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The Corner Cupboard; Or, Facts For Everybody | by Robert Kemp Philp



Embracing facts about: I. Things not generally known; II. Things that ought to be known; III. Things worth knowing. The food we consume; The clothes we wear; The house we live in and facts from the arts and sciences, as well as from literature. manufacture, commerce, anatomy, physiology, the garden and field. Illustrated with over 1,000 engravings. The whole forming a complete encyclopedia of useful knowledge.

TitleThe Corner Cupboard; Or, Facts For Everybody
AuthorRobert Kemp Philp
PublisherDick & Fitzgerald
Year1859
Copyright1859, Dick & Fitzgerald
AmazonThe Corner Cupboard; or Facts for Everybody
-Preface
We present the Reader with the Freedom of the Cupboard, one of the greatest privileges that can be conferred upon civilized and domesticated being The Corner Cupboard has, for many centuries, bee...
-Knots
Knots. The most simple purpose for Which a knot is required, is the fastening together of two pieces of string or cord: the knot selected for this purpose should possess two important properties; - it...
-Reef-Knots
Reef-Knots. The only precaution necessary in making a reef-knot is, to observe that the two parts of each string are on the same side of the loop; if they are not, the ends (and the bows, if any are f...
-The Clove Hitch-Knot
The Clove Hitch-Knot. For fastening ft cord to any cylindrical object, one of the most useful knots is the clove hitch, which although exceedingly simple and most easily made, is one of the most puzzl...
-The Tying Up Of Parcels In Paper
The Tying Up Of Parcels In Paper is an operation which is seldom neatly performed by persons whose occupations have not given them great facilities for constant practice. Whether the paper be wrapped ...
-Germination Of Acorns
Germination Of Acorns. Take a hyacinth glass, or a broad-mouthed bottle, and till it about-one-third With water. Cut a piece of stiff card-board, or tin, to tit closely the opening of the glass or bot...
-The Safety Lamp
The Safety Lamp was invented by Sir Humphrey Davy, and was constructed so as to burn without any danger in an explosive atmosphere. It is merely a common oil-lamp, the frame of which is enclosed in a ...
-Ablution. Washing Away
Ablution, or a Washing Away religious ceremony, which has been practised more or less by the followers of all creeds. The Mohammed and Brahmins arc very strict in their ablutions; and they occupy an i...
-Electric Telegraph
Electric Telegraph. In the description of the electric telegraph, we will lay aside all technical and scientific terms, and explain clearly tin's greatest wonder of our day. The source of the electric...
-Electric Telegraph. Continued
We will now tell you a very curious fact about the return of the current. The return icirc is not necessary, nor is it nowr put in practice; for a man named Stern-heil proved, in 1837, that if we buri...
-Barometers
Barometers, (How To Consult Them). In very hot weather, the fall of the mercury denotes thunder. Otherwise, a sudden fall denotes high wind. In frosty weather, the fall of the barometer denotes tha...
-Aborigines
Aborigines. A term by which we denote the primitive inhabitants of a country. ...
-Filters
Filters. The employment of a common flower-pot, of largo dimensions, which may be suspended to a beam, or otherwise secured in an elevated situation, makes a good and inexpensive filter. Into this pot...
-Camera Obscura
Camera Obscura. The simplest form of the Camera Obscura consists of a darkened room, with a round hole in the window-shutter, through which the light enters. Pictures of opposite objects will then be ...
-Cleaning Decanters
Cleaning Decanters. Those encrusted with the dregs of port wine, will be readily freed from stain by washing them with the refuse of the teapot, leaves and all, whilst warm. Dip the decanter into a ve...
-How To Clean Paper Of Rooms
To Clean Paper Of Rooms. Few things can be devised better for this purpose than the old-fashioned one of rubing the paper with stale bread; but where the paper is greasy, occasioned by persona reclini...
-Abacus
Abacus. An instrument employed to facilitate arithmetical calculations. The name may be given with propriety to any machine for reckoning with counters, beads, etc., in which one line is made to stand...
-Abbattoir
Abbattoir. The name given by the French to the public slaughter-houses, which were established in Paris, by a degree of Napoleon, in 1810, and finished in 1818. These buildings, which are of very larg...
-How To Detect Arsenic
Arsenic (To Detect). Arsenic is not freely soluble in any organic mixta and may generally be found as a white sediment, which, when thrown upon a red-hot cinder, gives out a Strong odour, like that of...
-Lightning
Lightning. To avoid accidents from lightning during a thunder-storm, sit or stand as near the middle of the room as possible. Avoid going near the windows walls, and put knives, scissors, and all kind...
-Abbreviations
Abbreviations are of two kinds; first, those which are used in familiar speech, by which two words are made one as can't for cannot, won't for will not, and those, which are employed in writing only. ...
-Indoor Exercises
Exercises, (In-Door). Females much confined within doors often suffer ill health from the want of exercise. Nature demands it, and health cannot exist without it. The skipping-rope, dumb-bells, battle...
-Useful Facts
Useful Facts. A surveyor's chain is 4 poles, or 17 feet, divided into a hundred links, or 792 inches. A square chain is 16 square poles,, and ten square chains is an acre. Four roods are an acre, each...
-Ardent Spirits
Ardent Spirits. Ten American Presidents, from Madison to Buchanan, inclusive, have signed a paper declaring their conviction that ardent spirits as a drink are not only needless, but hurtful. ...
-Etching Upon Ivory
Etching Upon Ivory. Cover the ivory with wax, hard varnished, or an etching ground, execute the required design, border with wax, and pour on sulphuric acid, hydrocloric acid, or a mixture of equal pa...
-Cottage Hives
Hives, (Cottage). There are various descriptions of hives in general use. Without recommending any particular kind, we give a representation of one which is simple and effective. This is capped with a...
-Fumigating Bee-Hives
Fumigating Bee-Hives. Fumigation is a word employed by bee-keepers to express the process in which, by the aid of certain intoxicating smoke, the insects become temporarily stupefied in which state th...
-Substances In The Eye
Eye, (Substances In The). To remove fine particles of gravel, lime, etc, the eye should be syringed with lukewarm water till free from them. Be particular not to worry the eye under the impression tha...
-Fire
Fire. The following are among the best Precautions in Cases of Fire. 1. Should a fire break out, send off to the nearest engine or police station. 2. Fill buckets with water, carry them as near the ti...
-Support For Stiff Necks
Stiff Necks, (Support For). This valuable support should be made of black moreen if it be worn with a black neckerchief; and of white ditto, (or mohair,) if with a light one. It is formed of a number ...
-Swelling In The Neck
Swelling In The Neck. Fourteen or fifteen nettle seeds ground into powder, and taken daily, will cure the swelling in the neck known by the name of goitre, without in any way injuring the general habi...
-Absolution
Absolution, a religious ceremony in use in different Christian communities, by which the priest declares an individual, on repentance and submission to the requisite penance, to be absolved from his s...
-Protection Against Sun-Stroke
Sun-Stroke, (Protection Against.) A piece of silk, which is a nonconductor, worn as the lining of hat or bonnet, is a very safe protection against sun-stroke. ...
-How To Clean Oil Paintings
Oil Paintings, (To Clean). The art of cleaning oil paintings has been very much neglected, and several valuable pictures have been destroyed in consequence of the persons operating upon them employing...
-The Wedge
The Wedge. When the compression of a block of wood is completed by the means of driving in a wedge, it then splits, and it is on this principle that the action of the wedge is founded. In the annexed ...
-Drowning. Suffocation
Drowning and Suffocation. Dr. Marshall Hall, after careful research, shews that to induce the act of breathing is the first thing to be attended to in drowning Or Suffocation. And the reason is: the l...
-Prevention Of Drowning
Drowning (Prevention Of). 1. As soon as you find yourself at the surface, whither you are raised by your buoyancy, let your body quickly take its level, when the water will reach a little above your c...
-Safe And Easy Method Of Swimming
Swimming (Safe And Easy Method Of). It maybe premised, that corks of the ordinary form, and bladders, are dangerous and inconvenient in learning to swim. They impede the action of the arms, raise the ...
-Water Gleanings
Water Gleanings. Hard water, if habitually drunk, is apt to injure the digestive organs, and the glandular and abser-bent system. To this are attributed the goitres to which the inhabitants of mountai...
-Hygrometers
Hygrometers. These are instruments to determine the amount of moisture in the air. One much used is called the wet bulb hygrometer, and consists of two similar delicate mercurial thermometers, the hul...
-Sun-Dials
Sun-Dials. Sun-dials of iron or brass may be purchased at very reasonable prices, or may be made of marble, slate, or freestone ; and when set in an unshaded part of the garden, and mounted on a colum...
-Leech Barometers
Leech Barometers. 1. If the weather proves serene and beautiful, the leech lies motionless at the bottom of the glass, rolled together in a spiral form. 2. If it rains, either before or after noon,...
-How to Extract Thorns if the Flesh has Closed Over Them
How to Extract Thorns if the Flesh has Closed Over Them. Apply shoemakers' wax, and a poultice over that - to remain on for twelve hours, or till the wax draws out the end of the thorn. ...
-Sting Of Bees
Sting Of Bees. Although the poison which a bee emits when it inserts its sting, is proved to be a highly concentrated acid, it does not follow, that the application of all alkalies will neutralise the...
-Beetle Traps
Beetle Traps. A very simple and inexpensive snare may be constructed at home in the following manner : - Cut four or five pieces of paste-board, or strips of wood, and lay them slanting against the si...
-How To Destroy Cockroaches
Cockroaches (To Destroy). Cucumber peelings are said to destroy cockroaches. Strew the floor in that part of the house most infested with the vermin with the green peel cut pretty thick. Try it for se...
-Etching Upon Glass
Etching Upon Glass. Procure several thick pieces of clear crown glass, and immerse them in melted wax, so that each may receive a perfect coating. When quite cold, draw on them with a fine etching-nee...
-Accidents From Poisons
Poisons, (Accidents From). When you have reason to suppose that you have swallowed poison, and proper medical advice is not at hand, take an emetic. This may be done almost instantaneously by swallow ...
-Pigeon Houses
Pigeon Houses. Dovecots, or pigeon-houses, are of several kinds. If it is intended to keen a large number, the upper floor of a stable, or other building may be removed from the walls, and stepping-ti...
-Gnats
Gnats. The common gnat (culex pipieusj is a near relation to the musquito, but is not usually so troublesome to the human species. They both belong to the section Nemocera of the Dipterous insects, wh...
-Corrosive Sublimate, Or Stone Mercury
Corrosive Sublimate, Or Stone Mercury. The bichloride of mercury (or quicksilver) is so called on account of its peculiarly pernicious effects upon animal tissues, and the masses in which it is sold. ...
-Diamons
Diamons. The diamond is found mostly in the East Indies and South America. Its chief feature consists in its excessive hardness, which far exceeds all other bodies, and by which, and its colour and br...
-Ornamental Eggs
Ornamental Eggs. The ornamental eggs, made and sold by the German peasantry, are manufactured as follows: - Take any large egg, and after puncturing each end, blow out the contents, until the interior...
-Cups In Pies
Cups In Pies. The cup which is placed upside down in meat and fruit pies is only tilled with air when it is put into the pie. When the heat of the oven begins to act this air expands, and forces its w...
-The Death-Watch
The Death-Watch. Superstitions have been associated with various insects from the earliest times, and in all countries. The death's-head moth has been regarded as an unwelcome omen to the homes visite...
-Shamrock. How Shamrock Came To Be The National Emblem Of Ireland
Shamrock (How It Came To Be The National Emblem Of Ireland). According to tradition, when Saint Patrick landed near Wicklow, to convert the Irish, in 433, the pagan inhabitants were about to stone him...
-Waterproofing Boots And Shoes
Waterproofing Boots And Shoes. To half a pint of drying oil add one ounce of turpentine and half an ounce of Burgundy pitch; mix carefully together in a glazed pipkin, over a slow fire ; lay the mixtu...
-Bruises And Their Treatment
Bruises And Their Treatment. The best application for a bruise, be it large of small, is moist warmth ; therefore, a warm bread-and-water poultice in hot moist flannels should be put on, as they su...
-Door Mats
Door Mats. One of the most useful mats for cottage, and other doors is that termed the chain mat, which is commonly made of rope, or of cocoa-nut fibre. These mats are found very durable, and it is...
-Origin Of Barbers' Poles
Barbers' Poles (Origin Of). In the reign of Henry VIII., who confirmed the charter of the College of Surgeons, there were few surgeons - in fact, only ten in rumber - who confined themselves entirely ...
-Fish Ponds
Fish Ponds. It is necessary, in making an artificial fish-pond, where the earth is of that nature that it will not hold water, to take an equal quantity of gravel, sand, and clay; let these be spread ...
-Plaster Casts
Plaster Casts. Take some fine wax, and melt carefully in a covered pot. Next dry your cast in an oven, or on the hob; then take the wax, and drop it with a camel's-hair pencil on the heated cast, unti...
-Food In Season
Food In Season. January. Meats. - Beef', mutton, veal, pork, house-lamb. Poultry. - Pheasants, partridges, hares, rabbits, woodcocks, snipes, turkeys, pullets, capons, fowls, and pigeons. Fish. - Oyst...
-Dandelion
Dandelion. The name is derived from the French Dent de lion or lion's tooth, from the likeness supposed to be observed between the canine tooth of the lord of the forest, and the strap-shaped fl...
-Metallic Trees
The Lead Tree is produced as follows : - Put into a glass bottle about half an ounce of sugar of lead, and fill up to the neck with distilled or water; then fasten to the cork or stopper a piece of zi...
-How To Construct An Aeolian Harp
An Aeolian Harp, (To Construct) Length thirty-two inches by six; depth one and three-quarter inches. The strings are attached to the small hooks at the end, corresponding to the pegs. The strings ...
-Storm Glasses
Storm Glasses. The following directions may serve for a storm-glass : - Take two drachms of camphor, half a drachm of pure nitrate of potash, and half a drachm of muriate of ammonia. Triturate them to...
-Pastilles
Pastilles. There are various modes of making pastilles. The following are approved recipes : - 1. Take of powdered gum benzoin 16 parts; balsam of tolu, and powdered sandal wood, of each 4 parts; lind...
-How To Put On Gutta Percha Soles
Gutta Percha Soles, (How To Put On). Dry the old sole, and rough it with a rasp; after which, put on a thin coat of warm solution with the finger, rub it well in ; let it dry, then hold it to the fire...
-Accounts
Accounts. It is incumbent on every housekeeper to keep an account of his income and expenditure. We cannot too emphatically speak of the importance of observing this rule, and submit the following as...
-Cryophorus
Cryophorus. The cryophorus, or frost-bearer, is a pleasing philosophical toy, sometimes known as a pulse glass. This instrument consists of two small glass globes united by a tube, one of which is par...
-Swimming-Belts
Swimming-Belts. The largest portion of the entrail of the ox, when nicely cleaned, forms an excellent material out of which to form a swimming-belt. Procure two of them from the butcher, and having wa...
-Cod Liver Oil
Cod Liver Oil. This imported oil is prepared by exposing the livers to the heat of the sun in tubs till putrefaction takes place; drawing off the oil, and boiling the livers to obtain more oil. In thi...
-Bleeding At The Nose
Bleeding At The Nose. When bleeding at the nose occurs otherwise than as the result of violence, it is usually in consequence of the over-fulness of some of the vessels about the brain, and is the con...
-The Best Time For Eating Fruit
Fruit, (The Best Time For Eating). The question is of some importance, and deserves a few remarks. Fruit is digestible in proportion to its perfection, and hence the care to be observed with regard to...
-Letter Postages
Letter Postages. 1. The law requires the postage on all letters to be prepaid by stamps, or stamped envelopes, except those to foreign countries, and those on official business to government officers ...
-Postage On Printed Matter
Postage On Printed Matter. 1. The postage on each newspaper, periodical, unsealed circular, or other article of printed matter (except books),not over three ounces in weight, going by mail to any plac...
-Authors Of Popular Quotations
Entangling alliances. - George Washington. Where liberty dwells, there is my country. - Benjamin Franklin. The post of honor is the private station. - Thomas Jefferson. Ebony and ...
-Mechanical Effect Of Lightning
Mechanical Effect Of Lightning. It has been proved that a flash of lightning must have struck a church - St George's, Leicester - with a force equal to more than twelve thousand horse power. A single ...
-Bites of Snakes
Bites Of Snakes. The bites of the different kinds of snakes do not all act alike, but affect people in different ways. - Treatment of the part bitten : A pocket handkerchief, a piece of tape or cord, ...
-Bites Of Dogs
Bites Of Dogs. The treatment is the same as that for snake bites, more especially that of the bitten part. The majority of writers on the subject are in favour of keep-ing the wound open as long as po...
-Bites Of Gnats
Bites Of Gnats. To cure the bite of gnats, the best remedy is to smear the part with olive oil. ...
-Burns And Scalds
Burns And Scalds. Dissolve in boiling water as much Epsom salts as they will take up. Let it get cool, bottle off, and keep in readiness for use. It will be well to label the bottle - Solution for S...
-How To Protect Children From Burning
Burning, (To Protect Children From). Add one ounce of alum to the last water used to rinse children's dresses, and they will be rendered uninflammable, or so slightly combustible that they would take ...
-Coach Accidents
Coach Accidents. Should the horses run off, in defiance of all restraint, while you are in a coach, sit perfectly still, and, in anticipation of the possible overturn, keep your legs and arms from str...
-Ships
Ship is a general name for all great vessels with sails, fit for navigating the sea, except galleys, which go with oars and smack sails. The invention of ships is very ancient, but the time uncertain....
-Alphabet
Alphabet. The most important inven -tion of man, ascribed to a Phoenician, by means of which sounds are represented, and language made visible to the eye by ft few simple characters. Previous to this ...
-December
December. According to the calendar of Romulus, this was the tenth month, as the word implies; but by the Julian calendar it was made the twelfth. Among the Romans this month was devoted to various fe...
-Regular Bodies
Bodies (Regular). The name of five solids, as the tetrahedron, or pyramid, with four triangular faces; the hexahedron, or cube, with six square faces; the octahedron, with eight faces; the dodecahedro...
-Wills
Wills. We are favored by an eminent legal functionary with the following : - I hold that whenever two persons save money by their joint industry, the survivor is equitably entitled to the benefit of s...
-The Old Cent
The Old Cent. The cent was proposed in 1782 by Robert Morris, the great financier of the revolution, and was named by Jefferson two years later. It began to make its appearance from the mint in 1792. ...
-Letters
Letters. The etiquette of letter-writing, should, as much as possible, be influenced by principles of truth. The superscription and the subscription should alike be in accomdance with the tone of the ...
-Words
Words. There are in the English language 20,500 nouns, 40 pronouns, 9,200 adjectives, 8,000 verbs, 2,600 adverbs. 69 prepositions, 19 conjunctions, 68 interjections, and 2 articles - in all above 40,0...
-Catherine Wheels
Catherine Wheels. In fire-works, an arrangement of tubes in the periphery of a circle, the re-action of the burning of which, against the air. occasions the wheel to revolve with a pleasing effect. ...
-Gas
Gas. Gas was first evolved from coal by Dr. Clayton, in 1739. Its application to purposes of illumination was first tried by Mr. Murdoch, in Cornwall, in 1792. Sir Humphrey Davy, also a Cornishman, st...
-How To Remove The Smell Of Paint
Paint (To Remove The Smell Of). 1. Take three or four broad tubs (such, for instance, as hold about eight gallons), fill them with cold water, and put into each an ounce of vitriolic acid, which you c...
-Handkerchief Perfume
Handkerchief Perfume. Grate to fine powder half a nutmeg; crush one quarter of an ounce of cloves; put these together into half a pint of the best pale rum, brandy, or spirits of wine. After three or ...
-How To Sweeten Casks
Casks (To Sweeten). 1. When musty it is best to unhead large casks and whitewash them with quicklime. Or they may be matched with sulphur mixed with a little nitrate of potash, and afterwards well was...
-Variations Of Terrestrial Time
Variations Of Terrestrial Time. We give below a table showing differences in time between the principal cities in the United States. To find the difference - say the difference Between New York and...
-Jefferson's Ten Rules
Ten Rules of Jefferson 1. Never off till to-morrow what you can do to-day. 2. Never trouble another for what you can do your-elf. 3. Never spend your money before you have it. 4. Never buy...
-Singular Fact
Singular Fact. Were the atmosphere at all times of a uniform temperature, there never would be hail, rain, nor snow. The water absorbed by it in evaporation from the sea and the earth's surface would ...
-Interesting Statistics
Interesting Statistics. The United States are composed of thirty-one States and live Territories. They contain a population of 27,000,000, of whom 23,000,000 are white. The extent of sea-coast is 12,5...
-Bread And Water, Or Evaporating Poultice
Poultice (Bread - And - Water, Or Evaporating). Scald out a basin, for you can never make a good poultice unless you have perfectly boiling water; then having put some into the basin, throw in coarsel...
-How To Distinguish Mushrooms From Poisonous Fungi
Mushrooms, (To Distinguish From Poisonous Fungi). 1. Sprinkle a little salt on the spongy part or gills of the sample to be tried. If they turn yellow, they are poisonous, - if black, they are wholes...
-Dividing, Powdering, Grinding
Dividing, Powdering, Grinding. The operations of chopping, powdering, grinding, etc, are so frequently required in cooking, and the other branches of domestic economy, as to render any description of ...
-Fools' Day
Fools' Day. The 1st of April is termed All Fools' Day in consequence of the almost universally prevalent custom of people trying to make fools of each other on that day. This ridiculous custom prevail...
-Balloon
Balloon. A globe made of silk, and rendered air-tight by gum, which, when filled with hydrogen gas, from 10 to 13 times lighter than atmospherical air, ascends into the atmosphere, and will convey hea...
-Azure
Azure. In heraldry the blue colour used in coats of arms, expressed in engraving by horizontal lines. ...
-How To Prevent The Nauseous Taste Of Medicine
Medicine, (The Nauseous Taste Of, Prevented). By chewing aromatic substances, such as orange or lemon peel, cloves or other spice, before taking medicine, little or no taste will be perceived. The mou...
-Anatomy
Anatomy. The art of dissecting a body, and examining the parts of which it is composed. It is generally applied to the examination of animals, and it has discovered the following circumstances of thei...
-Atmosphere
Atmosphere. The fluid or gas which we feel on passing our hand through it, and whose force is visible in a high wind. It is 820 times less dense than water, but its elastic pressure or reaction is equ...
-Architecture
Architecture. The art of proportionally erecting buildings according to plans and models supplied by rules of science, uniting outward ornaments with interior conveniences. It embraces erections for c...
-Blood
Blood. The blood takes its origin from the chyle, which is produced by the digestion of food in the stomach. It may take from three to seven hours to convert elementary substances into blood. As the b...
-Athwart
Athwart. A sea phrase, signifying across a ship or the line of her course. ...
