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A Treatise On Beverages or The Complete Practical Bottler | by Charles Herman Sulz



Full instructions for laboratory work with original practical recipes for all kinds of carbonated drinks, mineral waters, flavorings extracts, syrups, etc.

TitleA Treatise On Beverages or The Complete Practical Bottler
AuthorCharles Herman Sulz
PublisherDick & Fitzgerald Publishers
Year1888
Copyright1888, Charles Herman Sulz
AmazonA Treatise On Beverages

A Treatise On Beverages Or The Complete Practical Bottler

Full instructions for laboratory work with original practical recipes for all kinds of carbonated drinks, mineral waters, flavorings extracts, syrups, etc.

Profusely Illustrated

By Charles Herman Sulz, Technical Chemist and Practical Bottler

New York Dick & Fitzgerald Publishers

Copyright, 1888. By C. H. Sulz & CO.

-Introduction
Three centuries ago the manufacture of artificial mineral waters was a thing but little known to the public; and scientific men of all nations have since made efforts to imitate the healing effects of...
-Part First. Water. Its Properties - Examination - Impurities And Purification - Filtration And Filters. Chapter I. General Source And Kind Of Water
Source And Quality Of Water. - Rain-Water. - Pond-Water. - Spring-Water. Well-Water. - River-Water. - Sea-Water. - Croton-Water. - Snow-Water. - Ice-Water. - Soft and Hard Waters. - Distilled Water. -...
-Source And Quality Of Water
The manufacturer of any beverage or compound which has water for its base, cannot be too well informed as to the article he is handling and manipulating; especially is this true of the maker of refres...
-Rain-Water
This is the purest kind of natural water, although it is by no means free from foreign ingredients, as an analysis of a sample collected in a clean vessel, upon which it is incapable of acting, shows....
-Pond-Water
These are shallow collections of rain-water. Such pools abound in vegetable growths of all kinds. From their shallowness they are soon warmed by the heat of the sun, and then ensue decomposition, ferm...
-Spring-Water
When the rain-water strikes the earth's surface it at once commences to take up the soluble bodies to be found therein, and gradually becomes more and more impure. As it percolates through the differe...
-River-Water
Although springs form some of the main feeders of rivers, there is almost invariably found in the latter a less weight of solids in the same volume, owing to dilution with rain-water, etc., and to the...
-Sea-Water
This kind of water, besides generally containing those inorganic saline bodies found in river-water, holds in solution certain other compounds, such as iodides, fluorides, etc. The nature of these sub...
-Croton-Water
The suspicious organisms in Croton-water, as published in the Medical Record, may well be described here in order to make the manufacturer of carbonated drinks acquainted with the impurities of hydran...
-Bacteria
The group marked B, Fig. 1, and dots inside A, are microscopical objects of minutest form and simplicity of structure. They are protoplasmic, or bioplasmic, automobile, capable of arranging themselves...
-Sponges
G, Fig. 1, is a spicule of fresh-water sponge, spongilla fluviatilis. Sponges belong to the animal kingdom. Group 1. Ceratosa, with horny fibres. In this group come the common sponges of commerce, ma...
-Pelomyxas (I, T, I)
Pelos (mud), and myxa (mucus). These are protoplasmic animals classed with rhizopods - rhizos (root), and poda (foot) - root-footed animals. They are fresh-water organisms, forming large amoeboid mas...
-Snow-Water
Experiments have shown that the condition of the atmosphere at the time of the falling of the snow influences the purity of snow-water. When the atmosphere has been washed by rain, just preceding the ...
-Ice-Water
Scientists assert that even the ice with which water is cooled for drinking swarms with disagreeable worms. At a meeting of the French Academy of Natural Sciences, the President, Dr. Joseph Leidy, sta...
-Soft And Hard Waters
Waters are frequently spoken of as soft and hard; those which readily give a lather with soap being classed under the former category, and those which do not, under the latter. This difference is ...
-Distilled Water
This is the proper kind of water to use in the reduction of spirits, but it is claimed that it will not do for the manufacture of carbonated and fermented drinks, and that experiment has proved that ...
-Preparation Of Distilled Water
For this purpose we append the following directions: The quality or condition and purity of distilled water depends partly on the water and partly on the apparatus used for distillation and the method...
-Properties And Tests Of Distilled Water
Distilled water is a colorless, limpid liquid, without odor or taste, and of neutral reaction. On evaporating one liter of distilled water no fixed residue should remain. The transparency or color of ...
-Chemically Pure Water
Absolutely or chemically pure water is never found in nature. Absolutely pure water consists of a chemical combination of two volumes of hydrogen with one of oxygen gas, containing absolutely nothing ...
-Chapter II. The Examination Of Water
Analysis Of Water. - Color, Taste and Smell of Water. - Hirsch's Test for Sewage Contamination. - Tests for Carbonate and Sulphate of Lime and Magnesia. - Test for Alkalies and Alkaline Earths. - Test...
-Analysis Of Water
The analysis of water, or, rather, of the sub-stances which may be present in the water, involves a series of operations of so special and technical a character that no useful purpose would be served ...
-Color, Taste And Smell Of Water
If the outward appearance of water, clearness, brightness, and tastelessness, were a reliable criterion of the purity of the water, nothing would be easier than to form a fair estimate of its value; b...
-Hirsch's Test For Sewage Contamination
Fill a clean pint bottle three-fourths full of water to be tested, dissolve a teaspoonful of loaf or granulated sugar, cork the bottle and place it in a warm place for two days. If the water becomes c...
-Tests For Carbonate And Sulphate Of Lime And Magnesia In Water
All natural waters are more or less charged with solid mineral matter, and, indeed, a certain proportion of it seems to be necessary to health. On the other hand, if the amount of solid matter dissolv...
-Testing For Bicarbonate Or Carbonate Of Lime In Water
1. A sufficiently approximate idea as to the hardness of a water by carbonate of lime may be obtained by half filling a test tube with the water and gradually heating to boiling over the spirit-lamp. ...
-Test For Alkalies And Alkaline Earths In Water
Alkalies and alkaline earths are discovered in the following manner: Blue litmus paper should be colored pale red by diluted vinegar and dipped into the water; if the former blue color is restored, th...
-Tests For Sulphuric Acid In Water
1. Sulphuric acid is found by adding a few drops of solution of nitrate of baryta. If sulphuric acid be present the water will show a milky appearance and the clouds remain at the top, or are uniforml...
-Tests For Iron In Water
1. A few drops of tincture or infusion of nut galls turns water containing iron, black; when this takes place, both before and after the water has been boiled, the metal is present under the form of s...
-Tests For Lead In Water
1. If, by adding a few drops of a solution of acetate of lead, a milky or cloudy appearance presents itself, it shows that the water is not capable of holding any lead in solution; but, on the contrar...
-Test For Zinc In Water
Dr. Stevenson recommends as a convenient test for the presence of zinc in potable waters, the addition of potassium ferro-cyanide to the filtered and acidulated water. Zinc gives a faint white cloud, ...
-Residue By Evaporation
On evaporation of the water to dryness and heating of the residue, not more than 0.20g of one gallon of water should remain. The residue should be white or have a yellowish tint, a proof that but litt...
-Tests For Organic Impurities By Permanganate Of Potash In Water
1. A ready means of testing a water for organic matter is to add a few drops of solution of permanganate of potash to the water, and allow it to stand for a short time. The color which the water recei...
-Tests For Ammonia In Water
Prof. Angel gives the following directions for testing water for Ammonia, which is well known to be the most sensitive test. He says: - A minute and variable quantity of ammonia exists in the atmosph...
-Tests For Chlorine Or Chlorides In Water
1. Prof. Angel gives the following directions for its detection : Chlorine is a constituent of common salt, and is very widely distributed in nature. Good water on an average contains perhaps from 0....
-Tests For Nitrates And Nitrites In Water
1. Prof. Angel says: The pres-ence of these salts is a bad indication only so far as they have resulted from the oxidation of nitrogeneous organic, matter. Nitrates contain more oxygen than nitrites,...
-Tests For Living Germs In Water
1. An easy and quite reliable test for organic matter in water is this: Add about ten grains of pure granulated sugar to about five ounces of the water to be tested; the bottle should be completely fi...
-General Results of Testing Water
Having obtained the results of the several tests, it remains to interpret them. If the water examined is found to lose color rapidly under the permanganate test - to contain an undue amount of chlorid...
-Chapter III. The Impurities And Purification Of Water.
Water As A Solvent. - Sources of Pollution manifold. - Oxygen in Water. - Metallic Impurities. - Galvanized Iron Tanks Injurious. - Humine, Geine and Ulmine. - Iodine and Bromine. - Phosphoric Acid, A...
-Water As A Solvent
As water is a solvent of nearly all saline matter, in a larger or smaller degree, and of liquid and elastic fluids, with but few exceptions, and necessarily comes in contact with some or others of the...
-Water As A Solvent. Part 2
The fact of extreme variations in the composition of water from the same source, points to the necessity of frequent examinations at various seasons, and under different conditions, to determine its t...
-Water As A Solvent. Part 3
Thousands of these wells still abound about the country, where health questions have not received the amount of attention they deserve; and notwithstanding that years may have passed, and no harm have...
-Sources Of Pollution Manifold
The introduction of a public waterworks almost invariably leads to a diminished death-rate from zymotic disease, and could the purity of the supply be maintained by nitration the health of the communi...
-Oxygen In Water
The presence of oxygen in spring-water, though not always a guarantee of purity, is very good indication of such, as the organic matter most injurious in drinking water is that most readily oxidized, ...
-Metallic Impurities
The contamination of the water by contact with metals has been a source of considerable anxiety to the manufacturers of carbonated waters. Contact with lead or any other easily oxidized metal must be ...
-Galvanized Iron-Tanks Injurious
Dr. Venable, in Jour. Am. Chem. Soc, says: The increase in the use of galvanized iron, especially in the form of water-tanks and pipes, has led to a reopening of the question as to the possible injur...
-Humine, Geine, And Ulmine
We do not care to go into a scientific explanation of all the minute constituents or impurities of water, but it is deemed necessary to explain what is meant by the above nomenclature, as the manufact...
-Iodine And Bromine
Chatin asserts that all spring-waters contain iodine, and this assertion is supported by the fact that iodine is found in many vegetables and plants that live in sweet water, also in many plants of th...
-Color And Characteristics Of Pure Water
Two theories are advanced to explain the blue color of water when seen in large masses - one, held by Prof. Tyndall, being that small solid particles suspended in the water do not reflect the lower or...
-Microbe And Bacteria
Microbe and Bacteria being frequently found in polluted water, an explanation of the terms is necessary. By the term microbe is understood a microscopic organized germ, which exists in diseased animal...
-Minimum Of Safety In Water
The constituent parts of water when pure are, in volumes, two parts of hydrogen and one part of oxygen, and, by weight, one part of hydrogen and eight parts of oxygen. When pure, water is also transpa...
-Water Should Be Purified
The purification of water for the pur. pose of manufacturing beverages, whether carbonated or otherwise, is a fruitful subject of discussion, and one which should always engage the attention of the tr...
-Aeration Of Water
Within the past few years another process has been successfully introduced, by which water, ordinarily unfit for drinking or beverage-manufacturing purposes, has been rendered sweet and wholesome. The...
-Aeration Of Water. Continued
Pasteur has demonstrated that oxygen, supplied in the form of pure atmospheric air, is fatal to bacteria and other germs, while Dr. Pehl, of St. Petersburg, in the course of experiments with Neva wate...
-Other Methods Of Aeration
A patent of May 26, 1885, by R. d'Heureuse of New York, is for the use of water from which by aeration deleterions organic impurities are removed before the water is brought in contact with substances...
-The Vitality Of The Microbia Is Abated Under The Pressure Of Atmospheric Air
Carbonating of Water the Radical Agent to Destroy Organisms. - Scientific inquiry has not exhausted the possibilities of carbonic acid gas in its relation to beverages. A general knowledge of its impa...
-Vitality Of The Microbia Is Abated Under The Pressure Of Atmospheric Air. Continued
To appreciate, therefore, according to this method, the pollution, and in general the degree of corruption of a water, the examination ought to be begun immediately on taking the sample. In such an a...
-Filtering Mediums
As before stated, the action of a filter is either mechanical or chemical. Solid particles which are too large to pass the pores of the filter are arrested; other particles adhere to the surface of th...
-Sand, Charcoal, Sponges, Etc
The power of retaining certain matters dissolved or suspended in water is possessed naturally by all porous and granular materials that are not themselves soluble in water - as sand, gravel, loam, cla...
-Washing And Regenerating Animal Charcoal
After animal charcoal has been used for some time it loses its absorbing and oxydizing capacity and must be renewed or regenerated. If carefully washed and separated from all soluble substances the an...
-Asbestos
Asbestos is an article which the bottling and carbonating industry has more or less use for, especially in the construction of filters. It is a fibrous variety of hornblende and serpentine, produced b...
-Filter Paper
Filtering paper renders valuable service, and it should indeed be more extensively employed for the purification of water, as it far surpasses sand in its power of retention. It is important that the ...
-Cleansing Filters; Limited action of Charcoal and Sand Filters
Too much cannot be said about this subject. New filters, which render service very well at first in removing micro-organisms from water, may, after they have been in use a short time, become breeding-...
-Systems Of Filtration
There are two systems of filtering - by high pressure and low pressure. The first-named system is very objectionable, as in the filtration of any liquid it is essential that it neither be forced throu...
-Methods Of Purifying Water
From all we have hitherto shown on the subject of water purification, we must now form an opinion and decide upon a proper method for purifying water. If pure well or spring-water in limited quantitie...
-The Alum Water Purification Process
Alum is a double sulphate of potash and aluminium, and in this case breaks into potassium sulphate which remains in solution, and a basic aluminic sulphate. This basic sulphate of aluminium, the compo...
-The Alum Water Purification Process. Continued
By the addition of a small amount of alum to water, it can be filtered through ordinary paper without difficulty, and yields a brilliantly clear nitrate, in which there is no trace of suspended matte...
-Purifying Water By Limewater
Another method of softening or purifying water consists in removing its carbonic acid gas, whereby the carbonates of lime, iron and magnesia are precipitated, together with silica and organic matter...
-Purifying Water By Soda
The presence of an abnormally large amount of earthy carbonates in a natural water is very undesirable. These can be removed also by adding a little soda to the water, where such addition is not likel...
-To Free Water From Magnesian Salts And Sulphate Of Lime (Gypsum)
Waters rich in magnesian salts possess laxative properties which should cause them to be rejected as a beverage, since their prolonged use may be injurious to health. If the proportion of the magnesiu...
-Removal Of Iron From Water
The presence of iron in water for carbonating is, as a rule, very troublesome. The removal of iron from water is sought by various methods. If it is present in soluble form, it can only occur as proto...
-Removal Of Organic Impurities From Water
This is accomplished by the aid of permanganate of potash, After the presence of organic impurities has been ascertained by the tests given on another page, their combination with oxygen and subsequen...
-Citric Acid To Render Water Potable
Dr. Langfeldt has experimented with a number of substances in studying their applicability to the purpose of destroying microscopic life in drinking-water. The most striking results he obtained from c...
-Boiling Water
The object of boiling water is to remove or destroy any orgauic impurities - disease germs or microscopic life - that would injure health. While it no doubt does have a beneficial effect, still we bel...
-Chapter IV. Filtration And Filters
A Specific Knowledge Desired. - Mechanical Filters. - Chemical Filters. - Various Patent Filters. - The National Filter. - The Hyatt Filter. - Bige- low-Curtis Filter. - The Tank Filter. - Billich Fil...
-Mechanical Water Filters
These essentially consist of porous bodies which mechanically remove the solids because the pores are too small to permit any but liquids to pass. These may consist of textile or felted fabrics of eve...
-The National Water Filter
Its operation and description are given as follows: The water to be filtered enters at the top and right of filter, at A, as shown in Figure 12, and passes down through the bed of fine sharp sea san...
-The Hyatt Water Filter
The description and operation of this filter is given as follows: These filters are 6 1/2 feet in diameter, 13 feet high; are of wrought iron and steel. All the parts are perfectly adjusted and easy...
-The Bigelow-Curtis Water Filter
This is made in several forms by the firm of John Matthews, New York. It is connected with the main at A, and with the distributing pipe at B. The case D is filled with a layer of sand and a layer of ...
-The Tank Water Filter
This filter consists of an external metal case, inside of which is a perforated metal pan resting on a circular flange, at a sufficient height above the bottom of the filter to leave reservoir space f...
-The Billich Water Filter
This filter consists of two large wooden tanks, one of which is placed above the other. The upper tank B contains a layer of gravel and a layer of sand separated by a piece of coarse table cloth f, f...
-The Wagner Charcoal Water Filter
This kind of filter is usually used in sugar-refineries, but may also be employed in mineral-water factories. It consists of a covered iron cylinder, with a large manhole in the side near the bottom ...
-De Lisser's Power Water Filter
This filter apparatus is for filtering and aerating the water. According to the description given, It consists of a strongly built machine. The outside cylinder, A, is stationary and is fitted up wit...
-The Jewett Water Filter
The accompanying engraving represents a sectional view of Jewett's Filter and Cooler, with a portion of the vessel containing the filtering material. The article represented is new, and has recently b...
-Baker's Water Filter And Compound
This filter, manufactured by The Baker Water Filter and Purifying Co., New York, is made of bronze, tinned or nickel plated, and divided in two halves, bolted together. The medium is Baker's Filter C...
-The Johnson Pressure Water Filter
The filtering medium employed consists of thick sheets of filtering paper, made of ordinary paper pulp and a quantity of pure animal charcoal, claimed to be free from phosphates by chemical process, a...
-Puffer's Sponge Water Filter
This filter is made of heavy metal thoroughly tinned. Its centre of body is filled with sponge of a high grade compressed into about one-quarter of its original size. Below this sponge is a perforated...
-Globe Pressure Water Filter
These filters are made in two different styles as shown in these illustrations, contain filter sheets, and are also very efficient filters for removing suspended matter, their capacity depending on th...
-Derham's Patent Filter Bag
This filter bag is composed of woven fabric alternated with paper, the whole securely fastened together to form a solid sheet. It is indeed a good filtering bag, and will quickly and thoroughly remov...
-Derham's Patent Pressure Water Filter
This filter is composed of woven fabric alternated with paper, and the whole secured together to form a solid sheet. It is claimed that this filter is equally adapted for the filtration of wine, cide...
-English High Pressure Water Filter
The water enters at A from the main into the bottom of chamber C, passes up through the filtering media, E E and F, and is collected in the top chamber H, being drawn off for use at G, the pipe to mac...
-Hydrant High Pressure Water Filter
The water passes through this filter under high pressure; it is air-tight, and can be instantly cleansed by turning the hand on the dial plate at a point thereon marked filtered, to a point marked c...
-Gaber's Sandstone Water Filter
This filter (European make) consists of a cast-iron plate, in which is fitted an iron cylinder closed by an iron cover plate. 00 is a hollow cylinder of porous sandstone. The water, entering at W unde...
-Natural Stone Water Filters
This is a sectional view of a Pressure Filter, the letter A showing the curved stone; B represents the charcoal and sand; C, the coupling to be attached to hydrant; D, the water space. A low pressure...
-Asbestos Water Filter
We have repeatedly heard of asbestos being a filter medium and of the interesting experiments that have seemed to show its superiority to most other mediums in fineness of interstices. The question, h...
-Cistern Water Filters
A cistern-filter, the filtering medium consisting of animal charcoal only, and fulfilling all the foregoing requirements, was, after years of experiment, after having been most satisfactorily tested, ...
