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Mechanical Drawing Self-Taught | by Joshua Rose



Comprising instructions in the selection and preparation of drawing instruments, elementary instruction in practical mechanical drawing; Together with examples in simple geometry and elementary mechanism, including screw threads, gear wheels, mechanical motions, engines and boilers.

TitleMechanical Drawing Self-Taught
AuthorJoshua Rose
PublisherHenry Carey Baird & Co
Year1887
Copyright1883, Joshua Rose
AmazonMechanical Drawing Self-Taught

Mechanical Drawing Self-Taught

By Joshua Rose, M.E., Author Of "The Complete Practical Machinist," "The Pattern Maker's Assistant," "The Slide Valve"

Illustrated By Three Hundred And Thirty Engravings.

Philadelphia: Henry Carey Baird & Co., Industrial Publishers, Booksellers And Importers, 810 Walnut Street.

London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington, Crown Buildings, 188 Fleet Street.

1887.

Copyright By Joshua Rose. 1883. Philadelphia. Collins, Printer

-Preface
The object of this book is to enable the beginner to learn to make simple mechanical drawings without the aid of an instructor, and to create an interest in the subject by giving examples such as the ...
-Chapter I. The Drawing Board
A Drawing Board should be of soft pine and free from knots, so that it will easily receive the pins or tacks used to fasten down the paper. Its surface should be flat and level, or a little rounding, ...
-The T Square
Drawing squares or T squares, as they are termed, are made of wood, of hard rubber and of steel. There are several kinds of T squares; in one the blade is solid, as it is shown in Figure 5 on page...
-The Triangles
Fig. 5. Two triangles are all that are absolutely necessary for a beginner. The first is that shown in Figure 3, which is called a triangle of 45 degrees, because its edge A is at that angle...
-Curves
To draw curves that are not formed of arcs or parts of circles, templates called curves are provided, examples of these forms being given in Figure 6. They are made in wood and in hard rubber, the lat...
-Drawing Instruments
It is not intended or necessary to enter into an elaborate discussion of the various kinds of drawing instruments, since the purchaser can obtain a good set of drawing instruments from a reputable dea...
-The Drawing Paper
Whatever kind of drawing paper be used it should be kept dry, or the ink, however good it may be, will be apt to run and make a thick line that will not have the sharp, clean edges necessary to make l...
-Tracing Paper
For taking tracings from drawings tracing paper or tracing cloth is used. They require to be stretched tightly and without wrinkles upon the drawing. To effect this object the mucilage should be thick...
-The Ink
India ink should always be used for mechanical drawing: First, because it lies upon and does not sink into the paper, and is, therefore, easily erased; and, secondly, because it does not corrode or in...
-Chapter II. The Preparation And Use Of The Instruments
The points of drawing instruments require to be very accurately prepared and shaped, to enable them to make clean, clear lines. The object is to have the points as sharp as they can be made without cu...
-The Preparation And Use Of The Instruments. Part 2
A circle-pen is shown in Figure 24, in which A represents the point-leg and B the pen-leg. The point-leg must be the longest because it requires to enter the drawing paper before the pen meets the sur...
-The Preparation And Use Of The Instruments. Part 3
In marking these circles, however, let the instrument stand out of the perpendicular, and do very little while standing vertically. Indeed, it is well to strike a number of half-circles, first from ri...
-Chapter III. Lines And Curves
Although the beginner will find that a study of geometry is not essential to the production of such elementary examples of mechanical drawing as are given in this book, yet as more difficult examples ...
-Lines And Curves. Continued
A degree of a circle is the 1/360 part of its circumference. The whole circumference is supposed to be divided into 360 equal divisions, which are called the degrees of a circle; but, as one-half of ...
-Triangles