-Galvanic Coils
Galvanic Coils. A cheap and effective galvanic coil for invalids may be con-structed as follows. - AB is a rectangular pi ece of board, upon which is fixed vertically a hollow cylinder of wood, CD, wi...
-Damp Walls
Damp Walls. When damp walls proceed from diliquescence in the case of muriate of soda in intimate combination with the sand used for the mortar, it is merely neces sary to wash the wall with a strong ...
-How To Fumigate Sick Rooms
Sick Rooms (To Fumigate). The chlorine fumigation is generally considered the best for fumigating the apartments of the sick. To prepare it, mix together equal parts of powdered oxide of manganese and...
-Art Of Dyeing
Dyeing (Art Of). The discovery of it is attributed to the Tyrians. In dyeing and dipping their own clothes, the English were so little skilled, that their manufactures were usually sent white to Holla...
-Heat And Cold
Heat And Cold. Cold is the absence of heat; and heat is a peculiar influence of which we can only judge by its effect. There are two states in which we find heat. In the one case we recognize it by...
-Centre Of Gravity
Centre Of Gravity. As the reaction of every body to every force is directed from the centre of the masses, so bodies subject to centripetal force re-act from their centres, and, if these are not suppo...
-Cardinal Virtues
Cardinal Virtues. Industry, Perseverance, Benevolence, Temperance. ...
-Cards
Cards. Toys with which many games of chance are played, there being four kinds, and 13 of each kind, so as to cause by shuffling and dealing, an infinite variety of combinations, and afford inexhausti...
-Chaplain
Chaplain. A person in holy orders who does the duty of a chapel; for his own chapels, the king has 72 chaplains, and by law, an archbishop may have 8; duke or bishop 6 ; a marquis or earl 5; a viscoun...
-Still
Still. An apparatus for vaporising compound fluids, and re-condensing the vapours of each of the component parts as they are successively raised by heat; it consists of an alembic, a worm, a refrigera...
-Cinque Ports
Cinque Ports. Five ancient ports of England endowed with privileges, as Dover, Hastings, Romney, Hythe, and Sandwich with Winchelsea and Rye. ...
-Beef-Eaters
Beef-Eaters. The term Beefeaters is a corruption of the French buffe-tiers, (from buffet, meaning sideboard.) The French buffetiers were guards who stood around the sovereign at dinner; and the word...
-Bouts-Rimes
Bouts-Rimes. This is a species of amusement generally known in France. It is pronounced 'boo-rema. A number of words that rhyme are given to a composer, who is to fill up the verse, producing ...
-Knives And Forks
Knives And Forks. Handles of ebony should be cleaned with a soft cloth dipped in a little sweet oil; and after resting awhile with the oil on them, let them be well wiped with a clean towel. Ivory or ...
-Calisthenic Exercises
Calisthenic Exercises. Use of Calisthenics. It is an admitted physiological fact, that imperfections in the female form originate, for the most part, in defective or irregular muscular action. The cal...
-Moving The Knight Over All The Squares Alternately
Moving The Knight Over All The Squares Alternately. The problem respecting the placing the knight on any given square, and moving him from that square to any house on the board, has not been thought u...
-Weights Of Measures
Weights Of Measures. The following table of the number of pounds of various articles to a bushe., may be of interest to our readers: Of wheat, sixty pounds; of shelled corn, fifty-six pounds; of co...
-Mile Of The Different Nations
Mile Of The Different Nations. English yards. English yards. Arabian mile 2148 Irish............. 3038 ...
-Wheat
Wheat. The valuable species of grain which, in Europe is what rice is in Southern Asia. Its nutritious quality arises from the quantity of gluten, or glue-like substance which it contains. Its flour, ...
-Chameleon
Chameleon. An animal about ten Inches long, which feeds on insects, and which, from the capacity of its lungs, is enabled to expand its skin, and thereby varying the angle of reflected light, changes ...
-Cure For The Headache
Headache (Cure For The). Mr. Thompson, a traveller in Mexico, describes an efficacious remedy used there for the headache, and also for the toothache. The head must be bent down on the side from which...
-Sore Throats
Sore Throats. For the habitual sore throat or quinsy, which is the torment of many people half their lives, and is generally mistaken for a violent cold because it occasions a tickling in the throat, ...
-Athenzeum
Athenzeum. A literary school at Rome, said to be founded by the Emperor Hadrian; now generally applied to institutions for the encouragement of letters. ...
-Azote
Azote. The gas of which the atmosphere contains nearly four-fifths in bulk, and three-fourths in weight; the other fifth and fourth being oxygen, without which the air will support neither life nor co...
-Telescope
Telescope. An optical instrument, which enables us to dispose of the rays which proceed from distant objects, that we may see the image or spectrum formed in the focus of the object-glass, very near, ...
-Diseases Of Cage Birds
Cage Birds (Diseases Of). Like all tame animals, birds that are kept in confinement are exposed to more maladies than those that live at large ; and especially as they are frequently so closely confin...
-Cannon
Cannon. An arrangement of iron or brass, with a hollow tube, at the bottom of which gun-powder is lodged, and exploded by hot iron at a touch-hole; and the explosion being directed by the tube, balls ...
-The Sunflower
The Sunflower. The value of this plant, which is easily cultivated, and ornamental to the garden, is scarcely known in most parts of the kingdom. The seed forms a moat excellent and convenient food fo...
-Pounds, Shillings, And Pence
Pounds, Shillings, And Pence. The etymology of these very necessary articles of exchange may be thus stated : - Pound is derived from the Anglo-Saxon pund or pond, which was generally a weight; it ...
-Porcelain
Porcelain. Porcelaine, said to bo derived from Pour cent annees, it being formerly believed that the materials of porcelain were matured under ground one hundred years. It is not known who first disco...
-Amazons
Amazons. The Amazons are said to have been the descendants of Scythians inhabiting Cappadocia, when their husbands, having made incursions, were all slain, being surprised in ambuscade by their enemie...
-Division Of The Day Into Hours
Day (Division Of The, Into Hours). The day began to be divided into hours from the year 293 B.C., when L. Papirius Cursor erected a sun-dial in the temple of Quirinus at Rome. Previous tc the inventio...
-Ashlar
Ashlar. A description of masonry where the stones are built in parallel beds with square joints, and dressed smooth upon the surface. ...
-Aside
Aside. A term used in plays to mark sentences which do not form a part of the dialogue, being supposed to be inaudible to all but the speaker. ...
-Names Of The Various Parts In Animals
Beef Hind Quarter. 1. Sirloin. 2. Rump. 3. Aitch-Bone. 4. Buttock. 6. Mouse-Buttock. 6. Veiny Piece. 7. Thick Flunk. 8. Thin Flank. 9. Leg. 10. Fore-Ribs (5 ribs...
-Enamels
Enamels. White enamels are composed by melting the oxide of tin with glass, and adding a small quantity of manganese, to increase the brilliancy of the colour. The addition of oxide of lead or antimo...
-Origin Of Pin Money
Pin Money (Origin Of). This term seems to have been derived from an ancient tax in France for providing the Queen with pins, whence it has been applied by us to that provision for married women, with ...
-Heraldry
Heraldry. For ourselves we look upon heraldry as simply one of those branches of knowledge which is useful in its proper place. The origin of the science - if it may properly be called a science - is ...
-Black-Lead Pencils
Black-Lead Pencils. The easiest way of producing, not only black-lead, but all sorts of pencils, is by the following process, which combines simplicity, cheapness, and quality. Take white or pipe-clay...
-The Colossus Of Rhodes
The Colossus Of Rhodes. This celebrated statue was considered one of the wonders of the world, and was erected in honour of Apollo. It was made of brass, and was 70 cubits, or about 105 feet in height...
-Rain
Rain. Rain falls in drops, because the vapoury particles attract each other in their descent, and those which are sufficiently near unite and form into drops. These drops are sometimes larger than at ...
-Dun
Dun. Some persons imagine this word to be derived from the French donnez - give me, implying a demand for something new; but the true origin of this expression is supposed to be due to one John Dun, a...
-Aspen
Aspen. A kind of poplar tree, the leaves of which have a tremulous motion which seems incessant, and has become proverbial. ...
-Anthracite
Anthracite. A variety of coal consisting of vegetable carbon, and difficult to burn on account of the want of the bitumen found in the common sorts of coal. It is found in Wales and in America. ...
-Pulleys
Pulleys. The pulley is a wheel, round the rim of which a groove is cut, in which a cord can work, and the centre of which moves on pivots in a block. The wheel sometimes passes under the name of a she...
-Wheels And Axles
The wheel and axle consists of a cylinder revolving upon an axis, and having a wheel of larger diameter immoveably affixed to it. The power is applied to the circumference of the wheel, the weight to ...
-Gloves
Gloves. With regard to the period in which the use of gloves was first introduced, we have, perhaps, no better authority than that of Xenophon, who, in speaking of the Persians, mentions as a proof o...
-Lotteries
Lotteries. The first lottery in England was drawn in the year 1569. It consisted of 40,000 lots, at 10s. a lot; the prizes were plate, and the profits were to go towards repairing the havens of the ki...
-Asp
Asp. A small kind of poisonous serpent found in Africa, whose venom is said to be fatal; celebrated in history as the means taken by Cleopatra to commit suicide. ...
-Aspect
Aspect. An astronomical term denoting the situations of the heavenly bodies with regard to each other. ...
-Auspices
Auspices. Among the Romans a mode by which the Augurs sought to ascertain future events, principally by the inspection of the entrails of animals slain for sacrifice. ...
-Ave Maria
Ave Maria. The name given to the angel Gabriel's salutation to the Virgin Mary at the incarnation of Jesus : the chap-lets and rosaries of the Romish church are divided into ave-marias and pater-noste...
-Athanasian Creed
Athanasian Creed. Ascribed to Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, and also to Hilary, bishop of Aries. It was used in France about the year 850, and first sung in our churches about 950., ...
-Acre Town
Acre. A port-town of Syria, famous for several destructive sieges. ...
-Acre
Acre. Four square roods, or 160 square poles, of 5 1/2 yards, or 4,840 square yards, i. e. 69.6 yards by 69.6 yards. The French acre is to the English, as 54 to 43 ; and the Irish acre is I 1/2 Englis...
-Mistletoe
Mistletoe is a parasitic plant, found wild in England, very rarely in Scotland, and nowhere in Ireland ; and is a production of great interest to the phytologist. The seeds in germination offer an exc...
-Antediluvian
Antediluvian. A term applied to any animal or thing which existed in the world previous to the deluge. ...
-How To Remove The Smell Of Cooking
Cooking In A House (To Remove The Smell Of). Smell may be avoided by making in the tunnel of the chimney a little door on a level with the ceiling of the kitchen, through which the smell will escape. ...
-Scrubbing Floors
Scrubbing Floors. After the whitewashing, paint-cleaning, and window-washing of each room has been completed, let the floor be scrubbed first seeing that it has been well swept. For this purpose have ...
-Respiration
Respiration. The lungs, the organs of respiration, may be described as fleshy sponges. In human beings there are two; one on each side the heart, fitted within the chest, and reaching from top to bott...
-Axioms For The Deaf
Deaf (Axioms For The). 1. Never syringe your ears, nor allow it to be done by others, unless for the removal of an accumulation of wax. 2. Be sure that such accumulation forms an obstacle to the trans...
-Windlass
Windlass. A common mechanical power, by which weights are raised, and water generally drawn out of a well. As power is as velocity, and as the hand at the winch makes a larger circle than the cylinder...
-Tuscan
Tuscan. The simplest order of architecture, like the Doric, but stronger. ...
-Overshot Water-Wheel
Water-Wheel (Overshot). A varietyof water-wheel, by which water falling on its upper periphery, carries it round, not only by its force, but by its accumulated weight; for, it is so constructed as to ...
-South-Sea Bubble
South-Sea Bubble. This term is applied to a company instituted in 1710, and incorporated in 1716. Under cover of its legality, enormous frauds were carried on. Thousands of persons were ruined by it. ...
-Cardinal
Cardinal. The highest order in the Romish Church, from which the Pope is elected. He wears a red hat, of the form represented in the engraving. ...
-Cardinal Points
Cardinal Points. North, southeast and west; subdivided into intermediate parts, as N.E. north east; N. W. north west, etc. ; to the number of thirty-two points of the compass, each 11 1/2 degrees. ...
-Cleaning China And Earthenware
Cleaning China And Earthenware. They should be washed in plenty of soap and warm water, rinsed clean in a second bowl of water alone, either warm or cold ; should be then turned down to drain, and aft...
-Cures For Corns
Corns (Cures For). 1. Place the feet for half an hour, two or three nights successively, into a pretty strong solution of common soda. The alkali dissolves the indurated cuticle, and the corn comes aw...
-January
January. This month received the name of January from the ancient Romans. It was adopted and retained by the early Christians, and has ever since been computed as the first month of the year in all th...
-New Year's Day
New Year's Day. In most parts of America New- Year's Day, like New-Year's Eve, is celebrated with great festivity; while social enjoyment and friendly congratulations appear to be the order of the day...
-Singular Coincidence
Singular Coincidence. The winters of 1837-8, 1847-8 and 1857-8 were remarkably mild in their temperatures. ...
-Saturn
Saturn. A planet, 900,000 millions of miles from the sun, 79,000 miles in diameter, and period 30 years, or 10,746 days. Saturn has seven moons, and is also surrounded by a double ring, 205.000 miles ...
-Pump
Pump. An important machine for extracting the air from a pipe placed in water, which, by pressure of the air, rises 33 feet in the vacuum. The same principle is applied to extract air from a close gla...
-Punctuation
Punctuation. The discriminating use of certain marks adopted to distinguish the clauses of a period, sometimes with reference to the sense, and at others to the grammatical construction. Thus, a full ...
-Allspice, Or Pimento Tree
Allspice, Or Pimento Tree. A native of Mexico and the West Indies. The flavour and fruit have an highly aromatic fragrance, and the tree is about 30 feet in height, and two in circumference. ...
-Sabbath
Sabbath. The seventh day, or Saturday, kept by the Jews as a day of rest, in conformity to the fourth commandment of God, commencing on Friday at sunset, and ending on Saturday at sunset. Christians, ...
-How To Strengthen And Fasten Gums And Loose Teeth
Gums And Loose Teeth (To Strengthen And Fasten). Dissolve an ounce of myrrh as much as possible in a pint of port wine, and the same quantity of oil of almonds; wash the mouth with this fluid every mo...
-Bagpipe
Bagpipe. A musical instrument, consisting of a leathern bag, and pipes for admitting and ejecting the air. It is an instrument of great force, not pleasing to those who are unused to it, but much este...
-Beans
Beans. This engraving is introduced to show the seed of vegetables. The left hand figure is the seed whole, and the right hand is a section displaying the germ of the future plant within the seed. 'Th...
-Chilblains
Chilblains consist of a peculiar inflammation of the skin of parts exposed to sudden alternations of temperature. They occur on the nose, ears, hands, but most frequently on the feet. The reason why t...
-Chilblains. Continued
3. Treatment. When the inflammation called chilblain has attacked any part, it should be considered whether it is a mere local affection, or whether it shows a constitutional state, which renders the ...
-Meerschaum
Meerschaum. The appearance of this substance, before its manufacture, somewhat resembles foam. It is stated to be found floating in the sea of Azof, and on the shores of Samos, and Negropont. From eit...
-Management Of Carpets
Carpets (Management Of). Previous to laying down a carpet, cover the joints of the floor with stripes of brown paper; this will prevent the dust from rising between the boards. Take up your carpets fr...
-Animalculae
Animalculae. Animals so small as not to be immediately perceptible to the naked eye. Their origin is unknown, for they rise in substances which did not previously contain them, and their numbers and v...
-Hair Brushes
Hair Brushes. The use of a moderately hard brush for the head keeps up a healthy circulation, and is on every account to be preferred to the employment of a comb. The scurf, as it is called, which col...
-Beetle, Or Scharabaeus
Beetle, Or Scharabaeus. A genus of insects furnished with shelly wing-cases, and of which there are several species, all perfectly harmless, and in general very timid and sagacious. ...
-How To Improve The Complexion
Complexion (To Improve The). Infuse wheat-bran, well sifted, for three or four hours in white wine vinegar; add to this five yolks of eggs and a grain or two of ambergris, and distil the whole. When t...
-How To Make Teeth White
Teeth (I'O Make Them White). Take gum tragacanth one ounce; pumice-stone, two drachms, gum arabie, half an ounce; and crystals of tartar finely powdered, one ounce; dissolve the gums in rose-water, an...
-How To Sweeten The Breath
Breath (To Sweeten The). Chew every night and morning a clove, a piece of Florentine orris-root, about the size of a small bean, or the same quantity of burnt alum. Or, - Rull up a little ball of g...
-Blowpipe
Blowpipe. A tube through which air is blown, and more oxygen brought in contact with flame; and, latterly, it has been contrived to pass a jet of oxygen and hydrogen through it, when it is called the ...
-Battering-Ram
Battering-Ram. A machine made use of by the ancients to effect breaches in fortifications Sometimes they were swung on ropes, and at others driven by men, who were protected from the besieged by suita...
-How To Copy Impressions
Impressions (To Copy). To take an exact mould of any coin, medal, embussed or stamped paper, or in fact, of any device, raised or imprinted (that is, sunk on paper), cut a piece of cardboard, say to t...
-Electrical Attraction
Attraction (Electrical). A term used to express the phenomena by which light bodies leap towards an electrified body; and the principle has been applied to effect the amusing experiment represented in...
-White Ants
Ants (White) inhabitants of East India, Africa, and South America, far exceeding in wisdom and policy, the bee, the ant, or beaver. They build pyramidal structures, divided into chambers, magazines, e...
-Rudiments Of Cookery
Cookery (Rudiments Of). The foundation of all good cookery consists in preparing the meat so as to render it tender in substance, without extracting from it those juices which constitute its true flay...
-Boiling
Boiling. Boiling is the most simple of all processes of cooking. Regularity and attention to time are the main secrets - indeed, these are the main secrets of all successes. Much less heat is requi...
-Roasting
Roasting. No success can be acLieved in cookery without good management of the kitchen fire : roasting especially requires a brisk, clear, and steady fire, if made up close to the bars of the grate. ...
-Broiling
Broiling. To broil well requires a brisk, clear fire, proportioned to the article to be broiled; for example, mutton chops require a clear rather than a brisk fire, else the fat will be wasted before ...
-Frying
Frying. Frying is, to scorch something solid in fat, or oil, or butter. Lard, clarified suet, or dripping, is well adapted for fish, eggs, potatoes, and meat generally Olive oil is much used for fis...
-Stewing
Stewing. All articles to be stewed should first be boiled gently, then skimmed and set aside in an even neat: on this account charcoal makes the best fire for stewing. All stews, or meal dressed a sec...
-Danger From Copper Saucepans
Danger From Copper Saucepans. The precise danger from the use of copper saucepans, or stewpans, imperfectly tinned, is far from rightly understood. It appears that the acid contained in stews and othe...
-Baking
Baking. Baking is the least advantageous mode of cookery ; for by it meat loses about one-third of its weight. Iron ovens are ill-adapted for baking meat or meat-pies; fruit-pies, pastry, and paddings...
-Butterfly, Or Papilio
Butterfly, Or Papilio. A genus of insects, of which there are many hundred species. Curious and elegant as they are, this is the last state of the varied existence of the same creature; first in the g...
-Cake Of Nails
Nails (Cake Of). The care of the nails adds greatly to the beauty of the hand. The white spots you complain of are occasioned by injury, a blow, etc, and will gradually disappear at the end. The nails...
-Potichimanie, Or Imitation Porcelain
Potichimanie, Or Imitation Porcelain. The art of imitating old china and porcelain of various descriptions is one which has recently been introduced into Paris. The result of this work is, what it ...
-Warts
Warts. Mr. Lawrence, surgeon of St. Bartholomew's, says, the easiest way to get rid of warts is to pare off the thickened skin which covers the prominent wart, cut it off by successive layers; shave i...
-Auscultation
Auscultation. The art of distinguishing, by the sense of hearing, whether the lungs or heart are acting in a healthy manner, the instrument used for this purpose is called a stethoscope. ...
-Complete Calendar For 150 Years
Complete Calendar For 150 Years , Showing at a glance, and in the most simple manner, the days of the week, month and year, from 1752 to 1900. Rule. - To ascertain any day of the week or m...
-The American Flag
The American Flag. On the 13th of Jane, 1877, the following resolution was adopted by the American Congress: That the flag of the thirteen United States bo thirteen stripes, alternately red and whit...
-Origin Of The Names Of The States
Origin Of The Names Of The States. The following information, relative to the derivation of the names of the States, will be found interesting : Maine was first called Marvosheen, but about 1638 to...
-Remarkable Events Predicted By Comets
Remarkable Events Predicted By Comets. The Pays, to show the popular belief that comets predict remarkable events is not altogether unfounded, publishes the following table of the visitations of comet...
-Quaint Questions
Quaint Questions. What is the difference between twenty four quart bottles, and four and twenty quart bottles ? Ans. - 56 quarts difference. What 3 figures, multiplied by 4, will make precisely ...
-A Boy His Own Grandfather
A Boy His Own Grandfather There was a widow and her daughter, and a man and his son. The widow married the son, and the daughter the father ; the widow was therefore mother to her husband's father, an...
-Nutmeg
Nutmeg. The kernel of a fruit like the peach, which flourishes in the Moluccas, in-Tested with a rind or coat, which is mace. In four years, from 1814 to 1817, 1,800,000 lbs. of nutmegs were imported ...
-Cone
Cone. A solid, whose base is a circle, the sides approaching and terminating in a point, by cutting which, in different directions, the ellipsis, parabola, and hyperbola, are produced. ...
-Microscope
Microscope. An arrangement of lenses which enables the observer to see an object, or its true image, nearer than with the naked eye, and magnified accordingly. The simplest microscope is a small hole ...
-How To Preserve Steel From Rust
Steel (To Preserve From Rust). The following has been found very useful : - Half an ounce of emery powder, one ounce of soft soap, mixed, and well rubbed in. How To Preserve Polished Steel From Rus...
-Polype
Polype. A species of zoophytes, whose chief animal property consists of having a stomach which is so constituted that it acts equally well if the animal is turned inside out. They propagate by stems o...
-Sound
Sound. An affection of the medium in which we live, by vibrations like those which are produced in water, when a stone is thrown into it. It travels at the rate of 1,142 feet in a second, and differen...
-Convex Lens
Convex Lens, by means of which, light proceeding from its focus is recon-verged on the other side, and there makes a picture of the object on the other side. ...
-Orange-Tree
Orange-Tree. A native of the tropics, where it produces fruit throughout the year, the average annual crop of each tree being from 6,000 to 8,000. The orange - tree was transplanted from China (hence ...
-Canaries. Their History And Management
Canaries, (Their History And Management). This most highly and deservedly valued of all cage songsters is not a native bird; although from its long domestication and breeding amongst us we have become...
