This section is from the "Hand Sewing Lessons" book, by Sarah Ewell Krolik. Also available from Amazon: Hand Sewing Lessons: A Graded Course For Schools And For The Home.
Cotton, 5 inches square.
Two lengthwise pieces of cotton: 21/2 x1/2 inches, band for gathering; 11/2 inches square, band for gauging.
Use No. 50 thread and No. 8 needle for gathering and gauging.
Use No. 70 thread and No. 9 needle for hemming.
Hem the sides that are parallel with the warp, double the thread for both gathering and gauging, cut it a little longer than the bands, and take the stitches evenly.
(a) Gather 1/4 inch from the edge, parallel with the woof, and do not draw the needle through until all of the stitches are taken. To lay the gathers, draw them so that they will lie closely together without crowding, insert a pin, and wind the thread about it. Use a No, 6 needle, begin at the left side, and stroke the gathers straight downward, with care not to injure the fabric, and lay them closely between the left thumb and fore-finger. Draw the gathers the size of the band and hold as directed above. Hem each gather to the right side of the band, or hold the gathers toward you and backstitch them. When the gathers are sewed in place, take the pin out and fasten the gathering thread.
. (5) Gauge this model opposite the gathers. Fold back 1/2 inch, and crease. Make the stitches 1/8 inch long, with 1/8 inch spaces, make the first row 1/8 inch from the fold, and the rows 1/4 inch apart. Turn the edges of the band, fold, baste, and overhand the ends. Overhand each stitch of the gauging to the band.
Illustration 18. (a) Represents Model 12 (Gathering And Gauging). Children's model. (b) Shield for fore-finger of left hand. Used by needle-women.
To lay gathers in thin cloth that has dressing in it, fill the needle with stitches, and press them tightly together before drawing them through. On soft, thin cloth, make two rows of gathers.
Illustration 19. Joining a gauged strip of cloth to a band in overhand stitch.
Illustration 20. Stitches 1/8 inch, and spaces 1/4 inch, for full gauging.
Gauging is used to draw a large quantity into a small space. The stitches are longer than for gathering, and two or three rows are made, which are directly under each other.
Bands are cut lengthwise. When extra strength is required, cut them longer and fold the ends back to stay the button-holes.
Children omit the gauging on Model 12 (Gathering And Gauging), make an inch hem in its place and add ties of narrow tape to represent an apron.