ) 53...

- Solids
- 83. A Solid has length, breadth and thickness. 84. A Prism is a solid of which the ends are equal, similar and parallel straight-sided figures, and of which the other faces are parallelograms. 8...

- Architectural Terms
- 116. The term Cornice is ordinarily used to designate any molded projection or collection of moldings which finishes or crowns the part to which it is affixed. The term in this sense is applicable in ...

- Architectural Terms. Continued
- 129. A Deck Cornice or Deck Molding is the cornice or molding used to finish the edge of a flat roof where it joins a steeper portion. Fig. 84. - A Lintel Cornice. Fig. 85. - A Bracket. ...

- Drafting Terms
- 166. Projection is that department of geometrical drawing which treats of the drawing of elevations. plans, sections and perspective views. There are four kinds of projections, viz.: Orthographic, Iso...

- Chapter II. Drawing Tools And Material
- To the person about to begin a new occupation the first consideration is, what tools and materials does he need? In the following description of the appliances, tools and materials likely to be of ser...

- Drawing Tools And Material. Part 2
- In Fig. 97 is shown a very common form of drawing board, consisting of a pine wood top with hardwood ledges. The ledges are put on by means of a dovetail, tapering probably one-half inch in the width ...

- Drawing Tools And Material. Part 3
- Fig. 102. - Straight-Edge. For tinners' use in general jobbing shops, a three-foot straight-edge in many cases, and a four-foot one in a few instances, will be found very convenient. Some mecha...

- Drawing Tools And Material. Part 4
- Triangles, or Set Squares. - In the selection of triangles, the draftsman has the choice in material between pear wood; mahogany, ebony lined; hard rubber; German silver, and steel, silver or nickel p...

- Drawing Tools And Material. Part 5
- Beam Compasses and Trammels - In Fig. 114 is shown a set of beam compasses, together with a portion of the wooden rod or beam on which they are used. The latter, as will be seen by the section drawn t...

- Drawing Tools And Material. Part 6
- Besides scales of the kind just described, which are termed plain divided scales, there are in common use what are known as diagonal scales, an illustration of one of which is shown in Fig. 118. The s...

- Drawing Tools And Material. Part 7
- Fig. 121. - Two Views of Pencil Sharpened to a Chisel Point. For keeping a good point upon a pencil, a piece of fine sand paper or emery paper, glued upon a piece of wood, will he found very se...

- Drawing Tools And Material. Part 8
- Front with Cover On. Top with Cover Off. Fig. 124. - India Ink Slab. Several makes of liquid drawing ink are also to be had, which possess the advantage of being always ready for use, th...

- Chapter III. Linear Drawing
- In the production of all great constructive works the drawing plays a most important part. If a piece of machinery, a ship, an aqueduct or a temple is to be built, verbal descriptions would be insuffi...

- Linear Drawing. Part 2
- Referring now to Fig. 128, it is most likely that the front elevation would be next drawn after the plan. For this purpose the plan should be so placed upon the board that the part representing the fr...

- Linear Drawing. Part 3
- Dotted lines are also used to show a change of position or an alternate position of some part, as, for example, the lines L K and J L show that the side J K of the top view has been swung around on th...

- Chapter IV. Geometrical Problems
- In presenting this chapter to the student no attempt has been made to give a complete list of geometrical problems, but all those have been selected which can be of any assistance to the pattern draft...

- Geometrical Problems. Part 2
- Fig. 134 - To Erect a Perpendicular at or near the End of a Given Straight Line, Using the Compassis and Straight-Edge. First Method. Fig. 135. - To Erect a Perpendicular at or near the End...

- Geometrical Problems. Part 3
- Fig. 140. - To Divide a Given Straight Line into Any Number of Equal Parts 11. To Divide a Straight Line Into Any Number of Equal Parts by Means of a Scale. - It may be more convenient to transfer ...

- Geometrical Problems. Part 4
- Fig. 146 - The Chord and Hight of a Segment of a Circle Being Given, to find the Center from which the Arc may be Struck. 15. To Find the Center from which a Given Arc is Struck by the Use of the S...

- The Construction Of Regular Polygons. I - By The Use Of Compasses And Straight-Edge
- 23. To Inscribe an Equilateral Triangle within a Given Circle. - In Fig. 153, let A B D be any given circle within which an equilateral triangle is to be drawn. From any point in the circumference, as...

- The Construction Of Regular Polygons By Use Of Compasses And Straight-Edge. Part 2
- 31. To Inscribe a Regular Undecagon within a Given Circle. - In Fig. 101, let B D A L be any given circle in which a regular figure of eleven sides is to be drawn. Draw any diameter, as B A. and dr...

- Construction Of Regular Polygons By Use Of Compasses And Straight-Edge. Part 3
- 38. Upon a Given Side to Draw a Regular Hexagon. - In Fig. 107, let A B be the given side upon which a regular hexagon is to be erected. From A as center, and with A B as radius, describe the arc B...

- Construction Of a Regular Polygon By Use Of Compasses And Straight-Edge. Part 4
- 43. Upon a Given Side to Draw a Regular Undec-agon. - In Fig. 172, A B represents the given side upon which a regular undecagon is to be drawn. Produce A B indefinitely in the direction of D. From B a...

- The Construction Of Regular Polygons. II - By The Use Of The T-Square And Triangles Or Set-Squares
- In the chapter upon terms and definitions under the word degree (def. 68) and in some of those immediately following the dimensions of the circle are described and their use explained; and in the chap...

- Construction Of Regular Polygons By The Use Of The T-Square And Triangles Or Set-Squares. Part 2
- Fig. 180. - Circle Divided into Eight Equal Parts by the Use of a 22 1/2x67 1/2-degree Triangle. A similar use of the 30 X 60-degree triangle is shown in Fig. 182, by which a circle is divided ...

- The Construction Of Regular Polygons By The Use Of The T-Square And Triangles Or Set-Squares. Part 3
- Fig. 185. Fig. 186. To Inscribe a Square within a Given Circle. Fig. 187. Fig. 188. To Inscribe a Regular Hexagon within a Given Circle. 5l. To Inscribe an Octagon within a...

- The Construction Of Regular Polygons By The Use Of T-Square And Triangles Or Set-Squares. Part 4
- Fig. 192. - To Draw a Regular Hexagon upon a Given Side. Fig. 193. - To Draw a Regular Octagon upon a Given Side. 56. To Draw an Equilateral Triangle about a Given Circle. - Tn Pig. 194....

- The Construction Of Regular Polygons. III. - By Means Of The Protractor
- The protractor, which has been already described and illustrated (see Fig. 116, Chapter H), is an instrument for measuring angles. The usual form of this instrument is a semicircle with a graduated ed...

- The Ellipse
- For a definition of the ellipse the reader is referred to Chapter I (Terms And Definitions), definitions 78 and 113. It may also be i described as a curve drawn with a constantly increasing or diminis...

- The Ellipse. Part 2
- Fig 208. - To Draw on Ellipse by Means of a Trammel. Fig. 209. Fig. 210. To Draw an Ellipse by Means of a Square and a Strip of Wood. One definition of an ellipse is a figure...

- The Ellipse. Part 3
- This result may be verified by dropping lines vertically from the points in H I across the plan, intersecting them with the radial lines in the plan of corresponding number. Thus a line dropped from p...

- The Ellipse. Part 4
- 13. To Draw an Approximate Ellipse with the Compasses to Given Dimensions, Using Two Sets of Centers. - First Method. - In Fig. 217, let A B represent the length of the required figure and D E its wid...

- The Ellipse. Part 5
- Fig. 220. - To Draw an Approximate Ellipse with the Compasses, Using Three Sets of Centers. Fig. 221. - To Find the True Axes of a Given Ellipse. Fig. 222. - In a Given, Ellipse, to ...

- The Volute
- The volute is an architectural figure of a geometrical nature based upon the spiral, and is of quite frequent occurrence in one form or another, consequently some remarks upon the different methods of...

- Chapter V. Principles Of Pattern Cutting
- To any one wishing to pursue pattern cutting as a profession it is essential not only that he know how to solve a large number of intricate problems, but that he understand thoroughly the principles w...

- Parallel Forms (Miter Cutting.)
- Since in sheet metal work a molding is made by bending the sheet until it fits a given stay, a molding may be defined mechanically as a succession of parallel forms or bends to a given stay, and, so f...

- Parallel Forms (Miter Cutting.). Part 2
- Now, what has been done in Fig. 237 illustrates what is called miter cutting, which in other words consists in describing upon a flat surface the shape of a given form or envelope, so that when the ...

- Parallel Forms (Miter Cutting.). Part 3
- If, instead of the molding terminating against a plane surface, as shown by F G in Fig. 238, it be required to develop a pattern to fit against an irregular surface, the method of procedure would be e...