-Low-Pressure Water-Filter For Cisterns
Another kind of a filter is manufactured by English manufacturers and called their Low Pressure Water Filter. It is practically a cistern filter, as this illustration will show. The water to be fil...
-Rawling's Patent Water Filter
Practically successful purification of water is only attained by allowing frequent access of air to the charcoal, and these filters are specially constructed for this purpose, says the patentee, and...
-Settling Tank With Sediment Separator
This cistern or tank with its automatic method of drawing off the clear top water, leaving the sediment at the bottom of the tank, is indeed a practical arrangement. The illustration explains itself. ...
-Self-Acting Cistern Water Filter
The description runs as follows: The 'compressed charcoal' filtering-beds have a deodorizing and decolorizing power, removing suspended or mechanical impurities, as well as certain dissolved bodies, ...
-Slate-Cistern
This slate cistern is easily connected together when required for use with tie bolts and cement. They are used for water cisterns, and mixing mineral waters in, previous to passing through the machine...
-Domestic Water Filter
This is an English pattern, for limited or domestic use. It is of stoneware, the filtering material being animal charcoal. Fig. 38. - Domestic Filter. ...
-Rain-Water Filter
The simple and inexpensive filter herewith described is designed to purify the rain-water flowing from the roof, and conduct it to a cistern. The water from the roof flows through a pipe from a leader...
-Clapp's Home-Made Water Filter
A home-made filter, which appeared in the National Bottlers' Gazette, is given in the accompanying illustration. Such filtrant can be used as suits the idea of the bottler constructing it; but as this...
-Bowker's Charcoal Water Filter
It is simple, practical and cheap, and can be bought cheaper than when expressly made, and will answer very well where but a small business is carried on. The charcoal has to bo frequently renewed. ...
-Other Home-Made Water Filters
Another home-made filter, continuously acting, for filtering and aerating water on a small scale, and without going into the expense of applying machinery for aerating, is recommended by a corresponde...
-Plastic Coal Water Filters
Frequently and with good success filters of so-called plastic coal are used, but filtration proceeds very slowly; and it is therefore necessary to employ several of these kind of filters, also the eff...
-Part Second. Carbonic Acid Gas. Characteristics - Purification - Carbonates - Acids And Acid Dispensers - Liquified Carbonic Acid. Chapter V. Characteristics Of Carbonic Acid Gas
Its Composition. - How Produced. - Its Absorption by Water. - An Interesting .Table. - Atmospheric Air should be Removed. - Weight of Carbonic Acid Gas. - Influence of Temperature and Pressure. - Its ...
-How Carbonic Acid Gas Is Produced
Carbonic acid gas is produced in various ways, namely - 1. By respiration or breathing in men and animals. 2. Carbonic acid is abundantly produced in the process of fermentation, and is the cause of...
-Carbonic Acid Gas Absorption By Water
We have already mentioned that water absorbs a greater amount of carbonic acid with increased pressure. It is found by experiment that this amount increases in proportion to the pressure, as follows: ...
-An Interesting Carbonic Acid Gas Table
Some interesting tables, the results of careful experiments made by an experienced carbonator, were published in the Chemist and Druggist, June, 1880, p. 253, and we append the figures here in condens...
-Atmospheric Air Should Be Removed
The presence of atmospheric air in water prevents a thorough impregnation with carbonic acid gas. Air is a great rival of carbonic acid, in fact reduces the absorption of gas by water. According to Li...
-Weight Of Carbonic Acid Gas
1 liter (or 1000 cubic centimeters) at 0C weighs 1.9774 grammes. 1 gramme at 0C fills 505.7 cubic centimeters. 1 cubic inch weighs 0.0355 grammes or 0.57 grains. In practice 1 liter (1000 c...
-Influence Of Temperature And Pressure on Carbonic Acid Gas
If the temperature at which a liquid has been impregnated with carbonic acid gas increases, or the pressure at which it was done diminishes, a corresponding amount of gas will escape. Beverages impre...
-Carbonic Acid Gas Effects
Of the effects of carbonic acid in mineral waters a medical authority says: (1). Quieting of the sensitive nerves of the stomach; (2). The stimulation of the secretions and the peristaltic action of...
-Chapter VI. Production And Purification Of Carbonic Acid Gas
How Obtained - Quantity and Kind of Acid Used - Its Purification Necessary - The Purifiers and How Used - Chemical Purification - Filtration - Filtration and Chemical Purification - Chemical Impuritie...
-Quantity And Kind Of Acid Used
The quantity of sulphuric or muriatic acid required for the decomposition of the carbonates depends upon their percentage of carbonic acid. For the production of 100 parts by weight of carbonic acid ...
-Carbonic Acid Gas Purification Necessary
The purification of carbonic acid gas has thus far not received so much attention from the bottlers and other beverage manufacturers as it deserves, and which it should receive as one of the main fact...
-The Carbonic Acid Gas Purifiers And How Used
The improvement in purifiers which were made of late, consist in making them considerably longer than heretofore, so that the carbonic acid will have to travel through a longer column of water, and co...
-Carbonic Acid Gas Chemical Purification
In cases of this kind it becomes necessary for the bottler to have resort to a chemical purification of the carbonic acid gas, for which we recommend the use of the following chemicals in connection w...
-Carbonic Acid Gas Filtration
Where a carbonate of considerable purity is employed, the thorough purification of carbonic acid gas may be obtained by mere filtration of carbonic acid gas. This is done by using such materials as di...
-Carbonic Acid Gas Filtration And Chemical Purification
These may be combined. Cotton, sponges or pumicestone may be saturated with the solutions of soda, permanganate of potassium, or with moistened peroxide of iron; but these means of purification also n...
-Atmospheric Air
For the manufacturing of carbonated beverages in general, and for the production of ferruginous and sulphur waters especially, it is important to remove all the atmospheric air from the carbonic acid ...
-Application Of These Remedies for Carbonic Acid Gas
To bottlers who are desirous of obtaining pure gas for their carbonated beverages, and more especially for the delicate mineral waters, where purity is most needed, we should recommend the use of eith...
-Examination Of Carbonic Acid Gas
A test for atmospheric air in carbonic acid gas and which is quite simple and sufficient in most cases, may be made thus: Pour a sample of the carbonated water in a glass, whereby a strong effervescen...
-Chapter VII. The Carbonates - Their Properties And Purity
The Choice Of Material. - Marble. - Whiting (Chalk). - Purification and Process of Manufacture. - Marble vs. Whiting. - Limestone. - Magnesite. - Dolomite. - Bicarbonate of Soda. The Choice Of Materi...
-Marble
Marble is the purest carbonate of lime, containing about 44 per cent, of its weight of carbonic acid, and is when ground a valuable material for the production of carbonic acid. White marble is the be...
-Whiting (Chalk)
Whiting or chalk contains about 40 per cent. of its weight in carbonic acid, also frequently oxide of iron, magnesia, silex, etc., in varying proportions. Animal and bituminous matters are also very f...
-Purification And Process Of Manufacture
After importation into this country, it is purified and prepared at 'whiting works' On its reception in the yards of the refining works, the crude chalk is stored in wooden bins, from whence, as need...
-Marble VS. Whiting
As far as chemical composition is concerned, marble and whiting are analogous; both are carbonates of lime, and when equally pure both contain about the same amount of carbonic acid. Whiting, however,...
-Limestone
Limestone is also carbonate of lime, containing about 44 per cent, of its weight of carbonic acid, and is found in many places and in various forms and colors. Most limestones are neptunic formations ...
-Magnesite
Magnesite contains about 52 per cent. of its own weight of carbonic acid. It is carbonate of magnesia, that neutral salt which is very frequently and in great quantities found in North America and E...
-Dolomite
Dolomite (magnesian limestone) contains about 30 per cent. of carbonate of lime, 22 per cent. of carbonate of magnesia, and about 48 per cent. of carbonic acid. It may furnish a pure carbonic acid gas...
-Bicarbonate Of Soda
Bicarbonate of soda appears in commerce under the name of bi- carbonate - bi-carbonate of natron - either as white transparent crystals or more generally as a white powder, without smell but of an ...
-Chapter VIII. Acids And Acid Dispensers
Sulphuric Acid (Oil Of Vitriol). - Its Discovery. - How Adulterated. - How to Test it. - In Solid Form. - Muriatic Acid. - When it can be used with Profit. - How to Handle Acid. - The Trunnion. - Acid...
-Sulphuric Acid (Oil Of Vitriol)
Sulphuric acid is a chemical combination of sulphur and oxygen, the proportions being 63.2 sulphur and 36.8 oxygen. It is also called oil of vitriol. Its chemical formula is H3S04. Great quantities of...
-How To Test Sulphuric Acid
A simple test for this purpose is of great advantage, and the following method will be of some use in places where no chemist is employed: A small portion of the sulphuric acid is evaporated on a plat...
-Sulphuric Acid In Solid Form
This experiment has been advantageously tried in England. Sulphuric acid was tried to be absorbed by infusible earth (Kieselguhr), and the solid form, which attracts moisture very quickly, has to be p...
-Muriatic Acid
Muriatic acid, hydrochloric acid, has but a limited use. Its chemical sign is Hc1, appears in commerce from 18 to 22 degrees (Bme.), specific gravity 1.15 to 1.17, containing about 30 to 33 per cent, ...
-When Muriatic Acid Can Be Used With Profit
Where it would be profitable to use it in preference to sulphuric acid, or peculiar circumstances command its use, the utmost care must be taken in generating the gas and carefully purifying it. (See ...
-How To Handle Acid
To facilitate the drawing of the acids from the carboy it is well to use an acid-dispenser or trunnion. They are practical apparatus for emptying carboys, especially of acid contents. The Trunnion I...
-The Tilting Stand
Another appliance for dispensing acid is Caverly's Patent Tilting stand for Carboys. The illustration needs no explanation. Fig. 47. - Tilting Stand. Carboy-Tilt The carboy is securely fastene...
-By Products: The Residue from the Generator
The residue, when emptying the generator after the carbonates are exhausted, is generally considered valueless and thrown away. It depends on the choice of material which kind the residue will be. If ...
-Chapter IX. Liquefied Carbonic Acid
When First Made. - How it is Made. - No Danger of Explosion. - A Simple Process. - It can be Used for Various Things. When First Made Mr. A. Convert writes in the National Bottlers' Gazette on this ...
-How Liquefied Carbonic Acid Is Made
The American Carbonate Co., of New York, has introduced a new and improved method for obtaining the gas in absolute purity, by which the product is not dependent upon the uncertain and ofttimes impure...
-Liquefied Carbonic Acid Can Be Used For Various Things
The American Carbonate Company, lately instituted in New York, gives in its circular the following explanation to the trade, which we copy, being of interest to those intending to give liquid carbonic...
-Part Third. Carbonating Apparatus. The Machinery And Systems Of All Nations Described. Chapter X. Introduction To All Systems Of Apparatus
Remarks. - Dr. Priestley's Apparatus. - Dr. Nooth's Apparatus. - The Geneva System. - The Continuous System. - The Bramah System. - The Mondol-lott System. - The Intermittent System. - Liquid Carbonic...
-Dr. Priestley's Carbonating Apparatus
In 1772 Priestley put up a primitive arrangement, constructed entirely of glass, to impregnate water with the fixed air, derived from the mixture of chalk and vitriol, intending it specially for th...
-Dr. Nooth's Carbonating Apparatus
This will be seen, by the annexed sketch, to be identical in principle with the gazogenes, seltzogenes, and carbona-tors of the present day, and, indeed, with all machines which work by chemical press...
-The Geneva Carbonating System
The machines used in the early manufacture of carbonated waters in Europe consisted of a large wooden cylinder, bound with strong iron hoops, enclosing an agitator to generate the gas. The gas passed ...
-The Carbonating Continuous System
The plan at present extensively in use in Europe is the so-called continuous direct-action process, or continuous plan. The principle of this is as follows: The carbonic acid gas is made in a leade...
-The Bramah Carbonating System
To Joseph Bramah, an English inventor, belongs the palm of having constructed the first complete continuous apparatus. He took as his starting-point a machine which had been patented a few years previ...
-The Mondollot Carbonating System from England
Another continuous system lately introduced from England is the Mondollot continuous system, described in the next Chapter. The chief difference between the Mondollot and the Bramah system lies in th...
-The Intermittent Carbonating System
There is a third system, which impregnates the water chemically by the aid of the expansive power of the generated carbonic acid gas by the pressure produced in the generator without the aid of a pump...
-Chapter XI. The Semi-Continuous Carbonating System
An English Machine. - Old Style German Apparatus. - Another German Apparatus. An English Machine The annexed two illustrations represent apparatus of this plan. The force pump is only employed to dr...
-Old Style German Carbonating Apparatus
This illustration represents a semi-continuous apparatus of the old type. The pump is forcing out gas from the gasometer into the extra large cylinder wherein water has been previously introduced. The...
-Chapter XII. The Continuous Carbonating System (English Plan)
English Continuous System. - English Apparatus. - French Continuous Apparatus. - German Continuous Apparatus. - American Continuous Plan. - Matthews' Apparatus. - Puffer's Apparatus. - Tuft's Apparatu...
-The Continuous Carbonating System (English Plan). Part 2
Where it is desirous to have a more showy, and at the same time independent and complete gasometer, the sides can be mounted with three upright supports, weights, lines, etc. The two pipes shown by t...
-The Continuous Carbonating System (English Plan). Part 3
Different sizes of this machine are made, consisting of the machine with latest improvements, fitted with water and pressure gauges, 12 safety-valve, pump with solid ram, and improved valve-box, etc....
-The Continuous Carbonating System (English Plan). Part 4
The joint in the centre is made with patent inodorous packing; the agitator has a support outside at both ends, and is fitted with glass lubricators; all metallic friction is exterior, the band-wheel...
-The Continuous Carbonating System (English Plan). Part 5
The mixing fans sweep every particle of whiting off the bottom, carrying it upwards without the possibility of either escaping the other; hence the great economy of this generator, as all gas containe...
-The Continuous Carbonating System (English Plan). Part 6
A represents the lead-lined cistern. It may be made any size to suit requirements, say sufficient to hold two or three carboys of acid, which may be diluted with an equal quantity of water when in the...
-The Continuous Carbonating System (English Plan). Part 7
O. The condenser is the most important part of the machine, excepting perhaps the pump (G). On the proper construction of the condenser depends not only the safety of those working in its vicinity, b...
-The Continuous Carbonating System (English Plan). Part 8
This machine (Fig. 77) is of massive construction, suited to the very largest factories and the hardest work, and also of beautiful finish. The water is carbonated in a strong copper or gun-metal cond...
-The Continuous Carbonating System (English Plan). Part 9
This arrangement is for indicating the passage of the gas, and also washing it. The outlet of the indicator is attached to the gas cock of the pump; the pipe from the gas holder is connected with th...
-The Continuous Carbonating System (English Plan). Part 10
Messrs. Hayward Tyler & Co. in London, have a patented plan by which the water is completely purged from the atmospheric air and charged with gas continuously, with ease and simplicity. They supply th...
-The Continuous Carbonating System (English Plan). Part 11
The cylinder (Fig. 96) is used in conjunction with the afore-described pump, and constructed equal to that illustrated in Fig. 94. The generators (Figs. 97 and 98), also manufactured by Bratby &...
-French Continuous Carbonating Apparatus
The cuts appended next represent the continuous apparatus, Bramah system of the French Plan, manufactured and improved by J. Boulet & Co., successors to Hermann-Lachapelle, Paris, and others. This ...
-French Continuous Carbonating Apparatus. Part 2
The gasometer receives the gas through inlet No. 2. The bell E is of galvanized iron plates, also the tub F with concave bottom, on which is an opening P, generally with a stop-cock, for the discharge...
-French Continuous Carbonating Apparatus. Part 3
The agitator with two large and strong wings Z Z moves in the satu-rator, causing the impregnation of the water. The shaft N of steel receives the motive power from cock-wheel x, and the latter from c...
-German Continuous Carbonating Apparatus
The continuous apparatus of the German plan are represented and described next. The generator E, vertical, of cylindrical form, is either made of thick hard-rolled lead or of copper, iron, and thickl...
-German Continuous Carbonating Apparatus. Part 2
Fig. 115. - Safety Valve. Fig. 116. - Mixer for Salt Solutions. In many German establishments they frequently add to a full set of continuous apparatus more facilities for the purification...
-German Continuous Carbonating Apparatus. Part 3
Fig. 119. - German Plan of Continuous Apparatus - i. As will be readily seen, one ends in the inside of purifier in an extra perforated cylinder a, the other one in a perforated tube b, and the ...
-Russian Continuous Carbonating Apparatus
The next engraving represents a continuous apparatus of the Russian type. This style is manufactured in Warsaw, Moscow, St. Petersburg and Odessa, and combines all three systems. The continuous actio...
-American Continuous Carbonating Plan
The American apparatus made after the Bramah system we shall briefly consider here. The continuous system of preparing water for bottling purposes has been in use for many years in foreign countries,...
-American Carbonating Apparatus
This apparatus consists of a vertical carbonate-feeding generator, in which the gas is produced under a moderate pressure; a large cylindrical iron gasometer, in which the gas is received, and instead...
-The Automatic Carbonating Carbonator
Another kind of continuous apparatus of American manufacture is Robertson's Patent Automatic Carbon-ating Machine, manufactured by Wittemann Brothers, New York, and illustrated by the annexed cut. Th...
-Witteman's Patent Pneumatic Carbonator
This is illustrated by the next engraving. The liquid to be carbonated enters through inlet pipe A. A float valve in B regulates the supply. The water runs through connecting pipes to the top of the...
-The Mondollot Carbonating System
The chief feature of the Mondollot system is, that it entirely dispenses with the gasometer. In other respects it is the same in principle as the old Bramah system, although in the working details imp...
-The Mondollot Carbonating System. Part 2
Fig. 136 shows machine No. 0 complete. D is the outer and C the inner cylinder of the generator previously described. G G' are glass purifiers into which the gas passes from the generator. S, the con...
-The Mondollot Carbonating System. Part 3
Before describing the saturator we will explain the action of the double generators. Each generator having been filled up to the overflow b b with water and a given quantity of whiting, and the acid b...
-Chapter XIII. The Continuous Carbonating System - American Plan
American Continuous System. - Matthew's Apparatus. - Puffer's Apparatus. Tuft's Apparatus. - Lippincott's Apparatus. - (With Specialties attached to and belonging to the different sets shown.) Americ...
-Matthews' Carbonating Apparatus
We extract from the manufacturer's descriptive catalogue the following: This apparatus consists of two horizontal acid-feeding generators for evolving the gas, three stationary fountains, and a force...
-Puffer's Carbonating Apparatus
This apparatus consists of two generators and three cylinders, with two sediment traps, two gas domes, two automatic valves, one patent regulating valve, and one double-action pressure pump. The illus...
-Tuft's Carbonating Apparatus
This apparatus, Fig. 168, consists of two generators, each with three purifiers at the side, an equalizing valve, three cylinders, with water gauges, and an extra pressure gauge and an injection pump....
-Tuft's Carbonating Apparatus. Part 2
While the charge in the first generator is being used, the second should be charged and prepared for use. Close the cock between the equalizing valve of the second generator and the cylinders to pre...
-Tuft's Carbonating Apparatus. Part 3
A, Alkali chamber; B, Acid chamber; C, Purifier; Z), Agitator; E, Acid valve; F, Pressure gauge; G, Safety valve: H, Low Pressure blow-off cock; J, Clamp and cap; J, Frame; K, Equalizing pipe; L, Acid...
