This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol3", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
G. circaezans Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 80. 1803.
Perennial, more or less pubescent, or gla-brate, branched, 1°-2° high. Leaves in 4's, oval, oval-lanceolate or ovate, obtuse or ob-tusish at the apex, 3-nerved, 6"-18" long, 4"-8" wide, usually somewhat pubescent on both surfaces, ciliolate, the lower smaller; cymes divaricately branched; flowers sessile or nearly so, greenish; corolla hirsute without, or glabrous, its lobes acute; fruit hispid, similar to that of the preceding species, at length deflexed.
Galium kamtschaticum Steller; R. & S. Mant. 3: 186.
1827. Galium Littellii Oakes, Hovey's Mag. 7: 179. 1841. Galium circaezans var. montanum T. & G. Fl. N. A.
2: 24. 1841.
Similar to the preceding species, but weak, smaller, stems 4'-15' long. Leaves in 4's, broadly oval, orbicular, or obovate, thin, 3-nerved, obtuse, mucronulate, 6"-18" long, 4"-12" wide, glabrate, or, pubescent with short scattered hairs on the upper surface and on the nerves beneath, sometimes ciliate; flowers few, all on pedicels 2"-6" long; corolla glabrous, yellowish-green, its lobes acutish; fruit hispid, 2" broad.
In mountainous regions, Cape Breton Island, Quebec, northern New England and northern New York. Also in northeastern Asia. Summer.
Galium boreale L. Sp. P1. 108. 1753.
Galium septentrionale R. & S. Syst. 3: 253. 1818.
Erect, perennial, smooth and glabrous, strict, simple, or branched, leafy, 1°-21/2° high. Leaves in 4's, lanceolate or linear, 3-nerved, obtuse or acute, l'-2 1/2' long, 1"-3" wide, the margins sometimes ciliate; panicles terminal, dense, many-flowered, the flowers white, panicled, in small compact cymes; fruit hispid, at least when young, sometimes becoming glabrate when mature, about 1" broad.
In rocky soil or along streams, Quebec to Alaska, south to New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Michigan, Missouri, New Mexico and California. Also in Europe and northern Asia. May-Aug.
Galium triflorum Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1; 80. 1803.
Perennial, diffuse, procumbent, or ascending, glabrous or nearly so, shining, fragrant in drying, the stems and margins of the leaves sometimes roughened. Leaves in 6's, narrowly oval or slightly oblanceolate, 1-nerved, cuspidate at the apex, narrowed at the base, 1'-3 1/2' long, 2"-6" wide; peduncles slender, terminal and axillary, often exceeding the leaves, 3-flowered or branched into 3 pedicels which are 1-3-flowered; flowers greenish; fruit 1V-2" broad, hispid with hooked hairs; seed almost spherical, the groove obsolete.
In woods, Greenland to Alaska, south to Florida, Louisiana, Colorado and California. Also in northern Europe, Japan and the Himalayas. June-Aug. Three-flowered bedstraw.