- Parallel Forms (Miter Cutting.). Part 4
- To clear up these doubts in the mind of the stu-dent an illustration of the short method of cutting a square miter is here introduced, and afterward the long method, or the plan which is in strict acc...

- Regular Tapering Forms (Flaring Work.)
- This subject embraces a large variety of forms of frequent occurrence in sheet metal work, and the development of their surfaces comes under an altogether different set of rules than those applied to ...

- Regular Tapering Forms (Flaring Work.). Part 2
- As in the case of dividing the profile in parallel forms, this method is, theoretically, only approximate in accuracy, but the difference is so slight practically that it is not worth considering. Of ...

- Regular Tapering Forms (Flaring Work.). Part 3
- Fig. 252. - Method of Deriving the Pattern from the Drawing. A right cone having an elliptical base might seem to belong in the same class with regular tapering forms, but as the distance from ...

- Regular Tapering Forms (Flaring Work.). Part 4
- Fig. 256. - The Same Plan Shewing Two Sectors of the Smaller Cone in Position Joining the Larger One. By thus resolving the solid from which the ordinary elliptical flaring article is cut into ...

- Irregular Forms (Triangulation.)
- In some classes of sheet metal work certain forms arise for which patterns are required, but which cannot be classified under either of the two previous subdivisions. Their surfaces do not seem to be ...

- Irregular Forms (Triangulation.). Part 2
- Preparatory to obtaining the varying width of the pattern of the side, a number of points must be fixed upon in the curves of both top and bottom from which to take the measurements. As one-quarter of...

- Irregular Forms (Triangulation.). Part 3
- The hypothenuses of the various triangles will thus represent the true distances across the pattern upon the solid lines of the plan, while the distances upon the dotted lines can be represented by pi...

- Irregular Forms (Triangulation.). Part 4
- Fig. 265. - One-half Pattern of Side of Article Shown in Fig. 261. Still another class of forms demanding treatment by triangulation result from the construction of arches Principles of Patt...

- Irregular Forms (Triangulation.). Part 5
- Fig. 268. - Frustum of an Elliptical Cone. In Fig. 268 is shown a perspective view of the frustum of the cone shown in Fig. 266, the upper surface A B being shown in Pig. 266 by the lines G H a...

- Irregular Forms (Triangulation.). Part 6
- For greater accuracy in the case of a very tapering cone, the circles of the. plan can be completed, as shown dotted, and their points of intersections with the line Z N can be dropped into oblique el...

- Chapter VI. Pattern Problems
- Every effort has been put forth in the preceding chapters of this book to prepare the student for the all important work which is to follow - viz., the solution of pattern problems. It is always advis...

- Section 1. Parallel Forums (Miter Cutting)
- The problems given in this section arc such as occur in joining moldings, pipes and all regular continuous forms at. any angle and against any other form or surface, and in fact include everything tha...

- Problem 1. A Butt Miter Against A Plain Surface Oblique In Elevation
- Let A B L K in Fig. 272 be the elevation of a portion of a cornice, of which C D is the profile and A B the angle or inclination of the surface against which the cornice is required to miter. Divide t...

- Problem 2. A Butt Miter Against A Plain Surface Oblique In Plan
- Fig. 278. - A Butt Miter Against a Plain Surface Oblique in Plan. Let A B L K in Fig. 273 be the plan of the cornice which is required to miter against a vertical surface standing at any angle ...

- Problem 3. A Square Return Miter, Or A Miter At Right Angles, As In A Cornice At The Corner Of A Building
- In Fig. 274, let A B D C be the elevation of a cornice at the corner of the building tor which a miter at right angles is desired. As has been explained in the chapter on the Principles of Pattern Cut...

- Problem 4. A Return Miter At Other Than A Right Angle, As In A Cornice At The Corner Of A Building
- In Fig. 276, let A B C D be the elevation of a portion of cornice, and let G H K be the plan of any angle around which the cornice is to be carried, a pattern being required for an arm of the miter. C...

- Problem 5. A Butt Miter Against A Curved Surface
- In Fig. 277, let A B be the profile of any cornice and D K H C be the elevation of the same showing the curved surface C D, against which it is required to miter. The principle herein involved is exac...

- Problem 6. The Pattern For A Hip Finish In A Curved Mansard Roof, The Plan Of The Hip Being A Right Angle
- The solution of all problems concerning mansard roofs, and especially those in which the roof surface is curved, calls for much good judgment on the part of the pattern cutter, for the reason that the...

- Problem 7. Miter Between Two Moldings Of Different Profiles
- To construct a square miter between moldings of dissimilar profiles requires two distinct operations. The miter upon each piece is to be cut as it would ap-pear when intersected by the other molding. ...

- Problem 8. A Butt Miter Against An Irregular Or Molded Surface
- Let B A in Fig. 281 be the profile of a cornice, against which a molding of the profile, shown by G H, is to miter, the latter meeting it at an inclination, as indicated by C D. Construct an elevation...

- Problem 9. The Pattern Of A Rectangular Flaring Article
- In Fig. 282, let C A B E be the side elevation of the article, of which F I K M is the plan at the base and G H L N the plan at the top. Let it be required to produce the pattern in one piece, the top...

- Problem 10. Patterns Of The Face And Side Of A Plain Tapering Keystone
- Let A B D C in Fig. 283 be the elevation of the face of a keystone, and G E2 F2 K of Fig. 284 a section of the same on its center line. Sometimes problems occur which are so simple that it is not a...

- Problem 11. Patterns For The Corner Piece Of A Mansard Roof, Embodying The Principles Upon Which All Mansard Finishes Are Developed
- One of the first steps in developing the patterns for trimming the angles of a mansard roof is to obtain a representation of the true face of the roof. In other words, inasmuch as the surface of the r...

- Problem 12. A Face Miter At Right Angles, As In The Molding Around A Panel
- In Fig. 286, let A B D C represent any panel, around which a molding is to be carried of the profile at E and E1. The miters required in this case are of the nature commonly called face miters, to d...

- Problem 13. The Patterns Of The Moldings Bounding A Panel Triangular In Shape
- In Fig. 287, let D E F be the elevation of a triangular panel or other article, surrounding which is a molding of the profile, shown at G and G1. Construct an elevation of the panel molds, as shown by...

- Problem 14. The Patterns Of A Molding Mitering Around An Irregular Four-Sided Figure
- In Fig. 288, let A B C D be the elevation of an irregular four-sided figure, to which a molding is to be fitted of the profile shown by K. Place a duplicate profile against the side opposite, as shown...

- Problem 15. The Patterns Of Simple Gable Miters
- In Fig. 289, let A B K and B K B be the angles of the miters at the foot and peak of a gable. Draw profiles of the required molding in correct relation to both the horizontal and inclined moldings, as...

- Problem 16. The Pattern For A Pedestal Of Which The Plan Is An Equilateral Triangle
- Fig. 290. - The Pattern for a Pedestal of which the Plan is an Equilateral Triangle. Let A B D C in Fig. 290 be the elevation of a pedestal or other article of which the plan is an equilateral ...

- Problem 17. The Pattern For A Pedestal Square In Plan
- In Fig. 291, let A B D C be the elevation of a pedestal the four sides of which are alike, being in plan as shown by E H G F, Fig. 292. Since the plan is a rectangular figure the miters involved are s...

- Problem 18. The Patterns For A Vase, The Plan Of Which Is A Pentagon
- In Fig. 293, let S C K T be the elevation of a vase, the plan of which is a pentagon, as shown O C C2 R P. The elevation must be drawn in such a manner that one of the sides will be shown in prome. Dr...

- Problem 19. The Pattern For A Pedestal, The Plan Of Which Is A Hexagon
- Fig. 205. - The Pattern for a Pedestal, the Plan of which is a Hexagon. In Fig. 295, let C DFE be the elevation of a pedestal which it is desired to construct of six equal sides, drawn so that ...

- Problem 20. The Pattern For A Vase, The Plan Of Which Is A Heptagon
- Fig. 296 - The Pattern for a Vase, the Plan of which is a Heptagon. In Fig. 296, let E L P G be the elevation of the vase, constructed in such a manner that one of its sides will be shown in pr...

- Problem 21. The Patterns For An Octagonal Pedestal
- Let K H G W L in Fig. 297 be the elevation of a pedestal octagon in plan, of which the pattern of a section is required. This elevation should be drawn in such a manner that one side of it will appear...

- Problem 22. The Patterns For A Newel Post, The Plan Of Which Is A Decagon
- In Fig. 298, let W U S P O R T V be the elevation of a newel post which is required to be constructed in ton parts. Draw the plan below the elevation, as shown. The elevation must show one of the sect...

- Problem 23. The Patterns For An Urn, The Plan Of Which Is A Dodecagon
- In Fig. 300, let X A. G H be the elevation of an urn to be constructed in twelve pieces. The elevation must be drawn bo as to show one side in profile. Construct the plan, as shown, to correspond with...

