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On British Wild Flowers Considered In Relation To Insects | by John Lubbock



It is not without much diffidence that I venture on the present publication. For though as an entomologist I have necessarily been long familiar with our common wild plants, I had made no serious study of Botany until recent researches brought prominently before us the intimate relations which exist between flowers and insects. My observations and notes on this subject were originally prepared with the view of encouraging in my children that love of natural history from which I myself have derived so much happiness, but it was suggested to me that a little book such as the present might perhaps be of use to others also.

TitleOn British Wild Flowers Considered In Relation To Insects
AuthorJohn Lubbock
PublisherMacmillan And Co.
Year1890
Copyright1890, John Lubbock
AmazonNature Series On British Wild Flowers Considered In Relation To Insects

Nature Series On British Wild Flowers Considered In Relation To Insects

Nature Series

By Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., F.R.S., D.C.L., LL.D, Principal Of The Working Men's College; President Of The London Chamber Of Commerce; And Vice-Chairman Of The London County Council

With Numerous Illustrations

-Preface
It is not without much diffidence that I venture on the present publication. For though as an entomologist I have necessarily been long familiar with our common wild plants, I had made no serious stud...
-Glossary
Anemophilous (p. 9) plants are those in which the pollen is carried to the stigma by the wind. Anther, that portion of the stamen which contains the pollen. Calyx (p. 27), the outer whorl of the flow...
-Chapter I. Introduction
The flowers of our gardens differ much in size and colour from those of the same species growing wild in their native woods and fields: this is due partly to cultivation, but still more to the careful...
-Introduction. Part 2
If it be objected that I am assuming the existence of these gradual modifications, I must reply that it is not here my purpose to discuss the doctrine of Natural Selection. I may, however, remind the ...
-Introduction. Part 3
Figs. 1 to 6, taken from Axell's work, illustrate this difference. In the alder (Fig. 1), the hop (Fig. 2), and wheat (Fig. 3), the pollen is wind-borne, whence they have been termed by Delpino anemo...
-Introduction. Part 4
Belt and Delpino have, I think, suggested the true function of these extra floral nectaries. The former of these excellent observers describes a South American species of acacia: this tree, if unprote...
-Introduction. Part 5
Panurgus (Fig. 17), Halictoides (Fig. 18), and Chelos-toma (Fig. 19), we see various stages in the elongation of the lower lip, until at length it reaches the remarkable and extreme form which it now ...
-Introduction. Part 6
Fig. 27. - Right hind-leg of Bombus Scrimshiranus. Fig. 28. - Right hind-leg of Hive-bee. It is difficult to account for the relations which exist between flowers and insects, by the hypothesis of...
-Chapter II. The Structure And Modifications Of Flowers
I Now pass to the structure and modifications of flowers. A complete flower consists of (I) an outer envelope or calyx, sometimes tubular, sometimes consisting of separate leaves called sepals; (2) an...
-The Structure And Modifications Of Flowers. Part 2
As already mentioned, there are three principal modes in which self-fertilisation is prevented. Firstly, by the stamens and pistil being situated in different flowers, either on the same plant, or, mo...
-The Structure And Modifications Of Flowers. Part 3
Here it is at once obvious that insects alighting on the younger (male) flowers would dust themselves with pollen, some of which, if they subsequently alighted on an older flower, they could not fail ...
-The Structure And Modifications Of Flowers. Part 4
There are other points in which the two forms differ from one another; for instance, the stigma of the long-styled form is globular and rough, while that of the short-styled is smoother, and somewhat ...
-The Structure And Modifications Of Flowers. Part 5
According to D. Miiller(Bot.Zeit, 1857) the pollen of the small flowers of Viola elatoir and V. lancifolia is minute and round. Herr von Mohl, however, found no difference between the pollen of the ...
-Chapter III. Dicotyledons
Thalamiflorae In the preceding chapters I have endeavoured to give a general sketch of the relations existing between flowers and insects. I shall now proceed to describe particular instances more in...
