Erect herbs or climbing shrubs with cordate entire or lobate leaves and axillary clustered or solitary pendulous flowers. Perianth tubular, curved or straight, with an oblique trilobate limb. Stamens 6; anthers adhering to the stigma. Capsule 6-valved. There are 160 species, chiefly tropical. The name is of Greek origin, founded on its reputed medicinal properties, as is also the English one, Birthwort.

1. A. Clematitis. - An erect perennial with simple stems, ovate-cordate petiolate glabrous leaves, and clustered axillary yellow flowers, produced all through the Summer. A European species, occasionally seen as a garden outcast in Britain,

2. A. Sipho (fig. 212), Dutchman's Pipe. - A hardy deciduous climbing shrub with very large glabrescent leaves and yellow and purple streaked flowers, appearing in Summer. A native of North America.

Fig. 212. Aristolochia Sipho. (1/6 nat. size.)

Fig. 212. Aristolochia Sipho. (1/6 nat. size.)

Asarum Europeaum is a tufted evergreen herb with radical reniform leaves and small solitary pedunculate lurid-purple flowers. Perianth regular, cainpanulate, trilobate. Stamens 12. Capsule bursting irregularly.

The Piperaceae or Pepper Order contains upwards of 500 species, but, with the exception of a Japanese species, none will flourish in the open air in this country. They are erect shrubs, or trees, or herbs with jointed stems, usually alternate simple-nerved leaves, and spicate inconspicuous flowers and 1-seeded berries.

Piper Futokadsura is the Japanese species alluded to above. It is a deciduous shrub or tree with slender branches, ovate-lanceolate acuminate entire glabrous leaves, and bright red fruits.