-Breeding Canaries
Breeding. Canaries should not be allowed to pair before the beginning of April, as the cold weather of a backward spring frequently kills the young birds. If they are loose in a room together, or in a...
-Canary Food
Food. Canaries, like all other finches, are seed-eating birds. Rape and canary seed are the best kinds to give them as a general diet; the summer rape is to be preferred, not being so hot and oily as ...
-Canary Diseases
Diseases. The diseases to which the canary is especially liable are not numerous; it is by no means so delicate a bird as is generally considered; and, if properly fed and cared for, will live many ye...
-Canary Cages
Cages. On this head we need scarcely trouble our readers with many special directions. Canary cages may be made of every conceivable variety of shape; and, provided the comforts of the little inmates ...
-Ax Empty Boast
Ax Empty Boast - At Vienna there was formerly a gate called the Five Vowels. It was a gate of the Palace, then described as A E I O U, meaning, Austria est imperare orbi universo ; i. e., Austria is...
-Adhesive Composition
Adhesive Composition. Glue and water with a small admixture of sweet oil, make a good adhesive composition for labels. A little treacle, or sugar, mixed with gum, prevents the curling up and crispness...
-Coral
Coral. A genus of zoophytae found in the sea, attached to stones, bones, shells, etc. Corals were formerly believed to bo vegetable substances,, but are now ascertained to consist of animals. The isla...
-Cameleopard. Giraffe
Cameleopard, or Giraffe. A native of South Africa, usually 16 or 17 feet high, and named from its resemblance to a camel and a panther. These animals are exceedingly docile, and delicate in constituti...
-Marble Appearance To Plastic Figures
Marble Appearance To Plastic Figures. Dissolve an ounce of pure curd soap grated in water, and add one once of white wax, cut in thin slices; When the whole is incorporated it is fit for use. Having d...
-Doric
Doric. An order of architecture, in imitation of a wooden structure, resembling the trunks of trees in union. ...
-Clove-Tree
Clove-Tree. A native of the Moluccas. The blossoms are first white, then green, and at last red and hard, when they are cloves. When dried they turn yellow, and then dark-brown. The clove is also cult...
-Frog
Frog. Ad amphibious animal, perfectly harmless, which continues growing for five years, and is very tenacious of life. Frogs are formed from tadpoles; the feet grow, and the tail is absorbed when they...
-Beds
Beds. In regard to the kind of beds most suitable for refreshing slumber, there are differences of opinion ; some are advocates for soft and some for hard beds. The difference between the two is this ...
-Mercury
Mercury. The planet nearest to the sun, in diameter 3200 miles, distance 37 millions, and period of revolution 88 days. It is seldom visible. Mercury, in the heathen mythology, the inventor of lett...
-Tea-Plant
Tea-Plant. A small evergreen shrub, a native of Japan, China, and Tonquin. In seven years the shrub rises six feet, and being cut down to the stem produces fresh shoots, each of which bears as many le...
-How To Remove Freckles
Freckles (To Remove). Take of Venice soap an ounce, dissolve it in half an ounce of lemon-juice, to which add of oil of bitter almonds, and deliquated oil of tartar, each a quarter of an ounce. Let th...
-Egyptian Architecture
Egyptian Architecture, distinguished by capitals like the engraving, and lately much introduced. ...
-Coffee, Tea, Chocolate, And Cocoa
Coffee, Tea, Chocolate, And Cocoa. Coffee and tea have now become such universal beverages for the morning or after-dinner meal, that beyond a few general directions little remains for prefatory mutte...
-Coffee
Coffee. An evergreen shrub, growing in Arabia, the island of Java, and the West Indies. It seldom rises mere than 16 or 18 feet high; the flowers are of a pure white, and the berries grow in clusters,...
-Chocolate
Chocolate. According as you intend to make this, either with milk or water, put a cup of one or the other of these liquids into a chocolate-pot with one ounce of cake chocolate; some persons dissolve ...
-Tea
Tea. (Tea Cream.) Infuse an ounce of the best green tea in half a pint of boiling milk, simmer it five minutes, then strain it through a tammy, pressing the leaves well; boil a pint of rich cream, add...
-Lemon
Lemon. A fruit, the product of the south of Europe, of the genus citrus, from which citric acid, lemonade, punch, etc, are made. The engraving represents a branch of the Lemon-tree. ...
-How To Buy And Preserve Oil Cloths
Oil Cloths (To Buy And Preserve). In buying an oil-cloth for a floor, endeavour to obtain one that was manufactured several years before; as the longer it has been made previous to use, the better it ...
-How To Neutralize The Bad Effects Of Leaden Cisterns
Leaden Cisterns (To Neutralize The Bad Effects Of). Sulphate of soda, or common Glauber's salt, is as good as anything that could be employed. A few applications of this salt will be found sufficie...
-How To Extract Corks From Bottles
To Extract Corks From Bottles. A simple invention may exist unknown. This is illustrated in your case. You have been greatly troubled by corks getting within bottles, and have waisted hours in endea...
-Pimples
Pimples. The following is an ointment recommended by Sir M. Tierney: - Take of purified lard an ounce; of citron ointment, an ounce and a half; of finest almond oil, half an ounce; and mix all well to...
-How To Prevent Milk From Turning Sour In Warm Weather
Milk (To Prevent From Turning Sour In Warm Weather). In Paris the milkmen are in the habit of employing a little sub-carbonate of soda or of potash. This, by combining with and neutralising the acetic...
-Hand
Hand. The numerous bones of the hand prove the wonderful structure of the animal frame. It is joined to the radius and ulnus of the arm by the carpus, or wrist, which consists of eight small bones, in...
-Magic Lantern
Magic Lantern. An optical toy, by which light is diverged on a wall by a lens, and intercepted by coloured figures. ...
-Long Sight
Long Sight. This is a disease of age when the eye becomes too flat to converge rays of light to the distance of the optic nerve; but the light, as is shewn in the engraving, arrives at a focus beyond ...
-Dromedary
Dromedary. The Arabian camel, with a single hunch; a beast of burden in Western Asia, docile, patient, and hardy, but very uneasy to ride upon, though generally used for that purpose in long journeys....
-Harrow
Harrow. The name of a very useful instrument of agriculture, employed to prepare ploughed land for the seed, and to mix the seed with the soil after it has been sown. The latter kind is expre...
-Pluto
Pluto. Brother of Jupiter, and god of the infernal regions. ...
-February
February. It is generally known that Numa Pompilius altered the Roman calendar, by adding two months (January and February) to the year, and, also, that ha assigned twenty-nine days to the latter. Jul...
-Pope's Hat. Papal Tiara
Pope's Hat, or Papal Tiara, is a triple crown worn by the popes on state occasions. ...
-Leyden Jar
Leyden Jar. A mere plate of glass, in the jar form, for the convenience of handling ; an electrical excitement is produced on one side, and this operates on the chemical elements within the substance ...
-Dog Days
Dog Days. These days commence on the 3rd of July, and end on the 11th of August. Dr. Hutton says, that common opinion has been accustomed to regard the rising and setting of Sirius, or the dog-star,...
-Starch
Starch. In the vegetable kingdom starch is a very widely-diffused body. In almost every growing cell granules of starch may be distinguished by means of the microscope. These granules are of various s...
-Arrow-Root. Marania Arundinacea
Arrow-Root. What is sold under this name in the shops, is a form of starch procured from the rootstocks of various species of plants belonging to the family Maran-tacea. There are three kinds of arrow...
-Sago
Sago. Another form of starch sold in the shops of America is sago. It occurs in little round masses, and when very white and pure, is called pearl sago. When it is in larger and darker masses, it is c...
-Tapioca
Tapioca. This is anotherform of starch. It is brought to us here from South America, and is the produce of a plant known to botanists by the name of Janipha manihot. It is a poisonous plant, and the I...
-The Goldfinch
The Goldfinch, Fringma Carduelis. The scientific name of this beautiful and well-known bird is derived from the Latin words, Fringilla a finch, and Carduus a thistle, indicating the plant on which it ...
-Ionic Order
Ionic Order. Invented by the Ionians, and applied to the temple of Diana, at Ephesus, and the height of its column is nine times the diameter. Its capital is adorned with volutes, or ram's horns, but ...
-Rotten - Stone
Rotten - Stone. Rotten-stone, or tripoli, is used in the arts for polishing metallic and other surfaces. It consists entirely of the remains of animals, whose bodies were covered with an envelope of e...
-How To Make Red Sealing Wax
Red Sealing Wax (To Make). Shell-lac, 4oz.; cautiously melt in a bright copper pan over a clear charcoal fire, and when fused, add Venice turpentine, 1 1/4 oz.; mix, and add vermilion 3 oz. : remove t...
-Domesday Book
Domesday Book. This book is a register of the lands of England, framed by order of William the Conqueror. It was sometimes termed Rotulus Wiltonice, and was the book from which judgment was to be give...
-East India Company
East India Company. This association originated from the subscriptions (trifling in amount) of a few private individuals. It gradually became a commercial body, with gigantic means; and next, by the f...
-Honeymoon
Honeymoon. The word honeymoon is traceable to a Teutonic origin. Among the Teutones was a favourite drink called metbeglin. It was made of mead of honey, was much like the mead of European countries...
-Indigo
Indigo. Indigo is obtained from an Asiatic and American plant, which is bruised and fermented in vats of water. During the process, a blue powder is deposited, which is collected and dried so as to fo...
-Gold Fish
Gold Fish. Great care must be taken of gold fish, as they are very susceptible; and hence a loud noise, strong smell, violent or even slight shaking of the vessel, will oftines destroy them. Small wor...
-Leeches. To Make Leeches Bite
Leeches (To Make Them Bite). Leeches may usually be induced to take more readily than otherwise by rubbing the surface to which they are applied with a little milk. Previous to their application the s...
-Frost And Snow
Frost And Snow. Occasionally in Lapland the phenomenon of the formation of snow is witnessed when the door of an apartment in which persons are assembled is suddenly opened and a blast of cold air adm...
-Marbles
Marbles. You may tell your boys that the marbles with which they play are mostly imported from Holland, where they are made by breaking various kinds of stone into pieces of a suitable size; these pie...
-Magnetic Needle
Magnetic Needle. A small bar of iron, to which, by artificial means, the peculiar arrangement of the magnet has been transferred, by which it points in the magnetic meridian; and, the direction of thi...
-Hotchpot
Hotchpot. The word has thus been quaintly explained by Littleton: - It seemeth that this word hotchpot is, in English, a pudding, for in a pudding is not commonly put one thing alone, but one thing w...
-Libra, Or The Balance
Libra, Or The Balance. This is the first of the autumnal signs, and the seventh amongst its brethren. Emblematic of that equality which subsists between the day and night, its denotive character is ap...
-Radiated Animals
Radiated Animals. Our illustration represents the figure of a common Starfish, or Five-Finders. The limbs, or arms, are arranged like rays proceeding from a centre, and from this circumstance it is ...
-How To Bleed
How To Bleed. In cases of great emergency, such as the strong kind of apoplexy, and when a surgeon cannot possible be obtained for some considerable time, the life of the patient depends almost entire...
-How To Form Galvanic Battery
Galvanic Battery (To Form). For quickly forming a good, cheap, and powerful galvanic battery, we believe no method to be more available, than that on Mr. Grove's principle, first given by Dr. Goldingb...
-Agents Which Increase Respiration
Respiration (Agents Which Increase). Walking and running at various amounts of speed, walking in the Sea, riding on horseback in the various paces, riding in carriages and on the railway in differe...
-Syrups
Syrups. Although these preparations are so little used in America there is no reason why they should not become a regular article in the housekeeper's store-room; they are easy to prepare, and are ver...
-Insects. To Prepare For Cabinets
Insects (To Prepare For Cabinets). The mode adopted for killing insects for preservation in cabinets varies with the different tribes. Dark coloured beetles may be plunged as captured into a bottle co...
-Interest
Interest. Interest, is the money paid for the loan of a sum, denominated the principal, for a given time according to a fixed rate. Interest is distinguished as simple and compound. Simple interest is...
-Reflecting Telescopes
Reflecting Telescopes. The refracting astronomical telescope is formed of two convex lenses in a tube, and is the simplest form of telescope. In the Galillean telescope a concave eye-piece is used. Re...
-Oyster Grottoes
Oyster Grottoes. The grottoes of oyster-shells, built by children at the street sides, were formerly erected on the festival of St. James. They were originally set up by poor persons, who solicited al...
-Wallflower, Or Gilliflower
Wallflower, Or Gilliflower. There has been a curious confusion with respect to the clove-pink and the wallflower. The former belongs to the natural order Caryophyllce. the latter to Cruciferce. The cl...
-Annealing
Annealing. Annealing is a process by which the extreme brittleness common to glass and some metals, when cooled suddenly after melting, is avoided or removed. Such brittleness appears to be occasioned...
-Chiromancy
Chiromancy. Chiromancy, or Palmistry, the art of foretelling future events, or deciphering a person's disposition by the lines naturally impressed on the human hand, has, in all ages, received the imp...
-Chiromancy. Continued
The farther we penetrate into the study of animals, we shall find more and more of the irregularities of zoological classification. Fig. 6. Here are five paws of animals placed by ...
-Buttercups And Daisies
Buttercups And Daisies. Let us consider these two familiar friends attentively. In the buttercup the natural leaves consist of many divisions, while in the daisy the leaf is in one piece; in both leav...
-Virginian Tobacco
Virginian Tobacco. A plant, the leaves of which, when dried and cut, or ground to powder, constitute superior tobacco and snutf. ...
-Dresden China
Dresden China. The fine porcelain ware known as Dresden china was discovered by M. Boeticher, who was at the time only an apothecary's boy - 1700. Ser-vieces of this ware have cost many thousands of p...
-Composite Order
Composite Order. A rich combination of the other four orders of architecture, represented. ...
-Ear Rings
Ear Rings. Among the Athenians the perforation of the ears was a mark of nobility; among the Hebrews and Remans it indicated servitude. Pendants from the ears are at this day sometimes used by the men...
-Voice Lozenge
Voice Lozenge. A little common sugar-candy dissolved in water is economical, and has proved efficacious in clearing the voice when singing. To strengthen the solution, a very small portion of gum arab...
-Mists
Mists. There is a certain quantity of water existing in a purely gaseous and invisible form in all states of the atmosphere. The higher the temperature of the air the more water in this form it. is ca...
-Cosmetics
Cosmetics. This term is usually applied to any article used in beautifying the complexion, hair, or teeth; or that in any way contributes to enhance personal appearance. Milk of Roses, to Cool the ...
-Dyeing The Hair
Dyeing The Hair. Dyeing the hair is pernicious, whatever the medium may be that is employed. In cases were cosmetics become necessary, from fashion or defect in the hair, the simplest and most harmles...
- Colouring and Scenting Pomatums
Pomatums (Colouring and Scenting). Pomatums are seldom coloured of any other tint than red or pink; this is given by alkanet root, which has the peculiar property of imparting its colour to oils and m...
-Marking Ink
Ink (Marking). Lunar caustic, two drachms; gum-arabic, half a drachm ; distilled water, two drachms. To be well mixed, and kept in a small stopper-bottle, and in a dark place, as the lunar caustic los...
-Black Ink
Ink (Black). Take eight ounces of Aleppo galls in course powder ; four ounces of logwood in their chips; four ounces of sulphate of iron ; three ounces of gum-arabic in powder; one ounce of sulphate o...
-Blue Ink
Ink (Blue). Two drachms oxalic acid, two ditto Prussian blue, to be mixed in half a pint of water, make as good a blue ink as we have seen, and is very simple. ...
-Green Ink
Ink (Green). Dissolve six drachms of the crystals of verdigris in a pint of distilled water, and add five drachms of gum-arabic and two drachms of white sugar. A tine green ink may be made with a stro...
-How To Preserve Eggs
Eggs (To Preserve). Prepare a box or cask of a sufficient size to contain the eggs to be preserved. Let it be quite dry; spread a layer of wood-ashes about two inches in depth over the bottom, and upo...
-How To Preserve Books
Books (To Preserve). A few drops of any perfumed oil will secure libraries from the consuming effects of mould and damp. Russian leathter, which is perfumed with the tar of the birch tree, never mould...
-Elasticity Of Air
Air (Elasticity Of). Suppose the two tight-bottomed hollow cylinders a and b, in the annexed figure, to be tilled with air : if we fit a plug so tightly to the sides of both, that no air can pass betw...
-The Guillotine
The Guillotine. This instrument derives its name from a Dr. Guillotin, a distinguished physician in Paris, and a person who embraced with ardour the cause of the revolution, and was elected one of the...
-Pepper
Pepper. We have three kinds of pepper - the white, the black, and the long. Black pepper (piper nigrum) is the fruit of a shrub of the creeping kind, growing in Sumatra, Java, Ceylon, and other Asiati...
-Balm Of Gilead
Balm Of Gilead. The Palm of Gilead, or Balsam of Mecca, is the dried juice of a small tree or shrub growing in Syria. It has a warm aromatic taste, and exquisitely aromatic smell. It is very scarce, a...
-Acidulated Drops
Acidulated Drops. There are two methods of preparation. The first is the plan recommended in the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia ; the second that adopted by confectioners. - 1. Take of tartaric acid a quarte...
-Optical Effects
Optical Effects. The following diagram will perhaps explain why the inside part of a spoon represents an inverted image, and the back being the reverse. G H is an object placed at some distance from a...
-Baths
Baths are arranged thus: - The very cold bath, when the temperature of the water is below 50 deg. ; the cold bath, above 50 deg.; the cool bath, from 60 to 75 deg. ; the temperate bath, from 75 to 85 ...
-Gendarmerie
Gendarmerie. Gendarmerie (from Gens d'Armes, men-at-arms) was a chosen corps of cavalry under the old monarchy of France. The gendarmerie were afterwards formed into a body of soldiers intrusted with ...
-Source Of The Nile
Nile (Source Of The). This great river rises in the Mountains of the moon, in about ten degrees of N. lat., and in a known course of 1,250 miles receives no tributary streams. The travels of Bruce wer...
-Enigma
Enigma. Not necessarily given in the form of a query, though it may be so, and is written either in verse or prose. It is more complicated than a riddle, involving greater contrasts and more propositi...
-Charade
Charade. This is quite distinct from a riddle or an enigma; and is made, or acted, as the case may be, by taking the several syllables of a given word, each having a different meaning, and describing ...
-Riddle
Riddle. A complicated question, involving one or more ideas, which can, however, be solved by one reply. The oldest on record is in the book of Judges, chap. xiv. verse 18. We are told by Plutarcn tha...
-Rebus
Rebus. Not intended to be guessed or revealed in the same manner as the above; but is, on the contrary, as its name implies, a saying with its rejoinder; as the following example will bear out: One hu...
-Anagram
Anagram. The transposition of the letters of any particular word or name in such a manner as to form a striking contrast, or an apt commentary on the original word. For example : An article famous for...
-Puzzle
Puzzle. Anything intricate, embarrassing, or difficult to put right. The undermentioned will serve as an example : One-third of twelve if you divide by just one-fifth of seven, The true result -which ...
-Consanguinity
Consanguinity. Consanguinity is a term which implies the relation which subsists between persons who are sprung from the same stock or common ancestor, in distinction from affinity or relation by marr...
-Royal Mottoes
Royal Mottoes. Dieuct mon Droit was first .used by Richard I. a.d. 1193. The Bohemian crest, viz. three ostrich feathers, and the motto Ich Dien. I serve, was adopted by Edward the Black Prince at t...
-Chicory
Chicory. Chicory is usually obtained from the roots of the wild endive [chicorium Intybus, Linn.) It is not the same plant the common dandelion (taraxacum but belongs to the same family. The dandelion...
-Silk-Worms' Eggs
Silk-Worms' Eggs. Place the eggs in drawers made of wood, or strong paper; and when the leaves of the mulberry are full-grown, hatch them, either by the heat of the sun, or in a small room where there...
-Glue That Will Resist Moisture
Glue That Will Resist Moisture. Dissolve gum sandarae and mastic, of each two ounces, in a pint of spirit of wine, adding about an ounce of clear turpentine. Then take equal parts of isinglass and par...
-Gobelin Tapestry
Gobelin Tapestry. Gobelin Tapestry is so called from a noted house in Paris, in the suburb of St. Marcel, formerly possessed by famous wool-dyers, whereof the chief, called Giles Gobelin, who lived in...
-Knighthood
Knighthood. The institution of the Order of the Bath originated in the custom of the Franks, who, when they conferred knighthood, bathed before they performed the ceremony, and from this habit came...
-How To Wash Hair-Brushes
Hair-Brushes (To Wash). Never use soap. Take a piece of soda, dissolve it in warm water, stand the brush in it, taking care that the water only covers the bristles; it will almost immediately become w...
-Bread-Fruit-Tree
Bread-Fruit-Tree. A native of the South-Sea Islands. It grows to the thickness of a man and upwards of 40 feet high. The fruit is the size and shape of a child's head. the surface reticulated, covered...
-Bandanas, Or Bandannas
Bandanas, Or Bandannas. This name, originally applied to a peculiar kind of silk handkerchief made by the Hindoos, is now given to silk and cotton handkerchiefs manufactured in this country decorated ...
-Bissextile, Or Leap-Year
Bissextile, Or Leap-Year. An intercalary day was thrown into every fourth year to adjust the calendar, and make it agree with the sun's course. It originated with Julius Caesar, who ordered a day to b...
-Farthing
Farthing. Farthings were one of the earliest of the English coins. Farthings in silver were coined by King John ; the Irish farthing of his reign is of the date 1210, and is valuable and rare. Farthin...
-Clouds
Clouds. The varied forms of the clouds depend upon the modes of their formation - that is, whether they are condensed into visible forms in a quiet or a disturbed atmosphere. It is likely also that th...
-Climate
Climate. Climate does not depend entirely upon latitude, though the poles are the coldest, the tropics the hottest, and the intermediate latitudes may be said generally to be colder or hotter as they ...
-Distilled Waters
Distilled Waters. These are made by introducing vegetables in a still with water, drawing off as much as is found to retain certain properties of the plants. These waters are often more efficacious, e...
-Crests
Crests. Ancient warriors wore crests to terrify their enemies by an exhibition of Some ferocious shapes emblematical of the foes they had conquered. Subsequently, the practice became modified, and cre...
-Cucumbers
Cucumbers. Cucumbers are certainly nutritious; but they are slightly so compared with other vegetables. They are difficult of digestion, especially when full-grown and seedy. They formerly grew in gre...
-How To Prevent Smoking Of A Lamp
Smoking Of A Lamp (To Prevent). Soak the wick in strong vinegar, and dry well before you use it; it will then burn sweet and pleasant, and amply compensate for the trifling trouble of preparing it. ...
-Composition For Shop Tickets
Composition For Shop Tickets. Gum-arabic powdered very fine, common writing ink, and a portion of Indian ink, ground in water. The above preparation is often made and used. Isinglass dissolved in hot ...