- Problem 25. The Pattern Of A Boss Fitting Over A Miter In A Molding"
- Let A B C in Fig. 303 be the part elevation of a pediment, as in a cornice or window cap, over the miter and against the molding and fascia in which a boss, F K G H, is required to be fitted, all as s...

- Problem 26. The Patterns For A Keystone Having A Molded Face With Sink
- In Fig. 304, let E A B F be the front elevation of a keystone, as for a window cap, of which K L M P S R is a sectional view, giving the profile of the molding M N O P, over which it is required to fi...

- Problem 28. To Describe The Pattern Of An Octagon Shaft To Fit Against A Ball
- Let H F K in Fig. 300 be the given ball, of which G is the center. Let D1 G2 C3 D3 E represent a plan of the octagon shaft which is required to Jit against the ball. Draw this plan in line with the ce...

- Problem 29. The Patterns Of An Octagonal Shaft, The Profile Of Which Is Curved, Fitting: Over The Ridge Of A Roof
- In Fig. 307 is shown the elevation and plan of the shaft of a finial of the design shown in Fig. 308. The -haft is octagon throughout, and if it were designed to stand upon a level surface, the method...

- Problem 30. To Construct A Ball In Any Number Of Pieces, Of The Shape Of Gores
- Draw a circle of a size corresponding to the required ball, as shown in Fig. 309,which divide, by any of the usual methods employed in the construction of polygons, into the number of parts of which i...

- Problem 31. The Pattern Of A Round Pipe To Fit Against A Roof Of One Inclination
- Fig. 310 - The Pattern of a Round Pipe to Fit Against, a Roof of ' One Inclination. In Fig. 310, let A B be the pitch of the roof and C F D E the profile of the pipe which is to miter against i...

- Problem 32. The Pattern Of An Elliptical Pipe To Fit Against A Roof Of One Inclination
- In Fig. 311, let NCDO be the elevation of an elliptical pipe fitting against a roof, represented by A B. Let E F G Q be the section or profile of the pipe. Draw the profile in convenient proximity to ...

- Problem 33. The Pattern Of An Octagon Shaft Fitting Over The Ridge Of A Roof
- In Fig. 312, let A B C be the section and D H G I E the elevation of an octagon shaft mitering against a roof, represented by the lines F G and G K. Place the section in line with the elevation, as sh...

- Problem 36. The Pattern Of A Flange To Fit Around A Pipe And Over The Ridge Of A Roof
- In Fig. 315, let A B C be the section of the roof against which the flange is to fit, and let O P S R be the elevation of the pipe required to pass through the flange. Let the flange in size be requir...

- Problem 37. The Pattern Of A Flange To Fit Around A Pipe And Against A Roof Of One Inclination
- Fig. 316 - The Pattern of a Flange to Fit Around a Pipe and Against a Roof of One Inclination. Let L M, Fig. 316, be the inclination of the roof and P R T S an elevation of the pipe passing thr...

- Problem 38. The Pattern For A Two-Piece Elbow
- In Fig. 317, let A C B D be the profile of the pipe in which the elbow is to be made. Draw an elevation of the elbow with the two arms at right angles to each other, one of which is projected directly...

- Problem 39. The Patterns For A Two-Piece Elbow In An Elliptical Pipe. - Two Cases
- The only difference to be observed in cutting the patterns for elbows in elliptical pipes, as compared with the same operations in connection with round pipes, lies with the profile or section. The se...

- Problem 40. The Patterns For A Three-Piece Elbow
- In Fig. 320, let E M L I H K N F be the elevation of a three-piece elbow. The drawing of a three-piece elbow, at any angle whatever, should be so constructed that the middle section or portion bears t...

- Problem 41. The Patterns For A Four-Piece Elbow
- In constructing the elevation of a four-piece elbow, first draw the profile A B C, from which project one of the arms of the elbow, as shown by the lines A F and C G, Fig. 321, At right angles to this...

- Problem 43. The Patterns For A Pipe Carried Around A Semicircle By Means Of Cross Joints
- In Fig. 323, let F E D be the semicircle around which a pipe, of which A C B is a section, is to be carried by means of any suitable number of cross joints, in this instance ten. Divide the semicircle...

- Problem 45. The Patterns For A Bifurcated Pipe, The Two Arms Being The Same Diameter As The Main Pipe, And Leaving It At The Same Angle
- In Fig. 325 is shown an elevation of a bifurcated pipe, all arms being of the same diameter. In this problem, as in many others, it becomes necessary to first make a correct drawing of the intersectio...

- Problem 46. The Patterns For The Top And Bottom Of A "Common" Skylight Bar
- In Fig. 326, A B represents a portion of the profile of the ridge bar, or of the ventilator forming the top finish of a skylight, against which the upper end of a common bar is required to miter; an...

- Problem 47. The Patterns For A T-Joint Between Pipes Of The Same Diameters
- Let D F G H M I K E in Fig. 327 be the elevation of two pipes of the same size meeting at right angles and forming a T, of which A B C D and A1 B1 C1 D1 are profiles drawn in line with either piece. A...

- Problem 48. The Patterns For A Square Pipe Describing A Twist Or Compound Curve
- As problems of this nature frequently occur in connection with hot air pipes, grain chutes, etc., this problem is given as embodying principles which can often be made use of. The upper opening of the...

- Problem 50. The Pattern For A Pyramidal Flange To Fit Against The Sides Of A Round Pipe Which Passes Through Its Apex
- A pictorial illustration of the flange fitting against the sides of the pipe, as stated above, is shown in Fig. 332. In Fig. 333 K L M represents the elevation of pyramid, and P R T S elevation of the...

- Problem 51. The Patterns For A Square Pyramid To Fit Against The Sides Of An Elliptical Pipe Which Passes Through Its Center
- In Fig. 334, A B C D shows the plan of a square pyramid, whose apex, if completed, would be at E. F H I J shows the horizontal section of an elliptical pipe, against the sides of which the sides of th...

- Problem 52. The Patterns For A Rectangular Pipe Intersecting A Cylinder Obliquely
- In Fig. 335, let A B C represent the plan of a drum or cylinder, and B E D C the plan of rectangular pipe, the profile of which is shown by F G H I. In the elevation, J K L M represents the drum, N O ...

- Problem 53. The Pattern For The Intermediate Piece Of A Double Elbow Joining Two Other Pieces Not Lying In The Same Plane
- In Fig. 338 is shown a front and side view of a somewhat complicated arrangement, of elbows such as sometimes occurs when pipes have to be carried around beams or through limited openings. An inspecti...

- The Pattern For The Intermediate Piece Of A Double Elbow Joining Two Other Pieces Not Lying In The Same Plane. Continued
- To obtain the pattern for the middle portion in one piece further calculations, however, will be required. This, of course, could be obviated by making a slip joint in the middle portion of the pipe, ...

- Problem 54. A Joint Between Two Pipes Of The Same Diameter At Other Than Right Angles
- Let L F D E K I H M of Fig. 341 represent the elevation of two pipes of the same diameter meeting at the angle M H I, for which patterns are required. Draw the profile or section A1 B1 C1 in line with...

- Problem 56. A T-Joint Between Pipes Of Different Diameters
- In Fig. 343 it is required to make a joint at right angles between the smaller pipe D F G E and the larger pipe H K L I. For this purpose both a side and an end view are necessary. As the two pieces f...

- Problem 58. The Joint Between An Elliptical Pipe And A Round Pipe Of Larger Diameter At Other Than Right Angles. - Two Cases
- In Fig. 345 J K L M is the side elevation of the round pipe and K F G H that of the elliptical pipe joining the larger pipe at the angle FGJ. In the end elevation T S I shows the profile of the round ...

- Problem 59. A T-Joint Between Pipes Of Different Diameters, The Axis Of The Smaller Pipe Passing: To One Side Of That Of The Larger
- The principle here involved and the method of procedure are exactly the same as in Problem 56, but the whole of the profiles must be used instead of the halves, because the two axes or center lines of...

- Problem 60. A Joint At Other Than Right Angles Between Two Pipes Of Different Diameters, The Axis Of The Smaller Pipe Being Placed To One Side Of That Of The Larger One
- In Fig. 348, let C1 B1 A1 be the size of the smaller pipe, and D1 E1 I1 the size of the larger pipe, between which a joint is required at an angle represented by W F K, the smaller pipe to be placed t...

- Problem 61. The Patterns For A Pipe Intersecting: A Four-Piece Elbow Through One Of The Miters
- In Fig. 349, let A BCDE E1 D1 C1 B1 A1 represent the four-pieced elbow in elevation, F G H J its profile, and K L M N the elevation of the pipe which intersects the elbow through a miter joint. In lin...