-Lippincott's Carbonating Apparatus
This apparatus consists of two generators, one at each end, and three stationary fountains, all made of copper, the generator lead-lined, the fountains tin-lined. The purifiers are adjusted at the sid...
-Chapter XIV. American Intermittent Carbonating System
Its General Use In The United States. - Hafner and Will's Apparatus. - Oster-berg's Apparatus. - Madlener's Apparatus. - Zwietusch's Apparatus. - Lippincott's Apparatus. - Safety Valve, Alarm and Pres...
-Zwietusch's Carbonating Apparatus
This apparatus is made of copper, and consists of one generator with gas dome, two extra large fountains and force pump. The generator has a dome to prevent the marble dust from being carried ov...
-Lippincott's Carbonating Apparatus 1
The generators are made of heavy copper, lined with lead, adjusted with safety valve and pressure gauge on purifiers. The fountains are also of heavy copper, block tin lined, and all the connections a...
-Matthews' Carbonating Apparatus 1
This set is made of iron or copper. Each fountain is provided with a carbonate-filled gas washer. The lining is of pure tin in heavy seamless sheets. All the attachments, described with the set illust...
-Tuft's Carbonating Apparatus 1
This set consists of a copper generator, two copper cylinders, with injector pump and bottling machine. The arrangements are substantially the same as described for Tuft's continuous apparatus of the...
-Tuft's Carbonating Apparatus. Continued
4. To charge the Water, using one Generator and two Cylinders. -Having charged the generator and filled the cylinders as previously directed, and securely closed all valves, bungs and connections, pr...
-Puffer's Carbonating Apparatus 1
This set of carbonating machinery embodies all of Puffer's patent improvements: gas dome, equalizing valve, propelling and repropelling agitator, low-down lever and lock, safety or relief valve, surfa...
-English Intermittent Carbonating Apparatus
This cut represents a complete outfit or plant of English manufacture, and it can be seen at a glance that the American system has been adapted. The machines are constructed principally of copper...
-German Intermittent Carbonating Apparatus
This cut represents an apparatus of combined construction, viz., used with or without gasometer. A is the generator with acid chamber, pressure gauge and safety valve. B B B are purifiers. C cylinder...
-French Intermittent Carbonating Apparatus
In France they construct the Ozouf apparatus, which may be classed among the semi-continuous. This apparatus, Fig. 208, takes but little space. In the interior of cylinder C is the generator, acid ...
-Russian Intermittent Carbonating Apparatus
The engraving shows an apparatus of Russian manufacture, which, in regard to construction, is similar to the apparatus of the other nations. The generator is of the upright type, made of iron and lea...
-Arrangement If Liquid Carbonic Acid Is Used
This is what might be called a decidedly new feature in carbonating. Of course it is well known that carbonic acid gas has long since been liquified under pressure, but it has remained for our time to...
-German Carbonating Machine With Liquid Carbonic Acid
The apparatus here illustrated is recommended by a German manufacturer for the employment of liquid carbonic acid in the preparation of carbonated beverages. The apparatus itself is different in some ...
-Chapter XV. Acid And Salt Solution Feeding Devices
A Neglected Branch Of The Business. - The Waldo Self-Acting Acid Feeder. - The Swinging Acid Bottle. - English Acid Feeder. - Illner's Patent Acid Feeder. - German Acid and Salt Solution Feeder. A Ne...
-Waldo's Self-Acting Acid Feeder
The owners or patentees give the following directions for putting in a new charge: Shut cock No. 2 and fill your cooler. Open cock No. 2 and allow the gas to go into cooler after it is filled, and clo...
-Some Bottlers Use The Natural Syphon Always
To stop natural syphon, close cock No. 1. To start acid by pressure, shut cock No. 1, and draw gas from generator. To stop flow of acid by pressure, open cock No. 1. Before bottling is stopped for the...
-Swinging Acid Bottle
By swinging this acid bottle down or upwards the flow of the contents is regulated. This style is found on some generators of the English plan, and like the generator itself made also of strong lead. ...
-English Acid Feeder
Fig. 218 represents an acid feeder, already shown in illustration on another page. The method of supplying sulphuric acid is by pouring it in at the leaden funnel. When the pipe becomes charged with s...
-Illner's Patent Acid Feeder
In Germany the high pressure (intermittent) apparatus have acid feeders attached of the type represented by the appended illustration, which shows Illner's Patent Acid Feeder. It is made partly of gla...
-German Acid And Salt Solution Feeders
These are made entirely of iron; the engraving (Fig. 222) explains itself. S is the acid feeder attached to generator, and Z the salt solution feeder attached on top of the fountain. Fig. 222. -...
-Chapter XVI. Necessary Condition Of Apparatus
A Few Pertinent Remarks. - How Generators should be Lined. - How other parts of the Apparatus should be Made and Finished. - Tin Washed Fountains should not be Used. - Silver, Porcelain, or Glass-line...
-Purifiers Or Washers
They are either of glass or wood where not much pressure is exerted, as on the English plan. On the American plan they are of the same material as the generator, lead-lined, and connected by means of ...
-Tin-Washed Fountains Should Not Be Used
This style or finish of fountain should never be used for making or storing carbonated water. The lining should be done with heavy tin sheets, seamless, consist of two sheets only, or, what is best an...
-Tin, Its Properties And Purity
Banca tin is supposed the purest and best for tinning purposes. It is claimed, however, by some parties, that block-tin lining is not fully perfect, as it is porous, scaly and, like iron, unreliable. ...
-Silver Linings
When required to carbonate wine, cider or other aciduous substances that act corrosively on the metal, it is desirable to have the cylinders entirely lined with a thick coating of silver. ...
-Maintaining The Carbonating Apparatus
In all the couplings on the generator and acid-chamber a lead washer, in the couplings of purifiers and fountains leather washers, must be placed to keep all joints tight and prevent loss of gas, or a...
-Cementing Joints
To tighten joints where a leakage is visible or a hissing sound is heard, use a cement composed of Natron-water glass (silicate of soda), which can be bought in commerce as a syrup-like mass; mix thor...
-Appearance Of Carbonating Apparatus
The exterior of an apparatus (next to the interior) ought to receive careful attention too. A visitor in the establishment looks admiringly on a brightly shining apparatus, which raises the value of t...
-Formulas For Painting And Cleansing
Prepare oil paint by mixing boiled linseed oil and white lead to a proper consistency, and add some ultramarine or any other color to give it the desired coloring. Add some siccative. A better method...
-Metal-Cleansing Soap
Prepare as follows: One pound of soap made of cocoanut oil is cut into small pieces and heated with sufficient water to get a thick jelly-like mass. Mix one pound of red oxide of iron with some water,...
-To Silver Metallic Parts
For covering bright metallic machine parts (except iron) or accessories with a nice and bright coating of silver, make the following silver solution: 1 oz. of nitrate of silver and 3 oz. of cyanide o...
-Repairs On The Carbonating Apparatus
If the generator should leak and the leak cannot be stopped by screwing the nuts and valves tight, the stuffing-boxes need repacking with hemp, etc., as already directed for other parts. If the acid c...
-Untight Lead-lining in Generator; Danger of Explosion
If the lead-lining gets untight and a rupture occurs, the cause of which may be collapsing or worn out, acid, gas and marble-dust or residue collect between the lining and the generator-body, and affe...
-Chapter XVII. The Process Of Generating Carbonic Acid Gas
One Of Vital Importance. - General Rules for Generating Carbonic Acid Gas. - MarbleDust. - Whiting. - Marble Dust and Bi-Carbonate of Soda. - Ex plicit Directions. One Of Vital Importance The genera...
-General Rules For Generating Carbonic Acid Gas
Charge the generator with the required proportions of carbonate and water. The usual proportions are for - Marble Dust 1 gall, sulphuric acid = 2 galls, marble dust=4 galls. of water; or 2 galls, su...
-Explicit Directions For Generating Carbonic Acid Gas
Examine or, better, sift the marble dust or whiting, or any other carbonate that may be used, before being introduced into the generator, as they sometimes contain barrel nails or other hard substance...
-Explicit Directions For Generating Carbonic Acid Gas. Continued
9. In case the generator should be overcharged by accident, the safety valve should blow off the superfluous gas. If necessary the cap of generator may get a turn or two to allow some gas to escape, b...
-Part Fourth. Bottling. Apparatus - Bottles - Bottle Washing - Label-Ing And Foiling - Patent Stoppers - Syphons. Chapter XVIII. Bottling Apparatus And Practical Bottling
The Operation. - Filling Machines. - Syruping Apparatus. - Syrup Recepta-cles. - Practical Bottling. - Bottling Pressure. - Testing Carbonated Bev-erages. - Expelling of Air in Bottling. - Sanitary Co...
-Syruping Bottling Apparatus
An important and indispensable contrivance calculated to facilitate the process of bottling carbonated beverages is the syrup gauge. This is a device for enabling the syrup to be rapidly and accuratel...
-Syruping Bottling Apparatus. Continued
Fig. 241 consists of a pump in combination with a bottling valve, which can be attached to any bottling-table for the purpose of measuring and forcing the syrup into the bottle at the same time as it ...
-Syrup Receptacles
These are the necessary conjunctions of the bottling machine with syruping arrangement. They contain the ready-made and previously flavored syrup which feeds the syrup gauge or syrup pump, and is inte...
-Practical Bottling
After the apparatus is properly charged, the syrup ready and the bottling machine in order, also after the corks have been previously well prepared according to the directions given under Corks, pro...
-Bottling Pressure
The usual pressure to bottle at should not exceed 60 to 80 lbs. for saccharine beverages. Plain soda waters are frequently bottled at from 80 to 100 lbs., syphons at from 120 to 140 lbs. of pressure. ...
-Testing Carbonated Beverages
A requisite for bottling is a test gauge. This is an instrument for ascertaining the pressure of gas in the bottles filled with carbonated waters, after they are corked, in order to check the work of ...
-Expelling Of Air In Bottling
When a bottle of carbonated water contains air, a portion of the contents is ejected with violence when the bottle is opened; it also prevents good carbonating with the gas. By a careful method of cha...
-Sanitary Condition Of Bottling Establishment
A chief point in establishing a mineral-water factory is the selection of a suitable building in which to carry on the manufacturing of carbonated beverages. The general plan and arrangement of a mine...
-Storage And Shipment Of Carbonated Beyerages
When carbonated beverages are prepared for storage they must be made and bottled with extra care. The storage room should always have a normal temperature; in summer sufficiently cool, in winter not ...
-Boxes And Crates
For containing and transporting bottles of carbonated beverages boxes or crates are required. They should be of convenient size, strong and durable but light, and divided into partitions for convenien...
-Chapter XIX. Bottles And Bottle-Ware
Good Bottles Necessary. - Glass and its Components. - Etching on Glass. - Writing on Glass. - Action of Water, Acids and Alkalies; Poor Bottles Easily Attacked. - Colored Bottleware; Deleterious Effec...
-Glass And Its Components
Glass is an amorphous substance (that is, of no regular shape or form), hard and liable to break at ordinary temperatures, liquid or plastic at a high temperature, transparent or translucent, white or...
-Etching On Glass
Etching is done by hydrogen fluoride, the powerful corrosive acid obtained by heating spar or cryolite with sulphuric acid. Glass was thus etched by Schwankhart, of Nuremberg, about 1860, and the acid...
-Writing On Glass
A preparation for writing on glass called Diamond Ink is made by mixing barium sulphate, three parts; ammonium fluoride, one part; and sulphuric acid a quantity sufficient for decomposing the ammoni...
-Colored Bottleware; Deleterious Effect of Light upon Beverages; Desirable Colors for Bottles
Light has an effect upon beverages that few appreciate, or have knowledge of, but as learned in a general way from the more or less uncertain opinions sifting through the trade upon the subject. Scien...
-Testing Bottles
When the bottles are fused in a defective way, the manufacturer, in order to ease the melting of the substances composing the glass mass, having allowed an excessive proportion of potash, the glass wi...
-Chapter XX. Bottle Washing And Apparatus
Dirty Bottles Abominable. - The Use of Hot Water in Washing Bottles. - Various Methods and Machines. - Bottle Washing with Leaden Shot or Emery.- To Clean Obstinately Dirty Bottles. - Drainers. Dirty...
-Various Methods And Machines for Bottle Washing
Various methods may be adopted for washing bottles and economizing labor, but it is necessary that each be speedy and efficacious, a clean bottle being a most important necessity. We shall show severa...
-Bottle-Washing With Leaden Shot Or Emery
Leaden shot are very extensively employed for cleansing bottles. It is a convenient mechanical method in some respects, for lead is very soft as compared with glass, and owing to its high specific gra...
-To Clean Obstinately Dirty Bottles
All such bottles should be looked into and their smell tested to decide the course of cleansing. It should be considered whether the bottle to be washed is worth the material which is to be wasted upo...
-Drainers
If the bottles are dried before using them, it is an im provement. The least particle of water may contain matter detrimental to that fine blending of ingredients which is perceptible in the best manu...
-Chapter XXL. Capping, Foiling, Sealing And Labeling Bottles
Metallic Caps. - Liquid Composition for Foiling Bottles. - Tin Foil. - Paraffining Corks. - Labeling Bottles. - Formulas for Label Paste. - Label Var-nish. - Branding Corks. - Sealing Bottles. - Seali...
-Tin Foil
This is also frequently used in different colors, previously cut in sheets of the proper size. It may not be generally known that tin foil, now so widely known to the trade, is not a foil of tin alon...
-Paraffining Corks
Experiments in paraffining corks, as a protection against the action of gased liquids, demonstrated the fact that the paraffine did not penetrate the cork, but merely coated the surface. A cork of fin...
-Labeling Bottles
This is, like capping and foiling, an ornamental part of the bottlers' work, but it must be done tastefully, as an attractive label also enhances the value of the beverages. Even for this kind of work...
-Formulas For Label Paste
Pastes and mucilages are best kept in covered vessels tall enough to permit the brush to remain inside with the cover on. It should never be allowed to become encrusted with hardened paste, and the br...
-Label Varnish
1. In 48 ounces alcohol dissolve 2 ounces camphor, 4 ounces resin, 8 ounces sandarac. 2. An excellent varnish, which dries in a few seconds, and produces a colorless, smooth and shining ooat, is prep...
-Branding Corks
Another part of finishing in the bottling process consists of branding the corks. This is done to impress trade marks, the manufacturer's name or other signs on the corks. Some brand both ends, some...
-Sealing Bottles
Saccharine beverages as well as mineral waters, such as sulphur and ferruginous and other saline waters, which are not for immediate consumption, but for transportation or storage, are, besides being ...
-Sealing Wax
A good red sealing wax is prepared with the following ingredients : Shellac, ....600 parts by weight. Turpentine...600 Gypsum, chalk or magnesia, powdered, . 400 Vermillion, . . . . 150 to ...
-Chapter XXII. Cork And Patent Stoppers
The Value Of A Good Cork. - Preparing Corks for Bottling. - Impervious Corks. - Properties of Cork. - Second-hand Corks. - Securing the Cork in the Bottle. - Rubber Stoppers. - Properties and Manipula...
-The Value Of A Good Cork
Where it is a question of retaining the gas in the beverage, an inferior cork should never be used. Mineral waters are the most severe on corkwood, and, unless the best grained cork is obtained, the l...
-Preparing Corks For Bottling
Before use, clean the corks in clear cool water to remove all dust; if they are yet hard, soak them in summer in cold, in winter in warm, water a little while. Hot water should not be used, as the cor...
-Impervious Corks
1. (Bousquet's patented process.) Heat the corks to 100 C. (212 F.) in order to kill all spores -which they may contain. Then, while still hot, dip them into a solution of 1 part of albumen ...
-Properties Of Corks
In a lecture lately delivered on New Applications of the Mechanical Properties of Cork to the Arts, the lecturer demonstrated experimentally that in solid substances no appreciable change of volume ...
-Second-Hand Corks
Second-hand corks find a ready market among some bottlers who want to reduce their cost to a minimum and yet have the prestige of using corks. The quality of the beverage is not benefited, and many i...
-Securing The Corks In The Bottles
The pressure of the gas in a bottle of carbonated beverage necessitates the employment of some means of holding the cork in its place. This may be done in several ways. The oldest method is merely to ...
-Rubber Stoppers
They are made of India rubber. This substance having become of such importance to the mineral-water manufacturers, we deem it fit to append a few remarks upon its properties, manipulation, and the for...
-Properties And Manipulation Of India Rubber
Caoutchouc, India rubber, is the produce of several trees of tropical countries which yield a milky juice, hardening by exposure to the air. In a pure state it is nearly white, the dark color of comme...
-Patent Stoppers
Probably nothing has contributed more to the popularizing of carbonated beverages than the different kinds of stoppers which have been so successfully developed. As may be expected, the system of cork...
-The Floating Ball And Globe Stoppers
The principle of internally stoppering a bottle containing gaseous liquids is not new. Many and varied are the forms which have been presented for consideration; but nearly all of the internal stopper...
-The Bottle Seal
This is a simple, thin, flat disk, of specially prepared rubber packing, with a tasteless, impervious facing on the side next to the beverage. It is made of considerably larger diameter than the mouth...
-Chapter XXIII. Syphons And Syphon Filling
The Usefulness of the Syphon - .Syphon for Dispensing Saccharine Beverages, Wine and Cider. - Testing Syphons. - Breakage and Accidents. - Lead in Syphon Heads. - Syphon-Filling Machines. - Directions...
-The Usefulness Of The Syphon
Since the introduction of the syphon from France, for the dispensing of mineral waters, there have been few material improvements on the original construction of the head or syphon proper, until rec...
-Syphon For Dispensing Saccharine Beverages, Wine And Cider
A syphon capable of dispensing these beverages is greatly needed. In France and. England saccharine beverages enter into the ordinary syphon; even wine and cider in syphons is a new way of retailing t...
-Testing Syphons
All syphons should be tested by the manufacturer to stand at least 300 lbs. of pressure. As soon as received from the manufacturer they should be filled with plain soda water, and allowed to remain ...
-Lead In Syphon Heads
Carbonated water exerts a corrosive action upon lead, therefore no syphon heads containing this contaminating metal should be permitted in use. Syphon heads have suffered and been measurably deteriora...
-Syphon-Fllling Machines
Special machines must be employed to fill the syphons, usually different machines to fill the various sizes of syphons. These illustrations, Figs. 304, 305, and 306, represent the French and American...
-Directions For Operating Syphon Fillers
Adjust the filling head to fit the syphon, and fasten by means of the set screws. Place the syphon in the machine and close the screen. With the foot on the treadle force the nozzle of the syphon bott...
-Syphon Syrup Injector
When saccharine beverages are required, it is necessary to have a pump or syringe for injecting the syrup previous to charging with carbonated water. The appended illustration shows a combination for ...
-Repairing And Cleaning Syphon Heads
The ring at bottom of syphon head is cemented to the bottle, so that the top itself may be screwed on or off when a derangement occurs to be remedied. Formulas for cement for tightening leakages on a...
-Syphon Boxes
Syphon boxes of various designs for holding and transporting syphons for home trade or shipment are used. A convenient box for shipping syphons is illustrated in Fig. 315. They are made with suitable ...
-Part Fifth. Dispensing Carbonated Beverages. The Apparatus And How Used, And Necessary Accessories. Chapter XXIV. The Dispensing Of Carbonated Beverages
General Remarks. - Portable Fountains. - Directions for Charging Portable Fountains. - Cleansing of Portable Fountains. - Filling and Gauging Portable Fountains.- Care of Portable Fountains. - Re-lini...
-Portable Fountains
Where a portable cylinder, instead of stationary carbonating apparatus, is employed, it is attached by its connections to the draught apparatus and then is ready for use, remaining in its position til...