A right-angled triangle is one in which two of the sides are at a right angle one to the other. Figure 61 represents a right-angled triangle, A and B forming a right angle. The side opposite, as C, is...
-The Construction Of Polygons
Fig. 71 a. Fig. 72. The term polygon is applied to figures having flat sides equidistant from a common centre. From this centre a circle may be struck that will touch all the corners...
-Names Of Regular Polygons
A figure of 3 sides is called a Trigon. 4 Tetragon. polygon 5 Pentagon. 6 Hexagon. ...
-The Ellipse
An ellipse is a figure bounded by a continuous curve, whose nature will be shown presently. The dimensions of an ellipse are taken at its extreme length and narrowest width, and they are designated...
-The Ellipse. Continued
To draw an elliptical figure whose proportion of width to breadth shall remain the same, whatever the length of the major axis may be: Take any square figure and bisect it by the line A in Figure 80. ...
-To Draw A Heart Cam
Fig. 86. Draw the line A B, Figure 86, equal to the length of stroke required. Divide it into any number of equal parts, and from C as a centre draw circles through the points of divisio...
-Chapter IV. Shadow Lines And Line Shading. Section Lining Or Cross-Hatching
When the interior of a piece is to be shown as a piece cut in half, or when a piece is broken away, as is done to make more of the parts show, or show more clearly, the surface so broken away or cut o...
-Line Shading
Mechanical drawings are made to look better and to show more distinctly by being line shaded or shaded by lines. The simplest form of line shading is by the use of the shade or shadow line. In a me...
-Chapter V. Marking Dimensions
The dimensions of mechanical drawings are best marked in red ink so that they will show plainly, and that the lines denoting the points at which the dimension is given shall not be confounded with the...
-Chapter VI. The Arrangement Of Different Views. The Different Views Of A Mechanical Drawing
The word elevation, as applied to mechanical drawing, means simply a view; hence a side elevation is a side view, or an end elevation is an end view. The word plan is employed in place of the word ...
-Examples
Let it be required to draw a rectangular piece such as is shown in two views in Figure 130, and the process for the pencil lines is as follows: Fig. 131. With the bow-pencil set to half th...
-Chapter VII. Examples In Bolts, Nuts, And Polygons
Fig. 149. Fig. 150. Fig. 151. Let it be required to draw a machine screw, and it is not necessary, and therefore not usual in small screws to draw the full outline of t...
-United States Standard Dimensions Of Bolts And Nuts
Bolt. Bolt Head and Nut. Diameter. Standard Number of threads per inch Long diameter, I, or diameter across corners Short diameter of hexago...
-United States Standard Dimensions Of Bolts And Nuts. Part 2
If the view showing a full side of the head of a square-headed bolt is given, then either an end view must be given, as in Figure 162, or else a single view with a cross on its head, as in Figure 163,...
-United States Standard Dimensions Of Bolts And Nuts. Part 3
Let it be required to draw a polygon having twelve equal sides, and the triangle of sixty is used, marking all the lines within the circle in Figure 173, except a, for which the square blade is used; ...
-United States Standard Dimensions Of Bolts And Nuts. Part 4
Again: A piece of work, 4 inches in diameter, is to have 9 sides: how long will each side be? Now half of 4 is 2, hence from B to b is the length of each side. But suppose that from the length o...
-United States Standard Dimensions Of Bolts And Nuts. Part 5
Fig. 185. A line at 75 for polygons having 12 sides. 72 10 67-1/2 8 60 6 From the point O to the numerals denoting the radius of the polygon i...
-United States Standard Dimensions Of Bolts And Nuts. Part 6
Fig. 198. Figure 198 gives an example, in which the similar curved lines show that a part is square. The figure represents a bolt with a square under the head. As but one view is given, that ...
-Chapter VIII. Screw Threads And Spirals
Fig. 202. Fig. 203. The screw thread for small bolts is represented by thick and thin lines, such as was shown in Figure 152, but in larger sizes; the angles of the thread also ...
-Screw Threads And Spirals. Continued
