This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol3", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Galium latifolium Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 79. 1803.
Perennial, erect, smooth and glabrous (rarely hispid), branched, 1°-2° high. Leaves in 4's, lanceolate, 3-nerved, acute or acuminate at the apex, narrowed or rounded at the base, 1'-2' long, 4"- 8" wide, the midrib sometimes pubescent beneath, the margins minutely roughened, the lower smaller and sometimes opposite; pedunclcs axillary and terminal, slender, but usually shorter than the leaves; flowers purple; cymes loosely many-flowered, the pedicels slender, 2"-6" long, smooth or very nearly so; fruit smooth, slightly fleshy, 2" broad, usually only one of the carpels developing.
In dry woods in mountainpus regions, Pennsylvania to Tennessee and Georgia. May-Aug.
Similar to the preceding species but usually lower, the leaves linear-lanceolate, 6"-12" long, 1 "-3" wide, the lateral nerves obscure or none, the midrib sometimes pubescent beneath, and the margins ciliate; fruiting pedicels roughish, 3"-12" long; flowers brown-purple, the numerous cymes loosely several-many-flowered; fruit glabrous, warty, somewhat fleshy, each carpel 1"-1 1/2" in diameter.
Southern Missouri, Arkansas and Oklahoma. June-July.
Galium Mollugo L. Sp. Pl. 107. 1753.
Perennial, glabrous or nearly so throughout. Stems smooth, erect, or diffusely branched, 1°-3° long; leaves in 6's or 8's, oblanceolate or linear, cuspidate at the apex, 6"-15" long, 1"-2" wide, sometimes roughish on the margins; flowers small, white, very numerous in terminal panicled cymes; pedicels filiform, divaricate; fruit smooth and glabrous, nearly 1" broad.
In fields and waste places, Newfoundland to Vermont, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Virginia. Naturalized from Europe. Called also whip-tongue. Infants'- or babies'-breath. May-Sept.
G. sylvaticum L. Sp. Pl. Ed. 2, 155. 1762.
Perennial, erect, 2°-3° tall; stems several or many, shining, obtusely 4-angled, glabrous, or slightly pubescent, not scabrous. Leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, pale beneath, whorled in 8's or 6's, or those of the branches in 4's, or opposite, the larger sometimes 2' long; panicles large; pedicels filiform, erect-spreading in fruit; flowers white; corolla-lobes apiculate; fruit smooth.
Fields and thickets, Maine and Vermont, escaped from cultivation. Native of Europe. June-July.