- Problem 62. The Pattern For A Gable Molding Mitering Against A Molded Pilaster
- Let N X V E in Fig. 351 be the elevation of a gable molding of which A BCD is the profile, and K O M L be the elevation of a molded pilaster against which it is required to miter. The profile of the p...

- Problem 63. The Patterns For An Anvil
- It frequently occurs that sheet metal reproductions of various emblems or tools are desired for use as ornaments or signs. In the following problem is shown how the various pieces necessary to form an...

- Problem 65. The Pattern For The Molding On The Side Of A Dormer Mitering Against The Octagonal Side Of A Tower Roof
- Fig. 355. - The Pattern for the Molding on the Side of a Dormer Mitering Against the Octagonal Side of a Tower Roof. Let FJHG in Fig. 355 represent a half elevation of a portion of the tower ro...

- Problem 66. The Pattern For An Inclined Molding Mitering Upon A Wash Including A Return
- As a feature of design, it frequently occurs that a belt course between stories is carried around pilasters which occur between all the windows of a front, and which rise from the foundations to the m...

- Problem 67. The Pattern For A Level Molding Mitering Obliquely Against Another Level Molding Of Different Profile
- In Fig. 357 is shown the plan and a portion of the side view of a bay window. In the side view is also shown the section of a lintel molding, shown indefinitely by C D E F of the plan, which it is req...

- Problem 68. The Patterns For A Square Shaft Of Curved Profile Mitering Over The Peak Of A Gable Coping; Having: A Double Wash
- Let A B C in Fig 359 be the front elevation and D E F G H be the side elevation of a coping to surmount a gable, the profile of the top of which is shown at D K H in the side elevation. Also let MNOP ...

- Problem 69. The Patterns Of A Cylinder Mitering With The Peak Of A Gable Coping Having A Double Wash
- Let A B C in Fig. 360 be the elevation of a coping to surmount a gable, the profile of which is D E K K1 D1, which, as will be seen, shows a double wash, E F and F E1 Let M O P N be the elevation of a...

- Problem 70. A Butt Miter Of A Molding; Inclined In Elevation Against A Plain Surface Oblique In Plan
- Fig. 361. - A Butt Miter of a Molding Inclined in Elevation Against a Plain Surface Oblique in Plan. Let A B in Fig. 361 be the profile of a given cornice, and let E D represent the rake or inc...

- Problem 71. Patterns For The Moldings And Roof Pieces In The Gables Of A Square Pinnacle
- Fig. 302 shows the elevation of one of four similar gables occurring in a square pinnacle. The profile of the molding is shown at P. The first step is to obtain the miter line or elevation of the mite...

- Problem 72. Pattern For The Moldings And Roof Pieces In The Gables Of An Octagon Pinnacle
- Fig. 363 shows a partial elevation and a portion of the plan of an octagon pinnacle having equal gables on all sides. The first step in developing the patterns is to obtain a miter line at the foot of...

- Problem 73. The Pattern For The Miter Between The Moldings Of Adjacent Gables Upon A Square Shaft, Formed By Means Of A Ball
- In Fig. 364, let A C be one of the gables in profile and B D the other in elevation, the moldings forming a joint against a ball, the center of which is at B. The first operation necessary will be tha...

- Problem 74. The Pattern Of A Flaring Article Of Which The Base Is An Oblong And The Top Square
- Let A B D E of Fig. 365 be the elevation of the article, and F N O I the plan at the base, K M P L being the plan at the top. If the sides are to be developed in connection with the top (supposing the...

- Problem 75. The Envelope Of The Frustum Of A Pyramid Which Is Diamond Shape In Plan
- In Fig. 367, let A B D E be the elevation and K G I O the plan of the pyramid at the base. Project the points B and D into the plan, as shown, locating the points M and P, and draw the sides of the pl...

- Problem 76. The Pattern Of The Flaring: End Of An Oblong Tub
- In Fig. 368, A B D C shows the elevation and N P O R the plan of a vessel having straight sides and semicircular ends, one end of which is slanting. First draw a correct plan and elevation of the arti...

- Problem 77. Pattern For The Flaring Section Of A Locomotive Boiler
- While the pattern here described is especially adapted to the tapering section or taper course of a locomotive boiler its principles are equally applicable to tanks, cans or pipes whose shapes are g...

- Problem 78. The Pattern For A Blower For A Grate
- In Fig. 370 D F K H E shows a front view, V L M O a side view, and A C B a plan of a blower. The conditions which determine the course to be pursued in arriving at the pattern are that its upper outli...

- Problem 79. Pattern For A Can Boss To Fit Around A Faucet
- In Fig. 371 is shown a top and side view of a boss whose sides are in part parallel and just sufficiently apart to allow the faucet to fit between them. L N represents the diameter of the opening at t...

- Problem 80. The Patterns For A Molded Base In Which The Projection Of The Sides Is Different From That Of The Ends
- Let A B C D, in Fig. 372, represent the side view and E F G H the plan of a base in which the projection of the sides, as shown at O P, is less than that of the ends, as shown at M C. B C and A D show...

- Problem 81. The Patterns For An Elliptical Vase Constructed In Twelve Pieces
- The first essential in beginning the work is an ellipse, which may be drawn by whatever rule is most convenient, and which must be of the length and breadth which the vase is required to have. Draw th...

- Problem 82. The Patterns For A Finial, The Plan Of Which Is An Irregular Polygon
- In the central portion of Fig. 374 is shown the plan B C D E F G H, upon which it is required to construct a finial, the only other view given being a section through one of the sides, being that numb...

- Problem 83. Pattern For A Three-Piece Elbow, The Middle Piece Being: A Gore
- Let A B C D E F G in Fig. 375 be the elevation of a three-piece elbow to any given angle, as G F E, the middle piece of which, B C H, forms a gore extending around one-half the diameter. The lines H B...

- Problem 84. The Patterns Of A Tapering Article Which Is Square At The Base And Octagonal At The Top
- A B D C in Fig. 376 shows the plan of the article at the base, IKLMHGFE represents the shape at the top, E3 H2 D2 C2 is an elevation of one side. In order to obtain the slant hight of the octagonal si...

- Problem 86. The Pattern For A Gore Piece Forming; A Transition From An Octagon To A Square, As At The End Of A Chamfer
- In Fig. 380, let F F F F represent the plan of the square portion of a shaft and A A A A that of the octagon portion. Let D P C be the elevation of the gore piece which is required to form the transit...

- Problem 87. The Pattern For A Gore Piece In A Molded Article, Forming A Transition From A Square To An Octagon
- In Fig. 381, let A B D C represent the elevation of an article of which Gr H I J is the half plan at the base and K L M N O P the half plan at the top. A C of the elevation is the normal profile or pr...

- Problem 88. The Patterns For A Raking: Bracket
- This is one of the many instances which calls for special draftsmanship on the part of the pattern cutter. Frequently the architect's drawings give only a detail of a bracket for the level cornice of ...

- Problem 89. The Pattern For A Raised Panel On The Face Of A Raking Bracket
- In the solution of the problem stated above, and which is given in Fig. 385, the first requisite is the design or outline of the side of the normal bracket, as such an outline is really a section thro...

- Problem 90. The Patterns For A Diagonal Bracket Under Cornice Of A Hipped Roof
- In Fig. 386 is shown a constructive section of the cornice of a hipped roof, under which the bracket L fits against the planceer and over the bed molding C. Fig. 387 shows an inverted plan of the angl...

- Problem 91. To Obtain The Profile Of A Horizontal Return, At The Foot Of A Gable, Necessary To Miter At Right Angles In Plan With An Inclined Molding: Of Normal Profile, And The Miter Patterns Of Both
- In the elevation B C E D, and plan FGHKLI, of Fig. 390 is presented a set of conditions which necessitate a change of profile in either the horizontal or raking molding, in order to accomplish a miter...

- Problem 92. To Obtain The Profile Of An Inclined Molding Necessary To Miter At Right Angles In Plan With A Given Horizontal Return, And The Miter Patterns Of Both
- The conditions shown in this problem are similar to those in the one just demonstrated. In this, however, the normal profile is given to the horizontal return, and the profile or the raking cornice is...

- Problem 93. To Obtain The Profile Of The Horizontal Return At The Top Of A Broken Pediment Necessary To Miter With A Given Inclined Molding, And The Patterns Of Both
- In Fig. 392, C B D represents a portion of the elevation of what is known as a broken pediment, the normal profile of whose cornice is shown at A1. With these conditions existing it becomes necessar...

- Problem 94. To Obtain The Profile And Patterns Of The Returns At The Top And Foot Of A Segmental Broken Pediment
- The preceding three problems treat of the various miters involved in the construction of angular pediments. In Fig. 393 is shown an elevation of a curved or segmental broken pediment in which the norm...