-Directions For Charging Portable Fountains
The process of charging portable fountains with carbonic acid gas differs in no material respect from the method of charging stationary fountains. The principal difference is in the agitation of the w...
-Cleansing Of Portable Fountains
Before filling and charging the portable fountains, they should be washed and rinsed out to remove all sediment which might have occurred from impure water previously used. The fountain rinser will b...
-Filling And Gauging Portable Fountains
Where many fountains have to be filled, and when regularity, accuracy and despatch are necessary, we should advise the use of a measuring cistern, a practical contrivance manufactured by the same firm...
-Care Of Portable Fountains
The same care is required as with the stationary fountains. The exterior of iron and steel fountains should be well painted as a precaution against rust. Portable fountains are intended to resist a h...
-Escape Of Gas From Fountains
Complaints are frequent that the pressure is lost from a fountain before its contents are drawn off. This is always caused either by the use of a poor washer between the cock and the top of the founta...
-The Dispensing Apparatus
Various are the devices intended for dispensing carbonated beverages directly from the fountains, and sometimes very costly and highly ornamental apparatus are put up in very attractive styles, select...
-The Cooler
The interior of the apparatus is the ice receiver. At the bottom rests the cooler F, which consists either of a coil or a few cylinders. Through this the carbonated water runs on its way to the faucet...
-The Draught Arms
The draught arms or faucets, through which the beverage is discharged from the cooler into the tumbler, must be so constructed as to reduce the loss of gas by friction to a minimum. The outlets must b...
-Care Of Dispensing Apparatus
Keep the metal work well polished; rub it frequently with a clean chamois skin. Cleansing pastes for bright metal parts: We have already given formulas in Part III. in Maintaining of Apparatus. The...
-Storage Of Apparatus
At close of season the counter apparatus should be taken apart and thoroughly cleansed and dried. The foun-tain and coolers should be rinsed with alcohol and dried inside by exposure to moderate heat....
-Acids Should Be Avoided
Any defect of polish may be brought up with tripoli, followed by putty powder, both being used along with water. James W. Tufts gives the following directions in regard to care of marble: If the ma...
-Cement For Marble
Take eight parts of resin and one part wax, to which, when melted together, add four parts plaster Paris. Use while hot. Use no more than is sufficient to cover well the parts to be cemented. Another...
-General Rules For Dispensing Carbonated Beverages
In regard to the preparation of syrups, follow closely directions appended hereafter. A great many formulas are attached both for the bottling and especially for dispensing. The syrups should be of t...
-Drink Halls
In the principal German cities or towns, in public places or thoroughfares, there are established charmingly decorated trink-halles, where carbonated beverages and light refreshments are sold by nea...
-Portable Soda-Water Carts
In the South of Europe, the Balkan States and Russia, we meet frequently with a vehicle which represents a movable soda counter, as shown in the illustration (Fig. 347). The interior of this cart is f...
-Grasogene Or Seltzogene
By means of these apparatus, soda-water, sparkling lemonade, wines, etc., and all kinds of carbonated waters, can be made almost instantly. They are very convenient and useful for families, as an arti...
-Quantities For Charging The Different Sizes Of Gasogenes
For the Quart Size: Use 4 drachms of tartaric acid (in small crystals) and 5 drachms of bi-carbonate of soda (in powders). For the Half-Gallon Size: Use 6 drachms of tartaric acid (in small crystals) ...
-Hot Soda-Water Apparatus
Hot soda water, so-called, is not water impregnated with carbonic acid gas. It is simply hot water flavored with such syrups as coffee, chocolate, ginger, etc. Sometimes wine syrup or punch extracts...
-Part Sixth. The Laboratory. Necessary Requirements - Filtration And Clarification - Percolation And Maceration. Chapter XXV. Utensils Required, With Valuable Comparative Tables
General Requisites. - The Carbonator's Analytical Laboratory. - Tables of Weights and Measures. - British Weights and Measures. - Metric Weights and Measures. - Measures of Length. - Measures of Surfa...
-Separators And Separatory Funnels, Scales And Weights
One scale of larger capacity for weighing considerable quantities at one time, with proper avoirdupois weights. Another smaller scale of about five pounds capacity, for weighing quantities from half a...
-The Carbonator's Analytical Laboratory
The above engraving shows an outline of a small, but compact and complete, practical laboratory for bottlers' use, with all the necessary reagents and utensils required for the examination of water, c...
-Tables Of Weights And Measures
The weights employed in the manufacture of carbonated beverages is the Avoirdupois Weight. Pound. Ounces. Drachms. Grains. 1 16 = 128 = 7680 ...
-A Pint Not A Pound
It is generally understood that one pint (wine measure) is equal to one pound avoirdupois, and the graduated measures are more The measure employed in the manufacture of carbonated beverages is the Ap...
-Atmospheric And Water-Pressure
A pressure of one atmosphere, or 14.7 pounds per square inch, is exerted by a column of water 33.947 feet high at 16.5 C. A column of water at 16.5 C, one foot high, presses on the base with...
-Standard Solutions
A 10 per cent, solution means ten parts of substance in one hundred of solution, and the same for other percentages. The term parts in formulas generally means parts by weight, whether referring to...
-The Hydrometers
Of the various methods employed for determining the density of liquids, none appear to be so well adapted for ordinary service as the hydrometer (aerometer). While this class of instruments does not y...
-Baume's Hydrometer
The hydrometers most frequently used in the United States and other countries are those constructed upon the plan of Baume. Fig. 355. - Baume's Hydrometer. Fig. 356. - Hydrometer Jar. For...
-Using A Hydrometer
In order to use a hydrometer properly, it is necessary to observe two precautions: 1. The liquid to be tested should be at exactly the standard temperature (60 F. in the United States, 12.5...
-Thermometers
In Fahrenheit's thermometer, which is universally employed in this country and Great Britain, the freezing point of water is placed at 32, and the boiling point at 212, and the number of int...
-Chapter XXVI. Filtration And Clarification Of Extracts, Essences, Etc
Remarks. - Filtration. - Filters and Strainers. - Form of Filters. - Filtering Medium. - How to Make Paper Filters. - Funnels. - Filtering Paper and How to Purify It. - Adulterated Filtering Paper. - ...
-Straining
The word filitration is absolutely synonymous with straining, but in the language of the laboratory it is usually applied to the operation of rendering liquids transparent, or nearly so, by passin...
-Filters And Strainers
The apparatus, vessels, or media, employed for filtration, are called filters and are technically distinguished from strainers by the superior fineness of their pores. Both strainers and filters...
-Form Of Filters
The form of filters, and the substances of which they are composed, are various, and depend upon the nature of the liquids for which they are intended. On the small scale, funnels of tin, zinc, copper...
-Filtering Medium
The filtering medium may be any substance of a sufficiently spongy or porous nature to allow of the free percolation of the liquid, and whose pores are, at the same time, sufficiently small to render ...
-How To Make Paper Filters
Filters of unsized paper are well suited for all liquids that are not of a corrosive or viscid nature, and are universally employed for filtering small quantities of liquids in the laboratory. A piece...
-Funnels
In reference to funnels, it may be remarked that those employed for filtering rapidly should be deeply ribbed, best spirally, on the inside, or small rods of wood or glass, or pieces of straw, or quil...
-Filtering Paper, And How To Purify It
Good filtering paper should contain no soluble matter, and should not give more than 1/250 to 1/230 of its weight of ashes. The soluble matter may be removed by washing it, first with very dilute hydr...
-Resisting Filtering Paper
If filtering paper be dipped in nitric acid of 1.42 specific gravity, or, better, saturated with it and then washed with water, it becomes exceedingly tough without loosening any of its porosity. It p...
-Adulterated Filtering Paper
To increase the weight of filtering paper, gypsum has been incorporated with it, and as much as 1 gramme in a sheet weighing 14 grammes has been detected. The Jour. Ph. Chim. remarks, Considering the...
-Filtering Paper Pulp
Place any amount of paper (filtering paper is not necessary, though it is the best) in a mortar, or other vessel, upon which pour enough solution of soda or potassa to very thoroughly wet it; stir it ...
-To Filter Larger Quantities
For filtering a larger quantity of a liquid than can be conveniently managed with a funnel, and also for sub-stances that are either too viscid or too much loaded with feculence to allow them to pass ...
-Filtering Vessels
When solid substances, as porous stone or earthenware, are used as the media for filtrations, vessels of metal, wood, or stone-ware are employed to contain them and the supernatant liquid. In these ca...
-Liquors That Are Submitted To Filtration
Among the liquids usually submitted to filtration, the following may be mentioned as the principal: water, oils, syrups, tinctures, vegetable juices, infusions, and decoctions. The filtration of wate...
-Filtration Of Aqueous Solutions On A Small Scale
A filter which possesses the advantages of being easily and cheaply cleaned when dirty, and which frees solutions from suspended matter or mechanical impurities with immense rapidity, may be formed by...
-Filtering Aqueous Solutions On A Large Scale
Aqueous solutions are filtered practically through long bags, made of twilled cotton cloth (Canton flannel). These bags are usually made about twelve or fifteen inches in diameter, and from four to ei...
-Filtering Oils
We may mention that by the same filtering arrangement oils also are filtered on the large scale; however, this goes only for information. On the small scale the manufacturer of carbonated beverages ma...
-Filtering Syrups
The filtration of syrups is now generally effected on the large scale by passing them through the arrangement just described. On the small scale, as employed by bottlers and druggists, they are usuall...
-Filtering Tinctures And Dilute Spirits
They are usually filtered, on the small scale, through bibulous or unsized paper placed on a funnel; and on the large scale, through thin and fine cotton bags. In general, however, they clarify themse...
-Clarifying Vegetable Infusions And Decoctions
Vegetable infusions and decoctions may be cleared by defecation, followed by filtration. The conical bags of flannel before described are usually employed for this purpose. When the liquid is to be ev...
-Filtering Corrosive Liquids
Corrosive liquids, as the strong acids, are filtered through powdered, glass, or so-called glasswool, or siliceous sand, supported on pebbles in the throat of a glass funnel, or through asbestos or gu...
-First Runnings From A Water Filter
The first runnings of liquid from a filter are commonly foul, and are pumped back or returned until the fluid runs perfectly limpid and transparent, when it is turned into thefiltered liquor cist...
-Application Of Filtering Or Clarifying Powders
In the employment of these powders care should be taken that they are not in too line a state of division, nor used in larger quantities than are absolutely necessary, as they are apt to choke up the ...
-Preparation Of Filtering Or Clarifying Powders Or Compounds
A clarifying powder or compound is employed for separating and precipitating the resinous matter of essential oils or essences, etc. The best known remedies for these purposes are, calcined alum and m...
-Formulas For Clarifying Powders Or Compounds
1. Simple Clarifying Powder Take 1 lb. crystallized commercial alum, heat over a free fire in an earthenware pot, and stir constantly until all becomes a white, porous mass. When cold, powder the mas...
-Clarifying With Magnesia
This is done by mixing calcined or carbonate of magnesia with part of the liquid or essence to be clarified in a mortar, rubbing with the pestle until it becomes a paste or jelly, and then adding and ...
-Self-Acting Filters
It is often of great advantage to render a filter self-acting, or to construct it in such a way that it may feed itself, so that it may continue full and at work without the constant attention of ...
-Pressure Filters
In the common method of filtration no pressure is exerted beyond that of the weight of the column of the liquid resting on the filtering medium, but in some cases additional pressure is employed. This...
-Upward Filtration And Water Filter
The filters already noticed are those that act by the fluid descending through the media; but in some cases the reverse method is employed, and the liquid filters upward instead of downwards. These ar...
-A Quick Water Filter
Take a clear piece of chamois skin, free from thin places; cut it of the desired length; wash it in a weak solution of sal soda or any alkali, to remove the grease, and rinse thoroughly in cold water ...
-Practical Filtering Apparatus
An apparatus for filtering through flannel or felt in an upward direction and under pressure of a column of the liquid suitable for filtering oils, syrups, extracts, essences, tinctures, infusions or ...
-Chapter XXVII. Percolation, Evaporation, Distillation, Digestion And Maceration
Introduction. - Process of Percolation or Displacement. - Shape of Percola-tors. - Danger of Tin Percolators. - Powdering Drugs. - Fineness of Pow-ders. - Preservation of Powders.- Packing of Percolat...
-Process Of Percolation Or Displacement
The process of percolation or displacement consists in subjecting a substance or substances, in powder, contained in a vessel called a percolator, to the solvent action of successive portions of mens...
-Shape Of Percolators
The percolator most suitable should be nearly cylindrical or slightly conical, with a funnel-shaped termination at the smaller end. The neck of this funnel-end should be rather short, and should grad...
-Danger Of Tin Percolators
It is known that tin percolators are, unfortunately, largely used, but they are in most instances objectionable, not only because they are not as nice and durable as glass, but because they are acted ...
-Powdering Drugs
All solid drugs have to be reduced to powder for percolation. If a coarse powder is required or allowed by the formula, bruising the substance, that is, breaking it merely into a coarse powder, in a ...
-Preservation Of Powders
When perfectly free from moisture, vegetable powders may be preserved in hermetically sealed vessels; but since they attract moisture on occasional exposure, it is much better to keep them in a dry p...
-Packing Of Percolator
The powdered substance to be percolated (which must be uniformly of the fineness directed in the formula, and should be perfectly air-dry before it is weighed) is put into a basin, the specified quan...
-Commencement Of Percolation
To begin percolation, the rubber tube is lowered and its glass end introduced into the neck of the bottle previously marked for the quantity of liquid to be percolated if the percolate is to be measu...
-Percolating Dregs Of Tincture
When the dregs of a tincture or similar preparation are to be subjected to percolation after maceration, with all or with the greater portion of the menstruum, the liquid portion should be drained of...
-Experiments And Suggestions On Percolation
In conducting a series of experiments on percolation, Dr. Squibb (1866) proved, first, that there is a sufficient degree of uniformity of results to admit of the adoption of a model plan of proceedin...
-Recovery Of Menstruum
After the exhaustion of the powder has been accomplished, the absorbed alcohol may be recovered by distillation with steam, or, when this is impracticable, it may be obtained by percolation with a we...
-The Process Of Repercolation
Repercolation, or, as it has been called by Professor Diehl, fractional percolation, is a process recommended by Dr. Squibb, in 1866, and was more recently somewhat modified with the view of obtainin...
-Sectional Percolation
This is a modification of this process proposed by William M. Thomson (1883). The percolator is an elongated cone, which may be taken apart in sections, each section forming a percolator, ending belo...
-Percolation Under Pressure
The first notice of percolation under pressure was given by Count Real, who constructed an apparatus known as Real' s solution-press or filter-press, and which consisted in a tin percolator surmounte...
-Hot And Cold Percolating Process
Hot percolation is impracticable. Any percolate which is obtained by heated liquids is over-saturated, and necessarily deposits on cooling such matters as it cannot retain in solution, and with every ...
-Evaporation
Spontaneous evaporation at ordinary temperatures of the atmosphere is easily accomplished with ethereal and similar volatile liquids, but alcoholic tinctures, in order to avoid a too-prolonged contac...
-Changes By Evaporation
All plants contain one or more principles, which, though originally colorless, are very easily altered under the influence of air a ad heat, acquiring a yellow or brown color. It is not known whether...
-Consistence Of Extracts
The Pharmacopoeia recognizes three degrees of consistence, namely, 1, like thick honey (Extr. malti); 2, pilular consistence; and 3, dry. In the manufacture of carbonated beverages, fluid extracts are...
-Modification Of The Pharmaceutical Process Of Percolation For Bottlers' Purposes
The foregoing instructions and information, which we have to a great extent borrowed from the United States Pharmacopoeia and National Dispensatory, are, in general, applicable in preparing extracts f...
-Distillation
Distillation is called the process of evaporation, and subsequent condensation of the vapor of fluids, by means of a still and condenser or other similar apparatus. Fractional distillation is the sepa...
-Separation
On cooling, the distillate separates into two layers, one being a solution of the volatile oil in water, the other the pure oil. A tall cylinder or flask is used (Fig. 385), which, near the bottom, ha...
-Digestion And Maceration
Digestion in the sense of preparing extracts, essences or tinctures, means the exposing of the drugs with the extractive liquid to a gentle and continuous heat. On the small scale the most convenient...
-Alcoholic Menstruum
Most tinctures of the United States Pharmacopoeia are prepared with diluted alcohol, of the British Pharmacopoeia with proof spirit, and of the French and German Pharmacopoeias with alcohol of about ...
-Strength Of Tinctures
Various rules are given for their preparation. In this country and England, the officinal tinctures are made in the proportion of 1 troy ounce of drug to 8 fluid ounces of tincture. In Germany and Fra...
-Infusions
Infusions are aqueous solutions of the soluble principies of vegetable or animal drugs, obtained by maceration or digestion in hot or cold water, and differ from decoction only in the lower degree ...
-Decoctions
When the active principles of vegetable drugs are exhausted by boiling with water, decoctions are obtained. Such preparations are obviously not adapted to drugs, the activity of which depends upon pr...
-Hints For Laboratory Work
There is science in cleansing obstinately dirty bottles, jars, mortars, and other apparatus used in the car-bonator's laboratory. Before cleansing an implement, the first thing to consider is whether ...
-Removing Odors From Bottles
Rinse with a solution of permanganate of potassium, followed by diluted sulphuric acid. In many cases a solution of chlorinated lime or chlorinated soda will answer the same purpose. Cleaning Essenti...
-Preserving Rubber Tubing
To prevent cracking, hardening, etc., and to improve it, dip in melted paraffine of 100 C. (212 F.) and keep therein for some time. In a few hours it will have absorbed a small percentage of...
-Part Seventh. Natural And Artificial Mineral Waters. Chemical Components - Analyses And Imitations. Chapter XXVIII. Mineral Waters And Their Chemical Components
Definition And Commercial Aspects Of Mineral Waters. - Natural vs. Artificial Mineral Waters. - Classification of Mineral Waters, - Imitations of Mineral Waters. - How to Produce an Imitation. - Metho...
-Definition And Commercial Aspects Of Mineral Waters
The definition will depend somewhat upon the point of view. Water is itself a mineral, and in a strict sense all waters holding gaseous or mineral substances in solution are mineral waters, no matter ...
-Natural vs. Artificial Mineral Waters
It may be fairly presumed that natural mineral waters are natural only so far as the water is concerned, for as the spring rises, it is obvious that artificial means must be used to put the requisite ...
-Classification Of Mineral Waters
The classification of mineral waters is a subject the consideration of which would require a separate book, as its discussion is beset with many difficulties. All that is necessary here is to indicate...
-Imitations Of Mineral Waters
Imitations of mineral spring waters are made by dissolving the salts which constitute the bases of the natural mineral waters in distilled or ordinary water, impregnated with gases, especially carbon...
-How To Produce A Mineral Water Imitation
To produce mineral waters that will yield, by analysis, the same component parts combined in the same proportions and manner as in the natural springs, is an operation that requires considerable chemi...
-Mineral Water Chemical Components Divided Into Groups
For the better explanation and easy comprehension of the chemical components of the artificially prepared mineral waters, we have placed the same in seven distinct groups, with explanatory remarks fol...
-General Directions For Compounding Artificial Mineral Waters
The proper method in the process employed for the imitation of the composition of natural water should be to imitate as closely as possible, and to attain this end it is necessary, as nearly as may be...
-Pumping Salt Solutions From Slate Tanks A Defective Plan
Should these operations be carried on in the cylinder or condenser of a continuous apparatus, English plan, it is necessary to work it intermittently and to disconnect the pump from the fly-wheel, whi...