For the bottoms of the thread, lines are similarly drawn, as from i' to meet i, where dot I is marked. J is got from j' and j, while K is got from the intersection of k' with k, and so on, the dots fr...
-Chapter IX. Examples For Practice
Figure 217 represents a simple example for practice, which the student may draw the size of the engraving, or he may draw it twice the size. It is a locomotive spring, composed of leaves or plates, he...
-Reducing Scales
Fig. 224. Fig. 225. Fig. 225a. It is sometimes necessary to reduce a drawing to a smaller scale, or to find a minute fraction of a given dimension, such fraction not being ...
-Chapter X. Projections
In projecting, the lines in one view are used to mark those in other views, and to find their shapes or curvature as they will appear in other views. Thus, in Figure 225a we have a spiral, wound aroun...
-Projections. Continued
Fig. 229. In Figure 228 the axis of piece B is not in the same plane as that of D, but to one side of it to the distance between the centre lines C, D, which is most clearly seen in the top view. ...
-Chapter XI. Drawing Gear Wheels
The names given to the various lines of a tooth on a gear-wheel are as follows: In Figure 233, A is the face and B the flank of a tooth, while C is the point, and D the root of the tooth; E is the ...
-Drawing Gear Wheels. Part 2
Hypocycloids for the flanks of the teeth maybe traced in a similar manner. Thus in Figure 239, P P is the pitch circle, and B C the line of motion of the centre of the generating circle to be rolled w...
-Drawing Gear Wheels. Part 3
To obtain the arcs for the other end of the tooth, draw line M M parallel to line J K; set the compasses to the radius R L, and from P, as a centre, draw the pitch circle k. For the depth of the tooth...
-Drawing Gear Wheels. Part 4
The construction of oval gearing is shown in Figures 252, 253, 254, 255, and 256. The pitch-circle is drawn by the construction for drawing an ellipse that was given with reference to Figure 81, but a...
-Drawing Gear Wheels. Part 5
The convenience of the constructions given in Figure 252 is nowhere more apparent than in the drawing of the epicycloids, when, as in the case in hand the base and generating circles may be of incomm...
-Chapter XII. Plotting Mechanical Motions
Fig. 257. Let it be required to find how much motion an eccentric will give to its rod, the distance from the centre of its bore to the centre of the circumference, which is called the t...
-Plotting Mechanical Motions. Part 2
Let it be required to find the amount of motion imparted in a straight line to a rod attached to an eccentric strap, and the following construction may be used. In Figure 265 let A represent the centr...
-Plotting Mechanical Motions. Part 3
The two cams are bolted to a collar that is secured to the crank-shaft, and are made in halves, as shown in the figures and also in Figures 270 and 271, which represent cams removed from the other me...
-Plotting Mechanical Motions. Part 4
In Figure 278 is shown a cam designed to cut off the steam at five-eighths of the piston stroke, the construction lines being given in Figure 277, for which draw circle E and straight lines A and B, a...
-Plotting Mechanical Motions. Part 5
From 2 on arc H, we mark with the compasses line b on line M, showing that while the pin moved from 1 to 2, the rod R would move slide S, Figure 284, from a to b, in Figure 285. From 3 we mark c, and ...
-Chapter XIII. Examples In Line-Shading And Drawings For Line-Shaded Engravings
Although in workshop drawings, line-shading is rarely employed, yet where a design rather than the particular details of construction is to be shown, line-shading is a valuable accessory. Figure 295, ...
-Examples In Line-Shading And Drawings For Line-Shaded Engravings. Continued
width=456 height=296> Fig. 297. Fig. 298. The wax process is, however, more suitable for engravings in plain outline only, and is especially excellent when the parts are small a...
-Chapter XIV. Shading And Coloring Drawings
The shading or coloring of drawings by tints is more employed in large drawings than in small ones, and in Europe than in the United States; while on the other hand tinting by means of line-shading is...
-Shading And Coloring Drawings. Continued
Fig. 300. In brush-shading as with line-shading, the difficulties increase with an increase in the size of the piece, and the learner will find that after he has succeeded tolerably well in s...