- Problem 95. From The Profile Of A Given Horizontal Molding, To Obtain The Profile Of An Inclined Molding Necessary To Miter With It At An Octagon Angle In Plan, And The Patterns For Both Arms Of The Miter
- Another example wherein is required a change of profile in order to produce a miter between the parts is shown in Fig. 394. In this case the angle shown in plan between the abutting members is that of...

- Problem 96. From The Profile Of A Given Inclined Molding, To Establish The Profile Of A Horizontal Molding To Miter With It At An Octagon Angle In Plan, And The Patterns For Both Arms
- In Fig. 395, let B C D be the angle in plan at which the two moldings are to join, U O V the angle in elevation, and A or A' the normal profile of the raking mold. To form a miter between moldings mee...

- Problem 97. The Miter Between The Moldings Of Adjacent Gables Of Different Pitches Upon A Pinnacle With Rectangular Shaft
- The problem presented in Figs. 396 and 397 is one occasionally arising in pinnacle work. The figures represent the side and end elevations of a pinnacle which is rectangular, but not square. All of it...

- Problem 98. The Miter Between The Moldings Of Adjacent Gables Of Different Pitches Upon An Octagon Pinnacle
- This problem differs from the preceding one in that the angle of the plan is octagonal instead of square, but like it requires a change of profile in one of the gables in order to effect a miter. In F...

- Problem 99. The Patterns For A Cold Air Box In Which The Inclined Portion Joins The Level Portion Obliquely In Plan
- The conditions of the problem are clearly shown in the plan and side elevation of Fig. 400, in which Z B C is the elevation and X C' D' Y is the plan of the level portion of a cold air passage joining...

- The Patterns For A Cold Air Box In Which The Inclined Portion Joins The Level Portion Obliquely In Plan. Part 2
- Fig. 400. - Ptan and Elevations of a Cold Air Box in Which the Inclined Pertion Joins the Level Portion Obliquely in Plan. - First Solution, Now drop lines from all the points of the plan at ri...

- Patterns For A Cold Air Box In Which The Inclined Portion Joins The Level Portion Obliquely In Plan. Part 3
- Fig. 402.Pntterns of Cold Air Box. - Second Solution. PROBLEM 100. The Patterns for the Inclined Portion of a Cold Air Box to Meet the Horizontal Portion Obliquely in Plan. This problem is h...

- Problem 101. The Pattern Of A Hip Molding: Upon A Right Angle In A Mansard Roof, Mitering Against The Planceer Of A Deck Cornice
- Let Z X Y V in Fig. 404 be the elevation of a deck cornice, against the planceer of which a hip molding, shown in elevation by U W Y T, is required to miter. Let the angle of the roof be a right angle...

- Problem 102. The Pattern For A Hip Molding Upon A Right Angle In A Mansard Roof, Mitering Against A Bed Molding At The Top
- Let A C B, in Fig. 400, be the section of a portion of a mansard roof, the elevation of which is shown to the left, and let P E be any bed molding whose profile does not correspond to or member with t...

- Problem 103. Patterns For The Top And Bottom Of The Hip Bar In A Skylight
- In the upper part of Fig. 408 is shown the transverse section of a skylight in which A B represents a portion of the ventilator or finish at the top, and C D the curb or finish at the bottom. The sect...

- Problem 104. Pattern For The Top Of A Jack Bar In A Skylight
- The jack bar in a skylight is the same as the common bar in respect to its profile, and the miter at its lower end with the curb. At its upper end, however, it is required to miter against the sid...

- Problem 105. The Pattern Of A Hip Mold Upon An Octagon Angle In A Mansard Roof, Mitering Against A Bed Molding Of Corresponding Profile
- This problem, like many others pertaining toman-Bard roofs, may reach the pattern cutter in drawings either more or less accurate. and in different stages of completion. Certain facts, however - viz.,...

- Problem 106. The Pattern Of A Hip Molding Upon An Octagon Angle Of A Mansard Roof, Mitering Upon An Inclined Wash At The Bottom
- In Fig. 412, let D B of the section represent the wash surmounting the base molding at the foot of a mansard roof, the inclination of the roof being shown by B A. The plan of the angle of the roof B2 ...

- Problem 107. Pattern For A Hip Molding Mitering Against The Planceer Of A Deck Cornice On A Mansard Roof Which Is Square At The Eaves And Octagon At The Top
- In Fig. 414 is shown the method of obtaining the miter against the planceer of a deck cornice formed by the molding covering a hip, which occurs between the main roof and that part which forms the tra...

- Problem 108. Patterns For A Hip Molding Mitering Against The Bed Molding Of A Deck Cornice On A Mansard Roof Which Is Square At The Base And Octagonal At The Top
- The problem presented in Fig. 415 is similar to that described in the previous problem, with the difference that a bed molding is introduced in connection with the planceer against which the hip moldi...

- Patterns For A Hip Molding Mitering Against The Bed Molding Of A Deck Cornice On A Mansard Roof Which Is Square At The Base And Octagonal At The Top. Part 2
- Fig. 416. - Diagonal Section. Fig. 417. - True Face of Octagonal Side and Part of Pattern. Patterns for a Hip Molding Mitering Against the Bed Molding of a Deck Cornice on a Mansard Roof whi...

- The Patterns For A Hip Molding Mitering Against The Bed Molding Of A Deck Cornice On A Mansard Roof Which Is Square At The Base And Octagonal At The Top. Part 3
- Octagonal at the Top. at the Bottom. Fig. 418. - The Patterns for the Miter at the Bottom of a Hip Molding on a Mansard Roof Which is Octagon at the Top and Square Fig. 419. - Se...

- Problem 111. To Obtain The Curves For A Molding Covering The Hip Of A Curved Mansard Roof
- The method of obtaining the pattern of the fascias of a molding covering a curved hip has been given in Problem 6. As it is necessary in obtaining the patterns of the molded portion or roll, that the ...

- Section 2. Regular Tapering Forms (Flaring Work.)
- It will he well to place before the reader here a clear statement of the class of problems he may expect to meet with under this head. It will include only the envelopes of such solid figures as have ...

- Problem 112. The Envelope Of A Triangular Pyramid
- Let A B C of Fig. 424 be the elevation of the pyramid, and E F G of Fig. 425 the plan. From the center K draw the lines E K, F K and G K in the plan, representing the angles or hips of the pyramid. Fr...

- Problem 113. The Envelope Of A Square Pyramid
- Let E A C of Fig. 427 be the elevation of the pyramid, and F H K L of Fig. 428 the plan. The diagonal lines F K and L H represent the plan of the angles or hips, and G a point corresponding to the ape...

- Problem 115. The Envelope Of The Frustum Of A Square Pyramid
- In Fig. 433, let G H K I be the elevation of the article, C A E D the plan of the larger end and L M Fig. 433 - Plan and Elevation Fig. 434. - Pattern. The Envelope of the Frustum of ...

- Problem 118. The Pattern Of A Square Spire Mitering Upon Four Gables
- In Fig. 440, let B F H C be the elevation of a square spire which is required to miter over four equal gables in a pinnacle, the plan of which is also square. Produce F B and H C until they meet in...

- Problem 119. The Pattern Of An Octagon Spire Mitering Upon Eight Gables
- Let A G L in Fig. 442 be the elevation of the spire, and MOP the half plan. From the point G, which represents the lowest point of the angle or valley between the gables, to H, which represents the me...

- Problem 120. The Pattern Of An Octagon Spire Mitering Upon Four Gables
- In Fig. 444, let BEZU be the elevation of an octagon spire, mitering down upon four gables occurring upon a square pinnacle. Continue the side lines until they intersect in the apex A. Draw the center...

- Problem 121. Pattern For An Octagon Spire Mitering Upon A Roof At The Junction Of The Ridge And Hips
- In Fig. 446, let A B C represent the front elevation of the roof and A' a c C' the corresponding plan. Fig. 446. - Plans and Elevations of Spire. Fig. 448.-Pattern. Fig. 447.-Seot...

- Problem 122. The Envelope Of A Right Cone
- In Fig. 449 let A B C be the elevation of the cone and D E F the plan of the same. To obtain the envelope set the compasses to the space B A, or the slant hight of the cone, as a radius, and from any ...

- Problem 123. The Envelope Of A Frustum Of A Right Cone
- The principle involved in cutting the pattern for the frustum of a cone is precisely the same as that for cutting the envelope of the cone itself. The frustum of a right cone is a shape which enters s...

- Problem 124. To Construct A Ball In Any Number Of Pieces, Of The Shape Of Zones
- In Fig. 452, let A I G H be the elevation of a ball which it is required to construct in thirteen pieces. Divide the profile into the required sections, as shown by 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, etc., and through t...

- Problem 125. The Patterns For A Semicircular Pipe With Longitudinal Seams
- By the nature of the problem the pipe resolves itself, with respect to its section or profile, into some regular polygon. In the illustration presented in Fig. 459 an octagonal form is employed, but a...

