Evergreen or deciduous shrubs or small trees. Twigs slender, often developed as spurs with densely crowded leaf-scars; pith small, continuous. Buds small, usually superposed, sessile. Leaf-scars alternate, crescent-shaped; bundle-traces 1; stipule-scars minute. Fruit fleshy, red (or sometimes yellow), composed of 4 to 6 hard nutlets which fit together somewhat like the sections of an orange; this might be regarded as a several-seeded drupe (see p. 11 ).
Fig, 182. Ilex opaca.
Fig. 183. Ilex collina.
Fig. 184. Ilex montana.
Fig. 185. Ilex verticillata.
Fig. 186. Ilex glabra.
b. Leaves 0.4-1 cm. long
b. Leaves 1.5-5 cm. long
b. Buds more or less appressed
c. Buds glabrous except at apex; fruits on short stalks
c. Buds pubescent; fruits on long stalks
1. I. opaca Ait. American Holly. Small tree, 6-20 m. high, bark close, rough, gray, with inconspicuous lenticels; twigs slender; buds short, blunt, downy; leaves evergreen, elliptical, thick, 5-10 cm. long, smooth, with wavy margin and remote spiny teeth or occasionally entire; fruit red or sometimes yellow, 7-10 mm. in diameter. Moist woods, Florida to Texas, north to Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Missouri and Oklahoma (Fig. 182).
2. I. collina Alexander. Long-stalked Holly. Shrub or small tree 3-4 m. tall; branches spreading, bark smooth, gray; twigs gray, glabrous; buds somewhat appressed, pubescent; lenticels conspicuous; fruits red, rarely yellow, 7-10 mm. in diameter. Woods, Virginia and West Virginia (Fig. 183).
3. I. montana T. and G. Mountain Holly. Shrub or small tree, up to 8 m. high; bark thin, rough and warty, brownish-gray, with numerous lenticels; twigs smooth, reddish-brown, becoming gray, enlarged at the nodes, with decurrent ridges running down from the leaf-scars; buds appressed, pointed, 2 mm. long, the scales ovate, keeled, sharp-pointed, light-brown, finely hairy at the apex; fruits red, about 1 cm. in diameter. Moist woods, in the mountains, New York to Georgia and Tennessee; also in Japan (Fig. 184 ).
4. I. verticillata (L.) Gray. Black-Alder. Winterberry. Whorled Holly. Shrub or small tree 0. 5-6 m. high; bark smooth, ashen; twigs slender, smooth or slightly pubescent; buds spreading, blunt, the scales obtuse; fruits rad, rarely yellow, 5-7 mm. in diameter, so crowded as to appear whorled. Moist soil, Newfoundland to Minnesota, south to Georgia and Missouri (Fig. 185).
5. I. glabra (L.) Gray. Inkberry. Gallberry. A shrub to 3 m. high; branchlets ashy-puberulent; leaves evergreen, coriaceous, lustrous, lanceolate to oblong, mostly blunt, crenate or crenate-serrate, 1. 5-5 cm. long, 0.7-2 cm. wide; drupes black, globose, 6 mm. in diameter. Sandy soil, in the coastal plain, Louisiana to Florida, north to Nova Scotia (Fig. 186).