-Chapter XV. Examples In Engine Work
In the figures from 308 to 328 inclusive are given three examples in engine work, all these drawings being from The American Machinist. Figures 308 to 314 represent drawings of an automatic high speed...
-Examples In Engine Work. Continued
Fig. 314 - Connecting Rod. (Page 295.) Another feature in the construction of this box is the means by which it is made to adjust itself in line with the shaft. It will be observed that it re...
-Catalogue Of Practical And Scientific Books
Published By Henry Carey Baird & Co. Industrial Publishers, Booksellers And Importers, 810 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. * Any of the Books comprised in this Catalogue wil...
-Catalogue Of Practical And Scientific Books. Part 2
BAYLES. - House Drainage and Water Service: In Cities, Villages and Rural Neighborhoods. With Incidental Consideration of Certain Causes Affecting the Healthfulness of Dwellings. By James C. Bayles...
-Catalogue Of Practical And Scientific Books. Part 3
BULLOCK. - The Rudiments of Architecture and Building. For the use of Architects, Builders, Draughtsmen, Machinists, Engineers and Mechanics. Edited by John Bullock author of The American Cottage ...
-Catalogue Of Practical And Scientific Books. Part 4
CAREY. - The Works of Henry C. Carey: Harmony of Interests: Agricultural, Manufacturing and Commercial. 8vo. $1.50 Manual of Social Science. Condensed from Carey's Principles of Social Science....
-Catalogue Of Practical And Scientific Books. Part 5
Including Common, Pressed, Ornamentally Shaped, and Enamelled Bricks, Drain-Tiles, Straight and Curved Sewer-Pipes, Fire-Clays, Fire-Bricks, Terra-Cotta, Roofing-Tiles, Flooring-Tiles, Art-Tiles, Mosa...
-Catalogue Of Practical And Scientific Books. Part 6
Economic and Social. By Dr. William Elder. 8vo. $3.00 ELDER. - Memoir of Henry C. Carey. By Dr. William Elder. 8vo. cloth. $.75 ERNI. - Mineralogy Simplified. Easy Methods of Determining a...
-Catalogue Of Practical And Scientific Books. Part 7
HASERICK. - The Secrets of the Art of Dyeing Wool, Cotton, and Linen, Including Bleaching and Coloring Wool and Cotton Hosiery and Random Yarns. A Treatise based on Economy and Practice. By E.C. Ha...
-Catalogue Of Practical And Scientific Books. Part 8
LANDRIN. - A Treatise on Steel: Comprising its Theory, Metallurgy, Properties, Practical Working, and Use. By M.H.C. Landrin, Jr., Civil Engineer. Translated from the French, with Notes, by A.A. Fe...
-Catalogue Of Practical And Scientific Books. Part 9
MORTON. - The System of Calculating Diameter, Circumference, Area, and Squaring the Circle: Together with Interest and Miscellaneous Tables, and other information. By James Morton. Second Edition, ...
-Catalogue Of Practical And Scientific Books. Part 10
PAINTER, GILDER, AND VARNISHER'S COMPANION: Containing Rules and Regulations in everything relating to the Arts of Painting, Gilding, Varnishing, Glass-Staining, Graining, Marbling, Sign-Writing, G...
-Catalogue Of Practical And Scientific Books. Part 11
ROSE. - The Complete Practical Machinist: Embracing Lathe Work, Vise Work, Drills and Drilling, Taps and Dies, Hardening and Tempering, the Making and Use of Tools, Tool Grinding, Marking out Work,...
-Catalogue Of Practical And Scientific Books. Part 12
Including Mineral Bituminous Substances employed in Arts and Manufactures; with their Geographical, Geological, and Commercial Distribution and Amount of Production and Consumption on the American Con...
-Catalogue Of Practical And Scientific Books. Part 13
WARNER. - New Theorems, Tables, and Diagrams, for the Computation of Earth-work: Designed for the use of Engineers in Preliminary and Final Estimates, of Students in Engineering, and of Contractors...
-Catalogue Of Practical And Scientific Books. Part 14
BILGRAM. - Slide-Valve Gears: A new, graphical method for Analyzing the Action of Slide-Valves, moved by Eccentrics, Link Motions, and Cut-off Gears, offering easy means for properly designing Valv...









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previous page: Practical Mechanics For Boys | by James Slough Zerbe
  
page up: Popular Mechanics Books
  
next page: Mission Furniture: How To Make It | by Henry Haven Windsor