-Methods For Preparing Ferruginous Waters
In Germany, the mother country of natural and artificial mineral waters, they apply the following rules when iron or manganese salts are constituents of the artificial mineral waters. The cylinder is ...
-Preservatives For Mineral Waters
The preservatives recommended for mineral waters, with iron as a constituent, are various, and we shall consider here only those which are of practical value. 1. Aug. Husemann in Chur, in the Archive...
-The Chemical Components And Their Properties
It is important for the manufacturers of artificial mineral waters to be acquainted with the properties of the chemical components entering into the artificial combinations, and for this reason we app...
-Acid Hydrochloric (Muriatic Acid; HCl; 36.4)
The chemically pure acid is a liquid composed of 31.9 per cent, of absolute hydrochloric acid and 68.1 per cent, of water. It should be preserved in glass-stoppered bottles. A colorless, fuming liquid...
-Acid Hydro-Sulphuric (Sulphuretted Hydrogen)
Hydrogen sulphide (H.28; 34) is obtained by the action of sulphuric acid on pyrites. It is a colorless gas, having a disgusting odor suggesting that of rotten eggs. Its specific gravity is 1.19; water...
-Alum (Alumen; Potassa-alum; Sulphate of Alumine and Potassa)
Alum (Alumen; Potassa-alum; Sulphate of Alumine and Potassa; K2 Al2SO; 24H3O; 948.) -This is the commercial alum, consisting of sulphate of alumine and sulphate of potassa. Large, colorless, octahedra...
-Aluminium Chloride, Anhydrous (Al2C6; 267.8)
The pure salt is best prepared by dissolving aluminium hydrate in hydrochloric acid and evaporating carefully, when crystals containing 12H3O are obtained, which are readily soluble in water and alcoh...
-Ammonium Carbonate (Carbonate of Ammonia; Nh4o,HO,2Co2; 2Nh3co2; 157)
Carbonate of ammonium should be preserved in well-stoppered bottles in a cool place. White, translucent masses, consisting of bicarbonate (acid carbonate) of ammonium and carbamate of ammonium, losing...
-Ammonium Chloride (Nh4cl; 53.4)
A snow white, crystalline powder, permanent in the air, odorless, having a cooling, saline taste and a slightly acid reaction. Soluble in 3 parts of water at 15 C. (59 F.), and 1.37 parts of...
-Barium Chloride (BaCl2; 2H3O; 244)
Colorless, translucent rhom-boidal tables or lamellae. It is permanent in the air at the ordinary temperature, but loses one-half of its water above 55 C. (131 F.), and becomes anhydrous at ...
-Borate of Sodium (Borax; Na2B4O7,; 10H3O; 382)
Colorless, transparent, shining, monoclinic prisms, slightly efflorescent in dry air, odorless, having a mild, cooling, sweetish, afterward somewhat alkaline taste, and an alkaline reaction. Soluble i...
-Calcium Bi-Carbonate
In all cases where this appears in the analysis, we have substituted the corresponding equivalents in calcium carbonate, as free carbonic acid enough is present to convert it into bi-carbonate. ...
-Calcium Bromide (CaBr2;199.6)
Bromide of calcium should be preserved in well-stoppered bottles. A white, granular salt, very deliquescent, odorless, having a pungent, saline and bitter taste, and a neutral reaction. Soluble in 0.7...
-Calcium Chloride, Anhydrous (CaCl2; 111)
Chloride of calcium, deprived of its water by fusion at a low red heat. It should be preserved in well-stopped bottles. Colorless, slightly translucent, hard and friable masses, very deliquescent, odo...
-Calcium Nitrate (Ca(No3)2; 164)
This is sometimes a component of mineral waters. It should be preserved in well-stoppered bottles, as it readily absorbs moisture from the air It is best kept in solution, or, still better, prepared f...
-Calcium Sulphate (Sulphate of Lime; CaSo4; 2H3O; 172)
This compound is met with in nature in several forms; the most familiar is gypsum. On adding sulphuric acid or a sulphate to a solution of a calcium salt the same compound is precipitated. Sulphate of...
-Iron Chloride (Iron Chloride, Anhydrous; FeCl2; 127)
Iron, in the form of fine wire and cut into small pieoes, fifteen parts; hydrochloric acid, eighty-six parts; nitric acid, distilled water, each, a sufficient quantity. Put the iron wire into a flask ...
-Iron Reduced (Fe; 56)
A very fine, grayish-black, lustreless powder, permanent in dry air, without odor or taste and insoluble in water or alcohol. When ignited in contact with air, it is converted into ferric oxide. When ...
-Iron Sulphate' (FeSo47h3o; 278)
Sulphate of iron should be kept in well-closed vessels. Large, pale bluish-green, monoclinic prisms, efflorescent and absorbing oxygen on exposure to air, without odor, having a saline, styptic taste,...
-Iron Pyrophosphate (2 Fe2O33bPo59ho; 455.5)
Citrate of iron, nine parts; pyrophosphate of sodium, ten parts; distilled water, eighteen parts. Dissolve the citrate of iron in the distilled water, by heating on a water-bath. To this solution add ...
-Lithium Carbonate, (Carbonate of Lithia; Li2Co3; 74)
Alight, white powder, permanent in the air, odorless, having an alkaline taste, and an alkaline reaction. Soluble in 130 parts of water at 15 C. (59 F.), and in about the same proportion of ...
-Lithium Chloride, Anhydrous, (LiCI; 42.5)
It crystallizes in anhydrous cubes or octahedrons, having a saline taste and melting at a red heat, and is freely soluble in alcohol and in spirit of ether. Exposed to the atmosphere, it forms prisms ...
-Magnesium Carbonate, (Carbonate of Magnesia Hydr; MgCo3h3o; 138)
Light, white, friable masses, or a light, white powder, odorless and tasteless, insoluble in alcohol, and almost insoluble in water, to which, however, it imparts a feebly alkaline reaction. When stro...
-Magnesium Carbonate Hydrate
The commercial carbonate of magnesium may, if desired, be prepared after the following directions: Dissolve 3 parts by weight of crystallized sulphate of magnesium in 10 parts of distilled water, filt...
-Magnesium Chloride, Anhydrous (MgCl2; 95)
It is a product of chemical factories, but is frequently prepared in the laboratory of the mineral-water factory from magnesium carbonate by neutralization with hydrochloric (muriatic) acid. It crysta...
-Magnesium Nitrate (Nitrate of Magnesia; MgN03 2; 148)
It is very seldom found in mineral waters, and then but in trifling quantities. The commercial magnesium nitrate liquifies readily, and is best kept in stock in solution 0r one part by weight in nine ...
-Magnesium Sulphate (Epsom Salt, Sulphate of Magnesia; MgSo47h3o; 246)
Sulphate of magnesium should be kept in well-closed vessels. Small, colorless, right-rhombic prisms, or acicular needles, slowly efflorescent in dry air, odorless, having a cooling, saline and bitter ...
-Manganese Chloride, Anhydrous (MnCl2; 126)
Keep in well-stoppered bottles. It is obtained by treating black oxide of manganese with hydrochloric acid. The salt is in granular, or, when slowly evaporated, in tabular crystals of a pale rose-red ...
-Manganese Sulphate (MnSo44h3o; 223)
Sulphate of manganese should be kept in well-stopped bottles. Colorless, or pale rose-colored, transparent, right-rhombic prisms, crystallized at a temperature between 20 and 30 0. (68 ...
-Potassium Carbonate (K2co3 138)
Carbonate of potassium should be kept in well-stopped bottles. A white, crystalline or granular powder, very deliquescent, odorless, having a strongly alkaline taste, and an alkaline reaction. Soluble...
-Potassium Chloride (Kalium Chloridum "Chloratum" Kci; 74.4)
It is obtained in large quantities at Stassfurt from carnallite, a double chloride of potassium and magnesium, and forms white or colorless, inodorous cubes or quadrangular prisms, which have a saline...
-Potassium Nitrate (Kno3; 101)
Colorless, transparent, six-sided, rhombic prisms, or a crystalline powder, permanent in the air, odorless, having a cooling, saline, and pungent taste, and a neutral reaction. Soluble in 4 parts of w...
-Sulphate Potassium (Sulphate of Potash; K2So3; 174)
Colorless, hard, six-sided, rhombic prisms, permanent in the air, odorless, having a sharp, saline, slightly bitter taste, and a neutral reaction. Soluble in 9 parts of water at 15 C. (59 F....
-Sodium Arseniate, Dry (Arseniate of Soda, Sodii Arsenias; Na3 AsO4; 208)
Arseniate of sodium should be kept in well-stopped vials. Colorless, transparent, prismatic crystals, slightly efflorescent in dry air, odorless, having a mild, feebly alkaline taste, and a faintly al...
-Sodium Bromide, Anhydrous (NaBr; 103)
Bromide of sodium should be kept in well-stopped bottles. Small, colorless or white, monoclinic crystals, or a crystalline powder, permanent in dry air, odorless, having a saline, slightly bitter tast...
-Sodium Carbonate (Carbonate of Soda; Na2Co31oh3o; 286)
Carbonate of sodium should be kept in well-closed vessels. Large, colorless, monoclinic crystals, rapidly efflorescing in dry air, and falling into a white powder, odorless, having a sharp, alkaline t...
-Sodium Fluoride (NaF; 42)
It is obtained by neutralization ol hydrofluoric acid with sodium carbonate. Colorless or opalescent crystals. With difficulty soluble in 25 parts of water. It is very seldom required in the combinati...
-Sodium Iodide, Anhydrous (NaI; 150)
Iodide of sodium should be kept in well-stopped bottles. Minute, colorless or white, monoclinic crystals, or a crystalline powder, deliquescent on exposure to air, odorless, having a saline and slight...
-Sodium Nitrate (Nitrate of Soda; NaN03; 85)
Nitrate of sodium should be kept in well-stopped bottles. . Colorless, transparent, rhom-bohedral crystals, slightly deliquescent in damp air, odorless, having a cooling, saline and slightly bitter ta...
-Sodium Phosphate (Phosphate of Soda; NaPo4;164)
Phosphate of sodium should be kept in well-stopped bottles, in a cool place. Large, colorless, transparent, monoclinic prisms, speedily efflorescent and becoming opaque on exposure to air, odorless, h...
-Sodium Pyrophosphate (N4P2O710H3O; 446)
Colorless, translucent, monoclinic prisms, permanent in the air, odorless, having a cooling, saline and feebly alkaline taste, and a slightly alkaline reaction. Soluble in 12 parts of water at 15...
-Sodium Silicate (Natron Water glass; 3NaO.2SiO3; 183)
Commercial silicate of sodium is in a liquid state, and should be kept in well-closed vessels, as the solution would absorb carbonic acid from the air and separate silicate. A semi-transparent, almost...
-Sodium Sulphate (Sulphate of Soda, Glauber's Salt; Na2So41oh3o; 322)
Sulphate of soda should be kept in well-stopped bottles. Large, colorless, transparent, monoclinic prisms, rapidly efflorescing on exposure to air, and ultimately falling into a white powder, odorless...
-Strontium Chloride, Dry (SrCl2;58.6)
Keep in well-stopped bottles. Is prepared by dissolving natural carbonate of strontium in hydrochloric? acid. Long, colorless needles, easily soluble in water and also in strong alcohol; absorbing mo...
-Chapter XXIX. Analyses And Imitations Of Natural Mineral Water
The Different Springs. - Explanation of Arrangement. - Analysis of, and Recipe for Making Artificially, Aachen or Aix-la-Chapelle (Kaiserquelle, 1. - Aachen or Aix-la-Chapelle (Kaiserquelle), 2. - Apo...
-Aachen Or Aix-La-Chapelle (Kaiserquelle), 1
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Rhenish Prussia. Analysis of Manheim-Struve, 1829. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand.) Analysis. Soda carbonate....... 86.062 Soda sulphate........ 27.615 Soda p...
-Aachen Or Aix-La-Chapelle (Kaiserquelle), 2
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Rhenish Prussia. Analysis of Liebig, 1851. (Parts in One Thousand). Analysis. Sodium chloride.......2.6394 Sodium bromide.......0.0036 Sodium iodide........0....
-Apollinaris, 1
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Ahrwei ler, Germany. Analysis of Professors J. Bischoff and Mohr, and Drs. C. Bischoff and Kyll. The constituents of the natural Apollinaris are not always consta...
-Apollinaris, 2
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Ahrwei-ler, Germany. Mean of Eight Analyses made in 1877. (Parts in Ten Thousand.) Analysis. Soda carbonate.......9.5555 Sodium chloride......3.7645 Soda sulp...
-Apollinaris, 3
Analysis of and Formula for Making.-Ahr-walter, Germany. Analysis of Tichborne (United States Dispensatory). Sixteen ounces of the bottled water contained: Analysis. Sodium bicarbonate .1...
-Bareges
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Bareges, France. Analysis of Filhol, 1852. Analysis. Parts in 1000 Parts in 10,000 Source de la Chapelle. Source du Tambur. ...
-Bilin (Josefsquelle)
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Bo hernia, Austria. Analysis of Struve. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand. Analysis. Potash sulphate...... 22.591 Soda carbonate.............295.845 Soda sulphat...
-Blue Lick (Lower)
Analysis of and Formula for Making, - Analysis of Robert Peter, 1850. (Parts in One Thousand.) Analysis. I. II. Sodium carbonate .............. - ............... 0....
-Bethesda
Analysis and Formula for Making. - Waukesha, Wis. Analysis of C. F. Chandler. (Grains in one United States Gallon.) Analysis. Sodium bicarbonate...... 1.26 Calcium bicarbonate.....17.02 Magnesium ...
-Booklet (Stahlquelle)
Analysis of and Formula for Making- Bavaria, Germany. Analysis of Kastner, 1836. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand.) Analysis. Potassium chloride.... 1.918 Soda sulphate....... 33.100 Soda phosphate....
-Carlsbad
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Bohemia, Austria. Analysis of Berzelius and Bauer. N. B. - The different springs of Carlsbad are, according to the examinations of Berzelius and Bauer, in regard...
-Cheltenham
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Gloucester-shire, England. Analysis of Cowper, Abel, C. Rowney and Accum. (Parts in Ten Thousand.) Analysis. Group Montpellier. Royal Old Wells. ...
-Carlsbad (Sprudel)
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Bohemia, Austria. Analysis of Ragsky, 1862. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand.) Analysis Potash sulphate............. 16.359 Soda carbonate.......
-Cudowa, 1
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Prussia, Germany. Analysis of Struve. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand.) Analysis. Potash sulphate....... 12.565 Soda carbonate....... 71.296 Soda sulphate........
-Cudowa, 2
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Prussia, Germany. Analysis of Duflos. (Parts in Sixteen Ounces.) Soda sulphate........ 5.424 Soda carbonate........ 9.408 Lime carbonate....... 3.767 Magnesia...
-Deep Rock
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Oswego, N. Y. Analysis of S. H. Douglas. (Grains in One United States Gallon.) Analysis. Calcium carbonate...... 18.19 Sodium chloride.......308.18 Potassium ...
-Eger (Kaiser-Franzensbad, Franzensbrunnen)
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Bohemia, Austria. Analysis of Berzelius, Bauer-Struve, 1822. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand.) Analysis. Potash sulphate...... 12.617 Soda carbonate....... 67.3...
-Eger (Kaiser-Franzensbad, Louisenquelle)
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Bohemia, Austria. Analysis of Tromsdorf-Struve, 1828. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand.) Analysis. Soda carbonate.......47.780 Soda sulphate........278.890 Sodi...
-Eger (Kaiser-Franzensbad, Salzbrunnen)
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Bohemia, Austria. Analysis of Berzelius-Struve, 1882. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand.) Analysis. Soda carbonate....... 66.650 Soda sulphate........280.208 Sod...
-Eger (Kaiser-Franzensbad, Wiesenquelle)
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Analysis of Zembsch-Struve, 1838. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand.) Analysis. Soda carbonate........ 83.382 Soda sulphate........333.515 Soda phosphate....... ...
-Ems (Kesselbrunnen), 1
Analysis of and Formula for Mak-ing. - Nassau, Germany. Analysis of Struve-Bauer. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand.) Analysis. Potash sulphate...... 7.031 Potassium chloride..... 0.586 Soda carbonat...
-Ems (Kesselbrunnen), 2
Analysis of and Formula for Mak-ing. - Nassau, Germany. Analysis of Fresenius, 1871. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand.) Analysis. Potash sulphate....... 4.3694 Soda bicarbonate......198.9682 Soda su...
-Ems (Kraehnchen), 1
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Nassau, Germany. Analysis of Bauer-Struve. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand.) Analysis. Potash sulphate...... 6.431 Potassium chloride .... 5.068 Soda carbonate...
-Ems (Kraenchen), 2
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Nassau, Germany. Analysis of Fresenius, 1871. Parts in One Hundred Thousand.) Analysis. Potash sulphate ...... 3.6773 Soda bicarbonate......197.9016 Soda sulp...
-Ems (Victoria-Felsenquelle)
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Nassau, Germany. Analysis of Fresenius, 1869. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand.) Analysis. Potash sulphate....... 4.5095 Soda bicarbonate......202.0054 Soda sul...
-Faschingen, 1
Analysis and Formula for Making. - Nassau, Prussia. Analysis of Bischoff-Struve. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand.) Analysis. Soda carbonate.......214.023 Soda sulphate........ 2.188 Soda phosphate....
-Faschingen, 2
Analysis of and Formula for Making, - Nassau, Prussia. Analysis of Fresenius. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand.) Analysis. Soda sulphate........ 4.785 Potassium chloride...... 3.976 Soda carbonate.....
-Friedrichshall (Bitterwater), 1
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Saxe-Meiningen, Germany. Analysis of Bauer-Struve. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand.) Analysis. Potash sulphate....... 0.233 Soda sulphate........1300.601 Sodiu...
-Friedrichshall (Bitterwater), 2
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Saxe-Meiningen, Germany. Analysis of Liebig. (Parts in Sixteen Ounces.) Analysis. Potash sulphate....... 1.523 Soda sulphate........46.510 Magnesia sulphate.....
-Clysmic Spring
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Wauke-sha, Wisconsin. Analysis of Ogden Doremus, 1883. (Parts in One United States Gallon.) Analysis. Sodium bicarbonate...... 4.431 Calcium bicarbonate.....16...
-Harrowgate
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Yorkshire, England. Analysis of A. W. Hoffmann, 1854. (Parts in One Thousand.) Analysis. Sulphur Water. Chalybeate Water. Old Sulphu...
-Hartford Cold Springs
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Maine. Analysis of 1882. (Parts in One United States Gallon.) Analysis. Magnesium bicarbonate....1.92 Calcium bicarbonate.......23.27 Iron bicarbonate..........
-Homburg-Vor-Der-Hohe, (Elizabethquelle), 1
Analysis of and Formula for Making. -Nassau, Germany. Analysis of Bauer-Struve. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand.) Analysis. Potash sulphate...... 4.092 Potash nitrate....... 2.121 Potassium chlori...
-Homburgvor Der Hohe (Elizabethquelle), 2
Analysis of and Formula for Making.- Nassau, Germany. Analysis of Fresenius, 1864. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand.) Analysis. Potassium chloride..... 34.627 Sodium chloride....... 986.090 Lithium ...
-Hunyadi Janos, 1
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Ofen, Hungary. Analysis of C. Knapp, made in Liebig's Laboratory, 1870. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand.) Analysis. Potash sulphate....... 8.49 Soda carbonate.....
-Hunyadi Janos, 2
Analysis of and Formula for Making, - Ofen, Hungary. Analysis of Molnar, 1874. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand.) Analysis. Potash sulphate....... 5.32 Soda carbonate.......250.30 Soda sulphate........
