Gathering with a Shell Edge.

This sort of gathering is used generally on light-weight silk or woolen materials, and takes the place of a separate trimming at the top of a ruffle.

A narrow ribbon gathered in this way will make a very pretty trimming for children's dresses.

Match carefully the sewing silk or thread used, and guard against the forming of knots in the gathering thread.

Materials. - The materials required are: A piece of challis, or other soft woolen material, eighteen

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ILL. 49. - Gathering Forming a Shell Edge.

inches long and six inches wide; sewing silk or thread to match; "sharp" needles; pencil and ruler or tape measure.

1.   Turn down the top edge of the ruffle one inch on the wrong side.

2.   Baste it close to the edge with uneven basting.

3.   On the wrong side, beginning at the right-hand end, mark the top edge of the fold at every inch and a half with French chalk or pencil.

4.   Three-fourths of an inch below the top edge, and beginning three-fourths of an inch from the right-hand end, make another row of dots one and a half inches apart. These dots must alternate with those of the upper row.

5.   Begin with a small knot and several backstitches. (This knot should be hid under the turned edge if possible.)

G. Gather with small running stitches from dot to dot. 7. Keep drawing the thread as you gather. See Illustration No. 49.

Shirring.*

Shirring is done by making any desired number of rows of running stitches parallel with each other. This is sometimes done by running a very fine cord in a tuck and drawing the cord.

Materials. - The materials required are: A piece of material eighteen inches long and eight inches wide; "sharp" needles; scissors; cotton; tape measure.

1.   Begin with a small knot and backstitch.

2.   Decide on the number of rows wanted and the distance apart of the gathering to be made.

3.   Gather from right to left, keeping the rows parallel.

5. Instead of gathering one row at a time, the entire number of rows may be begun and carried on simultaneously. See Illustration No. 50.

Note. - Mark the line for shirring with uneven basting if necessary.

*Advanced work.

Whipping a Ruffle.*

Whipping is used only in gathering very fine and sheer fabrics.

Materials. - The materials required are: A strip of fine cambric or lawn eighteen inches long and five inches wide; a piece of similar material hemmed; cotton; "sharp" needles; scissors; tape measure.

1. Hem the ends and bottom of the ruffle.

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ILL. 50. - Shirring.

2.   Mark by cross-stitches at the half and quarter lengths.

3.   Roll the edge. Follow the directions given for rolling the hem in the chapter on hemming.

4.  Use a small knot and single thread.

5.  Whip the edge as it is rolled, drawing the thread as -every two inches are whipped.

*Advanced work.

Sewing the Ruffle to the Garment.

1.   Place the wrong side of the ruffle to the wrong side of the garment.

2.   Pin the middle of the ruffle to the middle of the hem and quarter to quarter.

3.   Draw up the ruffle the required length and wind the thread around a pin.

4.   Hold the ruffle towards you and overseam with very fine stitches. See Illustration No. 51.

Note. - Many persons prefer reversing the position of the needle in whipping a ruffle, that is, slanting the needle from the top down instead of from the underneath up.

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ILL. 51. - Overseaming a Whipped Ruffle to a Garment.

Pitting.* Plaiting is used where there is a large amount of material which should be brought into small compass and kept flat.

*Advanced work.

Fashion often requires its use in ruffles, and in bringing the fullness in the back of a skirt into the band.

In many materials, it is necessary to baste the plaited ruffle in two or three places and press it on the wrong side.

Plaits can be lapped if it is necessary to bring a large amount of material into a very small space, as in the back of a skirt.

They may be turned either to the right or to the left. Box plaiting is made by beginning at the centre and laying a plait to the right and another to the left; double box plaiting is made by laying additional side plaits.

A ruching or rose quilling may be made by cutting the material any desired width, on the bias, and plaiting it with a double box plait through the centre.

MateRIals.—The materials required for this lesson are: A piece of material representing a ruffle, eighteen inches long and five inches wide. The material must be three times the length desired when finished: "sharp" needles; cotton; scissors; tape measure.

1.   Place the material on the desk, with the right side up.

2.  Lay a plait in the material one-half inch deep. This makes three layers of material, each one-half an inch wide - the two parts of the plait and the material on which it rests.

3.  Make a second plait in the material one-half inch deep, bringing it exactly to the underfold of the first plait. See Illustration No. 52.

4.  Continue laying the plaits in similar manner.

5.  Baste with even basting close to the top edge.

6.   Baste in the centre and lower edge if the material requires it.

7.   Press carefully on the wrong side before taking out the bastings.

8.   It is often necessary to tack the plaiting on the wrong side to keep it in shape and to prevent it from flaring; this may be done by using a heavy thread or tacking a line of tape to each plait; these stitches must not show on the right side.

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ILL. 52. - Plaiting. 87