- Problem 126. The Blank For A Curved Molding
- As curved moldings necessitate a stretching of the metal in order to accommodate them to both the curve of the elevation or plan and the curve of the profile at the same time, the patterns for their b...

- Problem 129. The Pattern Of An Oblong Raised Cover With Semicircular Ends
- In Fig. 468 let ABCD represent a side elevation of the cover of which EGFH is the plan or shape of the vessel it is to fit. Various constructions may be employed in making such a cover as this; that i...

- Problem 130. The Pattern Of A Regular Flaring Article Which Is Oblong With Semicircular Ends
- In Fig. 469, let A B D C be the side elevation of the required article. Below it and in line with it draw a plan, as shown by E c d F H G. From D in the elevation erect the perpendicular D L. Then L C...

- Problem 131. The Pattern Of A Regular Flaring: Oblong Article With Round Corners
- In Fig. 471, A C D B is the side elevation of the article and EFGMNOPR the plan. The corners are arcs of circles, being struck by centers H, L, T and S, as shown. Draw the plan in line with the elevat...

- Problem 132. The Envelope Of The Frustum Of A Cone, The Base Of Which Is An Elliptical Fngure
- This shape is very frequently used in pans and plates, and therefore in Fig. 473 is shown an elevation and plan of what is familiarly termed an oval flaring pan. Let that part of the plan lying betwee...

- Problem 133. The Pattern Of A Heart-Shaped Flaring Tray
- Let E C G1 F G C1 of Fig. 476 be the plan of the article, and I N O K the elevation. By inspection of the plan it will be seen that each half of it consists of two arcs, one being struck from D or D1 ...

- Problem 134. The Pattern Of An Oval Or Egg-Shaped Flaring Pan
- Let A B C D in Fig. 470 represent the elevation of the article, of which A1KLB1MI is the plan. The plan is constructed by means of the centers O, P, F and F1, as indicated. The patterns, therefore, ar...

- Problem 135. The Envelope Of The Frustum Of A Right Cone, The Upper Plane Of Which Is Oblique To Its Axis
- In Fig. 484. let C B D E be the elevation of the required shape. Produce the sides C B and E D until they intersect at A. Then A will be the apex of the cone of which C B D E is a frustum. Draw the ax...

- Problem 136. The Envelope Of A Right Cone Whose Base Is Oblique To Its Axis
- In Fig. 485, let G D H be the elevation of a right cone whose base is oblique to its axis, the pattern of which is required. It will be necessary first to assume any section of the cone at right angle...

- Problem 137. A Conical Flange To Fit Around A Pipe And Against A Roof Of One Inclination
- In Fig. 486 is shown, by means of elevation and plan, the general requirements of the problem. A B represents the pitch of the roof, G H K I represents the pipe passing through it, and C D F E the req...

- Problem 138. The Pattern For A Cracker Boat
- Let E F H G, in Fig. 488, be the side elevation, A B C D E the end, and IKJL the plan of a dish sometimes called a cracker boat or bread tray. The sides of the dish are parts of the frustum of a right...

- Problem 139. Pattern For The Frustum Of A Cone Fitting: Against A Surface Of Two Inclinations
- In Fig. 400, let A B C D represent the frustum of a cone, the base of which is to be so out as to make it lit against a roof of two inclinations, as indicated by P R D. Continue the lines of the sides...

- Problem 140. The Pattern Of A Frustum Of A Cone Intersected At Its Lower End By A Cylinder, Their Axes Intersecting: At Right Angles
- Let S P R T in Fig. 491 be the elevation of the cylinder, and a G K H b the elevation of the frustum. Draw the axis of the cylinder, A B, which prolong, as shown by C D, on which construct a profile o...

- The Pattern Of A Frustum Of A Cone Intersected At Its Lower End By A Cylinder, Their Axes Intersecting: At Right Angles. Continued
- Let A B C D of Fig. 493 represent the side elevation of a pitcher top having the same Bare all around, and E F G H the plan at the base. By producing the lines A D and B C until they intersect in the ...

- Problem 144. The Envelope Of A Frustum Of A Right Cone Contained Between Planes Oblique To Its Axis
- In Fig. 495, let F L M K represent the section of the cone the pattern for which is required. Produce the sides F L and K M until they meet in the point N, which is the apex of the cone of which F L M...

- Problem 145. The Pattern Of A Cone Intersected By A Cylinder At Its Upper End, Their Axes Crossing: At Right Angles
- In the plan, Fig. 496, let A B C D F represent a frustum of the cone B C G, B H O being the half profile of cone at its base and A D J the plan of the cylinder. In line with the cylinder in plan draw ...

- Problem 146. Pattern Of A Tapering; Article With Equal Flare Throughout, Which Corresponds To The Frustum Of A Cone Whose Base Is An Approximate Ellipse Struck From Centers, The Upper Plane Of The Frustum Being Oblique To The Axis
- In Fig. 497, let H F G A be the shape of the article as seen in side elevation. The plan is shown by I L N O. In order to indicate the principle involved in the development of this shape, it will be n...

- Problem 149. The Patterns For A Scale Scoop, One End Of Which Is Funnel Shaped
- In Fig. 500 is shown a side view of a scale scoop by which it will be seen that the portion A B G H of the funnel-shaped end is a simple cylinder and, therefore, need not be further noticed here. In F...

- Problem 150. The Pattern Of A Conical Spire Mitering; Upon Four Gables
- Let E I O B in Fig. 503 be the elevation of a pinnacle having four equal gables, down upon which a conical spire is required to be mitered, as shown. Produce the sides of the spire until they meet ...

- Problem 151. The Pattern Of A Conical Spire Mitering; Upon Eight Gables
- In Fig. 505 is shown the elevation of a pinnacle having eight equal gables, upon which the conical spire E F P I is to be fitted. Produce the sides F E and P I until they meet in the point D, which is...

- Problem 152. Patterns For A Two-Piece Elbow In A Tapering Pipe
- In the solution of this problem two conditions may arise; in the first, the two pieces of the elbow have the same flare or taper, while in the second case one of the pieces may have more flare than th...

- Problem 153. Patterns For A Three-Piece Elbow In A Tapering; Pipe
- In Fig. 508 is shown a three-piece elbow occurring in taper pipe, in which the flare is uniform throughout the three sections. In solving this problem the simplest method will be to construct the elev...

- Problem 154. The Patterns For A Regular Tapering: Elbow In Five Pieces
- Fig. 509. - Diagram of Angles for a Five Piece Elbow. In this problem, as in the two immediately preceding, the various pieces necessary to form the elbow may be cut from one cone, whose dimens...

- Problem 155. The Frustum Of A Cone Intersecting A Cylinder Of Greater Diameter Than Itself At Other Than Right Angles
- In Fig. 512, E G H F represents an elevation of the cylinder, and M N L K an elevation of the frustum of a cone intersecting it. F1 Z Q represents the profile or plan of the cylinder, to which it will...

- Problem 156. The Patterns Of The Frustum Of A Cone Joining A Cylinder Of Greater Diameter Than Itself At Other Than Right Angles, The Axis Of The Frustum Passing To One Side Of That Of The Cylinder
- Let K F H G in Fig. 513 be the elevation of a cylinder, which is to be intersected by a. cone or frustum, D A J C, at the angle F D A in elevation, and which is to be set to one side of the center, al...

- Problem 157. The Patterns Of A Cone Intersected By A Cylinder Of Less Diameter Than Itself, Their Axes Crossing; At Right Angles
- In Fig. 514, let B G E D F A C be the elevation of the required article. Draw the plan in line with the elevation, making like points correspond in the two views, as shown by M O S T U P N. Let D M E ...

- Problem 158. The Patterns Of A Cone Intersected By A Cylinder Of Less Diameter Than Itself At Right Angles To Its Base, The Axis Of The Cylinder Being To One Side Of That Of The Cone
- Fig. 516. - Plam and Elevation of Cone Interserted by a Cylinder at Right Angles to its Base. In Fig. 516, let B A C represent the elevation of the cone, D E G H the elevation of the cylinder, ...

- Problem 159. Patterns Of A Cylinder Joining A Cone Of Greater Diameter Than Itself At Right Angles To The Side Of The Cone
- Let B A K in Fig. 519 be the elevation of a right cone, perpendicular to the side of which a cylinder, L S T M, is to be joined. The first operation will be to describe the miter line as it would appe...

- Problem 160. The Patterns Of A Cylinder Joining The Frustum Of A Cone In Which The Axis Of The Cylinder Is Neither At Right Angles To The Axis Nor To The Side Of The Cone
- The principles involved in the solution of this problem are exactly the same as those of the problem immediately preceding, to which the reader is referred for a more full explanation of the operation...