-Cherries
Cherries. - Cherries were first planted in Britain one hundred years before Christ; and afterwards brought from Flanders, and planted in Kent with such success, that an orchard of thirty-two acres pro...
-Spasms
Spasms. For these distressing and dangerous attacks, there is no better remedy than the following: - Take eight drops of laudanum, and eight drops or Hoffman's tether; and in the morning one or two Se...
-How To Make A Cheap Fountain
Fountain (How To Make A Cheap). The following is a plan adopted some time ago with perfect success: - First of all procure a good-sized water- butt, marked A, and place it behind a wall B, then carry ...
-Unicorn
Unicorn. The unicorn is a fabulous beast. There is a fish with a horse-like head which is termed the sea-unicorn, having a horn in the middle of the forehead. The lion and the unicorn in the British a...
-Churching
Churching. The usage of Churching originated in the Jewish rite of purification. Churching is the act of returning thanks in a place of worship for any great deliverance. It was a Jewish law that a...
-Manufacture And Use Of Cements
Cements (Manufacture And Use Of). The term cement includes all those substances employed for the purpose of causing the adhesion of two or more bodies, whether originally separate, or divided by an ac...
-Mouth Glue
Mouth Glue affords a very convenient means of uniting papers, and other small light objects; it is made by dissolving, by the aid of heat, pure glue, as parchment glue, or gelatine, with about one-qua...
-Liquid Glue
Liquid Glue. Several preparations are much in vogue. The liquid glue of the shops, however, is a totally different prepa-ration, being inodorous, and very much cheaper. It is made by dissolving shell-...
-Red Cement,
Red Cement, which is employed by instrument makers for cementing glass to metals, and which is very cheap, and exceedingly useful for a variety of purposes, is made by melting five parts of black resi...
-Mastic Cement
Mastic Cement is used for making a superior coating to inside walls, and which must not be confounded with the resin stlic. It is made by mixing twenty parts of well-washed and sifted sharp sand with ...
-Optical Illusion
Optical Illusion. Ships floating in the air is an optical illusion, which may be thus explained : - On the 1st of August, 1798, Dr. Vince observed at Ramsgate a ship which appeared as in the subjoined...
-Gelatine
Gelatine. This substance consists of that part of meat which, when extracted, forms a jelly when cold. It is found abundantly in the skins, flesh, and bones of all animals. Glue is a rough gelatine ex...
-Corinth Ian Order
Corinth Ian Order. The third of the five orders of architecture, the capital, as in the engraving, consisting of two rows of leaves, with stalks between, forming sixteen volutes, or ram's horns. ...
-The Parachute
The Parachute. A machine by which aeronauts may descend from a balloon to the ground in safety. It bears a general resemblance to an umbrella, and consists of a strong but light surface, a a, from whi...
-March
March was named by Romulus, in honour of his supposed father - Mars, the heathen God of War. Until .January and February were added to the calendar, the Romans made it the first month of the year, and...
-Apothecary
Apothecary (Greek apothekae, a Shop, or Store-room). This term appears to come from the above root, although we now apply it chiefly to one who compounds or prescribes medicines, and not to the vendor...
-Digestive Properties Of Fruits
Fruits (Digestive Properties Of). With the exception of strawberries. there is no dessert fruit, produced in a wild slate, easy of digestion. The crab-apple an 1 the sloe, the parents of the cultivate...
-Digestive Properties Of Fruits. Part 2
Strawberries Strawberries. The strawberry was esteemed by the late Dr. Abernethyas the most wholesome of all fruits, balsamic and refreshing, and one of the most precious gifts of Providence! It ...
-Digestive Properties Of Fruits. Part 3
Currants Currants rank next in quality, and those, particularly the black, bare a much stronger principle of astringency than any of the preceding fruits; consequently, though they contain sugar a...
-Digestive Properties Of Fruits. Part 4
Oranges, Lemons, And Limes Oranges, Lemons, And Limes. - Unfortunately these delicious cooling productions of warmer climes come in season here during the winter, when their fragrant and refreshing...
-Conchology
Conchology. The natural history of shells and mollusca, or zoophytes. A is a trochus, or top-shaped shell; B is a species of whelk. ...
-Reading Aloud
Reading Aloud. This is no doubt an excellent exercise, and it has been much recommended by the ancient physicians. To this also may be joined that of speaking. They are both of great advantage to thos...
-Diadelphia
Diadelphia. The 17th class of the Linnaean system of plants, containing four orders, Pentandria, Hexandria, Octandria, and Decandria, with the stamina united into two bodies by the filaments. ...
-Haberdashers
Haberdashers. The haberdashers (hurriers or cappers of old time so called), were originally a branch of the mercers. Haberdashers of small wares, such as ribands, laces, etc, were called millainers (m...
-The Nine Muses
Muses (The Nine). The Muses originally consisted of three in number: namely, Mnemosyne, memory; Melete, meditation; Acde, song. They were augmented to nine, because the inhabitants of their ancient to...
-Ceres
Ceres, in heathen mythology, the goddess of corn, and daughter of Saturn and Cybele. Ceres is also a small planet which revolves round the 6un in four years, seven months, and ten days, at th...
-Baron
Baron. A title of honour granted by the king or queen, and secured to the receiver's descendants; the lowest rank of the peerage. His wife is a baroness. In France, Germany, etc the title of baron is ...
-Transposition Of Houses
Houses (Transposition Of). The annexed diagram will explain the method by which houses are removed. The building, of course, must be a detached one. Openings are made in the end walls, just above the ...
-Chemical Transmutations
Chemical Transmutations. Linen can be converted into sugar; sugar into alcohol (spirits) and carbonic acid; alcohol can bechanged into ether and water; sugar can also be converted into oxalic acid, al...
-Toothache
Toothache. The cause of toothache may be thus explained : - Within the tooth is a cavity filled with a nervous pulp - of course highly sensitive - and under the influence of injury, exposure, and dise...
-Shilling
Shilling. This word is supposed by some to be derived from the Latin - silicas, which signifies a quarter of an ounce, or the forty-eighth part of a Roman pound. At the tune of the Conquest, the shill...
-Musk
Musk. Of all odours the most intolerable to those who do not use it is musk. Many persons are inconvenienced by it to such a degree that they could not stay for five minutes in a room containing the m...
-Origin Of Wedding Rings
Wedding Rings (Origin Of). The singular custom of wearing wedding-rings appears to have taken its rise among the .Romans. Before the celebration of their nuptials there was a meeting of friends at the...
-Turpentine
Turpentine. Common turpentine is the natural resinous juice which exists in trees of the fir tribe. It is obtained in large quantities from the wild pine, or Scotch fir. but, it is brought to us chief...
-Ventriloquism
Ventriloquism. The main secret of ventriloquism simply consists in first making a strong and deep inspiration, by which a considerable quantity of air is introduced into the lungs, to be afterwards ac...
-Oatmeal
Oatmeal. The oat, though not much cultivated in America as an article of food for man, still furnishes one of the most important and productive crops of the farm. Its scientific Latin name arena is of...
-Mohair
Mohair. This is the hair of a variety of the common goat, famous for being as soft and fine as silk, and of a silvery whiteness It is not produced anywhere but in the vicinity of Angora, in Asia Minor...
-Cause Of Thirst
Thirst (Cause Of). Intense thirst is said to be caused by the extreme dryness of the air when the temperature is low. In this state it abstracts nets a large amount of m ture from the human body. The ...
-Celery
Celery. In earthing up celery the greatest care is necessary to prevent any portion of the earth from falling into the leart of the plant, which would prevent the upright growth of the inside leaves, ...
-Early Rising
Early Rising. Dr. Wilson Philip, in his Treatise on Indigestion. says - Although it is of consequence to the debilitated to go early to bed, there are few things more hurtful to them than remaining...
-Hosiery
Hosiery. All hosiery is to be judged by the fineness of the thread and the and ness of the texture, which, in the case of stockings especially, may be partly apreciated by Weighing, at it were, the ar...
-Painting On Velvet
Painting On Velvet. Among the various accomplishments of the present day, no fancy-work is perhaps more elegant, produces a better effect, and is. at the same time, more easily and quickly performed, ...
-Formation Of Moss
Moss (Formation Of). In order that moss may he renovated, when dug, it is requisite that the pits be left full of water; that they be not too large nor deep, and that the water in them be stagnant. It...
-Cure For Stammering
Stammering (Cure For). The philosophy of the cure is simple. Stammering is occasioned by the effort to speak while inhaling; and utterance is only obtained when the lungs become full of air, and the p...
-Bird-Stuffing
Bird-Stuffing. Bird-stuffers, in preparing and skinning a bird or other animal ready for preserving, use burnt alum to rub over any wet or bloody part, that it may not soil the rest. In this case its ...
-How To Cure Butter
Butter (To Cure). Take two quarts of the best common salt, one ounce of sugar, and one ounce of common saltpetre; take one ounce of this composition for one pound of butter, work it well into the mass...
-Condiments
Condiments. The name of condiment is usually given to those substances which are taken with food for the immediate purpose of improving its flavour. But most of them serve other and much more importan...
-How To Model In Rice-Paper
Rice-Paper (To Model In) Rice-paper is principally applied to the formation of groups of flowers, either on cardboard, or affixed to small vases, baskets, etc, in festoons and clusters. The rice-paper...
-Plated Ware
Plated Ware. The manufacture of plated ware is peculiarly English. At all periods a thin sheeting of silver may have been used as an outer coating to inferior substances in order to save expense, but ...
-Origin Of Holyrood
Holyrood (Origin Of). The story Is thus stated : - King David T., being on a hunting match in the forest of Drumselch, near Edinburgh, on a rood-day. was attacked by a large hart, and his life was in ...
-Thermometers For Comparison
Thermometers For Comparison should all be placed at a certain height from the ground - they should all fare the north (except those which are required to register the maximum temperature in the sunshi...
-How To Preserve Jams From Mould
Jams (To Preserve From Mould). Cut a round circle of writing paper, the size of the interior of the pot, and one about an inch and a half larger. Take the white of an egg, and a pastebrush, and lay a ...
-Hour-Glass
Hour-Glass. An hour-glass may be made thus: - Procure a cork that will fit the nocks of two oil-flasks, and make a neat hole through it with a round file. In the middle of this hole fasten a bead, or ...
-Ambulance
Ambulance. A light caravan, furnished with surgeons' assistants and orderlies for attending the wounded on the battle field. During the disastrous Crimean war, the readers of the illustrated papers ha...
-Snuff-Taking
Snuff-Taking. Snuff is said to have originated with the French; and indeed it is very probable that no other nation in the world would have imagined so singular a mode of using the tobacco plant. Duri...
-Quaker
Quaker. This was a title applied in derision when George Fox, the first of this sect, was committed to Derby gaol for promulgating their opinions openly, by preaching the necessity of the life of God ...
-Parrots
Parrots. In works on natural history, we generally find the members of this family of levirostoes, or large billed birds, ranged under six divisions; but it will be sufficient to enumerate only those ...
-Cockatoos
Cockatoos. These birds are among the largest of the Parrot tribe, and most of them are distinguished, in a greater or less degree, by the beautiful crest of feathers on the head, which they can elevat...
-Toucans
Toucans. These birds are all distinguished by their enormous bills, which are convex above, and much hooked towards the point; although very light, they are of great strength, and, being toothed at th...
-Parakeets
Parakeets. The term Parakeet, or, as it is sometimes spelled, Paroquet, is a kind of diminutive of Parrot, and is usually applied to the smaller species of those beau-tiful and interesting birds of wh...
-Lories
Lories. The name Lory, is, like Cockatoo, derived from the call-note of some of the species of birds to which it is applied. These are among the most eons of The Parrot family; they are all native...
-A "Font" Of Type
A Font Of Type. As a scrap of information we give the proportions in which the different letters are cast to a font of type, and in which they occur in print: Letter e, 1500 ; t, 900 ; a, 850 ; n, ...
-Medallion Wafers
Medallion Wafers. Colour the best and most transparent glue or gelatine with Brasil wood, tumeric, Prussian blue, lap green, or other colour. Fill up the hol-part of a seal with gum water, mixed with ...
-Drawing
Drawing. The principle of light, shadow, and reflection, for solid objects, may be studied by a very simple process. Select a white globe, - a billiard-ball will answer the purpose, - place it in a ro...
-Tracing Paper
Tracing Paper: This is made of the refuse of the flax-mills, and being formed into a semi-transparent stuff, yields a transparent paper. The same material is used the paper of bank-notes; but for this...
-Britain
Britain. The etymology of this word is the country of tin; as there were great quantities of lead and tin found on the adjacent islands. The Greeks called it Albion, which signifies, in the Phoenician...
-The Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire The total number of square miles belonging to this empire is 904,233, which is made up as follows - European Turkey contains 180,074 square miles; Asiatic Turkey, 447-679; and the A...
-Turnpikes
Turnpikes. Turnpikes were so called from poles or bars swung on a staple, which allowed them to turn any way when the dues were paid. A turnpike-road by law is twenty yards wide. ...
-Scent Jar
Receipt for a Scent Jar. Gum benjamin, storax, sweet orris, nutmeg and cloves, of each one ounce, all bruised in a mortar; throw in a handful of baysalt (at the bottom of a large jar), mixed with some...
-Gordian Knot
Gordian Knot. This was a knot made by Gordian, in one of the cords of his yoke, or, as some have it, in the leathers of his chariot harness, which was so very intricately twisted, that it was impossib...
-Electricity And Magnetism
Electricity And Magnetism. The word electricity is derived from the Greek electron, which signifies amber.' This name was given from the circumstance that the discoverer of electricity, Thales, of Mi...
-Nourishment Of Plants
Plants (Nourishment Of). Plants are not so much nourished by their roots as many persons suppose; indeed, many plants are rootless. The leaves, and the soft green covering of the stem, perform a much ...
-The Transplanter
The Transplanter. This useful implement is perfectly cylindrical, open at both ends; about twelve inches in length, and six in diameter; made of the best tin plate, and furnished with two strong perpe...
-Aquaris
Aquaris. The form which Aquarius, or the Water-carrier, takes in the heavens, is best illustrated by the annexed diagram. It belongs to the month of January, and is believed to refer to the showery ch...
-Stereotyping
Stereotyping. The first idea of catting in metal plates emanated from one William Ged, a printer, of Edinburgh., in 1725. About fifty years afterwards it was revived by Tilloch; and was subsequently a...
-How To Transfer Prints To Wood
Prints (To Transfer To Wood). First varnish the wood once with white hard varnish, which facilitates the transferring; then cut off the margins of the print, which should be on unsized paper; that is,...
-Hermetic Sealing
Hermetic Sealing. We cannot better explain this process than by showing how finely-divided lead may be got into a glass tube closed at both ends. This seems no easy matter at first glance, but it beco...
-Elgin Marbles
Elgin Marbles. Those precious relies of ancient art were named after Thomas, Earl of Elgin, who brought them from Athens, with incredible pains and toil, to England, when they were purchased by the Go...
-The Pound Sterling
The Pound Sterling. So far as record goes, this term was first established by William the Conqueror. It then applied to a pound weight of fine silver, which was divided into 20 shillings and 240 pence...
-Extent Of American Territory
Extent Of American Territory The territory of the United States extends over an area of more than 2,000,000 square Its extreme length is nearly 2,700 miles, and its greatest breadth 1,600 miles. Its g...
-Coats Of Arms
Coats Of Arms. Harry, surnamed the Fowler, Emperor of the West, who regulated the tournaments in Germany, was the first who introduced those marks of honour, armouries, or coats of arms. Before that t...
-Glaciers
Glaciers. The Ice of glaciers is entirely different from that of sea and river water, and is not formed in layers, but consistsof little grains of congealed snow; Hence though perfectly clear, and oft...
-Gipsies
Gipsies. This peculiar race of people first appeared in Germany about the year 1517, having quitted Egypt when attacked by the Turks. They are the descendants of a great body of Egyptians, who revolte...
-Glow-Worm
Glow-Worm. It is said that the male glow-worm emits, in a slight degree, a phosphorescent light, - but it is chiefly the female from which the brilliant light proceeds, and which we so often see on ba...
-Cocoa Nut-Tree
Cocoa Nut-Tree. Common in Asia and the warm parts of America, rising 50 feet, with leaves or branches often 14 or 15 feet long, and producing a shelly fruit, which hangs in clusters. The natives draw ...
-Utopia
Utopia. This was the title of a work written by Sir Thomas More, describing an imaginary republic. The word has been adopted in the same sense to signify whatever is unreal or visionary. ...
-Practical Science
1. - How To Construct Spirit Lamp. Procure a wide-mouthed bottle, such as is shown in the accompanying figure (d), and fit the mouth with a good stout cork (b); now take out the cork and make a hole t...
-The Resolution Of Forces
Forces (The Resolution Of). The resolution of forces is the process by which we can find forces that will produce a motion equal to that of a single force ; to illustrate which we refer you to the fol...
-Altimetry
Altimetry. The art of taking heights by means of a quadrant, and founded on the principle that the sides of triangles having equal angles are in exact proportion to one another. When the object is acc...
-Greenwich Observatory
Greenwich Observatory. The Royal Observatory at Greenwich was built in 1675. It may be seen by obtaining leave from the Lords of the Admiralty; but it must be obvious to any person that it is absolute...
-Sun Beams
Sun Beams. The sunbeam is composed of three distinct and separate rays, one of heat, one of light, and one called the chemical ray. These three agencies exist in different proportions in the sunbeam, ...
-Fur Clothing
Fur Clothing. It is very ancient. The method of manufacturing wool into articles of clothing seems to have been early transplanted into Greece, and thence to Italy, as we find the use of raw skins acc...
-The Shipping Of The World
The Shipping Of The World. The following is the relative tonnage of the shipping of the world : United States, 5,512,000 tons. England and Colonies, 5,042,270 tons. France, 716,140 tons. Italian State...
-Microscope And Micrometer
Microscope And Micrometer. The 6ize of objects is expressed usually in parte of an inch, as one-fifteenth, one-hundredth, or one-thousandth part of an inch. In order to ascertain this actual size, var...
-Use Of Cat's Whiskers
Use Of Cat's Whiskers. The whiskers on a cat's upper lip are very important They are organs of touch. They are attached to a bed of close glands under the skin, and each of those long hairs is connect...
-Insects' Wings (Rate At Which They Move
Insects' Wings (Rate At Which They Move. The buzzing and humming noises produced by winged insects are not as you suppose vocal sound. They result from sonorous undulations imparted to the air by the ...
-Hackney Coaches
Hackney Coaches. They are of French origin. In Prance a strong kind of cob-horse was let out on hire for short journeys. These were latterly harnessed, to accommodate several wayfarers at once, to a p...
-Passion-Flower
Passion-Flower. It derives its name from the idea that all the instruments of Christ's pas-ion are represented in it. Most of the passion-flowers are natives of the hottest part of America. The rose-c...
-Thimbles
Thimbles. They are a Dutch invention. The art of making them was brought to England by John Lofting, a mechanic, from Holland, who set up a workshop at Islington, near London, and practised the manufa...
-Hidage
Hidage. Hidage was a royal aid or tribute, raised in such a proportion on every hide of land. William the Conqueror imposed a hidage of six shillings upon every hide; William Rufus, four shillings; an...
-Air-Pump
Air-Pump. A machine which operates on the air just as a common pump operates on water; and by means of which a considerable portion of the air under a glass receiver may be extracted, and a number of ...
-Numeral Figures
Numeral Figures. The learned, after many contests, have at length agreed that the numeral figures, 1 to 9, usually called Arabic, are of Indian origin. The numeral characters of the Bramins, the Persi...
-How To Prepare Ivory For Miniatures
Miniatures (To Prepare Ivory For). Take the ivory leaves or tables on which the painting is to be made, and having cleansed them, rub them over with the juice of garlic. This takes off the greasiness ...
-Beet-Root Sugar
Beet-Root Sugar. Marggraf, an eminent Prussian chemist, first drew the attention of the public to this subject, in 1747. He was successful in obtaining from the roots of the white and red beet a sugar...
-Blue Stocking
Blue Stocking. The term blue stocking, applied to literary ladies, was conferred on a society which was called the Blue Storking Club, in which females were admitted; and so called owing to a Mr. Benj...
-Champagne
Champagne. Champagne contains least spirit, and contains more or less carbonic acid; the effect of which latter is to carry off quickly the effect of the spirit, and stimulate somewhat the system, wit...
-Aloes
Aloes. A valuable and salutary medicine, distinguished by its pungent bitter flavour, and distilled from the leaves of the aloe-tree. That which grows in Socotora is used for the human constitution, a...
-Horse Power
Horse Power. It is well known among engineers, that a horse is capable of raising a weight of about 150lbs. 220ft. high in a minute, and to continue exertions enabling him to do that for eight hours a...
-Camomile
Camomile. The dried flowers of the common camomile are iently familiar to every one. They have stomachic and tonic properties, which render them very useful in dyspepsia and general debility. Camo-mil...
-Year Of Our Lord
Year Of Our Lord. The first sove-rign who adopted this distinction was Charles III., Emperor of Germany, he adding in the year of our Lord to his reign A.D. 879. It was followed by the French kings...
-Lights
Lights. At the religious assemblies of Christians, lights were first used, it is said, in order thereby to avoid the scandal of their meeting in the dark at night, during times of persecution. They we...
-Gold Wire. Gold Leaf
Gold Wire, Gold Leaf, etc. Gold wire was first made in Italy, about A.D. 1350. An ounce of gold is sufficient to gild a silver wire above thirteen hundred miles in Length; and such is its tenacity tha...
-Wedding-Ring
Wedding-Ring. The ring finger is the fourth one, or the finger next to the little one. In the ancient ritual of marriage, the ring was placed by the husband on the top of the thumb of the left hand wh...
-Frankincense
Frankincense. Frankincense, which was used in the worship of the true God, and on the altars of the heathen temples, was obtained from trees which grew in Arabia Felix. The incense trees grew only in ...
-Chains
Chains. Links of iron formed within one another in different shapes, so as to produce the greatest strength of tension. ...
-Flannel Shirts
Flannel Shirts. Flannel has not been in general use until within the last sixty years. It was first used in Boston, as a dress next the skin, by Lord Percy's regiment, which was encamped on the common...
-Ventilation
Ventilation means the act of admitting air into any place, or of causing a draught or current of air to pass through it. When any one speaks of ventilating a room or building, it is understood to refe...
-Union Jack
Union Jack. The etymology of the term Union Jack has never, it is presumed, been explained; for it does not occur in any lexicon or glossary. The word union obviously arose from the union of the thr...
-Bouquets
Bouquets. There are many ways of planting a flower-garden, and as many methods of arranging flowers in a large nosegay ; but with the exception of wedding nosegays, which should always be made of the ...