-Hunyadi Janos, 3
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Ofen, Hungary. Dr. Matthew Charteris, in Lancet (England) says: The Hunyadi Janos water is an efficient, safe and agreeable purgative in many chronic cases. At ...
-Kissingen, 1
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Bavaria, Germany. Analysis of Kastner-Bauer-Struve. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand.) Analysis. Rakoczy. Pandur. Potash sulphate............
-Eissingen, 2
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Bavaria, Germany. Analysis of Liebig. (Parts in Sixteen Ounces.) Analysis. Rakoczy. Pandur. Iron carbonate.................... 0.24...
-Kissingen, (Soolsprudel)
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Bavaria, Germany. Analysis of Kastner-Struve. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand.) Analysis. Potassium chloride.... 12.750 Soda sulphate...... 329.530 Sodium chlo...
-Kreuznach (Elisenquelle), 1
Analysis of and Formula for Mak-ing. - Rhenish Prussia. Analysis of Bauer-Struve. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand.) Analysis. Potassium chloride.... 12.070 Soda phosphate...... 0.070 Sodium chlorid...
-Kreuznach (Elisenquelle), 2
Analysis of and Formula for Mak-ing. - Rhenish Prussia. Analysis of Lowig. (Parts in Sixteen Ounces.) Analysis. Sodium chloride........72.883 Magnesium iodide....... 0.035 Magnesium bromide...... ...
-Leamington
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Warwick, England. Analysis of Patrick Brown, 1862. (Parts in Ten Thousand.) Analysis. Soda sulphate........39.929 Sodium chloride.......34.243 Calcium chlorid...
-Marienbad (Ferdinandsbrunnen)
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Bohemia, Austria. Analysis of Bauer-Struve. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand.) ...
-Analysis
Potash sulphate...... 6.564 Soda carbonate...... 151.726 Soda sulphate....... 518.853 Soda phosphate...... 0.109 Sodium chloride...... 207.601 Sodium bromide...... 0.273 Sodium iodide....... 0.0...
-Marienbad (Kreuzbrunnen)
Analysis of and Formula for Making, - Bohemia, Austria. Analysis of Ragsky, 1859. (Parts in Ten Thousand.) Analysis. Potash sulphate........ 0.522 Soda sulphate.........36.260 Lime phosphate.........
-Napa Soda Spring
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Cali fornia. Analysis of L. Lanzwurt. (Grains in One United States Gallon.) Analysis. Sodium bicarbonate......13.12 Magnesium carbonate.....26.12 Calcium carb...
-Natrokrene of Dr. Vetter
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - (This preparation is intended as a lithontriptic, to destroy the stone in the bladder or kidneys.) Analysis of Struve. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand.) Analysis....
-Pullna
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Bohemia, Austria. Analysis of Struve. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand.) Analysis. Potash sulphate....... 62.500 Soda sulphate........1611.935 Soda phosphate......
-Pyrmont (Trinkquelle), 1
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Waldeck, Germany. Analysis of Struve. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand.) Analysis. Soda sulphate........ 27.854 Soda phosphate....... 0.175 Lithia carbonate.......
-Pyrmont (Trinkquelle), 2
Analysis of and Formula for Making, - Waldeck, Germany. Analysis of Fresenius, 1865. (Parts in One Hun. dred Thousand.) Analysis. Potash sulphate...... 1.6485 Soda sulphate........ 4.1927 Soda nit...
-Pyrmont (Soolquelle)
Analysis of and Formula for Making. -Waldeck, Germany. Analysis of Struve. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand. ) Analysis. Soda sulphate........ 160.586 Lime sulphate........ 71.823 Soda carbonate.......
-Saratoga Springs (Saratoga, N. Y.)
The aciduous saline waters of the numerous springs of Saratoga, viz.: Champion, Empire, Geyser, High Rock, Star, Congress, Union, Vichy, Hathorn, Washington, Kis-singen, Putnam, Pavilion, Seltzer, Cry...
-Champion
Analysis of and Formula for Making, - Saratoga, N. Y. Analysis of C. F. Chandler, 1871. (Grains in One United States Gallon.) Analysis. Sodium bicarbonate..... 17.62 Calcium bicarbonate.....227.07 ...
-Geyser
Analysts of and Formula for Making. - Saratoga, N. Y. Analysis of John H. Steele. (Grains in One United States Gallon.) Analysis. Sodium bicarbonate...... 71.23 Calcium bicarbonate.....168.39 Magn...
-Congress
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Saratoga, N. Y. Analysis of C. F. Chandler, 1871. (Parts in One United States Gallon.) Analysis. Sodium bicarbonate...... 10.77 Calcium bicarbonate.....143.40 ...
-Hathorn
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Saratoga, N. Y. Analysis of 0. F. Chandler. (Parts in one United States Gallon.) Analysis. Sodium bicarbonate..... 4.29 Calcium bicarbonate.....170.65 Magnes...
-High Rock
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Saratoga, N.Y. Analysis of C. F. Chandler. (Parts in One United States Gallon.) Analysis. Sodium bicarbonate...... 34.89 Calcium bicarbonate.....131.74 Magnes...
-Kissingen Or Triton
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Saratoga, N. Y. Analysis of Sharpies, 1872. (Parts in One United States Gallon.) Analysis. Sodium bicarbonate..... 67.62 Calcium bicarbonate.....140. 26 Magne...
-Star
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Saratoga, N. Y. Analysis of 0. F. Chandler. (Grains in One United States Gallon.) Analysis. Sodium bicarbonate...... 12.66 Calcium bicarbonate......124.46 Mag...
-Vichy
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Saratoga, N. Y. Analysis of C. F. Chandler. (Grains in One United States Gallon.) Analysis. Sodium bicarbonate...... 82.87 Calcium bicarbonate..... 95.52 Magn...
-Seidlitz-Saidschutz (Kose's Brunnen) Bitterwater
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Bohemia, Austria. Analysis of Struve, 1826. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand.) Analysis. Potash sulphate....... 63.724 Soda sulphate........ 305.924 Lime carbon...
-Sedlitz-Saidschiitz (Hauptbrunnen) Bitterwater
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Bohemia, Austria. Analysis of Berzelius, 1839. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand.) Analysis. Potash sulphate...... 53.340 Soda sulphate....... 609.131 Sodium iod...
-Selters, 1
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Nassau, Germany. Analysis of Struve. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand.) Analysis. Potash sulphate....... 5.169 Potassium chloride...... 4.662 Soda carbonate.......
-Selters, 2
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Nassau, Germany. Analysis of Fresenius, 1869. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand.) Analysis. Potash sulphate....... 4.6300 Potassium chloride..... 1.7630 Soda car...
-Sheboygan, - Analysis Of And Formula For Making
Sheboygan, Wis. Analysis of C. F. Chandler, 1876. (Grains in One United States Gallon.) Analysis. Calcium bicarbonate..... 13.66 Iron bicarbonate....... 0.50 Manganese bicarbonate.... 0.17 Calc...
-Soden (Milchbrunnen), 1
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Nassau, Germany. Analysis of Schweinsberg, 1829. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand.) Analysis. Potassium chloride...... 2.188 Sodium chloride....... 230.299 Lime...
-Soden (Milchbrunnen), 2
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Nassau, Germany. Analysis of Casselmann, 1859. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand.) Analysis. Potash sulphate........ 3.70 Potassium chloride...... 13.66 Soda car...
-Soden (Soolquelle)
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Nas-sau, Germany. Analysis of Casselmann, 1857. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand. Analysis. Potash sulphate....... 3.14 Potassium chloride...... 65.60 Sodium ch...
-Soden (Wilhelmsquelle)
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Nassau, Germany. Analysis of Liebig-Struve, 1839. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand.) Analysis. Potassium chloride..... 32.949 Sodium chloride.......1355.490 Lim...
-Ballston Spa (Artesian Lithia Well)
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Ballston Spa, N. Y. Analysis of C. F. Chandler. (Grains in One United States Gallon.) Analysis. Sodium bicarbonate..... 11.93 Calcium bicarbonate..... 238.16 ...
-Ballston Spa (Franklin Artesian Well)
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Ballston Spa, N. Y. Analysis of C. F. Chandler. (Grains in One United States Gallon.) Analysis. Sodium bicarbonate..... 94.60 Calcium bicarbonate..... 202.33 ...
-Ballston Spa (Washington Lithia Well, Old Conde Dentonian)
Analysts Of And Formula For Making Ballston Spa, N. Y. Analysis of C. F. Chandler. (Grains in One United States Gallon.) Analysis. Sodium bicarbonate..... 34.40 Calcium bicarbonate..... 173.48 Mag...
-Spa Pouhou, Belgen-land
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Pouhou, Belgen-land. Analysis of Struve. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand.) Analysis. Potash sulphate....... 1.030 Soda carbonate........ 9.345 Soda sulphate......
-Teplitz-Schonau (Steinbad)
Analysis of and Formula for Mak-ing. - Bohemia, Austria. Analysis of Berzelius. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand.) Analysis. Potash sulphate.......0.100 Soda carbonate........34.792 Soda sulphate......
-Vichy (Source De La Grande-Grille), 1
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - Department de l'Allier, France. Analysis of Bauer-Struve. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand.) Analysis. Potash sulphate....... 20.404 Soda carbonate.......380.130...
-Vichy (Source De La Grande-Grille, 2, And Source Des Celes-Tines)
Analysis of and Formula for Making. - (Department de l'Allier, France). Analysis of Bouquet, 1854, 1855. (Parts in Ten Thousand.) Analysis. Source de la Grande-Grille. Source (ancienn...
-White Rock
Analysis of and Formula for Making, - Waukesha, Wis. Analysis of I. Campbell Brown, 1874. (Grains per Imperial Gallon.) Analysis. Sodium bicarbonate...... 1.28 Calcium bicarbonate......17.67 Magne...
-Wiesbaden (Kochbrunnen)
Analysis of and Formula for Mak-ing. - Nassau, Germany. Analysis of Fresenius, 1850. (Parts in One Hundred Thousand.) Analysis. Potassium chloride...... 14.580 Soda phosphate....... 0.052 Sodium c...
-Plain Mineral Waters
With these we class especially the so-called soda waterand the ordinary seltzer (not to be confounded with the true natural selters and its imitation on pages 573, 574). These waters are preferr...
-Artificial Medicinal Waters
These formulae are for mineral waters not found in nature. They are prepared especially for medicinal purposes. Compounds of iron, sulphur, and many other medicinal sub-stances are occasionally admini...
-Artificially Prepared Mineral-Water Salts
The mineral-water saits of commerce are compounds of the various constituents that are necessary for the imitation of a certain spring; they are mixtures of different salts. Reliable mineral waters ma...
-Part Eighth. Carbonated Saccharine Beverages. Ingredients, And Preparation Of Same, For Saccharine Beverages. Chapter XXX. Sugar, And Its Substitutes
Cane-Sugar And Its Preparation. - Properties of Sugar. - Tests of Sugar. - Other Sugars: Glucose, Grape-Sugar, Dextrose or Starch-Sugar. - Vari-eties of Glucose. - Use and Adulterations of Glucose. - ...
-Cane-Sugar And Its Preparation
This is so far the essential part in preparing the syrups, and it is important for the carbonator to know all its characteristics. Cane-sugar is derived from the sugar-cane, which is cultivated in Ind...
-Properties Of Sugar
Refined sugar is seen in commerce broken into small pieces or lumps, which are hard and have a granular crystalline texture and a pure white color. Somewhat inferior kinds of sugar are softer, and th...
-Tests Of Sugar
The purity of cane-sugar is ascertained by the physical properties described above, and by its complete solubility in water and alcohol. The absence of glucose or of a similar sugar is ascertained by ...
-Picric Acid Test
If equal volumes of a solution of potassa and of a concentrated solution of picric acid are mixed, picrate of potassium is precipitated, which, on warming, dissolves to a transparent, orange-red liqui...
-Results Of Various Examinations
As a result of examining a number of commercial samples of sugar of different grades, every one showed a glucose reaction. Some contained it in sufficient quantity to result in fermenting as soon as m...
-Varieties Of Glucose
Several different products, consisting wholly or in part, of glucose, are offered in the market. Thus, ordinary com mercial glucose is a mixture of from 30 to 45 per cent, of grape-sugar and 30 to 5...
-Use And Adulterations Of Glucose
A great deal has been said and written against glucose as a dangerous article to use. It is, however, when properly made, a wholesome article of food. Though somewhat deficient in sweetening power, it...
-Saccharine And Its Properties
The sweet substance produced from gas tar, and misnamed saccharine, is in no sense a sugar; it has nothing in common with sugar except its sweetness. In regard to its preparation, properties, applicat...
-Examination Of Saccharine
It fuses at about 392 F.; when fused upon platinum-foil or porcelain it emits a distinctly perceptible odor of oil of bitter almonds or essence of mirbane, and finally burns away without leaving...
-Use Of Saccharine
Saccharine is used already in many ways. It is employed by the makers of glucose and beet-sugar. The addition of a trifling fraction of saccharine makes them the equals of the finest cane-sugar in the...
-Effects Of Saccharine
Saccharine does not decay, mould or ferment, neither is it attacked by bacteria. It has no injurious effects upon the human system - what effect has been noticed is rather beneficial than otherwise. I...
-Employing Saccharine In The Manufacture Of Carbonated Beverages
In the manufacture of carbonated beverages syrups are employed for imparting the necessary sweetness to the beverages, and not because it is a food. We therefore can do away with the syrup and apply s...
-How To Prepare A Saccharine Solution
Prepare a saccharine solution as follows: Dissolve 10 grammes of saccharine and 5 grammes of bicarbonate of soda in one quart (1,000 grammes) of distilled or boiled water. Water containing lime must n...
-Saccharine Powders
As saccharine is easily soluble in water when combined with bicarbonate of soda in the proportion of 1 part of saccharine and 1/2 part of bicarbonate, it is convenient to have such powders ready for u...
-Saccharine Essence
To sweeten strong alcoholic liquids an alcoholic solution of saccharine is recommended. In one pint of alcohol of 10 per cent are soluble 40.8 grs. sacch. 20 ...
-Saccharine Solution As A Substitute For Syrup In Manufacturing Carbonated Saccharine Beverages
For practical purposes we can assume that twenty-six grains (26) of saccharine answer for one pound of sugar. If we want to produce the same sweetness that a mixture of twelve pounds of sugar with one...
-Preparing Saccharine Solutions In Advance
For convenience the carbonator may prepare such a saccharine solution as a substitute for syrup in advance, keep it in barrels, protected only from dust, for an indefinite time, as it will never ferme...
-Maple-Sugar
Made from the juice of the sugar maple. It is identical with cane-sugar. In the United States and Canada considerable quantities of this sugar are made. The juice is obtained by boring through the bar...
-Glycyrrhizine Or Extract Liquorice
This peculiar sugar is obtained by making a saturated infusion or decoction of liquorice root, from which the solid extract is obtained. When pure, it is a yellow transparent mass of a pleasant, sweet...
-Glycerine As A Sugar Substitute
This has been proposed for syrup. Its chemical properties we mention later on under the Preser-vatives/' as which it may be employed in the manufacture of carbonated beverages. If using glycerine the...
-Honey
Honey is also a saccharine part of the carbonated and saccharine beverages, especially employed in preparing mead, and it is therefore necessary for the carbonator to also get closely acquainted wit...
-Properties Of Honey
When recently prepared, honey is a translucent or nearly transparent, pale-yellowish or brownish, thick, syrupy liquid, which, on keeping, separates a granular deposit, and is ultimately changed into ...
-Adulterations And Tests Of Honey
The coarse adulteration with starchy substances is easily recognized in the soluble matter left on treating with alcohol, and by the blue color produced on the addition of solution of iodine. Adultera...
-Chapter XXXI. Plain Syrups, And How To Make Them
Definition Of Plain, Fruit, And Compound Syrups. - Preparation of Plain Syrups. - Syrups made with Infusions, Inferior Sugar or with Fruit-Juices (Fruit Syrups). - Erroneous Syrup Preparation. - Proce...
-Preparation Of Plain Syrups
In the preparation of syrups care should be taken to employ only the best refined sugar, which is free from impurities, and when dissolved in water is less prone to fermentation than partially refined...
-Syrups Made With Infusions, Inferior Sugar, Or With Fruit Juices (Fruit Syrup)
The hct syrup process is also applied to all syrups prepared with infusions. Heating to a boil is necessary in order to coagulate the albumen and mucilaginous substances. The same process should be fo...
-Erroneous Syrup Preparation
Many bottlers are accustomed to prepare their syrups by boiling, filtering and adding while still hot or warm the fruit-acid solution. This is quite erroneous. Either add the fruit acid before boiling...
-Process of Syrup Making according to the U. S P. and N. D
The National Dispensatory gives the following on the preparation of syrup: Most syrups of the United States Pharmacopoeia are now directed to be made by dissolving the sugar in the proper liquid with...
-Cold vs. Hot-Syrup Process
The question with many bottlers is, Which process is the most practical and economical one ? We unhesitatingly decide in favor of the cold process provided the best refined sugar is employed. It has t...
-Tables Of Specific Gravity
The following table indicates the specific gravity and the corresponding percentage of sugar in solution at 16 C. (60 F.) Per cent. of Sugar. Spec. grav. Per cent. of Sugar....
-Conditions And Strength Of Syrups
A manufacturer of carbonated beverages, desirous to do well and economize money, should always manufacture his own syrups, as then only will he be certain of what he is doing. The preparation should a...
-The Saccharometer
This is, as already explained on page 448, a modification of the Baume hydrometer. Its object is to estimate saccharine liquid, and its use should be understood by all carbonators. It is graduated to ...
-The Cold Syrup Process
This is a very simple way of preparing syrups. Use stoneware vessels, such as we illustrate here. Keep quite a number of them, one for each kind of syrup, on a wooden support. Have for each a cover. T...
-Various Other Practices For Cold Process
Various other practices in preparing syrups by the cold process are followed. One of them is to use a perforated diaphragm made of copper, silver-plated, or wood, placed in a tank or barrel just abov...
-Hot Syrup Process
Various ways are followed here also. For the purpose of bringing the mixture of cane-sugar and water to the modified solution of invert-sugar, viz., to follow the inversion process, we propose to sl...
-Refining Sugar
When inferior grades or raw sugar in exceptional cases are used, the hot syrup process must be employed by all means, in order to refine the sugar. In this case add to the mixture of sugar and water s...
-Cleansing Syrup-Making Apparatus
They must always be kept bright and clean, and after every operation scalded and washed with hot water, filtering bags included. This is of the greatest importance not only for the preservation of the...
-Clarification Of Syrups
Syrups should be perfectly transparent. The act of clearing or making the syrups bright by chemical or mechanical means, or the separation of all foreign substances which may disturb its transparency,...
-Carbonate Of Magnesia
This is very frequently recommended and also employed, but does not deserve that credit which is given to it. Its employment renders certain syrups, especially when some alkaloids enter into its combi...
-Paper Pulp
A very practical way to clarify syrup is to make pulp out of filtering paper, as directed on page 459, and by mixing this with the syrup before filtering through the bag. The proportion of paper pulp ...
-Pure Quartz Sand, Silica Or Glass-Sand
This is a good filter-medium for clarifying syrups. Common sand will not answer, as it contains too much lime and other impurities (organic matters, etc.) It must be pure silica (quartz) or glass-sand...
-Pulverized Artificial Pumice Stone
This is also an excellent clarifying medium, and can be used with the same advantage and in all cases where silica is intended to be used for plain or acidified syrups likewise, as it is also indiffer...