- Problem 161. The Patterns Of Two Cones Of Unequal Diameter Intersecting At Right Angles To Their Axes
- Let U T V in Fig. 523 be the elevation of a cone, at right angles to the axis of which another cone or frustum of a cone, O F G P, is to miter. Let L K N M be a section of the frustum on the line F G....

- Problem 162. The Patterns Of The Frustums Of Two Cones Of Unequal Diameters Intersecting Obliquely
- In Fig. 524, let M N P O be the side elevation of the larger frustum and F1 G1 S R the side elevation of the smaller, the two joining upon a line between the points R and S, which line must be obtaine...

- Section 3. Irregular Forms (Triangulation.)
- The class of subjects treated in this section will include all irregular forms which can be constructed from sheet metal by simple bending or forming, but whose patterns cannot be developed by the reg...

- Problem 163. The Envelope Of A Scalene Cone
- In Figs. 526 and 527 are shown perspective representations of scalene or oblique cones. In Fig. 526 the inclination of the axis to the base is so great that a vertical line dropped from its apex would...

- Problem 164. The Envelope Of An Elliptical Cone
- In Fig. 530 is shown an elevation and plan of a cone whose ba3e is an elliptical figure. So far as the solution of this problem is concerned the plan may be a perfect ellipse or an approximate ellipse...

- Problem 165. Pattern For A Raised Boiler Cover With Rounded Corners
- The shape of the cover considered in this problem may perhaps be more accurately described as that of an oblong pyramid with rounded corners, as shown by the plan and elevation in Fig. 533, an inspect...

- Problem 166. Pattern For The End Of An Oblong Vessel Which Is Semicircular At The Top And Rectangular At The Bottom
- In Fig. 536, A C D E represents the side elevation of the article, F H K L the end elevation, and M N R P in Fig. 537 the plan. By inspection of these it will be seen that the portion represented upon...

- Problem 167. Pattern Of An Irregular Flaring Article, Both Top And Bottom Of Which Are Round And Parallel, But Placed Eccentrically In Plan; Otherwise The Envelope Of The Frustum Of A Scalene Cone
- In Fig. 540 is shown an elevation and plan of the article, in which E F G I is the plan of the bottom and E J K L that of the top, the two being tangent at the point E. In Fig. 541 the elevation and a...

- Problem 168. Pattern Of A Flaring Article, The Top Of Which Is Round And The Bottom Oblong With Semicircular Ends. - Two Cases
- First Case. - In Fig. 542 is shown the elevation and plan of the article drawn in proper relation to each other, as shown by the lines of projection. In this case the top of the article is located cen...

- Problem 169. The Patterns Of A Flaring Tub With Tapering Sides And Semicircular Head, The Head Having More Flare Than The Sides
- In Fig. 544, A B C D shows a side elevation of the tub, L M N O P the plan at the top, and E F G H K the plan at the bottom, an inspection of which will show that the head, as shown by H O or C D, has...

- Problem 170. The Pattern Of A Flaring Article Which Is Rectangular With Rounded Corners, Hiving More Flare At The Ends Than At The Sides
- In Pig. 545, A B C D E F represents the plan at the top of a portion of the flaring article, whose general shape is rectangular with rounded corners. G H I J K L represents the plan of the bottom of t...

- Problem 171. The Pattern Of A Flaring Article Which Corresponds To The Frustum Of A Cone Whose Base Is A True Ellipse
- In Fig. 546, let G H F E be the elevation of one side of the article, LMUR the elevation of an end, E1 H1 F1 U1 the plan of the article at the base, and T V S P the plan at the top. Produce E G and F ...

- Problem 172. The Patterns For A Hip Bath
- In Fig. 548, let H ALNO be the elevation of the bath, of which D1 G E1 B1 is a plan on the line D E, Let the half section A2 M C1 B2 represent the flare which the hath is required to have through i...

- Problem 173. The Patterns For A Soapmaker's Float
- In Fig. 553 is shown a perspective view of a soap-maker's float. In general characteristics it is very similar to piece No. 2 of the hip bath treated in the preceding problem. It also resembles the ba...

- Problem 174. The Envelope Of A Frustum Of An Elliptical Cone Having An Irregular Base
- The form EFKLJ shown in Fig. 557, the lower line of which is an irregular section through an elliptical cone, is introduced here, not as representing any particular article or class of forms, but beca...

- Problem 175. The Patterns Of The Frustum Of A Scalene Cone Intersected Obliquely By A Cylinder, Their Axes Not Lying In The Same Plane
- In Fig. 558, let ABCD represent the frustum of an oblique cone, and T S R V U the cylinder that joins the same at the angle indicated. The view here given of the frustum is that of its vertical side, ...

- Problem 176. The Pattern For A Chimney Top
- In Fig. 566 are shown the side and end elevations and the plan of a chimney top. ABCD of the plan represents the size of the article at the bottom to fit the chimney, and E F G H is the size of the op...

- Problem 177. The Pattern Of An Article With Rectangular Base And Round Top
- In Fig. 569 are shown the plan and elevations of an article in which the conditions are exactly the same as in the preceding problem. The article here shown differs from that shown in Fig. 566 only in...

- Problem 178. Pattern For An Article Forming A Transition From A Rectangular Base To An Elliptical Top
- In Fig. 572, A B B' A' of the plan shows the rectangular base and C E D F the elliptical top of an article, the sides of which are required to form a transition between the two outlines. A C D' B is...

- Problem 179. Pattern For An Article Forming: A Transition From A Rectangular Base To A Round Top, The Top Not Being Centrally Placed Over The Base
- In Fig. 574, F G H J of the plan represents the bottom of the article and A B D E the top. Below the plan is projected a front elevation and at the right a side elevation, like points in all the views...

- Problem 180. The Pattern For A Collar Round At The Top And Square At The Bottom, To Fit Around A Pipe Passing Through An Inclined Roof
- Let A B D C of Fig. 578 represent the side elevation of the pipe and C D E F the side view of the collar, fitting against the pitch of the roof shown by G H. Construct a plan below the elevation, a...

- Problem 181. The Pattern For A Flaring Article Round At The Base And Square At The Top
- The shape shown in Fig. 580 differs from that treated in Problem 176 principally in the fact that the round end is larger than the rectangular end instead of smaller as in Fig. 566; the conditions inv...

- Problem 182. Pattern For An Article Rectangular At One End And Round At The Other, The Plane Of The Round End Not Being Parallel To That Of The Rectangular End
- In Fig. 588 are shown front and side views and lan of an article forming a transition between a rect-angular pipe at one end and a round pipe at the other, and forming at the same time an angle betwee...

- Problem 183. The Pattern For A Flaring Article, Round At Top And Bottom, The Top Being Placed To One Side Of The Center, As Seen In Plan
- In Fig. 587, the elevation of the article is shown by A B D C, below which is drawn the plan of the same, corresponding parts in each being connected by the vertical dotted lines. There are two method...

- Problem 184. The Pattern For A Flaring Article, Round At Top And Bottom One Side Being Vertical
- In Fig. 592, ABCD shows the elevation of the article, below which E F G H shows the plan at the bottom and E J K L the plan of its top, both circles being tangent at the point E. Divide the circle ...

- Problem 186. Pattern For An Irregular Flaring Article Which Is Elliptical At The Base And Round At The Top, The Top Being So Situated As To Be Tangent To One End Of The Base When Viewed In Plan
- In Fig. 600, let D G F E be the side elevation of the article and K N M one-half of the plan of the base. The half plan of the top is shown by K W L, the base and top being tangent in plan at the poin...

- Problem 187. Pattern For A Flaring Article Or Transition Piece Round At The Top And Oblong At The Bottom, The Two Ends Being Concentric In Plan
- Fig. 603. - Plan and Elevations of Flaring Article Round at the Top and Oblong at the Bottom. In Fig. 603 are shown the side and end elevations and the plan of an article which might form a tra...

- Pattern For A Flaring Article Or Transition Piece Round At The Top And Oblong At The Bottom, The Two Ends Being Concentric In Plan. Continued
- Fig. 607 - Plan and Elevation of Transition Piece - First Case. Fig. 608. - Diagrams of Triangles Based upon the Solid Lines of the Plan, Fig. 607. 611 have not been given. While in reality ...

- Problem 189. Pattern For An Offset Between Two Pipes, Oblong In Section, Whose Long Diameters Lie At Right Angles To Each Other
- In Fig. 612 are shown the plan and elevations of an offset or transition piece to form a connection between two pipes of oblong profile which will be spoken of in the demonstration as the upper and th...

- Problem 190. Pattern For An Irregular Flaring Article Whose Top Is A Circle And Whose Base Is A Quadrant
- In Fig. 620 G E F shows the plan of the article at the base, L J K the plan at the top and ABCD an elevation of one side. An inspection of the plan will show that the article consists of two symmetric...

