Table III gives the various dimensions of wrought-iron pipe. In using pipe of this kind, it is well to allow something in size for possible choking by rust or sediment. While galvanized pipe does not rust, for a time at least, there is likely to be a roughness which causes an accumulation of more or less sediment.

TABLE IV.

Lead Pipe.

Internal diameter.

External diameter.

Thickness.

Weight per foot.

Mean bursting pressure (pounds per square inch).

Safe working pressure.

3/8

.75

.18

1 lb. 12 oz.

1968

492

3/8

.55

.087

10

1085

271

1/2

1.00

.25

3

1787

446

1/2

.63

.065

10

625

156

5/8

1.10

.23

3 8

1548

387

5/8

.84

.10

1 4

708

177

3/4

1.33

.29

4 14

1462

365

1

.93

.09

1 3

505

126

1

1.60

.30

6

1230

307

1

1.18

.09

1 8

325

81

1 1/4

1.80

.275

6 12

962

240

1 1/4

1.44

.095

2

322

80

1 1/2

2.08

.29

8

742

185

1 1/2

1.74

.12

3

245

61

1 3/4

2.12

.19

5

460

116

1 3/4

2.0

.125

3 10

318

79

2

2.60

.30

10 11

611

152

2

2.18

.09

4

200

50

Iron pipe having a lining of tin 1/16 inch or more in thickness is now manufactured, but being a comparatively new product, its wearing qualities have not yet been thoroughly tested.

Lead Pipe is the best and most widely used for domestic water supply. Although poisonous under certain conditions, as when new and bright and when used with very pure water, it usually becomes coated with a scale which makes it practically harmless. It is more costly than iron pipe, and requires more skill in laying and making up the joints. It is less likely to burst from the action of frost, as it is a soft metal and stretches with the expansion of the ice in the pipe. When it does break under pressure it generally occurs in small holes not over an inch long, which are easily repaired without removing any part of the pipe, while in the case of iron pipe the cracks generally extend the entire length of the section in which the water is frozen and new pipe will be require. Lead pipe is commonly made in six different thicknesses or weights, designated as AAA, AA, A, B, C and D, in which AAA is the heaviest and D the lightest. Table IV gives the principal properties of the heaviest and lightest weight for lead pipe of different diameters.

Table V. Tin-lined Lead Pipe

Internal diameter.

A A A Weight per foot.

AA

Weight per foot.

A Weight per foot.

B Weight per foot.

C Weight per foot.

Weight per foot.

D light Weight per foot.

E Weight per foot.

E light Weight per foot.

lb. oz.

lb. oz. lb. oz.

lb. oz.

lb. oz.

lb. oz.

lb. oz.

lb. oz.

lb.oz.

3/8

1 8

1 5

1 2

1 0

0 13

0 10

0 8

1/2

3 0

2 0

1 12

1 4

1 0

0 13

0 11

0 9

5/8

3 8

2 12

2 8

2 0

1 12

1 8

1 4

1 0

0 12

3/4

4 8

3 8

3 0

2 4

2 0

1 12

1 8

1 4

1 0

1

6 0

4 12

4 0

3 4

2 8

2 0

1 8

1 1/4

6 12

5 12

4 12

3 12

3 0

2 8

2 0

1 1/2

9 0

8 0

6 4

5 0

4 4

3 8

3 4

2

10 12

9 0

7 0

6 0

5 4

4 0

Tin-lined lead pipe is used to some extent for conveying water for domestic purposes. The principal objection to this pipe lies in the difficulty experienced in making the joints. Tin melts at a considerably lower temperature than lead, so that in making wipe joints it is likely to melt before the lead and block up the passage through the pipe. Another objection is due to the fact that the tin lining and the outer lead covering are simply pressed together, and it often happens that in bending the pipe the lining pulls away from the lead, thus both obstructing and weakening the pipe. When used for hot water, the uneven expansion of the two metals may separate the two layers, and so cause the same difficulties already mentioned.

Table V gives some of the properties of tin-lined lead pipe.

Hydraulics Of Plumbing Continued 1000295

Fig. 1.

Hydraulics Of Plumbing Continued 1000296

Fig. 2.

The strength of tin-lined pipe is about the same as that of lead pipe, the greater strength of the tin being offset by the lighter weight of the pipe made in this way.

Brass Pipe

Brass is one of the best materials for hot-water pipes, and should be used where the cost is not the controlling feature. It is commonly employed for connecting pumps and boilers and for the steam-heating coils inside laundry-water heaters. It is often used for the connections between the kitchen hot-water tank and range, and when nickel plated is extensively employed in connection with bathroom fixtures. The sizes and thicknesses are approximately the same as wrought-iron pipe.

ITALIAN MARBLE KITCHEN SINK.

ITALIAN MARBLE KITCHEN SINK.

The Federal Company.