This section is from the book "Commercial Gardening Vol4", by John Weathers (the Editor). Also available from Amazon: Commercial Gardening, A Practical & Scientific Treatise For Market Gardeners.
A very important crop in France, and one that should receive more attention in England for salad purposes. There are two distinct kinds - the broad-leaved or Batavian Endives (known to the French as Scaroles or Escaroles) and the finely cut mossy Endives, known as Chicorees frisees. For early work the fine-leaved Italian Chicory (Chicoree fine d'ete) is greatly favoured and is much grown in frames, and is succeeded by the "Rouen" or Stag's Horn Endive. For open-air culture there are many fine-leaved varieties used, amongst them being the "Ruffec", the "Meaux" (or Fine-curled Winter Endive), the "Passion", and "La Parisienne" (or Winter Queen).
The seeds of the first crops are sown in September and October under cloches, and are pricked out when the seed leaves have well formed. They are afterwards planted in frames from which they are fit to gather in January and February. A succession is kept up by planting at intervals of two or three weeks, and during the summer months Endives are intercropped with Cos and Cabbage Lettuces on beds on which, maybe. Corn Salad, Spinach, Radishes, or Carrots have been sown a day or two before. When the plants are nearly fully grown they are tied up with raffia in the same way as Cos Lettuces, the hearts being thus blanched.