9. Galium Circaezans Michx. Wild Liquorice. Cross-Cleavers

Fig. 3936

G. circaezans Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 80. 1803.

Galium circaezans glabellum Britton, Mem. Torr. Club 5: 303. 1894.

Perennial, more or less pubescent, or gla-brate, branched, 1°-2° high. Leaves in 4's, oval, oval-lanceolate or ovate, obtuse or ob-tusish at the apex, 3-nerved, 6"-18" long, 4"-8" wide, usually somewhat pubescent on both surfaces, ciliolate, the lower smaller; cymes divaricately branched; flowers sessile or nearly so, greenish; corolla hirsute without, or glabrous, its lobes acute; fruit hispid, similar to that of the preceding species, at length deflexed.

In dry woods, Quebec and Ontario to Minnesota, Florida, Kansas and Texas. May-July.

9 Galium Circaezans Michx Wild Liquorice Cross Cle 6079 Galium Circaezans Michx Wild Liquorice Cross Cle 608

10. Galium Kamtschaticum Steller. Northern Wild Liquorice

Fig. 3937

Galium kamtschaticum Steller; R. & S. Mant. 3: 186.

1827. Galium Littellii Oakes, Hovey's Mag. 7: 179. 1841. Galium circaezans var. montanum T. & G. Fl. N. A.

2: 24. 1841.

Similar to the preceding species, but weak, smaller, stems 4'-15' long. Leaves in 4's, broadly oval, orbicular, or obovate, thin, 3-nerved, obtuse, mucronulate, 6"-18" long, 4"-12" wide, glabrate, or, pubescent with short scattered hairs on the upper surface and on the nerves beneath, sometimes ciliate; flowers few, all on pedicels 2"-6" long; corolla glabrous, yellowish-green, its lobes acutish; fruit hispid, 2" broad.

In mountainous regions, Cape Breton Island, Quebec, northern New England and northern New York. Also in northeastern Asia. Summer.

11. Galium Boreale L. Northern Bed-Straw

Fig. 3938

Galium boreale L. Sp. P1. 108. 1753.

Galium septentrionale R. & S. Syst. 3: 253. 1818.

Erect, perennial, smooth and glabrous, strict, simple, or branched, leafy, 1°-21/2° high. Leaves in 4's, lanceolate or linear, 3-nerved, obtuse or acute, l'-2 1/2' long, 1"-3" wide, the margins sometimes ciliate; panicles terminal, dense, many-flowered, the flowers white, panicled, in small compact cymes; fruit hispid, at least when young, sometimes becoming glabrate when mature, about 1" broad.

In rocky soil or along streams, Quebec to Alaska, south to New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Michigan, Missouri, New Mexico and California. Also in Europe and northern Asia. May-Aug.

11 Galium Boreale L Northern Bed Straw 60911 Galium Boreale L Northern Bed Straw 610

12. Galium Trifldrum Michx. Sweet-Scented Or Fragrant Bedstraw

Fig. 3939

Galium triflorum Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1; 80. 1803.

Perennial, diffuse, procumbent, or ascending, glabrous or nearly so, shining, fragrant in drying, the stems and margins of the leaves sometimes roughened. Leaves in 6's, narrowly oval or slightly oblanceolate, 1-nerved, cuspidate at the apex, narrowed at the base, 1'-3 1/2' long, 2"-6" wide; peduncles slender, terminal and axillary, often exceeding the leaves, 3-flowered or branched into 3 pedicels which are 1-3-flowered; flowers greenish; fruit 1V-2" broad, hispid with hooked hairs; seed almost spherical, the groove obsolete.

In woods, Greenland to Alaska, south to Florida, Louisiana, Colorado and California. Also in northern Europe, Japan and the Himalayas. June-Aug. Three-flowered bedstraw.