-Kaolin
Kaolin (pure porcelain clay, China clay) is also an excellent clarifying medium. It is a fine white clay, derived from the decomposition of the felspar of granitic rocks, insoluble in water. The potte...
-Aluminates Deleterious To Aromas
Assertions have been raised to the effect that the aluminates are, like any alkali, even the alkaline earths or their carbonates, detrimental to flavor and aroma, which we use in compounding syrups. W...
-Talcum Or Talc
This in powdered form is sometimes recommended as a clarifying agent, but it is also objectionable, being a siliceous magnesian mineral, and we reject it for the same reasons as we did magnesia. A har...
-Economizing The Clarifying Mediums
The recommended clarifying mediums, except animal charcoal, can be used time and time again, if they are scalded and carefully washed with hot water after every operation, else organic matter would fo...
-Clarifying Apparatus
Besides the filter-bags and other arrangements for filtration, described in Chapter XXVI (Filtration And Clarification Of Extracts, Essences, Etc)., which serve in all cases also as clarifying apparat...
-Rapid Clarification
This is simply effected by elevating the syrup kettle, since the syrup in its descent to the filter exerts a pressure upon the liquid already in the filter and thus aids rapid clarification. The press...
-Regaining Retained Syrups
The small quantity of syrup retained in the filter and clarifying medium may be recovered by pouring on a sufficient quantity of warm water, receiving it in a receptacle and evaporating the liquid to ...
-Separation Of Coloring Matter
This is a part of the clarification; however, it is of so great and particular interest, that it deserves to be separately considered. To conceal a remaining and undesirable tinge of yellow, the whit...
-Syrup Vessels
The vessels, faucets, syrup pumps, bottles, demijohns, in short all the apparatus and instruments used during the operations in preparing syrups, should be scrupulously clean and afterwards carefully ...
-Unglazed Earthenware Or Glass Vessels
The syrup once finished should be kept in an earthen or well-closed glass vessel, in a cool place in the workshop until it is used. (For test for lead in glazed earthenware vessels see page 348). Sla...
-Preservation Of Syrups
The finished syrups should be introduced into dry bottles, so as to avoid diluting them with water; if bottled while warm, condensation of aqueous vapors in the neck of the bottle will cause dilution...
-Chapter XXXII. Fruit-Syrups, And How To Make Them
Preparation Of Fruit-Syrups. - Clarification of Fruit-Syrups. - Preservation of Fruit-Syrups. - Restoration of Fruit-Syrups. - True and Artificial Fruit-Syrups and Adulterations. - Tests for Fruit-Syr...
-Chapter XXXIII. Essential Oils, And Their Manipulation
Character And Origin. - Preparation. - Simple and Compound Oils. - Expressed Oils. - Quantity of Essential Oil Obtainable. - Composition. - Ordering Essential Oils. - A Pint is not a Pound. - Preparat...
-Simple And Compound Oils
The essential oils obtained directly from the raw materials are called simple, while those consisting of several oils are called compound. The latter are preparations principally used in the manuf...
-Expressed Oils
Essential oils are extracted by pressure from those substances whic - contain them in great quantity, and where these oils are almost on the very surface of the substance. The lemon, orange, and all s...
-Quantity Of Essential Oil Obtainable
The quantities obtainable from the various plants differ widely. It depends on the degree of ripeness, age, etc., of the materials. In general we may take for granted that all plants, whether the flow...
-Ordering Essential Oils
It is always more economical, in the case of essential oils, instead of buying the cheap and poor, to buy the more expensive but superior quality, for the final results obtained are always in favor of...
-Preparation Of Essential Oils By The Carbonator
All the essential oils the bottler requires for compounding his syrups and flavoring his beverages are subjected to wholesale manufacture and are everywhere obtainable in commerce. When he nevertheles...
-Essential Oil Restoration
Volatile oils, which have become rancid, and although very much deteriorated, entirely deprived of their odor and color, and almost without fluidity, are not lost beyond remedy. They may be restored i...
-Essential Oil Adulterations
Most of the volatile essential oils met with in commerce are adulterated. These oils embrace a large number employed in manufacturing carbonated beverages. Want of good faith and honesty in certain de...
-Fixed Oils And Tests
The following methods of detecting frauds are simple, reliable and easily executed, being selected from numerous proposals: Unsized paper is used to discover the mixture made with a fat oil; one or tw...
-Alcohol And Tests
Adulterating with alcohol alters volatile oils much less than the preceding. It has not, like the fixed oils, the objection of rendering them viscid; it renders them, on the contrary, more fluid, and ...
-Other Tests
Add fused calcium chloride or dry acetate of potassium. Either of these salts is insoluble in volatile oils, but in the presence of alcohol becomes soft and liquid. Dreshler recommends: Add three dro...
-Cheap Volatile Oils And Tests
Adulteration by common volatile oils is more difficult of detection. It consists in mixing with certain volatile oils the more common and cheaper oils, such as the rectified oil of turpentine, lavende...
-Detection Of Oil Of Turpentine
The only reagent for detecting oil of turpentine in oil of lemon was hitherto copper nitroprusside, and this is only really serviceable when the adulteration is very considerable, the admixture of a s...
-Admixture Of Water
Nearly all essential oils which have been distilled in the presence of water, contain a little of the latter in solution, from traces up to perhaps 0.25 or 0.30 per cent., says the American Druggist. ...
-Detection Of Adulterations By The Boiling-Point
This is another means, or at least a link in the various methods of detecting fraudulent essential oils. The proper boiling-points we indicate hereafter for the respective oils employed by the carbona...
-Concentrated Essential Oils
By a patent process, of German origin, the oils of lemon and orange, as well as others of the same nature. are concentrated to extraordinary degrees of strength. The constituent containing the oxygen...
-Patent Or Artificial Essential Oils
It has been asserted that oyxgen is so essential to the development of the odor of plants that it might be said to be the bearer of the aroma. Experiments proving this assertion were made known, but i...
-Cutting Essential Oils, And What Cutting Of Oil Means
Cutting essential oils is called the process of mixing them with some very finely powdered substance to the consistency of a paste in order to be absorbed and divided into very small particles, offeri...
-The Best Method Of Cutting Essential Oils
An approved and probably the safest and best method is to triturate one ounce of the oil in a mortar with two ounces of powdered artificial pumice-stone and two ounces of powdered sugar until all the ...
-Economizing Oil
When an excess of oil has been employed, or the operation of cutting the oil is not properly conducted, particles of oil will separate, rise and appear on the surface of the essence. Some oils separat...
-Chapter XXXIV. Alcohol: Its Use And Strength
Production Of Alcohol. - Absolute Alcohol. - Detecting Water in Absolute Alcohol. - Purification of Alcohol. - Deodorized Alcohol. - Cologne Spirits. - Diluted Alcohol or Proof Spirit. - American Proo...
-Production Of Alcohol
In a general and practical sense, by alcohol is understood the pure spirit obtained by distillation from all liquids which have suffered vinous fermentation. It is the intoxicating principle of all vi...
-Absolute Alcohol
Absolute alcohol contains no water, and has a specific gravity of 0.7938 at 15.55 C. (60 F.) and boils at (174 F.). Pure anhydrous alcohol is a limpid, colorless liquid of a greater fluidit...
-Cologne Spirits
The highest grade of distilled alcohol is called Cologne spirits, used largely in the preparation of perfumes, etc., and is said to be more absolute in its purity than ordinary alcohol. It should be s...
-Mixing Alcohol With Water
When alcohol is mixed with water an elevation of the temperature is observed, and the mixture assumes for a short time an opalescent appearance from the dissolved air, which is expelled in numerous mi...
-Wine Gallons And Proof Gallons
The standard, legal wine gallon contains 231 cubic inches. All casks and containers are ganged in wine gallons' by United States customs and internal revenue officers. The number of proof gallons re...
-Application Of Alcohol
The particular use to which alcohol is devoted in the bottling business, is that concerning the preparation of flavoring extracts and essences, as it is one of the best solvents known in chemistry; bu...
-Strength Of Alcohol
A modification of the hydrometer, called the alcoholometer, has been constructed by which the percentage strength by volume or by weight may be directly ascertained. As the density increases with a di...
-Temperature Corrections
All of the instruments employed give accurate results only at the normal temperature for which it is made. As, however, in practice, the experiment cannot be conveniently performed at any fixed te...
-Wood Alcohol
Wood alcohol is an inorganic liquid compound, by the chemists called methyl. Alcohol is contained to the amount of about 1 per cent, in the aqueous portion of the distillate resulting from the destruc...
-Chapter XXXV. Extracts, Essences, Tinctures: How To Make Them
Definition Of Various Extracts. - Strength of Extracts for Carbonated Beverages. - Preservation of Extracts. - Deterioration of Extracts. - Defini-tion of Extracts, Essences and Tinctures. - Water-sol...
-Definition Of The Various Extracts
They are preparations which are obtained by removing from crude drugs a solution of their medicinal principles and evaporating it to the consistence of a soft solid or to dryness. The medicinal princi...
-Strength Of Extracts For Carbonated Beverages
For this purpose the fluid extracts, compound or plain, are made of various strengths, as specially directed in the different formulas. Consistent extracts are scarcely made and employed for that purp...
-Definition Of Fluid Extracts, Essences And Tinctures
An extract is, strictly speaking, a concentrated solution of the medicinal principles of crude drugs. An essence, also strictly speaking, is a solution of volatile oils in alcohol in varying proporti...
-Water-Soluble Extracts, Essences And Tinctures
All fluid extracts or essences and tinctures, when prepared with highly concentrated spirits, separate part of their extractive matter or dissolved oils in the cold, but especially when mixed with aqu...
-How To Examine Commercial Extracts, Essences Or Tinctures For Their Strength And Solubility
One important factor in purchasing commercial flavorings is their strength, and another one whether they are miscible with aqueous liquids or not. To ascertain their strength and solubility we apply v...
-How To Clarify A Turbid Extract, Essence Or Tincture
It is best to mix them with about one-third their bulk of filtering paper pulp or with powdered pumice stone (about one ounce to a pound of liquid); shake frequently and then filter in a covered funne...
-Harmonious Flavorings
The carbonator cannot afford to overlook the fact that the success of his beverages is to a great extent dependent upon the correct blending of various flavors, which should unite in a harmonious whol...
-Adulterations And Imitations
The use of adulterants in flavorings has grown rapidly of late years. Formerly it was confined chiefly to the addition of tonka beans to vanilla, extract of geranium to rose, and of cherry to almond. ...
-Ambergris
Ambergris is regarded as a morbid product of the sperm whale, found in its intestines and floating on the sea. In commerce it appears in irregular pieces of gray or gray-brown color. It is lighter tha...
-Tincture Of Ambergris
Triturate 1 drachm of ambergris with a few drachms of powdered pumice stone or glass-sand. Transfer to a bottle and macerate the mixture in 10 drachms of alcohol for a week. At last filter. Another me...
-Oil Of Anise
The anise plant, Pimpinella anisum, contains in all parts, but especially in the seeds, an essential oil, which is obtained by distillation of the seeds with water, the yield being from 1 1/2 to 2 1/2...
-Tincture Of Anise
If one pound of bruised anise-seed is macerated with five pints of diluted alcohol, a tincture serviceable form any purposes can be obtained. ...
-Oil Of Birch
This volatile oil is obtained from Betula Lenta, sweet, black or cherry-birch, which is indigenous to Canada and the northern part of the United States, but grows in the mountains as far south as Geor...
-Essence Of Birch
First cut the oil as directed. The essence is made as follows: Oil of birch or wintergreen...1 ounce Alcohol 95.... . 8 ounc Water .................................. . 8 ...
-Oil Of Bitter Almond And Its Adulterations
The oil of bitter almond is obtained from the seeds of Amygdahis communis, var. amara, Linne. The bitter almonds are deprived of most of their fixed oil by pressure between warm plates; the press-cake...
-Extracts Of Beef
Liquid Extract (Liebig's Formula). - Half a pound of fresh meat is finely chopped and macerated for one hour with 1 pint of cold distilled water, to which 4 drops of hydrochloric (muriatic) acid and f...
-Beef-Tea (Bouillon)
Extract of beef, cone, 8 ounces; table salt, 2 ounces; essence or tincture celery, 1 or 2 ounces respectively; essence orange or lemon (or mixed), 1 oz. (tincture of orange or lemon-peel may be substi...
-Oil Of Peach And Apricot Seed
This kind of oil is very similar to almond oil and produced on an extensive scale, and most of the oil of bitter almond is distilled from peach kernels, chiefly imported from Syria, France, etc. The s...
-Nitrobenzol (Oil Of Mirbane) And Artificial Oil Of Bitter Al-Mond
By the oxidizing action of fuming nitric acid on benzol, the nitrobenzol is produced. It is a yellowish oily liquid of 1.209 spec, gr., crystallizes in needles at 3 C. (37.4 F.), and boils a...
-Essence Of Bitter Almond
As the oil of bitter almond dissolves in all proportions of alcohol, and the essence is miscible with aqueous liquids, the essence of bitter almond is easily prepared. Oil of bitter almond, 1 ounce (...
-Extracts Or Essences Of Bitters
The following formulae will be found very practical, and withal reliable. Orange Bitters Orange peel, 1 ounce; citron peel, 1 ounce; gentian root, one half ounce. Macerate the sliced and bruised in...
-Absynthe - Wormwood-Bitters (Boonekamp of Mag Bitter.)
Formula I Many formulas are existing. It is made of the respective oils of the drugs or prepared directly from the latter, which furnishes a more valuable product than if prepared from the usually ad...
-Tonic Beer Essence
We can heartily recommend this formula. Proceed as follows: oil of sassafras, oil of wintergreen, oil of orange, of each 3 drachms; oil of cloves, oil of anise, of eaoh 15 grains. Cut the oils as dir...
-Beef, Iron And Wine (For Dispensing)
This is splendid for the soda counter. Proceed as follows: To obtain 8 pints: extract of beef, cone, 4 ounces; iron pyrophosphate, 1 grain (dissolve in one pint of boiling water); then add tincture of...
-Capsicum
This is also called Cayenne-pepper, African-pepper, Spanish-pepper, pod-pepper, etc. It is the dried fruit of the capsicum plant, of which several species are cultivated in tropical countries, especia...
-Solution Of Citrate Of Ammonia
Prepare by neutralizing 12 ozs. of citric acid with ammonia 11 fl. ozs., or sufficient, and add distilled water to yield 20 fl. ozs. of product. Store in bottles free from lead. Spec. grav. 1209. Citr...
-Physiological Action Of Capsicum
Capsicum is an irritant and a local stimulant. Applied to the skin it causes redness, and if continuously applied may ultimately produce vesication. In proper quantities it excites a grateful warmth ...
-Curacoa, Or Bitter Orange Peel
This is an orange-peel obtained from a variety of the bitter orange cultivated in the island of Curacoa. It is scarcely half the thickness of the ordinary orange-peel, and externally of a dark greenis...
-Oil Of Caraway And Its Application
This oil is obtained from the fruit (seed) of caraway, a plant that grows in Asia, and is extensively cultivated in Europe and the United States. The seeds are bruised and distilled with superheated s...
-Compound Coffee Extracts
Formula I - Java coffee, roasted and ground, four ounces; vanilla bean sliced, one drachm; diluted alcohol, sufficient. Formula II Coffee roasted and ground, one to four ounces; cinnamon bruised, th...
-Plain Coffee Extracts
These extracts are made with water. Formula I Liebig's directions: Take the best kind of coffee, grind it, moisten a pound with a few ounces of cold water and pack in percolator; saturate with cold ...
-Oil Of Cinnamon And Cassia
Oil of cinnamon is obtained from the bark of the cinnamon tree, found in the forests of Ceylon, while oil of cassia is obtained from the bark of a similar tree found in Southern China and Cochin China...
-Extract Of Cinchona Or Peruvian Bark (Liquid Extract Of Yellow Cinchona Or Calisaya-Bark)
Yellow cinchona bark powdered, one pound; glycerine, four ounces; alcohol and water, equal volumes, sufficient to obtain sixteen fluid ounces of extract or as much as desired. Mix the glycerine with ...
-Extract Or Essence Of Peruvian Beer
This is compounded in a similar way as the root-beer essences, with or without the addition of some of the above extract of cinchona or Peruvian bark. It is, however, frequently a combination of the e...
-Oil Of Celery
This is obtained from the seed, root and tissue of the celery plant (apium graveolens) by distillation with water. It is a . colorless oil of 0.881 specific gravity, and freely soluble in alcohol. - M...
-Oil Of Cardamom
The cardamoms, the ripe fruits of Elettaria car-damomam Mat., which grow and are extensively cultivated in Hindostan and on the coast of Malabar, contain from three to five per cent, volatile oil, whi...
-Oil Of Cloves
Oil of cloves is used quite extensively by some car-bonators as a flavoring agent, and is by some an ingredient in imparting a delicate bouquet, noticeable in certain brands of ginger ale. The volat...
-Coca Plant
This is the dried leaf of a shrub cultivated on the mountains of Peru and Bolivia, also in some other parts of South America, as Colombia, Brazil and the Argentine Republic. The branches of the coca p...
-Cocaine And Hygrine
Cocaine is the alkaloid of the coca leaves. It is obtained by digesting or macerating the leaves with water or alcohol, precipitating, purifying and crystallizing the alkaloid. Pure cocaine forms colo...
-Physiological Action Of Cocaine
The reports in regard to the physiological action of cocaine differ. In small doses (0.05 to 0.15 g.) it is supposed to act as a stimulant, aid digestion, increase physical strength, suspend sleepines...
-Extract Of Coca
The fluid extract of the powdered coca-leaf is prepared as follows: Of coca-leaves powdered, one pound; diluted alcohol sufficient to make one pint of extract. Moisten the powder with six ounces of th...
-Tincture Of Cocaine
This is employed in the preparation of the so-called nerve-food beverages, or forms a part of the various combinations of nerve foods that are constantly being offered to the trade under different...
-Essence Of Coca
of the ingredients named take the following pro-portions: oil of orange, 3 drachms; oil of caraway, 1 drachm; oil of cassia, 15 grains; oil of ginger, 3 drachms; -alcohol 95, 8 ounces; water, 3 o...
-Cacao, Cocoa And Chocolate
The cacao (often incorrectly called cocoa) or chocolate tree is found in Brazil and other parts of tropical America, and is largely cultivated throughout the tropics. The fruit is about six inches lon...
-Extract Of Cocoa Or Chocolate
Formula I Cocoa roasted and powdered, or chocolate, eight ounces; cinnamon, bruised, thirty grains; pimento, bruised, fifteen grains; vanilla, sliced (or sufficient tincture of vanillin), fifteen gra...
-Oil Of Coriander
This oil is obtained from the coriander fruit,which grows in China and Europe, where it is also cultivated, as well as in the United States and some parts of South America. The seeds are ground, and t...
-Dandelion Extract
Dandelion or taraxacum is a herb growing in waste places, etc., in most northern countries. Its extract is regarded as a tonic. Chicory root is not unfrequently substituted for dandelion root in the p...
-Fancy Extracts And Essences
Many essences or extracts appear in commerce under names which have no relation to the ingredients of the liquid whatsoever. They bear fancy names. The intelligent carbonator can easily put them up, ...
-Oil Of Fennel And Its Application
The oil of fennel is obtained from the fennel-fruit of Southern and Western Europe, frequently found wild, extensively cultivated in Germany and France. By distilling the bruised fennel seed with wate...
-Oil Of Geranium
In commerce there appear two kinds of oil of geranium: the African or French and the East Indian. The latter is also called oil of ginger grass, and is principally employed for adulterating rose oil. ...