-Ranunculaceae
This order contains fourteen British genera, including the Clematis, Ranunculus (Buttercup), Anemone, Columbine, Hellebore, Larkspur, Paeony, etc. In the Buttercup (Ranunculus acris), the anthers com...
-Dicotyledons. Part 3
Berberideae The common Berberry is the only British representative of this order, though Epimedium alpinum has by some been considered to be indigenous; as Mr. Bentham thinks, on insufficient grounds...
-Fumariaceae
This natural order contains only two British genera, Fumaria and Corydalis. The flowers of Fumaria have not yet, I think, been satisfactorily explained. Their form and arrangement are very singular, b...
-Dicotyledons. Part 4
Cruciferae The Wallflower, Stock, Cabbage, Shepherd's Purse, Watercress, etc, belong to this group. The Cruciferae are easily distinguished from other orders by their four sepals and petals, and six...
-Violaceae
This order is limited in Europe to the single genus Viola, of which we have, according to Bentham, five English species. Besides the showy, coloured flowers with which we are all familiar, most of the...
-Dicotyledons. Part 5
Polygalaceae This order contains, according to Bentham, but one British species, which, however, is very common, the Milkwort (Polygala vulgaris)) Fig. 59. The structure of the flower is curious, and...
-Caryophyllaceae
This is a large family and contains fourteen British genera; Dianthus (the wild Pink), Saponaria, Silene, Lychnis (Fig. 50), Sagina, Cherleria, Arenaria, Maenchia, Holosteum, Cerastium, Stellaria (Fig...
-Linaceae
This order contains two British genera, Linum, and Radiola; the former is the well-known flax, the latter a minute erect annual, which grows on heaths and sandy places. The genus Linum contains five B...
-Geraniaceae
This order contains four British genera; Geranium, Erodium, Oxalis, and Impatiens. The genus Geranium possesses a peculiar interest in the history of the present subject, because, as Sprengel tells u...
-Chapter IV. Calyciflorae
This subclass contains those Dicotyledons in which the perianth is double, the petals separate, and the stamens either perigynous or epigynous. Celastraceae This order contains one British species, ...
-Calyciflorae. Part 2
Fig. 72. - Flower of Sweet Pea, in its natural position. Fig. 73. - Ditto. The wings are depressed, the stamens and pistil exposed. In the Sweet Pea (Figs. 72 and 73 on account of its larger siz...
-Calyciflorae. Part 3
In the Broom (Sarothamnus scoparius) the flowers also explode. If, however, the bee alights on a newly-opened blossom, the shorter stamens only emerge and dust the abdomen of the insect. If, on the co...
-Calyciflorae. Rosaceae
This order contains seventeen British genera, including Prunus (the Cherry, &c), Spiraea, Geum, Rubus (Blackberry, &c), Fragaria (Strawberry), Potentilla, Alchemilla, Sanguisorba, Poterium, Agrimonia,...
-Onagraceae
This order contains six English genera, Epilobium nothera, Ludwigia, Circaea, Myriophyllum, and Hippuris. The instructive differences which exist between the different species of Epilobium have...
-Lythrarieae
This order contains two British genera, Lythrum and Peplis, the former of which is of peculiar interest and has been already alluded to in the opening chapter (ante p. 40). Lythrum salicaria (Fig. 77...
-Calyciflorae. Part 4
Cucurbitaceae Of this order we have only a single species, the common Bryony (Bryonia dioicd). The flowers are dioecious, the males in small clusters, pale yellow, about half an inch in diameter; the...
-Saxifragaceae
An extensive order, ranging nearly over the whole world, but represented in Britain by only four genera, Saxifraga, Parnassia, Drosera, and Chrysosplenium. The species of the genus Saxifraga are mell...
-Umbelliferae
This is a very extensive order, containing no less than thirty-seven British genera (Carrot, Chervil, Parsley, Parsnip, etc.) and a very large number of species. The plants belonging to this group pos...
-Tabular View Of The Insects Visiting Some Of The Commonest Species Of Composites And Umbellifers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Whole number of species observed to visit the flowers. No. of Lepidoptera (Butterflies and Moths). No. of A...
-Chapter V. Corolliflorae
This subclass contains those dicotyledons in which the petals are united together, at least at the base. Caprifoliaceae This order, which contains five British genera, Adoxa, Sambucus, Viburnum, Lon...
-Compositae
This great group contains no less than forty British genera, and a very large number of species. It comprises the Daisy (Bellis), Dandelion (Taraxacum), Groundsel (Senecio), Chrysanthemum, Thistle (Ca...