-Divisibility Of Matter
Matter (Divisibility Of). It is scarcely credible, yet a slip of ivory, of an inch in length, may be divided into a hundred equal parts, each of which is distinctly visible, but by the application of ...
-Tamarinds
Tamarinds. This fruit is slightly nutritive, refrigerant, and gently laxative, and having an agreeable Savour will generally be eaten by children when they will not take other medicines. You need not ...
-Jackdaw S
Jackdaw S. These birds may be easily tamed, and taught to say several words, or even sentences. They can be reared from the nest, and should be fed upon the crumbs of white bread soaked in cold water,...
-The Pea
The Pea. The native country of the common pea is not known. France has been named with some probability, or it may have been brought to that country from Egypt or Syria. Neither do we know the exact p...
-Crescents
Crescents. The crescent was the symbol of the city of Byzantium, now Constantinople, which the Turks have adopted. This device of the Ottoman Empire it of great antiquity, as appears from several meda...
-Rain-Water
Rain-Water. Not only is rain-water the best for making tea, etc, but it is useful in culinary operations. The belief that it is unwholesome for this purpose is incorrect. The softer water is, the more...
-Masks
Masks. Poppaca, the wife of Nero, is said to have invented the mask to guard her complexion from the sun: But theatrical masks were in use among the Greeks and Romans. Modern masks, mull's, fans, and ...
-The Diving-Bell
The Diving-Bell. The oldest information we have respecting the use of the diving-bell in Europe is that of John Taisnier, quoted by Schott. The former, who was born at Hainault in 1509, had a place at...
-Dilettanti
Dilettanti. This is an Italian word, applied to an admirer or lover of the fine arts - one who delights in that pursuit. The word is almost synonymous with amateur, but does not imply so much practica...
-Diamond Beetle. Curculio Imperialis
Diamond Beetle, Curculio Imperialis. A most beautiful insect, decorated with golden, green, and black streaks. The abdomen is green, with silvery rings. This rich and curious insect forms a most splen...
-Diana
Diana. In heathen mythology, the daughter of Jupiter and Latona, sister of Apollo, and goddess of hunting. ...
-Mending Stockings
Mending Stockings. Worsted and lambswool stockings should never be mended with worsted or lambswool; because, the latter being new, it shrinks more than the stockings, and draws them up, till the toes...
-Palms
Palms. Palms are the most useful productions of Ceylon. First the cocoa-nut, in universal use for food, drink, and the arts of life. The palmyra, nearly as valuable. The areca catechu, whose nuts, the...
-April
April. Since the time of NumaPompilius, this month has retained the same place in the calendar that, it does now. Romulus assigned thirty days to the month, but Numa reduced it to twenty-nine. Julius ...
-Steam-Engine
Steam-Engine. An arrangement of mechanism, by which, by the alternate generation and condensation of steam, or by making it act above and below the forcer of a piston, a lever is raised and depressed ...
-Tetrahedron
Tetrahedron. A triangular pyramid, with four faces. ...
-Elm-Destroying Scolytus
Elm-Destroying Scolytus. Scarcely has the elm begun to leaf, than the Scolytus destructor, or elm-destroying Scolytus begins her operations; and most dexterously does she effect her purpose. She ma...
-Savings Banks
Savings Banks. The origin of these admirable institutions has been attributed to the Rev. Joseph Smith, of Wendover, who, in the year 1799, circulated proposals, in conjunction with two of his parishi...
-Flying-Fish
Flying-Fish. A species of fish, common in the Mediterranean and Atlantic seas, with very large tins, by which they are enabled to spring; from 200 to 300 feet, or until their tins become dry, ...
-Liveries
Liveries. The precise period when liveries were first worn by domestics is unknown. In olden times tradesmen as well as servants wore these badges. Anterior to Richard II., tradesmen who served a nobl...
-Deck
Deck. The floor of a ship, from stem to stern; half-deck, from the main-mast to the stern; and quarter-deck, that over the cabin and steerage, to the stern. ...
-How To Strike The Knuckles Without Hunting Them
To Strike The Knuckles Without Hunting Them. Select a marble mantel or any hard surface, then tell the spectators that by a certain preparation you have made your knuckles so hard nothing can hurt the...
-Ebony
Ebony. This wood, which is extremely hard, and susceptible of a very fine polish, is much used in mosaic, inlaying, and other ornamental works. Its colour is red, black, or green. The black is most es...
-How To Prevent Glass Breaking By Hot Water
Glass Breaking (To Prevent By Hot Water). If hot water be poured into a glass with a round bottom, the expansion produced by the heat of the water will cause the bottom of the glass to enlarge; while ...
-Glass Beads
Beads (Glass). The small glass beads are fragments cut from pieces of glass tubing, the sharp edges of which are rounded by fusion. Glass tubes of the proper size are first drawn from one hundred to t...
-Lords Spiritual And Tempo-Ral
Lords Spiritual And Tempo-Ral. This term applies to the persons who sit in the Souse of Lords. The Lords Spiritual are the archbishops and bishops of the English Church, and one archbishop and thre...
-Isinglass
Isinglass. Isinglass is a preparation formerly made only from the great Sturgeon ; but is now obtained from the entrails of most other fishes. When good, it consists almost wholly of pure gelatine, or...
-Pendulum
Pendulum. The pendulum is a timekeeper, because the times of the vibrations are very near equal, whether it be moving much or little ; that is to say, whether the arc described by it be large or small...
-Wedding-Ring Finger
Wedding-Ring Finger. The origin of wearing the wedding-ring upon the fourth finger of the left hand has been much disputed. The most reasonable inference as bo the origin of wearing the ring on the le...
-Sedan-Chairs
Sedan-Chairs. These contrivances, formerly much in use among our ancestors, were not of English origin. As the name implies, they were introduced into this country from Sedan, a city in France, about ...
-Budding
Budding. Is the insertion of a bud, taken from one tree, into the bark of another; and, as in grafting, the operation will not succeed unless the bud and the tree to which it is united are varieties o...
-Falcon
Falcon. A bird of prey, once much esteemed as an auxiliary of the savage arts of man in destroying the feathered race. Falcons were formerly tamed and trained, just as pointer-dogs are at present trai...
-Grasshopper
Grasshopper. A species of the genus Gryllus, to which belong the locust and cricket. The grasshopper of our fields is innocent and harmless. ...
-Blackberry Bramble
Blackberry Bramble. (Rubus fruticosus), whose rich black fruit attracts many a loitering urchin, yields abundantly a delicious fare for such birds as remain stationary through the winter. All children...
-Gunnery
Gunnery. A science which directs the elevation in which a piece of cannon should be placed, so as to strike a certain object. The gun is elevated to a certain fixed angle, given in tables acc...
-Beaver Hats
Beaver Hats The entire hat is now rarely made of so costly a material as beaver fur, which is only used to cover the outside. This fur is almost exclusively found in North America. It is gradually ...
-Gasometer
Gasometer. The capacious receptacle of gas, after it has been evolved in there torts, and whence it is pressed into pipes for consumption. It consists of a vessel inverted in water, and the gas passes...
-Teasel
Teasel. The vast woollen-clothing fabric materially depends on the fuller's teasel, which is found in hedges and wild sterile spots, and is cultivated to a large extent in the stiff clay lands of Glou...
-How To Paint Windows To Resemble Stained Glass
Windows (To Paint To Resemble Stained Glass). 1. Draw the design upon paper the size required, then colour it, and affix by means of a little gum to the outside of the window, and paint the inside ove...
-Sub-Rosa
Sub-Rosa. Under the rose - implying secresy, has been said to have originated from the many plots and conspiracies engendered during the wars of York and Lancaster; but it is much more probable that i...
-How To Fold Napkins
Napkins (How To Fold). Dinner napkins should be about twenty-eight inches broad, and thirty long. They may be folded in a variety of ways, which impart a style to a table, without adding much to the e...
-Distillation
Distillation. The process of distilation is one which is used for separating liquids from each other which boil at dif-if heat. In domesticeconomy, it is most frequently employed to obtain sprit, more...
-Electricity
Electricity. The word Electricity denotes a peculiar state, of which all bodies are susceptible, and which is supposed to depend upon the presence of a substance called the electric fluid. Some of its...
-Walking
Walking. To walk gracefully, the body must be erect, but not stiff, and the head held up in such a posture thai the eyes are directed forward. The tendency of untaught walkers is to look towards the g...
-Difference Of Days
Difference Of Days. There is a vast difference in the length of days. A sidereal day is the real and invariable period of the diurnal rotation of the earth on its axis, and contains 23 hours, 56 minut...
-Morocco Leather
Morocco Leather. Is not so called from its being brought from Morocco, but from the art of dressing it being 6* originally introduced from that country. The true morocco leather is made of goat-ski...
-Gall-Nuts
Gall-Nuts. The gall-nuts used in making ink are produced by the insect which punctures the leaves of a species of oak very common in Asia Minor, where they are collected in considerable quantities by ...
-Mammalia
Mammalia. Vertebrated animals having an internal, bony, cartilaginous skeleton, and a brain, with a double heart and warm blood, and suckling their young. This first Linnaean class is divided into sev...
-Metallic Pens
Pens (Metallic). This description of pens came into use about the year 1830. Quills are said to have been first used lor pens in 553, or. as some say, in 635. ...
-The Skylark
The Skylark. The common lark, field lark, or laverock, as this bird is variously termed, is one of the best known and most highly-esteemed of our native songsters; its shrill music, so sprightly and j...
-Chess
Chess. The game of chess is played by two per-sons upon a board which square, divided into sixty-four smaller squares One-half of these sixty-four squares is coloured white; the other half black. The ...
-Chess Movement Of The Pieces And Practice
Movement Of The Pieces And Practice. The King can move in any direction, but only to a square adjacent to the one he occupies. He can also capture any adverse man that comes near him, unprotected by a...
-Chess Movement Of The Pieces And Practice. Continued
The Bishop The Bishop moves diagonally, backwards and forwards, as far as the squares are empty. It never can change its colour; and as each player has two, they are placed, one on a black square,...
-ALiquot Parts
ALiquot Parts. Numbers which will divide and measure a whole number exactly, without any remainder. For instance, two is an aliquot part of four, three of nine, and four of sixteen. (See Aliquant Part...
-Aliquant Parts
Aliquant Parts. Numbers which will not divide or measure a whole number exactly. Thus, seven is an aliquant part of sixteen. (See Aliquot Parts, p. 161.) ...
-Mealy And Waxy Potatoes
Mealy And Waxy Potatoes. An examination of the potato with a microscope baa proved the relative worth of the mealy and waxy kinds of this useful vegetable. On examining a thin slice, it is Been to be ...
-Mother-Of-Pearl
Mother-Of-Pearl. This is the hard, silvery, brilliant, internal layer of several kinds of shells, particularly oysters, which is often variegated with changing purple and azure colours. The large oyst...
-Cork
Cork Cork is the exterior bark of a tree belonging to the genus of the oak, and which grows wild in the southern parts of Europe, particularly France, Spain, Portugal and Italy. When the tree is about...
-Emery
Emery. This Substance is the most powerful for grinding down surfaces, from the extreme hardness of its particles, which are harder than sand. It is a variety of corundum, the hardest known substance ...
-Liquids. Decanting, Straining, And Filtering Of Liquids
Liquids (Decanting, Straining, And Filtering Of). The decanting of liquids is, under ordinary circumstances, an operation sufficiently simple to require no explanation; but the ease and certainty with...
-Straining and Filtering
Straining and Filtering. The operations of straining and filtering are frequently required in domestic manipulations, and the apparatus employed usually consists of sieves and a jelly-bag. As in many ...
-Modes Of Address In Writing And Conversation
Writing And Conversation (Modes Of Address In). There are many who well know how to use the pen as far as handwriting is concerned, but when they are called upon to address their superiors in life, th...
-The Baronetage
The Baronetage. This order, instituted by King James I., 1611, is said to have been suggested by the minor barons, so called, to distinguish them from the great barons, though both barons by tenure; t...
-Barons By Letters Patent
Barons By Letters Patent. The king, in olden times, used to invest a newly-created baron in open parliament; and so late as the time of King James I., that monarch, in person, solemnly enrobed each pe...
-Viscount
Viscount. The next grade in the ascending scale towards the highest estate of the realm, is that of vicecomes, or viscount, which title was formerly applied to the sheriff of a county, but was not use...
-Earl
Earl. The dignity of earl, which existed in this country previous to the time of William the Conqueror, was originally annexed to a particular piece of laud, and, comprised three descriptions of earld...
-Marquis
Marquis. A marquis (marchio), is the next degree of nobility. His office, formerly, was to guard the frontiers and limits of the kingdom, which was called the marches, from the Teutonic word marche, a...
-Duke
Duke. The dukedom, the most elevated dignity in the British peerage, was first introduced by Edward III., who created his eldest son, Edward the Black Prince (so called on account of his sable armour)...
-Spiritual Peers
Spiritual Peers. Archbishops have the ducal title of Grace, and take precedence of all dukes, next to those of royal birth. The Archbishop of Canterbury ranks as first peer of the realm, and the Arc...
-Inclined-Plane
Inclined-Plane. A natural mechanical power, which deflects a body aside, when moving perpendicularly towards the centre of the earth, by which the force towards the centre is modified. Its common appl...
-Beaver
Beaver. An interesting and intelligent animal, which builds substantial dwellings on rivers, and is hunted and destroyed by man for the down of which hats are made; but silk and fine wool are now subs...
-Trance
Trance. Magnetic Sleep, or trance, has served at all times to perplex the world by the strange breach it seems to make between the bodily and mental Functions, by its unexpectedness in some cases, and...
-Neptune
Neptune. The god of the ocean, in the Greek mythology. ...
-Transparent Paper
Transparent Paper. Paper can be made as transparent as glass, and capable of being substituted for it for many purposes, by spreading over it with a feather a very thin layer of resin dissolved in spi...
-Fig-Tree
Fig-Tree. A tree which, in warm climates, produces delicious and nutritive fruit, and succeeds in America in warm situations, and against walls. ...
-Christian Names
Christian Names. Christian names are so called from their having originally, been given to converts at baptism, as substitutes for their former pagan appellatives, many of which were borrowed from the...
-Light-House
Light-House. A lofty building, erected on sea-coasts to warn and guide ships by night. They are very curious structures, consisting of an intense body of light, radiated by concave reflectors and conv...
-Dark Colour Of The Skin
Skin (Dark Colour Of The). Darkness of complexion has been attributed to the sun's power, from the age of Solomon to this day, - Look not upon me, because I am black, because the sun hath looked upo...
-How To Extract Essence Of Flowers
Essence Of Flowers (To Extract). Procure the petals of any flowers that have an agreeable fragrance, card thin layers of cotton-wool, which dip into the finest Florence or Lucca oil, sprinkle a small ...
-Classes Of Flowers
Flowers (Classes Of). Flowers are commonly classed as bulbs, tubers, herbaceous perennials, biennials, and annuals. The first are chiefly, as well as a few of the tubers, spring flowers, and of course...
-Snails
Snails. in France the snail is becoming a fashionable article of diet, and for some time past a particular place has been appropriated for their sale in the Paris fish-market, in the south-east angle,...
-How To Choose Wine
Wine (How To Choose). Choose port wine which runs smooth on the palate, and is free from all heat and harshness. It should be soft as velvet, if for immediate consumption, and have none of that astrin...
-Toast And Water
Toast And Water. Cut a clean piece of bread about three inches square, and not quite half an inch thick ; toasting it brown all over without burning it, and then put it into a pint mug tilled with cle...
-Etymology Of The Word Bread
Bread (Etymology Of The Word). Bread is brayed grain, from the verb to bray, or pound; expressive of the old method of making the meal. Dough comes from the Anglo-Saxon word deawian, to wet, to moiste...
-Passing Bell
Passing Bell. It is so called because the defunct has passed from one state to another, and it owes its origin to an idea of sanctity attached to bells by the early Romanists, who believed that the so...
-Models
Models. The first models were figures of living persons, and Dibutates, the Corinthian, was the inventor of those in clay. His daughter, known by the designation of the Corinthian Maid, being about to...
-Water
Water. A fluid, of which a cubic foot weighs 1,000 ounces, or 825 times more than a cubic foot of atmospheric air; the constituents of which are one part, by weight, of hydrogen, and 7 1/2 of oxygen; ...
-Paper-Hangings
Paper-Hangings. A safe rule with regarrd to paper-hangings is to choose nothing that looks extravagant or unnatural: no staring pattern or colour, which would only be tit to make caps for May-day swee...
-Truffle Beetle
Truffle Beetle. Entomologists, who search carefully along the hedge-banks, athwart which innumerable spiders have thrown their elegant tracery, may chance to find the truffle beetle (Leiodes cinnamo-m...
-Mensuration
Mensuration. The art of determining the square and cubic dimensions of superfices and solids, effected in superficies by multiplying the length by the breadth, and in solids by the further multiplicat...
-Triangle
Triangle. A figure having three sides and three angles, called right-angled, when two of the sides are perpendicular to each other, and oblique-angled, when not so. The three angles are equal to two r...
-Jack
Jack. In mechanics, a very powerful engine, by which great weights are lilted in building, etc. ...
-Smoke-Jack
Jack. A very useful implement in kitchens, sometimes turned by the force with which smoke and rarified air ascend in a chimney. The Smoke-jack consists of a horizontal wheel, the radii of which are pl...
-Bank Of England
Bank Of England. This institution, which for centuries has exercised such an influence upon the commerce and wars of the world, was first projected by a merchant named Patterson. It was incorporated b...
-Yankees
Yankees. The term Yankee, applied to Americans, is said to have originated in the manner in which the native Indians of America pronounced the word English - they called the early settlers from Great ...
-Watch
Watch. A pocket Instrument for measuring time, excited into action by a steel spring coiled up, and acting by various ingenious contrivances. The spring is in box, called the barrel, and combined with...
-Gas. Economy Of Gas For Domestic Purposes
Gas (Economy Of, For Domestic Purposes). In situations where gas is to be obtained, it forms a ready, and, for some purposes, very economical means of obtaining heat; its economy does not arise from i...
-How To Brown Gun Barrels
Gun Barrels (To Brown). Take of nitric acid, half an ounce ; sweet spirit of nitre, half an ounce; blue vitriol, two ounces; tincture of steel, one ounce; mix all together in eight gills of water; app...
-How To Preserve Autographs
Autographs (To Preserve). The best plan to preserve autographs is to fix them in what is usually known as an invoice-book, in such a manner as to enable the collector to take them in and out at pleasu...
-How To Take Impressions From Coins
Coins (To Take Impressions From.) Procure tin or lead-foil, as thin as possible, place it on the coin, and with a pin's head, or any small smooth instrument, work it into every part; then take it off,...
-Month
Month. The calendar month is a twelfth division of the year. A solar month is the time in which the sun passes through a whole sign of the zodiac - it is 30 days, 10 hours, 29 minutes, and 5 seconds. ...
-Zodiac
Zodiac. A space round the heavens among the fixed start, 15 degrees wide, the centre of which is the plane of the ecliptic, and it corresponds in breadth with the inclination of the sun's axis of 70&d...
-Gum Arabic
Gum Arabic The purest and finest gum arabic is brought in caravans to Cairo, by the Arabs of the country round Mounts Tor and Sinai, who bring it from this distance on the backs of camels, sewn up in ...
-Wax And Wafers
Wax And Wafers. Francis Rousseau, a native of Auxerre, who travelled a long; time in Persia, Pegu, and other parts of the East Indies, and who, in 1692, resided St. Domingo, was the inventor of sealin...
-Soap-Bubble
Soap-Bubble. A soap-bubble, as it floats in the light of the sun, reflects to the eye an endless variety of the most gorgeous tints of colours. Newton showed, that to each of these tints corresponds a...
-Bride Cake
Bride Cake. Bride cake is used at weddings, because of its origin in confarrea-tion, or a token of the most firm conjunction between man and wife, with a cake of wheat or barley, from far (Latin), bre...
-Bulbous Roots
Bulbous Roots. The time to put these in is from September to November, and the earliest ones will begin blowing about Christmas. The glasses should be blue, as that colour best suits the roots; put wa...
-Knights
Knights of the Garter, Bath, Thistle, and St. Patrick, are installed members of those orders entitled to wear stars and ribands, and ore limited in number. All Knights Bachelors, or Knights of Foreign...
-Death's-Head Hawk-Moth
Death's-Head Hawk-Moth. That beautiful creature is the bee-tiger, or death's-head hawk-moth (Acherontia atropos), frequently seen during the month of September. Men in old times regarded her with supe...
-Windmill
Windmill. A machine erected in elevated positions, and provided with vanes or sails, which, placed in a certain angle to the wind, turns millstones, by which corn is ground, and apparatus worked by wh...
-Barons Of The Exchequer
Barons Of The Exchequer. The four judges who officiate in the Court of Exchequer, at Westminster or London. ...
-Pneumatic Apparatus
Pneumatic Apparatus. An apparatus for generating, collecting, and exhibiting gases. A, is a vessel containing some ingredients for generating gas; B, a pipe to convey it to the glass vessel; D, tilled...
-May
May is the third month of Romulus's year; but the fifth month us reformed by Numa and Julius Caesar. Romulus assigned thirty-one days to this month; Numa reduced the number to thirty; and Julius Caesa...
-June
June. This was the fourth month of the old Roman year, but the sixth month as reformed by Numa and Julius Cesar. Romulus assigned to it thirty days as the proper limit, thereby increasing it four days...
-Lip-Salve
Lip-Salve. White wax, two and a half ounces; spermaceti, three quarters of on ounce; oil of almonds, four ounces. Mix well together, and apply a little to the lips at night. Another - A dessertspoonfu...
-Winds
Winds. A change in the temperature of a portion of air; an increase or a diminution of the quantity of water which it holds in a state of vapour; in short, any circumstance which causes it either to c...
-Roots
Roots. The root not only supports the plant by fixing it in the soil, but affords a channel for the conveyance of nourishment. the extremity of each fibre of a root, there is an expansion of the ce...
-Mitre
Mitre. A sacerdotal crown, formerly worn on the head by bishops. ...
-Black Varnish For Wood
Varnish (Black) For Wood. Put 28 lbs. of common black pitch and 28 lbs. of common asphaltum into an iron pot: boil nine hours, and let it stand to cool for twelve hours; then set it again upon the fir...
-Banana, Or Plantain
Banana, Or Plantain. An invaluable tropical fruit-tree. It serves the Indians for bread, and grows to the height of 15 or 20 feet. At the top of the stalk, leaves expand from six to eight feet long, a...
-Summer
Summer. The season of long days and warm weather, arising from the inequality with which the circles of rotation axe cut by lines of darkness, owing to the pole being turned towards the sun. ...
-Winter
Winter. The season of long nights, owing to the revolving circles being more in the dark than in the light, and to the pole turned from the sun. ...
-Symbol
Symbol. An emblem; thus, the serpent is a symbol of Time or Eternity. Symbols were the bases of the Egyptian hieroglyphics, and of the ancient alphabets ; thus, a mirror was the symbol of Beauty, and ...
