This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol3", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Galium palustre L. Sp. Pl. 105. 1753. Galium trifidum var. bifolium Macoun, Cat. Can. Plants 202. 1884?
Perennial, stem erect and rather slender, about 16' high; internodes very long (middle one 2 1/2'-3' long); short branches mostly in 2's. Stem sharply 4-angled, glabrous or a little rough; leaves in typical specimens rather small, in 2's to 6's, linear-elliptic to spatulate, cuneate at the base, obtuse, 3"-8" long, 1 "-2" wide, the rather firm margins and the midrib slightly scabrous, not papillose; flowers numerous in terminal and lateral cymes; bracteoles in the inflorescence minute; pedicels in flower ascending, 1 1/2"-2 1/2" long, in fruit strongly divaricate; corolla large, white, 1"-1 3/4" broad, 4-parted, the lobes oblong, acute; disk almost obsolete; fruit glabrous; endosperm of the seed grooved on the inner face, in cross-section lunate.
In damp shady or open places along roadsides and ditches, or in the margins of swamps. Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island and Quebec, to Connecticut and New York". Also in Europe. Summer.
Galium parviflorum Raf. Med. Rep. (II.) 5: 360. 1808?
Galium concinnum T. & G. Fl. N. A. 2: 23. 1841.
Perennial, glabrous, shining, usually much branched, the angles of the stem and edges of the leaves minutely scabrous. Leaves usually all in 6's, linear or sometimes broader above the middle, narrowed at the base, blunt-pointed or minutely cuspidate, 4"-6" long, 1"-1 1/2" wide, green in drying; peduncles filiform; pedicels short; flowers minute, white, numerous in open cymes; fruit small, glabrous; endosperm deeply grooved.
In dry woodlands, western New Jersey to Virginia, west to Minnesota, Kansas and Arkansas. June-Aug.
Galium asprellum Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 78. 1803. Perennial, weak, much branched and reclining on bushes, or sometimes erect; stem retrorsely hispid, 2°-6° long. Leaves in 6's or 5's, or those of the branches rarely in 4's, narrowly oval or slightly oblanceolate, cuspidate at the apex, narrowed at the base, sometimes so much so as to appear petioled, 4"-8" long, 1"-2" wide, their margins and midribs rough; cymes terminal and axillary, several-many-flowered; flowers white; fruit smooth and glabrous, about 1" broad; endosperm with a shallow groove.
In moist soil, Newfoundland to western Ontario, south to North Carolina, Illinois, Wisconsin and Nebraska. Called also pointed cleavers. Ascends to 3500 ft. in the Adirondacks. June-Aug.
Galium bermudense L. Sp. Pl. 105. 1753. Galium hispidulum Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 79.
1803. Relbunium bermudense Britten, Journ. Bot. 47:
Perennial, much branched, hirsute, hispid or nearly glabrous, 1°-2° high. Leaves in 4's, 1-nerved, oval, mucronate, rather thick, 3"-10" long, 1 1/2"-4" wide, the margins more or less revolute in drying; flowers few, terminating the branchlets, white; pedicels 3"-4" long, rather stout, becoming deflexed in fruit, sometimes 1-bracteolate; fruit fleshy, purplish, minutely pubescent, becoming glabrate, about 2" broad.
In dry or sandy soil, southern New Jersey to Florida and Georgia. Bermuda; Bahamas. May-Aug.