2. Lithospermum Officinale L. Gromwell

Fig. 3536

Lithospermum officinale L. Sp. Pl. 132. 1753.

Perennial, finely puberulent; stem usually much branched, 2°-4° high, leafy. Leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, acute at the apex, narrowed at the base, few-veined, sessile, 11/2 - 4' long, 3"-12" wide, the upper surface rough, the lower pubescent; flowers yellowish-white, about 2" long, sessile; calyx-segments linear-lanceolate, about equalling the corolla-tube; corolla funnelform, crested in the throat; style about as long as the stamens; nutlets, when mature, white, smooth, shining, about 1 1/2" high, ovoid, obtuse, more than one-half as long as the calyx-segments, seldom all ripening.

In fields and waste places, Quebec to southern New York, New Jersey and Minnesota. Plant grayish. Naturalized from Europe. Native also of Asia. Graymile. Littlewale. Pearl-plant. May-Aug.

3. Lithospermum Latifolium Michx. American Gromwell

Fig. 3537

Lithospermum latifolium Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 131. 1803.

Perennial, rough-puberulent; stem branched, 2°-3° high, the branches long and slender. Leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acuminate at the apex, pinnately veined, 2'-5' long, 1'-2' wide, or the uppermost smaller, the lowest obtuse; flowers yellowish white or pale yellow, 2"-3" long, few, solitary, distant; calyx-segments linear-lanceolate, about as long as the corolla or a little longer; corolla funnelform, crested in the throat; style shorter than the stamens; nutlets white, shining, globose-ovoid, about 2" long, more than one-half as long as the calyx-segments.

In dry thickets and fields, Quebec to New York, Minnesota, Kansas, Virginia, Tennessee and Arkansas. May.

3 Lithospermum Latifolium Michx American Gromwell 2083 Lithospermum Latifolium Michx American Gromwell 209

4. Lithospermum Pilosum Nutt. Woolly Gromwell. Fig-. 3538

Lithospermum pilosum Nutt. Journ. Phil. Acad. 7: 43. 1834.

Lithospermum Torreyi Nutt. loc. cit. 44. 1834.

Perennial from thick roots, hirsute, rather pale green; stems usually stout and clustered, very leafy, 8'-18' high. Leaves lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 2'- 4' long, 2"-5" wide, gradually acuminate to the apex, narrowed at the base, sessile, indistinctly veined; flowers dull yellow, very numerous and crowded in a terminal leafy thyrsus; calyx-segments densely hirsute, shorter than the cylindric corolla-tube; corolla salverform, the throat puberulent below each lobe; style longer than the filaments; nutlets ovoid, acute, white, shining, about 2" long.

Western Nebraska (according to Williams); Wyoming to Montana, Alberta, British Columbia and California. May-July.

5. Lithospermum Carolinense (Walt.) Macm. Hairy Or Gmelin's Puccoon

Fig. 3539

Anonymos carolinensis Walt. Fl. Car. 91. 1788. Batschia carolinensis Gmel. Syst. 2: Part 1, 315. 1791. Lithospermum carolinianum Lam. Tabl. Encycl. 1: 397.

1791. Lithospermum hirtum Lehm. Asperif. 305. 1818. Lithospermum carolinense MacM. Met. Minn. 438. 1892.

Perennial, hispid-pubescent, or scabrous; stems usually clustered, rather stout, simple, or branched above, 1°-2 1/2° high, very leafy. Leaves narrowly lanceolate, sessile, obtuse or acute at the apex, narrowed at the base, 2'-3 long, the lowest commonly reduced to appressed scales, the uppermost oblong; flowers 6"-8" long, in dense short terminal leafy racemes, dimorphous; pedicels 1"-3" long; calyx-segments linear-lanceolate, shorter than the tube of the orange-yellow salverform corolla; corolla-lobes entire, rounded, the throat crested, the tube bearded at the base within by 10 hirsute teeth; nutlets white, shining, about 2" high, ovoid, very much shorter than the calyx-segments.

In dry woods, western New York to Florida, Minnesota, Montana and New Mexico. April-June.

5 Lithospermum Carolinense Walt Macm Hairy Or Gmel 2105 Lithospermum Carolinense Walt Macm Hairy Or Gmel 211