-The Tides
The Tides. The tides are produced by the attraction of the moon. The cohesion of fluids being much less than that of solid bodies, they more easily yield to the power of gravity, in consequence of whi...
-Simple Bodies
Simple Bodies. Oxygen is one of the most important of the elementary bodies. In a simple state, it is obtained only in the form of gas. It is an exceedingly abundant body; the air of the atmosphere co...
-Anchovy
Anchovy. The anchovy is abundant in the Mediterranean, and along the coasts of Spain and Portugal and France. It occurs also on various parts of our coast, as Hampshire, Cornwall, Wales, etc. The anch...
-Mechanism Of An Organ
Organ (Mechanism Of An). Since the bellows are of so much consequence, we will begin by explaining their construction. They are what is termed double bellows, consisting of two moveable parts and keep...
-Mechanism Of An Organ. Continued
We will conclude this explanation of the pipes by stating that they are often 32 feet long in large organs, and so numerous that at Weingarten, in Germany, they number no less than 6,666; and in that ...
-Transparent Glass-Painting For Windows
Glass-Painting (Transparent) For Windows, etc. The producing a transparent pattern on the semi-opaque surface of ground-glass is thus effected: Having determined on the kind of window which is to be m...
-Honey-Soap
Honey-Soap. Cut thin two pounds of yellow soap, into a double saucepan, occasionally stirring it till it is melted, which will be in a few minutes if the water is kept boiling around it; then add a qu...
-How To Preserve Pencil Marks
Pencil Marks (To Preserve). If you have anything drawn or written with a lead pencil that you wish to preserve from rubbing out, dip the paper into a dish of skimmed milk. Then dry it, and iron it on ...
-The Seasons
The Seasons. The variation of the seasons and the difference of the length of days and nights in those seasons, result from the same cause. In moving round the sun, the axis of the earth is not perpen...
-Metallic Pens. To Prevent Ink Damaging
Metallic Pens (To Prevent Ink Damaging). Throw into the inkstand, or the ink bottle, a few nails, or any piece of iron not rusted. The action of the acid in the ink will be expended on the iron. ...
-On The Moon And Eclipses
Moon And Eclipses (On The) This satellite revolves round the earth in the space of twenty-seven days eight hours, in an orbit nearly coinciding with the plane of the earth's orbit, and accompanies us ...
-Mast
Mast. An elevated pole in a ship, to which are attached the sails to catch the wind. It is supported by an ingenious combination of ropes, adapted to ascend for the purpose of adjusting the sails. Mas...
-The Seven Wonders
The Seven Wonders. They were the Egyptian pyramids; the mausoleum erected by Artemisia; the Temple of Diana at Ephesus; the walls and hanging gardens of Babylon; the Colossus at Rhodes; the statue of ...
-Rigging
Rigging. The system of ropes belonging to a ship, by which the masts are sustained and ascended, and the sails managed. The names and uses of the several ropes, and the dexterous management of them, c...
-Propagation Of Roses
Roses (Propagation Of). Roses require a strong, loamy soil, and the deeper it is the better, if the subsoil be dry. Where the ground is not naturally rich, a quantity of rotten manure should be added ...
-Toad
Toad. A harmless, but unsightly amphibious animal; very tenacious of life, and believed, when enclosed in stones and trees, to be able to exist for many centuries; being torpid during the winter, they...
-Galvanism
Galvanism. Galvanism is so intimately connected with electricity, that it may be considered as a branch of that science. It was first accidentally discovered in the chemical laboratory of M. Lewis Gal...
-Galvanism. Continued
The simplest galvanic apparatus consists of a set of tumblers, containing water slightly mixed with nitric or sulphuric acid, which are connected by bent wires with a piece of zinc at one end, and a p...
-Retort
Retort. A vessel capable of bearing great heat, with an open end. Any substance intended to be acted upon by great heat being put into it, is exposed in it over a lamp, or other fire, and on being vol...
-Artesian Wells
Artesian Wells. These are deep wells, sunk down to some stratum, which is pierced, and the water suddenly rises in the well as high as the source of the spring, which may even be higher than the groun...
-Mite
Mite. An insect without wings, with eight legs, two eyes, and two large joints It is very prolific, and will live many months without food. ...
-Chrysididae
Chrysididae. These are the hummingbirds of entomologists. They are adorned with the most splendid and effulgent colours, tastefully arranged, and blended in perfect harmony. Who can look without admir...
-Octahedron
Octahedron. A solid figure with eight faces. ...
-Ferns
Ferns. Begin to unfold in March, and the botanist who seeks for them in woods and bank-sides may often discover round hairy-looking balls, of a rich brown colour, emerging from among the grans and mos...
-Rainbow
Rainbow. An effect on drops of rain, from the different refrangibility of the rays of light which produce different colours. The inner bow is produced by a refraction at the entrance of the drop, a re...
-Magnetism
Magnetism. A phenomenon of the action and reaction of the gases which till space, and to which the surface of iron presents a peculiar reaction. The plate represents the curved forms in which particle...
-Mnemonics
Mnemonics. The art of memory ; and as memory itself arises from association of ideas so mnemonics consists in associating things to be remembered with some let of familiar objects, as the rooms in a h...
-Rhubarb
Rhubarb. A valuable medicinal root, growing in China, Turkey, and Russian Tartary, of which that from Turkey is the most esteemed. Rhubarb is also cultivated in English gardens, and makes delicious sp...
-Distemper In Dogs
Dogs (Distemper In). 1. To six grams of calomel add ten grains of jalap made up into a pill with a little fat. If no favourable change takes place, repeat the dose in three or four days. The greatest ...
-Excelsior
Excelsior. The word is derived from the Latin, and is the comparative of the adjective excelsus, high, lofty. Its mean-ing, therefore, is - still higher; and in the beautiful poem by Professor Long...
-Barley
Barley. In its prepared state of pearl-barley, it is a most useful adjunct to the medical practitioner; its decoction, commonly called barley-water, is an agreeable and efficacious demulcent in affect...
-Planet Jupiter
Jupiter. The largest planet of the solar system, being 91,-522 miles in diameter, or 1,400 times larger than the earth. It revolves round the sun in 4,332 days and 14 hours of our time, and on its own...
-God Jupiter
Jupiter. The chief of the gods, worshipped under that and other names by all the nations of antiquity. The temple and statue of Jupiter at Athens was one of the wonders of Greece, and he was worshippe...
-How To Remove The Offensive Smell Of Feet
Feet (To Remove The Offensive Smell Of). The object of perspiration is to remove carbonic acid, and other noxious matters from the blood ; these, in ordinary cases, escape through our clothing. But as...
-Moth. Phalaena
Moth , Phalaena. An elegant species of insect, whose changes correspond with those of the buttertly. Grub of the Moth. ...
-Lavender Water
Lavender Water. Take of English oil of lavender, and essence of bergamot, of each one ounce, four cloves, and rectified spirits of wine one pint. Shake them well her, and let them stand a month, then ...
-Prism
Prism. A triangular form of glass, or any refracting medium, by the oblique action of which the atoms whose propulsions, called light, are decomposed, and ex hibit a coloured spectrum, which is divide...
-Triandria
Triandria. The third class of the Linnaean system of plants, containing three orders: monogynia, digynia, and trigynia, with three stamina. ...
-Zebra
Zebra. An animal the size of an ass, distinguished by its striped skin, and wild and common in Southern Africa. ...
-Stems
Stems. Every plant has a stem through which the sap circulates, and from which the leaves and flowers spring. This stem is not always apparent: it is sometimes concealed under ground, sometimes disgui...
-Functions Of Leaves
Leaves (Functions Of). If the leaves of a tree be stripped off, the fruit comes to nothing, which is exemplified every year in gooseberry bushes, the leaves of which have been devoured by caterpillars...
-Writing
Writing. A most important art, the successful practice of which arises from holding the pen properly, when beginning to learn, as represented in the engraving. ...
-Hotte
Hotte. A basket of wicker-work, much used in France, for carrying burdens on the back. It is slung over the arms by means of straps, and great weights are thus carried with much facility. ...
-Hydrogen Gas
Hydrogen Gas. A variety of atoms, in motion, which fill a space, and which space, when filled with them, is from fifteen to sixteen times lighter than if the space were filled with common atmospheric ...
-Undershot Wheels
Undershot Wheels. Those which are acted upon by a stream at the bottom; overshot ones acting by a stream at the top. Undershot wheels require a much greater body of water than overshot; the former are...
-July
July. In the ancient calendar of the Romans this month waa called Quintilis, to denote its numerical position - being, in fact, the fifth month of the old Latin year; where as now it is our seventh. I...
-August
August is said to have derived its name from the Roman Emperor, Augustus Caesar, to whom it was dedicated in honour of his being created Consul in this month, and having triumphed three times in Rome,...
-Canadian Cent
Canadian Cent. The Canadian cent pieces which have been lately issued from the British mint possess a remarkable peculiarity. They are not only tokens of value, but also standards of weight and measur...
-Curiosities Of Literature
Curiosities Of Literature. D'Israeli, in his Curiosities of Literature, states that the four ages of typography have produced the enormous number of 3,641,960 works. ...
-How To Perfume Apartments
Apartments (To Perfume). Put into a spirit lamp, or narrow-necked bottle, any essence or scent not containing water; provide the .lamp, or bottle, with a thick lamp-cotton, and place slightly above th...
-The Laws Of Cricket
1. The Ball. At the beginning of each innings, either party may call for a new ball. 2. The Bat. May be generally four inches and a quarter in the widest part, and about thirty-eight inches in leng...
-Musical Instruments
Harp Harp. A musical instrument of the String kind; being of a triangular figure, and placed on end between the legs to be played on. Menage derives the word from the Latin harpa, and from the Germ...
-Musical Instruments 2
Pianoforte Pianoforte. This instrument derives its name from two Italian words, piano, soft, and forte, loud. It differs from the harpsichord mainly in the use of hammers, which strike the strings,...
-Musical Instruments 3
French Horn French Horn. This is no other than a contorted or wreathed trumpet. It labours under the same delects as the trumpet itself; but these have of late been so palliated as to require no pa...
-Musical Instruments 4
Bassoon Bassoon. A wind instrument, consisting of a perforated tube and a reed through which it is blown. The compass of the bassoon only comprehends three octaves. Serpent Serpent. A bass wi...
-Musical Instruments 5
Tambourine Tambourine. A kind of semi-drum in the shape of a sieve, mounted at the sides with small hells and loose pieces of tin. It was formerly considered as a tinkling cymbal. Violonce...
-Musical Instruments 6
Guitar Guitar. Derived from the Spanish guitaria, which is from the Latin bithara, a kind of lute; it is a six-stringed instrument, with an oval body, and a neck like a violin, or fiddle, the strin...
-Musical Instruments 7
Bagpipe Bagpipe. A well-known wind instrument of great antiquity among the northern nations, and long a favourite in Scotland, where it was probably introduced by the Norwegians or Danes. The bagpi...
-Organ
Organ. This is the largest and most harmonious of all wind instruments. It may be more properly termed a collection of instruments. The invention of the organ is very ancient, though it is agreed it w...
-The Atmosphere
The Atmosphere. The atmosphere is one of the most essential appendages to the globe we inhabit, and exhibits a most striking proof of Divine skill and omnipotence. It is now ascertained to be a compou...
-General Account Of Speech Parts
General Account Of Speech Parts. In every thing we study, as well as in every tiling we do, where we have to deal with a multitude of objects, Classification - that is, arranging the objects into divi...
-Cultivation Of The Dahlia
Dahlia (Cultivation Of The). Dahlias do not require too rich a soil - except those intended for exhibition, or show flowers, the management of which we shall treat of presently - in very nutritious gr...
-Mamalukes
Mamalukes. The name of an ancient dynasty, who ruled in Egypt for many centuries, and still applied to the soldiers represented in the engraving. ...
-How To Keep Silk
Silk (To Keep). Silk articles should not be kept folded in white paper, as the chloride of lime used in bleaching the paper will probably impair the colour of the silk. Brown or blue paper is better -...
-Means Of Preventing Glass Cracking By Heat
Glass Cracking By Heat (Means Of Preventing). If the chimney-glass of a lamp be cut with a diamond on the convex side, it will never crack, as the incision affords room for expansion produced by the h...
-The Silkworm And Its Products
The Silkworm And Its Products. The Silkworm is the caterpillar of one of the family Bombycide, systematically known by the name of Bombyx Mori. The eggs are globular, and about the size of migni...
-The Silkworm And Its Products. Continued
By the time the worms have attained their full maturity and growth, they have generally denuded of their foliage the whole plantation of mulberry-trees, and the attendants therefore look anxiously for...
-Magic Lantern And Dissolving Views
Magic Lantern And Dissolving Views. The principle of construction is very simple. It consists of a tin box, with a bent funnel at the top, which serves for the double purpose of allowing the smoke and...
-Magic Lantern And Dissolving Views. Continued
We have had three diagrams engraved of the apparatus necessary for producing dissolving views on a large scale suitable for a lecture-room, or exhibition of any kind. Our first figure (fig. 4) repr...
-How To Brush Clothes
Clothes (To Brush). Have a wooden horse to put the clothes on, and a small cane to beat, the dust out of them ; also ft board or table long enough for them to be put their whole length when brushing t...
-How To Wash Lace
Lace (To Wash). Cover a bottle (the larger the better) with a linen case made to fit tight: calico will not be found to answer Roll the lace round it, taking care that the edge is kept smooth, and tha...
-How To Fold Coats For Packing
Coat (To Fold For Packing). Lay the coat at its full length upon a table, with the collar towards the left hand; pull out the collar so as to make it lie quite straight; turn up the coat towards the c...
-Copper-Plate Printing
Copper-Plate Printing. An art practised by means of what is called a rolling-press. The engraved plate (copper or steel) is covered with ink, made of oil and lamp-black, then cleanly wiped on the smoo...
-An Easy Method Of Teaching Music
Music (An Easy Method Of Teaching : The Rudiments Of). The Staff - Let the pupil be provided with a pencil and a moderate-sized slate on which has been previously drawn, with the point of a pen-knife,...
-An Easy Method Of Teaching Music. Part 2
Staff, called ledger-lines. The teacher must illustrate this upon the slate, thus: - These lines, like those of the staff, are placed at equal distances from each other, and are reckoned, omi...
-An Easy Method Of Teaching Music. Part 3
The six different kinds of notes, with their names, must again be written upon the slate by the teacher, and left for the pupil to learn before the next lesson. Of the Value of Notes. - The t...
-How To Make A Common Knife-Board
Knife-Board (To Make A Common). Cover with thick buff leather, on which are put emery one part, crocus martis three parts, in very fine powder, mixed into a thick paste, with a little lard or sweet-oi...
-Water Louse
Water Louse. A email creature of great activity, in most waters, shaped like the engraving. ...
-Water For Plants
Plants (Water For). It is well known that rain-water is far better than spring-water for promoting the growth of plants; this is from the former containing that which is a necessary ingredient in thei...
-Covering For Preserves
Preserves (Covering For). The material used by the trade for covering preserves (instead of bladder), is made by brushing over sheets of paper, of the thickness and strength required, with linseed oil...
-Papyrus
Papyrus. A reedy grass, on which the ancients wrote. ...
-How To Make Good Candles
Candles (How To Make Good). Candle-wick, if steeped in lime and saltpetre, and dried in the 6un, will give a clear light, and be little apt to run. Good candles may be made thus: melt together ten oun...
-Indian-Ink
Indian-Ink. Indian-ink, equal in quality to that imported from China, maybe made by holding a plate over the flame of a lamp or candle so as to receive the fine soot, and mixing this with size made fr...
-The Sap
The Sap. The sap of trees maybe obtained, by wounding a branch, or stem, in spring, just before the buds open ; or in the end of autumn, though less copiously, after a slight frost, yet not during the...
-How To Preserve Colours Of Dresses
Dresses (To Preserve Colours Of). The colours of merinos, mousseline-de-laines, ginghams, chintzes, printed lawns, etc., may be preserved by using water that is only milk-warm ; making a lather with w...
-How To Give A Fine Black Colour To Wood
Wood (To Give A Fine Black Colour To). Steep the wood for two or three days in luke-warm water, in which a little alum has been dissolved; then put a handful of logwood, cut small, into a pint of wate...
-How To Pack Glass Or China
Glass Or China (To Pack). Pro-cure some soft straw or hay to pack them in, and if they are to be sent a long way, and are heavy, the hay or straw should be a little damp, which will prevent them slipp...
-How To Polish Shells
Shells (To Polish). This may be done by either hand-labour or by varnishing; in both cases all the rough parts must be well rubbed down with emery and water. If they are to be polished by hand (which ...
-Paste
Paste. Good and durable paste may be made with flour in the usual way, but rather thick, with a proportion of brown sugar and a small quantity of corrosive sublimate. The sugar keeps it flexible, and ...
-How To Preserve Polished Iron
Polished Iron (To Preserve). Polished ironwork may be preserved from rust by a mixture not very expensive, consisting of copal varnish intimately mixed with as much olive oil as will give it a degree ...
-Steel-Yard
Steel-Yard. An instrument depending on the principle that equal multiples of matter and motion produce equal momenta; so that a lever revolving at the centre D, and moving a body at one inch from the ...
-Sticking-Plaster
Sticking-Plaster. Take half an ounce of benzoin, and six ounces of rectified spirit, dissolve and strain; then take one ounce of isinglass, and half a pint of hot water; dissolve and strain apart from...
-Salamander
Salamander. A species of lizard of deep black and orange colours, and perfectly harmless. Superstition ascribed to it the power of resisting fire. ...
-Furniture-Polish
Furniture-Polish. Melt beeswax in spirits of turpentine, with a very small proportion of resin. When it is entirely dissolved, dip in it a sponge, and wash the mahogany lightly over with it. Immediate...
-Ourang-Outang
Ourang-Outang. An ape without a tail, like a dwarf man, but without organs of speech, or muscles for laughter. ...
-How To Clean Porcelain Or Glass-Ware
Porcelain Or Glass-Ware (To Clean). The best material for this purpose is fuller's-earth; but it must be beaten into a fine powder, and carefully cleared from all rough or hard particles, which might ...
-How To Restore Faded Roses
Roses (To Restore Faded). Throw some sulphur on a chafingdish of hot coal, hold a faded rose over the flames of the hot sulphur, and it will become quite white; in this state dip it into water; put it...
-Pliers
Pliers. An instrument, or double lever, the fulcrum of which is at the centre, and it enables watchmakers and other artisans to take firm hold of any small objects. ...
-September
September is literally the seventh month of the year according to the ancient Roman calendar, as established by Romulus, hut the ninth of Numa's year It derives its name from Septem, seven, and imber,...
-October
October was the eighth month of Romulus's year, as the name implies, being derived from Octo, eight, and imber, a shower of rain; but in the calendar of Numa, and of Julius Caesar, it was classed as t...
-The Flower
The Flower. The flower consists of several parts. The calyx, or flower cup, forms the external integument which protects the bud before it expands : it consists of several parts, called sepales, re...
-Seed
Seed. The seed, from which the future plant proceeds, is the sole end and aim of all the parts of fructification. It consists of several parts, the most essential of which is the embryo, or germen, ca...
-How To Pack Lithographic Stones
Lithographic Stones (To Pack). The accompanying figure will explain this more readily than any description. A and B represent two stones secured in a box, C, D, E, F, by slips of wood, c, d, e, f, whi...
-How To Clean Paper-Hangings
Paper-Hangings (To Clean). Cut into eight half-quarters a stale quartern loaf; with one of these pieces, after having blown off all the dust from the paper to be cleaned, by means of a good pair of be...
-How To Make Court-Plaster
Court-Plaster (To Make). Stretch tightly some thin black or flesh-coloured silk in a wooden frame, securing it with packthread or small tucks. Then go all over it with a soft-bristle brush, dipped in ...
-Fox And Geese
Fox And Geese. Take a piece of well-seasoned wood, about nine inches 6quare, and cut off the corners, so as to make it octagonal; then draw, cut into the wood, and afterwards paint, or simply paint, t...
-How To Join Glass
Glass (To Join). Melt a little isinglass in spirits of wine, and add a small quantity of water. Warm the mixture gently over a moderate fire. When mixed, by thoroughly melting it will form glue perfec...
-How To Dye Blue Feathers
Feathers (To Dye Blue.) The feathers must be first well washed in soap and water, then exposed to the air for several days. Lastly, after being well rinsed in pure warm water, they must be dipped in h...
-Varnish To Colour Baskets And Old Straw Hats
Varnish (To Colour Baskets And Old Straw Hats.) Take either red or black sealing-wax; to every two ounces of sealing wax add one ounce of rectified spirits of wine ; pound the wax fine, then sift it t...
-Bronzing
Bronzing. Bronze of a good colour acquires by oxidation a tine green tint, called patina antiqua. Corinthian brass receives in tins way a beautiful clear green colour. This appearance is imitated by a...
-Shuttle
Shuttle. A piece of wood which in weaving passes a cross thread through the wrap. ...
-Rice Glue
Glue (Rice). Mix together rice-flour and cold water to a thick paste, pressing out all the lumps with a spoon, and making it very smooth. Then dilute it with a little more water (altogether, you may a...
-Life And Death Average
Life And Death Average. In Turkey, the deaths are to the population as 1 in 30. In Prussia, 1 in 39. In Portugal, 1 in 40. In Spain, 1 in 40. In Switzerland, 1 in 40. In Austria, 1 in 40. In Norway, 1...
-Consumption Of Tea And Coffee
Consumption Of Tea And Coffee. The number of pounds of tea and coffee an-nually consumed by the inhabitants of the world is estimated to be 80,000,000. ...
-How To Pack Fruit For Carriage
Fruit (To Pack For Carriage). If fruit is to be sent to any considerable distance, great care should be taken in packing it: it should net be done in baskets, as they are liable to be bruised among...
-Tortoise
Tortoise. A very harmless animal, with a shelly covering, which sleeps through the winter, and lives to a great age. Its flesh is eaten in the West Indies, and its covering serves for ornaments. ...
-Diaphanie
Diaphanie. This beautiful art is so simple in its elements that it will not take much space to initiate the reader into its mysteries. The principal purposes to which it is applicable are for the deco...
-How To Remove Stains From The Hands
Stains (To Remove From The Hands). Damp the hands first with water, then rub them with tartaric acid, or salt of lemons, as you would with soap; rinse them, and rub them dry. Tartaric acid or salt of ...
-Shaving Soap
Shaving Soap. Good white soap (in thin shavings), three pounds; palm soap, one pound; soft water, three quarters of a pound; soda, one ounce. Melt carefully over a slow fire, in an earthen vessel; the...
-Artificial Mahogany
Mahogany (Artificial). The following method of giving any species of wood of a close grain the appearance of mahogany in texture, density, and polish, is said to be practised in France with success. T...
