Herbs, shrubs, or trees. Leaves alternate, usually compound, margins entire. Stipules 2, at the tumid base of the petiole. Stipels commonly 2, Sepals 5, more or less united, often unequal, the odd one always anterior. Petals 5, either papilionaceous or regular, perigynous, the odd one (when present) posterior. Stamens diadelphous, monadelphous or distinct. Anthers versatile. Ova superior, single and simple. Style and stigma simple. Fr. a legume, either continuous (1-celled), or (a loment), joined into 1-seeded cells. Sds. solitary or several, destitute of albumen. Illust in figs. 99, 159,160, 161, 164, 165,177, 180, 131, 184, 806, 316, 317, 363, 445, 446, 466.

The genera and species of this vast order were estimated by Mr. Bentham in 1845, as follows;

Suborder

1.

Papilionaceae,

350

genera,

4800

species.

"

•2..

Caesalpineae,

88

"

700

"

"

4.

Mimoseae,

29

"

1000

it

"

Total,

467

"

6500

Geography. - The Leguminosae are distributed throughout all lands, with the exception of a few unimportant islands, from the equator to the frigid zones. Of its 6500 species now known about 350 are natives of the United States and Territories.

Properties. - No family of the vegetable kingdom possesses a higher claim to the attention of the naturalist than the Leguminosae, whether we regard them as objects of ornament or utility. • Of the former, we might mention the splendid varieties of Cercis, with their purple flowers, the Acacias, with their airy foliage and silken stamens, the Pride of India. Colutea and Caesalpina, with a host of others, which, like the Sweet Pea, are redolent with perfume. Of the latter, the beans, peas, lentils, clover and lucerne, are too well known to require recommendation. Among timber trees, the Rosewood (a Brazilian species of Mimosa), the Laburnum, whose wood is durable and of an olive-green color, and the Locust of our own country are preeminent.

The following are a few of the important officinal products of this order. In medicine; liquorice is the product of the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra of S. Europe. The purgative senna consists of leaves of Cassia Senna, C. acutifolia, C. AEthiopica, and other species of Egypt and Arabia. C. Marilandica is also a cathartic, but more mild than the former. The sweet pulp tamarind, is the product of a large and beautiful tree (Tamarindus Indica) of the E. and W. Indies. Resins and Balsams: Gum Senegal is yielded by Acacia Verek of the River Senegal; Gum Arabic, by several species of Acacia of Central Africa; Gum Tragacanth, by Astragalus vertis, Ac, Persia. Balsam Copaiva is the product of several species of Copaifera. natives of Brazil and W. Indies; Balsam Tolu of Myospermnm toluifernum of Peru, and Balsam Peru of M. peruiferum of the same country. Dyes, etc.: Indigo, the most valuable of all (but a violent poison), is the product of several southern species of Indigofera, as I. anil of the W. Indies, and I. argentea of Egypt. Brazil-wood from Ca?salpina Braziliensis. Log-wood from Haematoxylon Campeachianum, of Campeachy, and Red Sandal-wood from Pterocarpus santalinus of Egypt, etc, etc.

SUBORDERS, TRIBES AND GENERA.

§

Corolla valvate in aestivation, regular. Flowers in dense heads or spikes.

Leaves twice pinnate..................................................

SUBORDER II.

(a)

§

Corolla imbricate in aestivation, the upper or odd petal interior or the flower subregular...........................................................................

Suborder II.

(b)

§

Corolla imbricate in aestivation, the upper petal (vexillum) exterior

Flowers papilionaceous.....................................................

Suborder III.

(*)

* Stamens 10, all distinct Tribe 1. (c)

* Stamens 10, all or 9 united (2)

2 Leaves cirrhous, the rachis ending with a tendril. Tribe 2. (d)

2 Leaves not cirrhous. (3)

3 Pod a loment (§573), of transverse, 1-seeded joints. Tribe 8. (e)

3 Pod a legume 1 - 2 - ∞-seeded, not in joints. (4)

4 Erect (or, if prostrate, with palmately 3-foliate leaves). Cotyledons thin, becoming leafy in germination. Tribe 4. (f)

4 Trailing or twining vines with pinnately compound leaves. Cotyledons thick, not becoming leaves in germination. Tribe 5. (g)

Suborder I. MIMOSEAE.

a Pods flat, composed of one or more 1-seeded joints.................................

.... MIMOSA. 1

a Pods continuous, - prickly, 4-sided and 4-valved.................................

. .SCHRANKIA. 2

- smooth, - turgid, filled with pulp.................................

.. Vachellia. 3

- compressed, dry, - Fls. all perfect............

Desmanthus. 4

- Fls. polygamous..................

....ACACIA 5

Suborder II. CAESALPINEAE.

b Fls. dioeceons, greenish, stamens 10. A tree unarmed.................

GYMNOCLADUS. 6

b Fls. polygamous, green, stamens 5. Trees thorny......................

Gleditschia. 7

b Fls. perfect, - yellow. - Leaves equally pinnate.............................

....CASSIA 8

- purple, papilionaceous. Leaves simple.......................

...CERCIS 9

Suborder III. PAPILIONACEAE.

C 1 PODALYRIEAE. - Legume flat and thin, short-stiped. Lvs. pinnate......

Cladastris. 10

-Legume inflated, stlpitate. Lvs. palmately 1 - 3-foliate.....

....PAPETSIA. 11

d 2. Vicieae. - Erect. Tendrils obsolete. Seeds with the linear hilum at end........Faba. 12

- Climbing. - Leaflets serrate. Pods 2-seeded___.....................Cicer. 13

- Leaflets entire. - Style grooved outside, hairy inside......Pisum. 14

-Style flattened, hairy most inside.. ..Lathyrus. 15

- Style filiform, hairy most outside.........Vicia. 16 e 3. Hedysareae

- Fls. yellow. - Leaves palmately 4-foliate. Stam. monadelph.................Zornia. 17

- Leaves pinnate, 7 to 49-foliate. Stam. diadelphous.. .AEschynomene. 18

- Leaves pinnately 3-foliate. Pod slender at base........Stylosanthes. 19

- Leaves pinnately 4-foliate. Pod gibbous at base.............Araciiis. 20

- Fls. cyanic. - Lvs. pinnate, 5 to 21-foliate. - Umbels pedunculate..........Coronilla. 21

- Racemes pedunculate........Hedysarum. 22

- Lvs. pinnately 3-foliate,-stipellate. Pod 3 to 7-jointed....Desmodium. 23 - exstipellate. Pod 1-jointed......Lespedeza. 24