- Problem 191. The Patterns For A Three-Piece Elbow, The Middle Piece Of Which Tapers
- In Fig. 623, let A B D F H G E C be the side view of a three-piece elbow, the middle piece (C D F E) of which is made tapering. The piece C D F E may also be described as an offset between two round p...

- Problem 192. The Patterns For A Raking: Bracket In A Curved Pediment
- In Fig. 625, let C E F D be the front elevation of a portion of a curved pediment whose center is at K, and of which E K is the center line. C A B D of the same elevation represents the face view of a...

- Problem 193. Pattern For A Transition Piece To Join Two Round Pipes Of Unequal Diameter At An Angle
- In Fig. 626, DC K L shows a portion of the larger pipe, of which M P N O is the section; H G B A a portion of the smaller pipe, of which E J F I is the section; and A B C D the elevation of the transi...

- Problem 194. The Pattern For A Flaring: Collar The Top And Bottom Of Which Are Round And Placed Obliquely To Each Other
- Fig. 632. -Plan and Elevation of Flaring Collar. In Fig. 632 E F G H shows the side elevation of a flaring collar, the profile of the small end or top being shown at A B C D, and that of the bo...

- Problem 195. The Pattern For A Flaring Flange, Round At The Bottom, The Top To Fit A Round Pipe Passing Through An Inclined Roof
- In Fig. 636, let K L represent the pitch of the roof, A B C D the elevation of the flaring flange, A J D the half plan of the base, and 13 E C the half plan of round top through which the pipe passes....

- Problem 196. Pattern For An Irregular Flaring Article, Elliptical At The Base And Round At The Top, The Top And Bottom Not Being Parallel
- The conditions given in this problem are essentially the same as those of Problem 193, but the following solution differs from that of the former problem in the method of finding the distances from po...

- Problem 197. The Patterns For A Bathtub
- In Fig. 644, let A B C D be the elevation and E F G H half the plan of a bathtub. An inspection of the drawing shows that neither the segments forming the head nor those of the foot of the tub are con...

- Problem 198. The Pattern For A Flaring: Flange To Fit A Round Pipe Passing Through An Inclined Roof; The Flange To Have An Equal Projection From The Pipe On All Sides
- In Fig. 647, let a b c d be the elevation of the pipe, E E' its plan, A B C D the elevation of the flange and C D the angle or pitch of the roof. Since the projection of the base of the flange is requ...

- Problem 199. Pattern For The Hood Of A Portable Forge
- In Fig. 651, C A B D represents the front elevation of a hood such as is frequently used upon a portable forge, KLMN its plan and E F H J a its side view. The opening A B at the top of the hood is rou...

- Problem 200. The Patterns For The Hood Of An Oil Tank
- In Fig. 654 are shown the elevations and plan of a hood of a style which is usually hinged to the top of an oil tank, or can. The plan shows a curve of something more than a semicircle, H' G F', while...

- Problem 201. Pattern For An Irregular Flaring: Shape Forming: A Transition From A Round Horizontal Base To A Round Top Placed Vertically
- In Fig. 657, let I D E F H represent the front elevation of the article, showing the circular opening DEF6 forming its upper perimeter or profile. The triangle A B C shows the shape of the article as ...

- Problem 202. Pattern For The Lining: Of The Head Of A Bathtub
- In Fig. 660 are shown a plan and side and end views of the head of a bathtub or the lining of a tub the body of which is constructed of wood. The end view shows the bottom corners of the tub to be rou...

- Problem 203. The Pattern For A Boss To Fit Around A Faucet
- In Fig. 662 arc shown two views of a boss such as is used for fastening a faucet into the side of a large can; the curvature of the body of the can being represented by the line A D B. For convenience...

- The Pattern For A Boss To Fit Around A Faucet. Continued
- PROBLEM 204. Patterns for a Ship Ventilator Having: a Round Base and an Elliptical Mouth. In Fig. 664 are presented the front and side elevations of a ship ventilator of a style in common use. A1 B...

- Problem 205. Patterns Tor The Junction Of A Large Pipe With The Elbows Of Two Smaller Pipes Of The Same Diameter
- The elbows of the smaller pipes in the problem here presented are such as would, if each were completed independently of the other, form six-piece elbows. The junction between the two elbows occurs be...

- Problem 206. The Patterns For A Right Angle, Two-Piece Elbow, One End Of Which Is Round And The Other Elliptical
- In Fig. 672, let A G C B H D represent the elevation of elbow, A F D the half profile of elliptical end and C E B the half profile of round end. The first step will be to establish a section on the ra...

- The Patterns For A Right Angle, Two-Piece Elbow, One End Of Which Is Round And The Other Elliptical. Continued
- Fig. 675. - Diagram of Sections Upon Dotted Lines of Fig. 67S. Pattern Problems 389 PROBLEM 207. The Pattern for a Y Consisting of Two Tapering Pipes Joining a Larger Pipe at an Angle. In Fig...

- Problem 208. Pattern For A Three-Pronged Fork With Tapering; Branches
- In Fig. 684 is shown a pictorial representation of a fork, or crotch, consisting of three branches of equal size and taper; all uniting so as to form one round pipe. In the plan. Fig. 685, ABC repr...

- Problem 209. The Pattern For An Offset To Join An Oblong: Pipe With A Round One
- In Fig. 689, B C F G represents the side elevation of the offset, A B G H a portion of a round pipe joining it below, and C D E F a portion of the oblong pipe joining it above. In the plan immediately...

- Problem 210. Pattern For An Offset To Join A Round Pipe With One Of Elliptical Profile
- This problem differs from the preceding one only in the shape of the pipe having the elongated profile, which profile in the preceding problem consists of two semicircles joined by a straight part, wh...

- Pattern For An Offset To Join A Round Pipe With One Of Elliptical Profile. Part 2
- Fig. 699. - Half Pattern of offset Piece. PROBLEM 211. The Patterns for a Funnel Coal Hod. In Fig. 700 are shown the drawings for a funnel coal hod of a style in general use. In preparing su...

- Patterns For An Offset To Join A Round Pipe With One Of Elliptical Profile. Part 3
- Therefore divide the curve C1 D1 into the same number of parts as the quarter circle B1 J1, and from the points thus obtained carry lines horizontally to the left, cutting C D. Upon C1 M extended, as ...

- Problem 212. Patterns For A Three-Piece Elbow To Join A Round Pipe With An Elliptical Pipe
- In Fig. 709, let A B C D represent the profile of the round pipe and E F G H I J K L the elevation of the elbow. In the plan the profile of round pipe is represented by A1B1C1 D1, the elbow by P1 M1 G...

- Problem 213. Patterns For A Right Angle Piece Elbow To Connect A Round With A Rectangular Pipe
- In Fig. 714 is shown the design of a right angle elbow of which one end is rectangular, as shown by NOP Q, and the other round, as shown by A B C D. Such an elbow may be constructed in any number of p...

- Problem 214. Pattern For The Soffit Of A Semicircular Arch In A Circular Wall, The Soffit Being Level At The Top And The Jambs Of The Opening Being At Right Angles To The Walls In Plan. Two Cases
- First Case. - In Fig. 722, let A B C represent the outer curve of an arch in a circular wall corresponding to A' H C of plan, and let F B D represent the inner opening in the wall, as shown by E' F' D...

- Pattern For The Soffit Of A Semicircular Arch In A Circular Wall, The Soffit Being Level At The Top And The Jambs Of The Opening Being At Right Angles To The Walls In Plan. Two Cases. Continued
- Fig. 726. - Plan and Elevation of Arch in a Circular Wall - Second Case. If the arch were semi-elliptical instead of semicircular, the method of procedure would be the same as above described. ...

- Problem 215. Pattern For A Splayed Elliptical Arch In A Circular Wall, The Opening Being Larger On The Outside Of The Wall Than On The Inside
- In Fig. 730 is shown the elevation and plan of an elliptical window head in a circular wall. The outer curve of head is represented by A B C in elevation and by A' B' C in plan. The inner curve is rep...

- Problem 216. Pattern For A Splayed Arch In A Circular Wall, The Larger Opening Being On The Inside Of The Wall
- In Fig. 734 is shown the plan and elevation of an arch in a curved wall, such as might be used as the head of a window or door, the jambs and head to have the same splay. In the plan, C E D represents...

- Problem 217. Pattern For The Soffit Of An Arch In A Circular Wall, The Soffit Being: Level At The Top And The Jambs Of The Opening Being Splayed On The Inside
- In Fig. 738, A B C is the elevation of the inner curve A' H C' of the plan and EBD that of the outer curve E' F' D'. As will be seen by inspection, the outer curve is drawn from G as center, that port...

- Problem 218. Pattern Of The Blank For A Curved Molding In An Arch In A Circular Wall
- In the last paragraph of Problem 215 it is stated that the demonstration there given is applicable to the blank for a curved molding in a circular wall. There are many forms of arches and different me...