-Ornamental Grate Paper
Grate Paper (Ornamental). The accompanying illustration, when drawn upon paper and cut out, will require some amount of patience and perse venture; but the paper, when completed., will amply repay the...
-How To Stain Musical Instruments
Musical Instruments (To Stain). CRImson - Boil one pound of ground Brazil-wood in three quarts of water for an hour; strain it, and add half an ounce of cochineal; boil it again for half an hour gentl...
-Tivoli, Or Chinese Billiards
Tivoli, Or Chinese Billiards. This is a very interesting game, and is easily played. The board with which you play varies in length from 2 feet 6 inches to 4 feet or upwards, and is shaped as shown in...
-How To Make Transfer Paper
Transfer Paper (To Make). 1. Take starch, 6 ounces; gum arabic, 2 ounces; alum, 1 ounce. Make a strong solution of each separately in hot water. Mix, and apply it to one side of the leaves of paper wh...
-How To Make Economical White House-Paint
White House-Paint (To Make Economical). Skim-milk, two quarts; fresh slaked lime, eight ounces; linseed-oil, six ounces; white burgundy pitch, two ounces; Spanish white, three pounds. The lime to be s...
-How To Mend Tortoiseshell
Tortoiseshell (To Mend). Bring the edges of the pieces to fit each other, observing to give the same inclination of grain to each; then secure them in a piece of paper, and place them between hot iron...
-Cultivation Of The Tulip
Tulip (Cultivation Of The). The tulip is a native of Persia, and was first introduced into Europe at Constantinople, where it was, and still is, a great favourite with the worshippers of Allah. In 155...
-Cultivation Of The Tulip. Continued
It is a most important object to arrange the bulbs in the bed, so that when in bloom the plants will make the greatest possible display. If symptoms of frost appear after the bulbs are planted, the...
-The Bullfinch
The Bullfinch. Bullfinches are permanent residents with us; not very plentiful in any locality. They may be round in most places where there are leafy coverts, and especially near fruit gardens, to wh...
-Carving
Carving. How often is a well-spread dinner disfigured by blundering awkward carving. It is a duty most shun, because most are unskilled in the art. Yet one of the most important acquisitions in the ro...
-Fish
Fish. In serving fish, some nicety and care must be exercised; here lightness of hand and dexterity of management is necessary, and can only be acquired by practice. The flakes which, in such fish ...
-Boiled Tongue
Boiled Tongue. Carve across the tongue, but do not cut through; keep the sluts rather thin, and help the fat from underneath. The cook should send a roast pig to table as displayed here, g...
-Roast Turkey
Roast Turkey. Poultry requires skilful carving; the requisites are grace of manner, ease in the performance, a perfect knowledge of the position of the joints, and the most complete mode of d...
-Roast Fowl
Roast Fowl. This operation is a nice and skilful one to perform; it requires both observation and practice. Insert the knife between the legs and the side, press back the leg with blade of th...
-Roast Goose
Roast Goose. Follow with your knife the lines marked in the engraving, a to B, and cut slices; then remove the wing, and if the party be large, the legs must also be removed ; and here the disjoint...
-Pheasant
Pheasant. Clear the leg by inserting the edge of the knife between it and the body, then take off the wings, B to A, but do not remove much of the breast with them ; you are thus enabled to obtain ...
-Partridge
Partridge. Separate the legs, and then divide the bird into three parts, leaving each leg and wing together. The breast is then divided from the back, and helped whole, the latter being assisted wi...
-Hare
Hare. Trussing. - Run a skewer through the two shoulders, at 2; another through the head at 1, or pass it into the mouth and through the body, to keep the head in its place; two others should...
-Cooking Rabbits
Whether for roasting or boiling, are trussed and cut up the same as a hare, except that the back is divided into two or three parts, without separating it from the belly. The best parts are the should...
-Nutritious Food
Nutritious Food. The following statement shows the proportion of nutriment contained in various articles of food: - Greens and turnips contain 8 lbs. in the 100: carrots, 14 lbs. in the 100 ; potatoes...
-Rapid Flight Of Birds
Birds (Rapid Flight Of). A vulture can fly at the rate of 150 miles an hour. Observations made on the coast of Labrador convinced Major Cartwright that wild geese could travel at the rate of 90 miles ...
-How To Mix Paints
Paints (To Mix). In mixing paints, observe that for out-door work you must use principally, or wholly, boiled oil, unless it be for the decorative parts of houses, etc, then mix as for in-door work. F...
-Avoirdupoise Weight
Avoirdupoise Weight. 16 Drams...... 1 ounce, oz. 16 Ounces...... 1 pound, lb. 14 Pounds ..... 1 stone. ...
-Troy Weight
Troy Weight. 4 Grains 1 carat. 6 Carats or 24 grs . . . 1 pennyweight. 20 Pennyweights or 480 grs. 1 ounce, oz. ...
-Cloth Measure
Cloth Measure. 2 1/4 Inches 1 nail 4 Nails 1 qr. of a yard. 3 Quarters 1 Flemish ell. 4 Quarter...
-Cubic Measure
Cubic Measure. 1728 Cubic Inches....... 1 foot. 27 Feet.......... 1 yard. ...
-Wool Weight
Wool Weight. 7 Pounds 1 clove. 2 Cloves, or 14 lbs.... 1 stone. 2 Stones, or 28 lbs.... l tod. ...
-Apothecaries' Weight
Apothecaries' Weight. 20 Grains . . . 1 scruple, 20 grs. Troy. 3 Scruples. . . 1 drachm, 60 . 8 Drachms . . ...
-Dry Measure
Dry Measure. 2 Pins........ 1 quart. 2 Quarts, or 4 Pints 1 pottle or 1/4 peck. 2 Pottles, or 4 Quarts . 1 gallon....
-Hay, Etc
Hay, Etc. 36 Pounds .... 1 truss of straw. 56 Pounds .... 1 truss of hay. 60 Pounds .... 1 truss of new hay. ...
-Long Measure
Long Measure. 3 Barley-corns in length 1 inch 4 Inches .... 1 hand's breadth. 12 Inches .... 1 foot. 3 Fee...
-Ale And Beer Measure
Ale And Beer Measure. 2 Pints... 1 quart. 4 Quarts ....... 1 gallon. 9 Gallons ...... 1 firkin. ...
-Square Measure
Square Measure. 144 Inches............ 1 foot. 9 Feet........ 1 yard. 30 1/4 Yards....... 1 pole. ...
-Wine Measure
Wine Measure. 2 Pints........ 1 quart. 4 Quarts ...... 1 gallon. 10 Gallons of brandy . . . 1 anker. ...
-Paper
Paper. Nowhere is paper so much used as in the United States. In France, with 3.5,000,000 of inhabitants, only 70,000 tons are produced yearly, of which one seventh is for exportation. In England, wit...
-Time
Time. The measure of motion, and of the succession of thoughts, determined on our globe by the phenomena of light and darkness, and returning seasons of heat and cold; the earth's motion round its axi...
-Roman Money, Weights, And Measures
Roman Money, Weights, And Measures. Money. - The Romans, like other ancient nations, at first had no coined money, but either exchanged commodities with one another, or used a certain weight of unc...
-Measures Of Length
The Roman measures of length or distance were feet, cubits, paces, stadia, and miles. FOOt . . . . . 0 0 0 12 Cubit..... ...
-Measures Of Capacity
Measures Of Capacity. The most common measure of capacity was the Amphora, called also Quadrantal or Cadus, containing nearly 9 English gallons. They had also a measure called Congius, equal to 1/8...
-Roman Division Of Time
Roman Division Of Time. Romulus is said to have divided the year into ten months, beginning with March; Numa added the other two months. When Julius Caesar became master of the State, he adjusted t...
-Liquid Measures. Dry Measures
gals. qts. pts. The Log 0 0 0 3/4 The Firkin or Metretes . 0 ...
-Weights
Weights. The chief weight among the Romans was the As, or Libra, a pound, equal in English Troy weight to 10 oz. 18 dwt. 13 grs.; this Libra was divided into 12 parts, Unciae (ounces), and these Un...
-Money Table
Money. $ cts. A Gerah 2 A Zuzah . ...
-The Jewish Method Of Reckoning Time
The Jewish Method Of Reckoning Time. The day, reckoning from sun-rise, and the night, reckoning from sun-set, were each divided into 12 equal parts, called the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, etc., hours. ...
-The Watches
The Watches. The First Watch was from sun-set to the third hour of the night. The Second, or Middle Watch, was from the third hour to the sixth. The Third Watch, or Cockcrow- ing, was from the sixt...
-Milk
Milk. Milk consists of water holding in solution casein or cheese, sugar of milk, various salts, and, in suspension, fatty matter in the form of myriads of semi-opaque globules, to which the colour an...
-The Structure Of The Hair
Hair (The Structure Of The). 1. Hair is found to grow on all parts of the surface of the body, except the palms of the hands and the soles-of the feet. 2. The hair differs considerably in lengt...
-The Structure Of The Hair. Continued
Fig. 4= Fig. 5.t Fig. 6 # =Fig. 4. A portion of hair magnified so as to show the imbrication of the outside. + Fig. 5. Longitudinal section of a hair, showing the imbrica...
-Management Of The Hair
Hair (Management Of The). Pass a fine-tooth comb, at regular intervals every twenty-four hours, through the hair, in order to keep it from matting or entangling ; separate the hairs carefully and repe...
-Language Of Flowers
Flowers (Language Of). The first rule to be observed in our floral grammar is, that the pronoun I or me is expressed by inclining the symbol flower to the left, and the pronoun thou and thee by inclin...
-Preservation Of The Eyes
Eyes (Preservation Of The). Mr. Cooper, in his Practical Remarks on Impaired Vision, gives some excellent hints on the preservation of the eyes, which will be interesting to many of our readers. Da...
-Method Of Taking Profiles In Black
Profiles In Black (Method Of Taking). Procure a wooden frame, about a foot square : divide each side into six portions, and stretch across strings at equal distances before marked, so as to make in al...
-Pan. Son of Mercury
Pan. The son of Mercury, chief of the rural deities, and god of shepherds. ...
-How To Fold Shirts
Shirts (To Fold). Having spread the shirt on a table or on a bed, fold over the two sides lengthways, so as to lie one over the other upon the bosom. Turn the sleeves back halfway from the shoulders (...
-Eagle
Eagle. A bird of prey, of the genus falco, of which there are several species; as the sea eagle, known in Scotland and Ireland, which feeds on fish; the golden eagle, three feet long, with wings exten...
-Mule
Mule. An animal, the produce of a horse and an ass, and which itself does not propagate. It is much esteemed for its hardihood, strength, and sureness of foot; and is therefore preferred as a beast of...
-Transition Rocks
Rocks (Transition). The lowest, in which are found organised beings, but these consist only of zoophytes, or equivocal animals, and shell-fish, while the rocks above these contain animals possessed of...
-Trustee
Trustee. One invested with property for a special purpose. ...
-Net-Making
Net-Making. A useful art, by which fibrous materials are knotted in a regular manner, and continued over a large surface. The formation and commencement of the meshes and the shape of the wooden needl...
-November
November, was so called from being the ninth month of Romulus's year, which began with March ; but, according to the altered calendar of Numa and Julius Caesar, it was the eleventh month of the year, ...
-Pawnbrokers' Signs
Pawnbrokers' Signs. The most wealthy of the Italian bankers, generally called Lombards, belonged to the princely house of the Medici of Florence. They bore pills on their armorial bearings, as indicat...
-Christmas Customs
Christmas Customs, Christmas-Eve is celebrated because Christmas-day, in the Primitive Church, was always observed as the Sabbath day, and, like it, preceded by an eve, or vigil. - Brand. It was o...
-The Voice
The Voice. The human voice has been heard across the Straits of Gibraltar, a distance of more than ten miles. This, however, is quite uncommon, and only occurs in peculiar states of the weather. ...
-Thunder
Thunder. The sound of thunder may be heard at the distance of from twenty to twenty-five miles, and by pressing the ear to the ground, it. can be heard at a much greater distance. ...
-Et (And)
Et (And). The figure & is sometimes called amperzand. It really stands for the Latin word et, and arose, perhaps, from the habit of the old manuscript writers of writing et in one stroke, beginnin...
-Bees
Bees. Most of you know that honeybees live together in a social community called a hive. In their original condition, these communities had their dwellings in hollow trees, or cavities of rocks; but t...
-Disinfecting Liquid
Disinfecting Liquid. In a wine bottle of cold water dissolve two ounces of acetate of lead, (sugar of lead;) and then add two (fluid) ounces of strong nitric acid (aquafortis). Shake the mixture, and ...
-Clocks And Watches
Clocks And Watches. The genius of the Germans appeared in the invention and improvement of many mechanical arts, especially clock-work. They have exceeded all the world in the contrivance of variety o...
-Poetical And Literary Terms
Poetical And Literary Terms. Epigram. In poetry, a short poem or composition in verse, treating of one thing only, and ending with some point, or lively ingenious thought. Epitaph. A monumental ...
-Epode
Epode. The third or last part of an ode, the ancient ode being divided into strophe, antistrophe, and epode. The epode was sung by the priest, standing still before the altar, after all the turns and ...
-Belles
Belles Lettres, (or Polite Literature, as it is properly denominated in English.) embraces grammar, logic, rhetoric, poetry, music, mathematics, and the learned languages ; these are usually called th...
-Practical Lessons In Drawing. First Lesson
First Lesson. The necessary materials for commencing pencil drawing will be a sharp penknite ; three black-lead pencils, marked HB, F, and B; and some drawing paper, or cartridge paper, or a drawing p...
-Practical Lessons In Drawing. Second Lesson
Second Lesson. As you are now prepared to commence your drawing, please 6eat yourself properly at the table, and make an effort to form straight horizontal lines, like a (fig 2), and observe that they...
-Practical Lessons In Drawing. Third Lesson
Third Lesson. You must now turn your attention to the drawing of curved lines. Unless you can draw a curved line accurately, in any direction, you can never hope to delineate the human figure or anima...
-Practical Lessons In Drawing. Fourth Lesson
Fourth Lesson. In drawing lines, the hand should rest upon the two last fingers, - if the lines are short the motion of the hand should not extend beyond the wristjoint; but if the lines are long, the...
-Practical Lessons In Drawing. Fifth Lesson
Fifth Lesson. Before submitting the examples we have prepared for this lesson, it will be necessary to make a few observations upon copying. We will suppose that you have to copy a drawing:, - perh...
-Practical Lessons In Drawing. Sixth Lesson
Sixth Lesson. We have now to consider the subject of Outline, a most important one to a draughtsman. A simple perfect outline is more valuable that an imperfect one, worked up with all the skill...
-Practical Lessons In Drawing. Seventh Lesson
Seventh Lesson. As you are now able to draw outlines correctly, it will be necessary to study light, shade and reflection, which will give the appearance of substance to the objects you wish to deline...
-Practical Lessons In Drawing. Seventh Lesson. Continued
Having directed your attention to the preliminary and important points connected with light and shade, it now becomes necessary to make some observations upon shading. In shading there are three ki...
-Photography
Photography. The Daguerreotype process consists in exposing a silvered copper plate to vapour of iodine, whereby a film of iodide of silver is formed on the surface; then placing it in the camera, so ...
-Invisible Ink
Invisible Ink. The most curious of all kinds of sympathetic ink, is that from cobalt. It is a very singular phenomenon, that the characters or figures traced out with this ink may be made to disappear...
-Steam Navigation
Steam Navigation. In December, 1736, a patent for a steam-boat was taken out by Jonathan Hull, and a drawing and description of the same was published in the following year. From want of encouragement...
-Aqueous
Aqueous. Water is required not only as the medium of conveying the other substances into the body, but it forms a prominent constituent of the body itself. Blood contains 790 parts of water to 210 of ...
-Oleaginous
Oleaginous. The butter of the milk represents oily and fatty matters in general, which seem to enter into the composition of all healthy food They are taken by the inhabitants of tropical countries in...
-Saccharine
Saccharine. The sugar of the milk represents several substances obtained from plants and used as food. Sugar itself varies in its composition according to its sources; hence we have cane-sugar, grape-...
-Proteinaceous
Proteinaceous : The casein of the milk - which when separated, is known by the name of cheese - has, in common with two other vegetable and animal substances, called fibrine and albumen, a principle f...
-Inorganic
Inorganic. The salts of milk are the saline substances, which entering into the composition of various parts of the human body, are necessary to its integrity and health. The importance of the presenc...
-Pores Of The Human Body
Pores Of The Human Body. The skin of the human body is a very curious object for the microscope. By cutting a thin piece with a very sharp pen-knife or razor, and applying it to a good microscope, a m...
-Gold And Silver
Gold And Silver. The consumption of gold and silver for coinage and household purposes is enormous, its application having increased rapidly since the discoveries of gold in California and Australia. ...
-Curious Calendar
Curious Calendar. By counting the knuckles on the hand, with the spaces between them, all the months with thirty-one days will fall on the knuckles, and those containing thirty days or less will come ...
-National Debt
National Debt. The national debt is the amount of sums owing by a state to persons who have lent money to it, to enable it to carry on wars and other operations. A stipulated interest is paid to the n...
-Tape-Worms
Tape-Worms. The tape-worm is found in the human intestines, and attains the length of three or four yards; occasionally even more than this. Now, one curious fact about it is, that the very same speci...
-Horse
Horse. An animal, whose generic character is six front teeth in each jaw, with canine teeth on each side, remote from the rest, with undivided hoofs. There are six species, among which, besides the co...
-Billion
Billion. This is a million times a million, which no one is able to count, however easy it may be to write it. You can count 160 or 170 a minute, but let us even suppose that you go so far as 200 in a...
-Glass
Glass. The art of making; glass was Introduced into England from France, in the year 674, for the use of churches and monasteries. Benedict Biscop. who in that yearfounded a monastery, and attached to...
-Shorthand
Shorthand. Among all the systems of shorthand, or stenography, we know of none less complicated than that of Taylor, improved by Harding. First, we give the alphabet: - The vowels, it will be...
-Hebrew Alphabet
Hebrew Alphabet. The Hebrew alphabet contains twenty-two letters Their names may be found in regular order in the 119th Psalm. ...
-Icebergs
Icebergs. Are immense bodies of ice, extending occasionally two miles long by one broad, and some hundreds of feet high, which are found floating in the polar seas, and are formed in two ways - in the...
-Signification Of Christian Names
Signification Of Christian Names. Aaron, Hebrew, a mountain. Abel, Heb. vanity. Abraham, Heb. the father of many. Absalom, Heb. the father's peace. Achilles, Greek, a freer from pain. Adam, Heb. red e...
-Signification of Christian Names. Continued
Nicolas, Gr. victorious over the people. Noel, Fr. belonging to one's nativity. Norman, Fr. one born in Normandy. Obadiah, Heb. the servant of the Lord. Oliver, Lat. an olive. Orlando, ...
-Numerals
Numerals. The numerical figures, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. 0, are upon good authority believed to be of Indian origin. They were not used in Germany till the beginning of the fourth century, nor in R...
-Electrotyping
Electrotyping. This is the art of depositing metals, held in solution by galvanism, on other metals; thus it is a perfect process of gilding. impressions of medals, coins, etc, maybe copied by it with...
-How To Make A Rose Of Wood Shavings
Rose Of Wood Shavings (To Make A). Cut out 14 petals same as No. 3, and 18 of No. 2, then 20 of the larger size. Cut them on the length of the shaving, and curl them slightly at the edge with...
-How To Keep Fowls
Fowls (How To Keep). No fowls can possibly thrive well, or bo profitable to the owners, unless they are plentifully fed, and have a comfortable place to roost in at night, and for a shelter in cold o...
-EarthQuakes
Earth Quakes form the most terrible of all natural phenomena. They make the solid globe itself tremble and quiver beneath our feet, and sometimes to appear to the eye to undulate like the waves of the...
-Avalanches
Avalanches originate in the higher regions of mountains, and are formed of gradually accumulating masses of snow, which, at last, become so ponderous, that the inclined planes on which they rest can n...
-Change Of Air
Change Of Air is at all times one of the most important auxiliaries of the medical adviser. To persona confined in close towns, accustomed to sedentary employments, and suffering from the ailments inc...
-Alcohol
Alcohol is an Arabic term used by chemists to signify highly rectified or pure spirit, such as Spirits of Wine; the term has also another meaning, viz., anything reduced into an impalpable powder ; bu...
-Cuckoo. Cuculus
Cuckoo, or Cuculus. A genus of birds, of which there are 46 species; the common English bird weighing about five ounces; the bill black, and the feathers a dove-colour. They arrive in spring, and depa...
-Mole
Mole. A quadruped about six inches in length, living in subterranean burrows, which it rapidly forms by its snout and feet, being able to withdraw its eves at pleasure. ...
-How To Make Paper Into Parchment
How To Make Paper Into Parchment. Sulphuric acid, which changes cotton and other fibrous substances into a fulminating material, possesses also the singular property of transforming paper into parchme...
-Monkey
Monkey. The general name of the ape. baboon, and 'simia tribe, the several varieties of which are principally found in the tropical climates. They inhabit forests in prodigious numbers, and, though mi...
-Papier Mache
Papier Mache. This substance is made from the pulp of paper, or of old paper ground up with size, and moulded into various forms. A mixture of sulphate of iron, quicklime and glue, renders papier mach...
-Vulcan
Vulcan. The god of fire and working metals, in the Greek mythology ; and the same as the Tubal Cain of the Hebrews. ...
-Frieze
Frieze. In architecture the frieze is the part of the entablature between the architecture and the cornice. It is usually enriched with figures of animals, or other ornaments of sculpture. ...
-Fine Woods
Fine Woods. Some woods, such as ebony, box, mahogany, calambo, cedar, etc. are valued on account of their extraordinary hardness, beautiful polish, brilliant colours, or agreeable smell, and are made ...
-Fine Woods . Part 2
Logwood, Campeachy Or Indian Wood Logwood, Campeachy Or Indian Wood. This tree grows plentifully, and to a considerable size in Jamaica, Campeachy, etc. The wood is at first red, but alter it has b...
-Fine Woods . Part 3
Mahogany Mahogany. This is a wood well known to all of us. The tree is a native of the warmest parts of America, growing plentifully in the islands of Cuba, Jamaica, and Hispaniola, and also on the...
-Timber Trees
Oak Oak. The uses to which oak is applied are numerous. It will endure all weathers and seasons; hence it is used for purposes that are liable to such exposures, as posts, rails, boards, pales, whe...
-Timber Trees. Part 2
Birch-Tree Birch-Tree. There are four species of birch. The common birch-tree may be cultivated upon barren land, where better trees will not thrive; for there is no ground so bad, but this tree wi...
-Timber Trees. Part 3
Fir Fir. Linnaeus makes the fir-tree only a different species of the pine. The silver fir grows about Strasburgh and other parts of Germany, whence the turpentine is brought to England. The Norway,...
