This is a large family of plants, mostly handsome, hardy, perennial; some of them very beautiful, and about all suitable for ornamenting the borders. We have one indigenous species, which is very pretty, and worthy a place in the border; found abundantly on the banks of Merrimack river, at and above Lowell. It is very much like C. rotundifolia, of England. Having cultivated them side by side, we can see but a shade's difference. Mr. Eaton calls our species also rotundifolia. Each species has nearly round, or heart kidney crenate radical leaves, from which the specific name is given, and linear entire cauline ones, with drooping, solitary, fine blue flowers; those of the English species being rather the largest, with the cau - line leaves a little broader. The common name, with us, is Flax Bell-flower, or Hare-bell. It is in flower in July and August; one foot high.
Campanula medium. - Canterbury Bells. - This species, with its varieties, may be considered one of our oldest ornamental plants, having for a long time been cultivated in our gardens; it is, nevertheless, a showy plant, and will doubtless always be retained as a prominent ornament of the border. The varieties are rose, blue, and white, double and single. The double varieties, however, are much inferior to the single ones, and will be cultivated only for their singularity. Being biennials, it will be necessary to sow the seeds every year. The young plants must be transplanted to the place in which they are to flower, in August or September, for if deferred until spring the bloom will be greatly weakened; the same holds good with all biennials, and most seedling perennials.
Campanula persicafolia. - Peach-leaved Campanula. - This is one of the finest species, containing a number of beautiful varieties, with large, showy flowers, more bowl-shaped than the last. The varieties are single and double blue, single and double white, maxima or large peach-leaved, and grandis or large flowering. All of them are perfectly hardy, with hand-some foliage, which makes them valuable as border flowers. Stems angular; leaves stiff; obsoletely crenate serrate; radical ones, oblong ovate; cauline ones, lanceolate linear; three feet high; in flower in June and July.
Campanula pyramidalis. - Pyramidal Bell-flower. - This is a grand ornament when cultivated in perfection, forming a pyramid from four to six feet high, producing innumerable flowers for two or three months, if shaded from the sun. It was formerly a great favorite in England, but its popularity has long since passed away to give place to other more fashionable flowers, which have in their turn also been succeeded by other rivals more fair. But the old-fashioned Hollanders are not quite so fickle; flowers with them seem to be esteemed, notwithstanding their antiquity. The Pyramidal Bell-flower is said to be in demand there still, as an ornament to halls, staircases, and for being placed before fire-places in the summer seasons.
"By Seeds. - The plants so raised, are always stronger, and the stalks rise higber,and produce a great number of flowers. They are to be sown in pots of light earth, soon after being gathered, protected by a frame during winter, and will come up in the spring. When the leaves decay, in October, they are to be transplanted to beds of light, sandy earth, without any mixture of dung, which is a great enemy to this plant. Here they are to remain two years, being protected by rotten tan; they are then to be removed to their final destination, in September or October; and the year following, being the third year from sowing, they will flower.
"The C. carpartica, grandiflora, and several other showy species, may be similarly treated."
Seedling plants, in our climate, will flower the second year, generally; some not until the third. A slight protection is necessary during winter.
Campanula grandijlora is now separated from Campanula, and is united with the small genus Wahlenbergia, and is called Wahlenbergia graiidiflora.
Campanula trachelium. - Throat wort. - There are four varieties of this species, viz., single and double blue, single and double white; flowers from July to August; three or four feet high.
Campanula rapunculus. - Rampion. - A native of the woods of Britain, and cultivated not only for ornament, but also, "in France and Italy, and sometimes in Britain, for the roots, which are boiled tender and eaten hot, with sauce, or cold with vinegar and pepper. It is sown in the spring, on deep, light soil, in drills, and will be ready for use by the autumn of the same year. C. persicafolia and rapunculoides may also be cultivated for the same purpose." A biennial, with purple flowers in July and August; three feet high.
Campanula glomereta, - Cluster-flowered, - "is a handsome rock or pot plant; it requires a dry, lean soil, otherwise, as in most plants, the flowers lose the intensity of their color in that which is very rich." Flowers purple, in clustered heads, in May and June; two feet high; a native of Siberia. Leaves scabrous, oblong lanceolate sessile. Campanula urticifolia, spe-ciosa, versicolor, azurea, bonoiensis, lactiflora, aggregata, with numerous other species, are worthy of a place in every garden, as they are easily cultivated, succeed admirably in our climate, and will endure the severest of winters. But a small portion of this large genus require protection.