-Compositae. Continued
In Chrysanthemum leucanthemum according to Muller, the pistil of the ray florets possesses a terminal brush, which, however, is much less developed than in the disk florets. Matricaria camomilla agree...
-Dipsaceae
There are two British genera belonging to this order; Dipsacus (the Teasel) and Scabiosa. The so-called flower is a compound flower head, as in the Composite, from which, however, this group may be at...
-Campanulaceae
The flowers of Campanula are much frequented by insects, and secrete honey at the base of the bell. The anthers are distinct, the filaments of the stamens are expanded at the base into triangular valv...
-Ericaceae
This order contains ten British genera. Erica tetralix (the Cross-leaved Heath) has been well described by Dr. Ogle (Popular Science Review, April 1870). The flower is in the form of a bell (Fig. 93)...
-Primulaceae
This order is represented in Britain by eight genera: Primula, Lysimachia, Trientalis, Glaux, Anagallis, Centunculus, Samolus, and Hottonia. Cyclamen also grows wild in some places, but is not a true ...
-Corolliflorae. Part 6
Lentibulaceae This order contains two British genera: Utricularia and Pinguicula. Both are fertilised by insects, and in both the insect first touches the stigma, and afterwards comes in contact with...
-Corolliflorae. Part 7
Convolvulaceae The well-known Convolvulus and the singular little Dodder (Cuscuta) are the only British genera belonging to this family. Cuscuta is a leafless, annual, parasitic plant, with thread-l...
-Boraginaceae
This order is easily distinguished from all others, except the Labiatae, by the four seed-like nuts; from the Labiatae by the form of the flowers, and by the leaves being alternate. It contains eleven...
-Scrophulariaceae
This is a large family, consisting of fourteen genera, and contains: Veronica (Fig. 97), Verbascum (Mullein), (Fig. 98), Linaria, Antirrhinum (Snapdragon), Scro-phularia (Fig. 99), Digitalis (Foxglove...
-Labiatae
This large and interesting order contains eighteen British genera, amongst which are the Salvia, Dead Nettle, Sage, Thyme, Mint, Marjoram, Bugle, and Calamint. Most of them, if not all, produce honey ...
-Labiatae. Continued
The general form of the flower indeed is very similar. We find again that, as generally in the Labiates, the corolla has the lower lip adapted as an alighting board for insects, while the arched upper...
-Plantagineae
This order contains two British genera; Plantago and Littorella. Plantago, the common Plantain, has small, hermaphrodite flowers in heads or spikes on a leafless peduncle. The sepals are four; the co...
-Chapter VI. Incompletae
OF this sub-class we have in Britain representatives of fifteen orders, some of them very numerous and important. To it, for instance, belong many of our forest trees, such as the elm, oak, beech, bir...
-Chapter VII. Monocotyledons
In this class the plumule, or bud, is in germination developed from a sheath-like cavity on one side of the embryo. Although among the Monocotyledonous orders we do not meet with so many instances of...
-Orchidaceae
This order is the subject of Mr. Darwin's admirable work, On the Various Contrivances by which British and Foreign Orchids are fertilised by Insects, from which the following facts are taken. The or...
-Orchidaceae. Continued
The flowers belonging to the genus Ophrys are formed somewhat on the same plan as those of Orchis, but they have no spur, and the rostellum is double. The Bee orchis (O. apiferei), Fig. 124, however, ...
-Monocotyledons. Part 3
Amaryllideae This beautiful order contains three British genera; Narcissus, Galan-thus (the Snowdrop), and Leucoium. The Snowdrop is probably not a true native of this country, but has long been nat...
-Liliaceae
This order contains seventeen British genera, including the Lily, Onion, Tulip, Colchicum, Asparagus, Solomon's Seal, Fritillaria, Lily of the Valley, Butcher's Broom (Ruscus), etc. Paris quadrifolia...
-Gramineae
The order Gramineae (Grasses) is very extensive, containing more than forty British genera. They are, however, wind-fertilised. This is the last order which I have to mention. Those who have done me ...
-Books by Sir John Lubbock
Pre-Historic Times. As Illustrated by Ancient Remains and the Manners and Customs of Modern Savages. Fifth Edition. 8vo. i8s. (Williams & Norgate.) The Origin Of Civilization And The Primitive Condit...









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