-Colours And Paints
Colours And Paints. The following descriptions of some of the colours used in painting, may not be unacceptable to those of our readers engaged in drawing. They will discover what are produced from mi...
-Colours And Paints. Part 2
Blue Blue is one of the primitive colours. In limning, miniature, etc, the painters use ultra-marine, blue ashes, and smalt. In oil and miniature they use indigo, blue bice, blue verditer, lapis A...
-Colours And Paints. Part 3
Red Red is one of the five simple or primitive colours. Madder Madder. A red, bitter astringent root, of a plant called Rubia Tinctorum; much used by dyers, to give a strong, rich, red colou...
-Colours And Paints. Part 4
Ochre Ochre. Is a kind of yellow or red earth, used by painters. It is an oxide of iron, Under which head it has been described. Spanish Brown Spanish Brown. Is an iron ore. dug out of the gr...
-Lac Gum
Lac Gum is a very singular compound, prepared by the female of a very minute insect, the Coccus lacca, found on some trees in the Last Indies, particularly the banyan fig. The insect is nourished by ...
-Kermes
Kermes. A kind of husk, or excrescence, resembling a berry, growing on an evergreen of the oak kind, Quercus Coccifera, of considerable use both in physic and dyeing. That which is sometimes called by...
-Cochineal
Cochineal is an animal substance, used by dyers, for giving red colours, especially crimsons and Scarlett. Cochineal belongs to a genus of insects, called Coccus, of which there are about fifty speci...
-Woad
Woad called also Glastum, arises from a seed sown annually, in the spring, which produces a plant called Isatis Tinctoria. It has usually three, four, or five crops of leaves every year, the first of...
-Turmeric
Turmeric. Is a medicinal root, used likewise by the dyers, to give a yellow colour. It is not unlike ginger, either in figure or size. It is yellow both externally and internally, and very hard. Madag...
-Sumac
Sumac. Of commerce, is the pulverized leaves and branches of a bushy tree, the Rhus.Coriaria, or elm-leaved sumach, which rises about ten feet high, is cultivated in Spain, Portugal, Sicily, and Pales...
-Annotto, Annatto, Or Arnatto
Annotto, Annatto, Or Arnatto. Is a kind of orange dye, brought from the West Indies. It is procured from the pulp of the seed-corpuscules, of a shrub called achiotte, the Bixa Orellana, Linnaeus, whic...
-Saffron
Saffron. A plant which produces a flower of the same name; whence also a drug called saffron or crocus is gathered. The root, which produces the saffron is a kind of bulb, or onion, covered with sever...
-Gamboge
Gamboge. Is a concrete vegetable juice, of a gummy nature. It is chiefly brought to us in large cakes or rolls, from Gamboja in the East Indies. The best sort is of a deep yellow or orange colour, bre...
-India Ink, Or Chinese Ink
India Ink, Or Chinese Ink. Is an admirable composition, in vain attempted to be imitated in Europe. It is not fluid like our writing ink; but solid like our mineral colours, though much lighter. They ...
-India Rubber, Or Elastic Resin
India Rubber, Or Elastic Resin. Is a substance produced from the syringe-tree of Cayenne and other parts of South America, and possessed of the most singular properties. No substance is yet known whic...
-Gems And Precious Stones
Gems And Precious Stones. Gem is a common name for all precious stones or jewels. ...
-The Diamond
The Diamond was by the ancients called Adamant. It is a precious stone, the first in rank, value, hardness, and lustre, of all gems. The goodness of diamonds consists in their water, or colour, lustr...
-Crystal, Quartz Or Rock Crystal
Crystal, Quartz Or Rock Crystal, is a transparent stone, white like a diamond, but much inferior in lustre and hardness. It is used for vases, urns, mirrors, etc. - The ancients knew little of its na...
-Ruby
Ruby is a red sparkling gem, of the first rank among precious stones. The ruby is found in Pegu and in Ceylon. There are rubies also found in Europe, particularly in Bohemia and Hungary, especially t...
-Emerald
Emerald is a precious stone, very green and transparent, in hardness next after the ruby There are two kinds, Oriental and Peruvian. - The oriental is harder, more brilliant, and transparent than the...
-Topaz
Topaz is the third order of gems after the diamond. It is transparent, and a beautiful yellow or gold colour, very hard, and takes a fine polish. It is found in the Indies, in Ethiopia, Arabia, Peru,...
-Chrysolite
Chrysolite is a precious stone of a dusky green colour, with a cast of yellow. The ancients gave this name to all precious stones, wherein the yellow or golden was the prevailing colour Two kinds are...
-Sapphire, Or Safphyr
Sapphire, Or Safphyr is a precious stone of an azure or beautiful sky-colour. It is transparent, yet so exceedingly hard, as scarcely to bear being engraven. The deepest blues are esteemed, males, and...
-Corundum
Corundum is of a greenish white, passing to flesh red, and is crystallized like sapphire. On account of its hardness, it has obtained the name of adamantine spar. It is found in Hindostan, not far fr...
-Garnet Or Granate
Garnet Or Granate is a gem or precious stone of a high red colour; thus called from the resemblance it bears to the kernel of a pomegranate. Garnets are either oriental or occidental: the first are f...
-Amethyst
Amethyst is of a violet colour, bordering on purple. Plutarch says the amethyst takes its name from its colour, which according to him resembles wine mixed with water. The ancients supposed it preven...
-Beryl
Beryl is a precious stone or gem, of a light or pale green colour, passing into blue and yellow. The beryl of the ancients is the same with what in latter times has been denominated aqua marina, on a...
-Agate Or Achat
Agate Or Achat is a precious stone, partly transparent, and partly opaque; usually diversified with a variety of colours, veins, spots, etc. sometimes exhibiting figures, or appearances of natural ob...
-Chalcedony
Chalcedony is a species of the flint genus; of which there are two kinds the common chalcedony and the Carnelian. The colour of the former is a nebulous milky grey, in all its shades. It is commonly ...
-Onyx
Onyx. A species of agate, is a precious stone, of a dark horny colour, resembling, as its name imports, the nail of a man's finger, in which is a plate of a bluish white, and sometimes of red; the sev...
-Jasper
Jasper is a sort of precious stone, chiefly opaque, but sometimes transparent in certain parts, not very different from agate. The florid jasper, found in the Pyrenees, is Usually stained with variou...
-Upal
Upal. Is a precious stone having the colours of the rainbow more or less lively, more or less effulgent, and changeable according to the different positions of the stone to the light. In it are seen t...
-Carnelian
Carnelian is a precious stone, ordinarily of a blood red, or bordering on orange. In many of its characters it nearly resembles the common chalcedony. It is but little transparent, cuts easily; and w...
-Hyacinth, Or Jacinth
Hyacinth, Or Jacinth. A precious stone, so called from its resemblance to the purple flower named hyacinth, or the violet, which is usually of a deep reddish yellow, approaching a flame colour, or the...
-Pearl
Pearl is a hard, white, shining body, usually roundish, found in a testaceous fish, resembling an oyster; and, although an animal production, it is usually ranked among the number of gems or precious...
-Waxen Flowers And Fruit
Waxen Flowers And Fruit. There are two methods in which to give instruction in this art. The first is, to instruct how to prepare the various materials, and then proceed to describe in detail the maki...
-Waxen Flowers And Fruit. Part 2
The four remaining leaves of the I series will require the application of yellow paint, which brings us to that department of our subject which refers to the application of colours - and which it will...
-Waxen Flowers And Fruit. Part 3
We now propose to gather a fuchsia, and to proceed, step by step, to its facsimile in wax. The first thing to be noticed is the general appearance of the plant There is a great variety ...
-Waxen Flowers And Fruit. Part 4
The four petals cut from the darkest shade of pink should be coloured in the manner already described, with a mixture of carmine and ultramarine applied on the dull side, and applied at th...
-Waxen Flowers And Fruit. Part 5
We now proceed to lay the foundation of the flower. Before doing so take note of the stiff appearance of the natural stalk, and the way in which the flower carries ...
-Physiological Facts
PhysioLogical Facts. The number of bones in the frame-work of a human body is 260, 108 of which are in the feet and hands, there being in each 27. The quantity of blood-in adults is, on an average, ab...
-Curious Calculation
Curious Calculation. Few persons have any idea of the space which would be occupied by the whole population now living on the face of the globe, if congregated together ; and as to that vast majority,...
-Lost Sacred Books
Lost Sacred Books. I. The Prophecy of Enoch. See Epistle to Jude, 14. II. The Book of the Wars of the Lord. See Num. xxi, 14. III. The Prophetical Gospel of Eve, which relates to the Amours of t...
-Scriptural Statistics
Scriptural Statistics. There are in the old Testament, 39 books, 929 chapters, 23,214 verses, 592,439 words, 3,728,100 letters. In the new. 57 books, 260 chapters, 7,959 verses, 181,252 words, 838,380...
-Deceptive Vision
Deceptive Vision. The following sleight, which we take from the MagiciAn's own Book, shows bow easily the eye may be deceived. Take a piece of pasteboard, an inch and a hair in width, and fire inches ...
-Coincidences
Coincidences. It has been remarked as a curious circumstance that Bonaparte and Wellington were horn in the same year, and that Burns and Hogg, the Scotch poets, were born on the 25th of January ; but...
-The World IX Epitome
The World IX Epitome. The number of languages spoken in the world amounts to 3.064 ; 687 in Europe ; 686 in Asia ; 276 in Africa, and 1,264 in America. The inhabitants of the globe profess more than 1...
-Remarkable Works Of Human Labor
Remarkable Works Of Human Labor, Nineveh was 14 miles long,8 miles wide, and 40 miles round, with a wall 100 feet high, and thick enough for three chariots abreast. Babylon was 56 miles within the wal...
-Inventions And Discoveries
Inventions And Discoveries. The following are the dates of some of the most important inventions and discoveries : Glass windows, first used, 1189 : chimneys in houses, 1226 ; leaden pipes for conveyi...
-Rivers And Oceans
Rivers And Oceans. The basin of the Thames covers 5,500 square miles ; of the Rhine. 89,000; Euphrates and Tigris, 243,000 ; Brahma Pootra, 270,000; Nile, 707,000; Danube, 312,500; Indus, 410,000; Gan...
-Growth Of American Cities
Growth Of American Cities. Boston was trying to grow nearly 100 years before it attained a population of 10,000. Albany was 200 years. New York was 130 years. Philadelphia, settled 60 or 70 years late...
-Geographical Origine
Geographical Origine. The Alps take their name from the snows with which their summits are continually covered, the Sabine word Alpum signifying the same as the Latin word, Album, white. France is so ...
-The Bowie Knife
The Bowie Knife. This famous weapon received its name from Colonel James Bowie, by whom it was invented. Colonel Bowie distinguished himself in the war of Independence in Texas. He showed great braver...
-An Old Book
An Old Book. The oldest book known to be extant is an edition of the Psalms, in Latin, printed in 1457, which is now 400 years old. ...
-Stones
Stones. Stone is a general term for all hard, brittle, or insoluble bodies. Having spoken of Precious Stones, we have now to notice the more common kinds; as Marble, Porphyry, Alabaster. Portland ston...
-Marble
Marble. Is a valuable stone, formed by the union of earth of lime, with carbonic acid, or in the modern Language of mineralogy, is carbonated lime, found in great masses and dug out of pits or quarrie...
-Porphyry
Porphyry. Belongs to that class of minerals, which, occurring in great masses, mineralogists have considered as properly designated by the general term rock: a precious kind of stone or marble. It is ...
-Serpentine
Serpentine. Is one of the primitive rocks, and although most commonly of a green colour, deviating sometimes into various shades of red, it is often confounded with porphyry. There are two varieties o...
-Granite
Granite. Is an aggregated rock, which generally forms the most elevated parts of lofty chains of mountains. It is white or red, and is composed of quartz, felspar, and mica, of the latter in the least...
-Flint Or Silex (
Flint Or Silex ( silica is the appellation of the simple earth). Is commonly of a gray colour, varying from ash gray to grayish black and brownish red ; it occurs generally in roundish masses of no gr...
-Mill-Stones
Mill-Stones are chiefly composed of quarts and felspar, the latter in small particles, with a little mica ; they are very hard, not susceptible of a polish, and by their numerous unequal angular prom...
-Alabaster, Or Compact Gypsum
Alabaster, Or Compact Gypsum. Is a well known mineral, used by architects, statuaries, plasterers, and others. It is a sulphate of lime, of which plaster of Paris is a coarse variety. There are three ...
-Florence,
Florence, still illuminated by alabaster windows ; instead of panes of glass there are slabs of alabaster near fifteen feet high, each of which forms a single window, through which the light is conve...
-Freestone Or Sandstone
Freestone Or Sandstone. That dug in the peninsula of Portland, and thence called Portland stone, is much used, being softer and whiter than Purbec stone, and is commonly raised out of quarries in bigg...
-Slate
Slate. Is a blue fossil, very soft when dug out of the quarry, and is easily cleft, cut, or sawed into thin long squares, to serve in lieu of tiles, for the covering of houses. Sometimes also it is us...
-Pumice-Stone
Pumice-Stone. Is a kind of spongy fibrous stone, very porous and friable, found in the ashes of most volcanoes. Dr. Woodward considers pumice as only a sort of slag or cinder; and affirms it is only f...
-Hone
Hone. A fine sort of whetstone, whereon to set a razor or penknife. It is of a yellowish colour; according to some accounts, it is holly-wood petrified, or changed into stone, by 1ying in the water fo...
-Rabbits
Rabbit House. The first and most important matter is to have a good dry house or shed, in which the animals call be well protected from damp weather. Too Much moisture is as fatal to rabbits as it is ...
-Rabbits. Part 2
Feeding Rabbits Feeding. It is best to feed rabbits three, or even four times a-day, because when they are fed only twice during that time, a larger quantity of food must be given at each feeding, ...
-Oil Painting
Painting (Oil). - We begin by supposing that you can draw - at least, that you can make a straight line (which, indeed, not everyone can do) - and, that you can, either from a fair knowledge of perspe...
-Oil Painting. Second Article
The palette must be prepared for use by rubbing into it as much raw linseed oil as it will absorb; repeat this for two or three days, and then rub it dry with a rag. It will now have a fine polished s...
-Oil Painting. Second Article. Continued
Paint in the sky first with a flat. sable brush, not overloaded with colour, and rub it well in, so as to have no thick patches of colour on the board - soften with a hog's-hairtool. The distance must...
-Oil Painting. Third Article
As Landscape Painting is one of the most favourite branches of the art, so it is one of the easiest; for, while keeping the general outline of a view, We can allow ourselves much latitude in details; ...
-Backgammon
Backgammon. Backgammon is the modern name of a game of considerable antiquity in England, where it was formerly known by the appellation of the tables. The words back-gammon have been ascribed to th...
-Rolling Blinds
Rolling Blinds. There is often a great difficulty in making a blind roll nicely after it has been washed : this difficulty may be effectually obviated by attending to the following directions: - Be ca...
-Roman Names Of Days Of The Week
Days Of The Week (Roman Names Of). Sunday was called Dies Solis, or the Sun's day; Monday, Dies Lunae or the Moon's day ; Tuesday, Dies Martis, or Mar's day; Wednesday, Dies Mercurii, or Mercury's day...
-Bandages
Bandages. There is not a more important art connected with household surgery than that of bandaging. To do it well requires much practice and no little judgment ; even hospital dressers are not always...
-Kali. Alkali
Kali and Alkali. These words had originally a similar meaning. The latter term is now applied to a class of bodies having peculiar properties, whilst the term kali is mostly confined to potash, the mo...
-Hieroglyphics
Hieroglyphics. Hieroglyphics consist in certain symbols which are made to stand for invisible objects, on account of some analogy which such symbols were supposed to bear to the objects. Egypt was the...
-How To Clean Microscope Glasses
Microscope Glasses (To Clean). When you clean the eye-glasses, do not remove more than one at a time, and be sure to replace it before you begin another; by this means you will be sure to preserve the...
-Phonography
Phonography. Phonography includes every- method of writing by signs that represent the sounds of the language. It differs from stenography in this respect: - Stenography uses characters to represent w...
-Range Of The Human Voice
Voice, Human (Range Of The). The range of the human voice is quite astounding, - there being about 9 perfect tones, but 17,592,186,044,515 different sounds; thus 14 direct muscles, alone, or together,...
-Pinchbeck
Pinchbeck. This alloy derives its name from being brought into notice by a person of the name of Pinchbeck. It may be made by combining three parts of zinc with four of copper. It was formerly used to...
-Medicines (Aperient)
Medicines (Aperient). Spring Aperients. For children, nothing is better than: - 1. Brimstone and treacle; to each tea-cupful of this, when mixed, add a tea-spoonful of cream of tartar. As this sometim...
-Aquaria (Parlour)
Aquaria (Parlour).*An Aquarium is a collection of aquatic plants and animals placed in conditions as nearly natural as possible, so as to afford at all times a view of their modes of growth and reprod...
-Aquaria (Parlour). Continued
As a domestic ornament, combining instruction with a novel kind of recreation, the fresh-water aquarium has already taken precedence of the marine, and will doubtless keep it. The marine tank is certa...
-Figs
Figs. (Latin, Ficus) The fruit of the Ficus Carica, winch comes to perfection chiefly in hot climates; the pulp is whole-some, and somewhat aperient, but the tough skin is indigestible, and should not...
-Filberts
Filberts. The fruit of a variety of the Corylus Avellura. The term was originally applied to all nuts with very long husks; but of late the varieties have become so numerous, that this distinction has...
-Draughts Game
Draughts. Draughts is a game with a checkered board and men, of much less antiquity than chess, and is perhaps to be considered a degenerate descendant of that noble sport. In France, it is called les...
-Whist Game
Whist. All games at cards, in our opinion, are insignificant in comparison with whist. The whole structure of the game is ingenious, and a result of just calculation. Its rules have all been carefully...
-Playing the Whist Game
The cards being all dealt, each takes up his hand, which he must scrupulously prevent any of his antagonists, or his partner from seeing. The cards should be ranged like a fan in the left hand, so tha...
-Whist Game Rules
Rules For Playing If a person plays out of his proper turn, or shows a card, it is in the option of either of his adversaries to call that card ; that is, cause him to lay it down at any time in th...
-Chromatype
Chromatype. This is a new process of photography, and consists in washing good letter paper with the following solution : Bichromate of potash, 10 grains; sulphate of copper, 20 grains; distilled wate...
-Utility Of Weeds
Weeds (Utility Of). Many plants we term weeds, have valuable medical qualities, and some may be applied to use-ful purposes, so as to pay something towards the expense of clearing them from the ground...
-Health Statistics
Health Statistics. It appears from De Bow's monthly statistics, that the population of the United States are the healthiest on the globe. The deaths are three hundred and twenty thousand per year, or ...
-Magnitude
Magnitude. Magnitude cannot be explained by definition. As Dr. Lardner observes, there is no magnitude so great, that we cannot conceive a greater, and none so small, that we cannot conceive a smaller...
-Scratching Out Ink Marks
Scratching Out Ink Marks, Persons who have not penknives always in a good order for scratching out ink marks, will find a piece of fine sand or glass-paper do just as well. ...
-How To Preserve Nursery Pictures
Nursery Pictures (To Preserve). Pictures are an almost endless source of amusement to children, and as a great variety may now be had at a trilling cost, there are but few families where some are not ...
-Ring Fast On The Finger
Ring Fast On The Finger. When this occurs, the use of cold water to the finger and hand - the hand and arm being elevated at the same time - may cause sufficient shrinking to permit of the removal; if...
-Silver Spoons
Silver Spoons. To remove the stains on spoons caused by using them for boiled eggs, take a little common salt between the thumb and finger, and briskly rub the stain which will soon disappear. ...
-Shoes
Shoes. Whenever shoes or boots are taken from the feet, it would greatly preserve the upper leather from cracking, if the wearer was to bend back the sole of the shoe on the knee, or the back of a cha...
-Flea
Flea. We give a cut of this troublesome parasitic insect, although probably, most of our readers are but too well aware of its form ; for it is ore of our commonest household nuisances; we have it her...
-Smoky Chimneys
Chimneys (Smoky). A chimney which smokes at the wrong end is a great nuisance ; a cause of discomfort, vexation, and annoyance to all who are forced to live near it; and it is not surprising that very...
-Smoky Chimneys. Continued
Figure 3 represents the ground plan of the fire-place in figure 1; but instead of square, it is to have sloping sides, and is to be filled up as in figure 4. To do this according to rule, a line A, B,...
-On Proper Taste In Dress
Dress (On Proper Taste In). There are many people who do not know that in order to dress well, they must follow certain rules, and pay attention to certain laws, and that it is not a mere question of ...
-On Proper Taste In Dress. Continued
Whose red and white Nature's own sweet and cunning hand laid on. been arrayed in a light blue, a light green, or in a ransparent white bonnet, with blue or pink flowers on the inside, how different...
-Cribbage
Cribbage. This game is played with the whole pack of cards, and by two, three, or four persons, as the case may be. When there are three, they play as individuals; when four, two play as partners, as ...
-Regulations For Playing Cribbage
Regulations For Playing. 1. In dealing, the dealer may discover his own cards, if he pleases, but not those of his adversary. If he does, that adversary is entitled to mark two points, and call a fres...
-Cribbage (Five-Card)
Cribbage (Five-Card). Proper crib-bage is played with five cards, and we shall give a description of it in reference to two persons. After the dealer has been determined by cutting, as in whist, th...
-Cribbage (Three And Four Hand)
Cribbage (Three And Four Hand). Three and four hand cribbage diners only from two hand, in as far as the parties only put out one card each to the crib ; and when thirty-one, or as nearly as can be, h...
-Cribbage (Six-Card)
Cribbage (Six-Card). Six-card cribbage bears so great a resemblance to five-card, that any one playing the - one well must play the other equally so. It consists if pairs, fifteens, sequences, flushes...
-Pyramids
Pyramids. Solids, which decrease gradually from the base, till they come to a point, are called pyramids, They are of different kinds, according to the figure of their bases. If the pyramid has a squa...
-Bagatelle
Bagatelle. The large and inconvenient size of billiard-tables has led to the introduction of bagatelle-tables - bagatelle being the French word for anything trifling. A bagatelle-table is usually abou...
-The Stereoscope
The Stereoscope. The name Stereoscope, from the Greek words stereos, solid, and skopein, to see, has been given to an instrument of recent invention, for exhibiting in true relief and apparent solidit...
-The Stereoscope. Continued
The important subject of which we are treating has been discussed by Aguilonius with singular ingenuity ; and his observa-tions are so interesting, that we shall give them in his own worus. Whe...
-Police
Police. The objects of a police force are, first, the prevention of crime ; second, its detection; third, the apprehension and punishment of offenders; and it is especially their duty to impress the m...
-Billiards
Billiards. This elegant sport may be said to combine the principles of bowls, golf and some other games in which objects are impelled from the hand. Whether the game was invented in France or England ...









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