-Extract Of Guava And Rose Apple
This is made from the acidulous fruit which is known as guava, the tree of which grows in the West Indies and other tropical countries, also from the leaves and flowers, which are aromatic and fragran...
-Ginger Root And Its Adulterants
The prominence given ginger ale in the list of carbonated beverages, and its wide popularity, renders the subject of ginger a most interesting one. The trade has been accused of many sins in the name ...
-Extract Of Ginger
For the manufacture of carbonated beverages the fluid extract of ginger may be prepared according to the following directions: Take one pound of bruised ginger, moisten it with a few ounces of alcohol...
-Tinctures Of Ginger
Formula for Weak Tincture Take of ginger, bruised, eight ounces; alcohol, two pints; macerate for twenty-four hours, in well-stoppered bottle; then transfer to a filter or decant the liquid, and pack...
-A Practical Extract Of Ginger Process
A method we have followed for years, in preparing ginger in soluble essence, with good practical results, we found lately advocated and published by L. F. Stevens; we append it here, also, having alre...
-Ginger Ale Extract
Extract of ginger ale is composed of extract or soluble essence of ginger, to which various additions have been made to enhance and enrich its aroma. The principal additions are lemon essence, essence...
-Distilled Ginger Ale Extract, And How To Make It
Products of this denomination appear in commerce. A distilled ginger-ale extract, when properly prepared, is made by exhausting the drugs by the aid of distillation. The ginger root with vanilla bean,...
-Rectified Ginger-Ale Extract Or Essence, And How To Make It
It is prepared by mixing the various additional extracts, essences, tinctures or ethers, as indicated for the preparation of extract of ginger ale on a preceding page, with the original ginger extract...
-Essence Of Ginger Oil
This is prepared by dissolving the oil of ginger in alcohol. It is but slowly soluble in the latter, and requires repeated agitation by shaking to completely dissolve. The essence of ginger has an ag...
-Hot Ginger Or Adulterated Ginger
Hot Ginger is a familiar phrase, and denotes nothing more than a highly adulterated ginger extract with capsicum or tincture of capsicum. In regard to the effects of this capsicum or Spanish pepper,...
-Fraudulent Commercial Extracts And Essences Of Ginger
We intend to reflect on and call the carbonators' attention to those fraudulent extracts that are offered from time to time to the trade, and consisting in part or nearly entirely of capsicum, pretend...
-Imitation Ginger Extract
Fabulous prices in some instances are paid by bottlers for imitation formulae. The ginger extract prepared after such a formula (which is largely advertised) consists of capsicum extract, essence of l...
-Pepper
Of the various kinds of pepper (cayenne), we find information under Capsicum; this is the principal substitute for ginger. Occasionally the grains of paradise are employed; the other two are not qui...
-How To Prepare And Preserve Ginger Ale
To make a high-class ginger ale it is absolutely necessary to use water which is absolutely free from lime and magnesia. If the water contains much lime or magnesia and is used for a beverage containi...
-Belfast Ginger Ale
The great popularity of the Belfast ginger ale is principally due to its fine aroma. All carbonators strive to imitate it as closely as possible, but it is an unfortunate fact, however, that a great d...
-Belfast Ginger-Ale Extract
We append an approved formula: Ginger root, first quality, ground, fifteen ounces; orange peel, sliced and cut, six ounces; nutmeg, one and one-half ounces; vanilla beans, Mexican, six drachms; cinna...
-Grass Oils And Their Application
Citronella Oil - This is obtained from Andropogon Nardus L., a grass indigenous to Ceylon, growing wild and also largely cultivated there. It is obtained by distillation, smells agreeably. Singapore f...
-Extract Of Hops
Take of good fresh ground hops one pound, diluted alcohol sufficient to make the desired quantity of extract. Moisten the hops and pack in percolator, then add enough diluted alcohol to cover the hops...
-Beer Extract
Thirty grains of acetic ether, thirty grains grape essence, and thirty grains raisin extract added to the above hop extract are the ingredients of a commercial beer extract. The hops should not be dr...
-Extract Of Horehound
This is prepared from the leaves and tops of horehound, a herb found in Asia and on the Mediterranean; naturalized in the United States and Canada, it flowers frequently in our gardens. Horehound has ...
-Oil Of Juniper
This oil is obtained from the berries of juniper, therefore also called oil of juniper-berries, which are found in most all hemispheres, throughout Europe and the United States. The ripe berries are b...
-Oil Of Lavender
From the lavender flower alone or from the flowering tops or the entire plant is obtained by distillation with steam the oil of lavender, yielding about one-half per cent, of the oil; stem and leaves ...
-Oil Of Lemon
No essential oil possesses a greater degree of interest for the practical bottler of carbonated beverages than oil of lemon. Unfortunately it is but too true that very few are prone to more rapid dete...
-Preservation Of Oil Of Lemon
As the oil is speedily oxidized and vitiated by exposure to light, heat and air, it must be carefully preserved from these influences. This can be best accomplished by putting it up in vials or bottle...
-Chemical Composition Of Oil Of Lemon
To many it may appear a somewhat startling statement that oil of lemon, bergamot, orange and many others of fragrant perfume, are strictly identical in chemical composition with the so-called spirits ...
-Adulteration Of Oil Of Lemon
On account of the marvelously low price of lemon oil, there seems to be but,very little inducement to adulteration, except by the mixing of the distilled with the expressed oil. Occasionally in years ...
-Concentrated Essence Of Lemon
A so-called concentrated extract of lemon, which is really a lemon essence, is made by dissolving one ounce of pure and fresh oil in one pint of alcohol (95 per cent.). It will not deteriorate by exp...
-Tincture Of Lemon Peel
For this we submit the following formula: Take fresh lemon-peel, sliced thinly, or better grated, four ounces (the pulpous part adherent to the peel being cut off previously); diluted alcohol, twenty ...
-Oil Of Limes
The essential oil of limes is extracted from the rind before crushing to get the lime-juice, by grating on rasps with the hands. The lime-tree is related to the order of Aurantiacece, indigenous to t...
-Lacto Pepsin Extract
Pepsin, one ounce; lactic acid, four drachms; syrup, ten ounces; currant (or another) juice, ten ounces; cognac, twenty ounces. Various flavorings may enter into this extract to suit, such as of cinna...
-Milk Extract Or Lactolin
Twenty pints milk, five ounces of sugar, seventy-five grains of borax, twenty-five grains of bicarbonate of soda, mixed, evaporated in a vacuum apparatus or on a water bath to extract consistency (con...
-Excelsior Lemonade Essence
Syrup, two pints; solution of citric acid, three ounces (or to suit); orange-flower water, four ounces; soluble essence of orange, four drachms to one ounce; cognac, three to four ounces. This makes a...
-Extract Of Champagne Cider
A so-called extract of champagne cider can be compounded in various ways. We propose: - Artificial apple essence, one-half ounce; artificial pear essence, one-half ounce; lemon essence, one-half ounce...
-Egg Lemonade
This is only prepared for the dispensing counter as follows: Into a pint tumbler put a tablespoonful of powdered sugar, the juice of one lemon, add a little water and one egg, and fill up with broken ...
-Tokay Lemonade Extract
Syrup, one gallon; tincture of St. John's wort1 ten fluid ounces (or two ounces tincture of elder flowers); tincture of tonka beans, five fluid drachms; tincture of pimento, six grains; citric acid so...
-Grape Lemonade Extract
Syrup, one gallon; essence of pine apple, artificial, two to four ounces; cognac, eight to sixteen ounces; tincture vanilla, thirty grains; rum essence, one ounce; essence of bitter almond, one to two...
-Champagne Lemonade Extract
This will make a most delicious beverage. It will have the snap about it so much liked. Follow directions carefully, as follows: Syrup, one gallon; essence of oenanthic ether, thirty grains; tinctur...
-Liquorice Root And Its Adulterations
Liquorice enters into various beverages, such as sarsaparilla, root beer, etc. It is prepared for commercial purposes in southern Europe, in the United States and England. The only part of the liquori...
-Tincture Of Balsam Peru
Macerate one ounce of the Balsam with ten ounces of dilute alcohol. The latter will only dissolve a small proportion; however, the undissolved portion is reserved for the next tincture; filter. ...
-Tincture Of Elder Flowers
Macerate one pound of the flowers in five pints of diluted alcohol; filter. ...
-Extract Of Malt
This is occasionally required on the dispensing counter. Prepare as follows: Take well-prepared malt, grind or bruise it in a mortar. Upon one pound of the powdered malt, contained in a vessel, pour o...
-Extract Of Mead
Various mead extracts are offered. Compound one as follows: - oil of lemon, one-half ounce; oil of cloves, one drachm; oil of cinnamon, one drachm; oil of nutmeg, one-half drachm; oil of pimento (alls...
-Oil Of Melissa And Its Application
This is obtained from the leaves and tops of Melissa officinalis, Linne, Melissa is also called balm, lemon balm. The plant is indigenous to Western Asia and Southern Europe, has become naturalized in...
-Musk
Musk is the dried secretion of the musk deer, hunted in Asia for the purpose of obtaining the secretion. It is separated in bags or pods; the best is known in commerce as Chinese, Thibet, or Tonquin m...
-Nerve Food Extracts
The popular notion seems to demand so-called nerve food beverages at the soda fountain or in bottled goods. These nerve food beverages, phosphate beverages, or others claiming the same results, appe...
-Oil Of Nutmeg
This oil is obtained from the kernel of the seed of the nutmeg tree, growing on the Molucca Islands and cultivated in various parts of India, West Indies and South America. The nutmeg seed is ground a...
-The Various Oils Of The Orange Tree
The beautiful orange tree (citrus vulgaris) belongs to the natural order of the Aurantiacm, being closely related to the lemon, lime, bergamot and others, and indigenous to all parts of southern Europ...
-Oil Of Orange Flowers Or Oil Of Neroli
This volatile oil is obtained by distilling the orange flowers with water, when it separates upon the surface in small portions, from the orange-flower water. The flowers of the sweet orange, from whi...
-Essences Of Orange Flowers Or Essences Of Neroli
We append two Formulae for making them: Formula I Concentrated Essence. - Oil of neroli, petale or bigarade, two drachms, (or one drachm of each); alcohol, sixteen fluid ounces. For a cheaper but v...
-Orange Flower Water
The orange-flower water of commerce is usually prepared from the oil or essence of neroli. The best quality is that distilled with the orange flowers in preparing the oils; the second quality is that ...
-Oil Of Orange Peel (Oil Of Portugal)
The oils of both the bitter and sweet orange-peel are articles of commerce, and prepared in southern Europe by rapturing or grating the ripe fruit, like the lemon, and expressing, or by distillation, ...
-Concentrated Essence Of Orange
We append the following simple Formula: - Oil of orange peel, one ounce; alcohol 95, one pint; keep the bottle well corked. The remarks under Concentrated Essence of Lemon refer to this also. ...
-Extract Of Pistachio
The kernels of the fruits of the pistachio tree, which closely resemble almonds, but are sweeter, and form a greeu emulsion with water The extract is prepared by crushing the Kernels, say one pound, a...
-Oil Of Peppermint
The United States and England are great producers of peppermint and peppermint oil. It is principally grown in Michigan, New York and other States of the Union, and in'England by Cambridge and Mitcham...
-Oil Of Spearmint
This is a volatile oil obtained from mentha viri-'dis, a herb cultivated in Europe and the United States. The fresh herb is distilled with water or by means of steam; the yield is about one-quarter to...
-Punch Essences
To give the customers something warming in the winter, the punch-essences are well adapted to keep business running all year round. Punch essences are prepared in various ways. We append a few Formula...
-Various Other Punch Essences
By combining sherry or various other wines with rum or cognac, flavoring with lemon, oranges, or both, cinnamon, etc., adding sugar or some flavored syrup or some flavoring extract, tea, etc., a great...
-Oil Of Pimento (Allspice)
This is the volatile oil of the fruit of the allspice tree, found in Central America, Northern South America, and upon the West Indies, and is obtained from the ground allspice, by distilling with wat...
-Rose Oil
Attar of roses (also called otto,- in French essence de rose) is the rose oil of commerce. It is produced on a large scale in the Turkish province of Roumelia, and principally on the warm southern s...
-Characteristics And Adulterants Of Rose Oil
Pure attar of roses when distilled with due care is at first colorless, but soon takes a yellowish color. A characteristic property of the oil of rose is, that when it is kept in a cool place, even in...
-Tests Of Rose Oil
The analyst will from the start labor under a decided disadvantage, since a prerequisite of any such examination is the behavior of a sample of undoubted purity; but owing to the fact that most, if no...
-Essence Of Rose Oil
An essence of rose is the preparation which finds employment in the compounding or rather improving of some carbonated beverages, viz.: to impart a delicate bouquet to ginger ale, lemonade, etc., a...
-Rose Water
By distilling the rose oil, rose water of first quality is obtained; it is a saturated aqueous solution of the oil, and the finest rose water obtainable. However, it does not come within our reach, an...
-Root-Beer Essence
Ottawa or Otaki Root Beer Oil of sassafras, wintergreen, anise, of each three fluid drachms. Cut with pumice and sugar in a mortar and gradually dissolve in nine fluid ounces of alcohol of 95 pe...
-Raisin Extract
Take of raisins one pound and bruise them in a mortar. Then macerate with one or two pints of diluted alcohol for a week, strain, press out and filter the liquid. Then add about twenty grains of grape...
-Sarine Extract
This is a fancy name. It is compounded of oil of sassafras, extract of sarsaparilla, liquorice root and dandelion, and oil of lemon. Take of oil of sarsaparilla one-half ounce, oil of lemon one-half o...
-Sarsaparilla Root
The remedial powers of sarsaparilla are doubtless as effective in a carbonated beverage as in the many much-advertised nostrums with which the market is flooded, and the close attention of car-bonator...
-Oil Of Sassafras
The sassafras-tree (sassafras officinale) grows abundantly in Maryland, North Carolina, and various other parts of the United States. The root of the shrub is dug and washed free of dirt, and after be...
-Oil Of Spruce
This is used to flavor and prepare the familiar spruce beer. It is obtained from the hemlock spruce, a common forest tree of Canada and the Northern United States. By distilling the branches with wate...
-Compound Tea Extract
Formula I Best China tea, eight ounces; cinnamon, bruised, one ounce; vanilla bean, sliced and bruised, one-half ounce; pour on one quart of boiling water, and steep for half an hour. Then filter thr...
-Tonka Beans And Coumarin And Their Effect
The tonka bean is a South American product, which plays an important part in the adulteration of vanilla, which it closely resembles in odor. Unlike the latter, which is a climbing plant, the tonka be...
-Tincture Of Tonka Bean
We append a few practical formulae: Formula I Plain Tincture. - Tonka beans, one ounce; alcohol, diluted, ten ounces; cut the tonka beans in small fragments and macerate. Formula II Tonka and Wine...
-Vanilla Bean
The vanilla plant is indigenous to the hot and moist woods of eastern Mexico, and is cultivated by fastening shoots to trees just near the ground. The shoots soon strike root, begin to produce fruit i...
-Alleged Poisonous Effects Of Vanilla Flavor
It has been said that in all cases where illness has followed the eating of ice cream, vanilla has been the flavor used, and is not occasioned by the copper utensils employed. However, the poisonous e...
-Vanillin Of Vanilla Beans
This is found in a crystalline state in the interior or on the surface of the vanilla bean, or dissolved in the ropy, oily liquid surrounding the seeds. It is obtained from the alcoholic extract of va...
-Artificial Vanillin
This is prepared now largely for commerce from coniferin, a compound contained in the sap of coniferous trees. A process for the artificial preparation of vanillin from oil of cloves has also been dev...
-Inferior And Adulterated Vanillin And Its Detection
Unfortunately, the vanillin prepared from the vanilla bean, or that prepared from other sources artificially, does not always represent what it pretends to do. There is quite a variance in commerce. I...
-Extract Or Tincture Of Vanilla Beans
For exhausting the vanilla bean, various writers have suggested many different processes. Simple percolation, re-percolation, digestion, and prolonged maceration followed by percolation, both with a c...
-Tincture Of Vanilla And Tonka Beans
Our own process of preparing vanilla extract or tincture is somewhat modified; we use no sugar, and employ diluted alcohol. Slice one pound of the vanilla bean, and cut in small fragrants. Then macera...
-Compound Vanilla Bean Extract
A vanilla extract of superior aroma we prepare according to the following rules: Take eight ounces finely sliced vanilla beans, one and one-half ounces of bruised cinnamon, and one and one-half ounce...
-Soluble Essence Of Vanilla
The Formulas I., II., III. and IV. yield no perfectly water-soluble tinctures; in order to make them entirely miscible with aqueous liquids they are for our purposes best prepared with a mixture of ha...
-Vanillin Tincture Or Artificial Tincture Of Vanilla
Solutions of vanillin are probably the most convenient and practical preparations the carbonator can prepare. Estimating that the yield of vanillin from vanilla bean is but one and one-half per cent, ...
-Strength Of Tinctures Of Vanilla
These artificial tinctures, if vanillin or coumarin of the proper strength has been obtained and employed, are about three times as strong as the ordinarily made tinctures from vanilla beans, besides ...
-Oil Of Verbena And Its Application
It is obtained from the leaves of Aloysia citriodora Orteg. (verbena triphylla Herit.), indigenous to Peru. By distillation with water a volatile oil is obtained, the aroma of which resembles that of ...
-Wild Cherry Bark
The wild cherry is a large North American forest tree, with a compact, pale-red or brownish-red wood. Wild cherry bark is met with in irregular fragments or slightly curved pieces, obtained from the b...
-Oil Of Wintergreen
Wintergreen oil enters largely into the composition of many beverages, both carbonated and fermented. It is distilled from the leaves Gaultheria procumbens, while fresh, with water or the aid of steam...
-May Wine Essence
Take ten pounds of Herb hepatic (Matrisylvae) - Asperula odorata, Linne - cut it in small pieces; then add two pints of alcohol, and two pints of white wine (or up to four pints of each, if more liqui...
-Wine Essences
Various wine essences can be compounded after the following Formulae, such as sherbet, catawba, etc., compounds by variations, such as ambrosia, nectar, etc. Formula I - Take ten fresh oranges, and t...
-Wine Or Cognac Oil
It is the aromatic principle of all wines. By repeated distillation of wine, after Liebig and Pelouze, a very small quantity of an intensely odorous oil is obtained, about one part of oil from 40,000 ...
-Chapter XXXVI. Fruit Juices, Fruit Essences, And Artificial Flavorings
The Juicy And Non-Juicy Fruits. - How to Prepare Fruit Juices. - Preservation and Clarification of Fruit Juices. - Lime and Lemon Juice. - reser-vation of Lime and Lemon Juice. - Artificial Lime Juice...
-How To Prepare Fruit Juices
These are prepared by subjecting the juicy and non-juicy fruits to pressure, whereby the juice is liberated. The sound fruits are crushed, packed into a felt or flannel bag and expressed. The fruits s...
-Preservation And Clarification Of Fruit Juices
Several means of preserving and clarifying fruit juices are known. A usual way in which they are kept from fermenting is by the use of salcyli or benzoic acid, or some other antiseptic substance, whic...
-Lime And Lemon Juice
Of late years the expressed juice of the closely allied fruits, limes and lemons, which we have already described in the previous chapter, have been extensively employed by manufacturers of carbonated...
-Preservation Of Lime And Lemon Juice
This is a matter of great importance, which has been settled according to the individual preferences of the manufacturer. Salicylic acid, sodium salicylate and bisulphite of lime, are sometimes used a...
-Artificial Lime Juice
Some commercial lime juice obtained in the open market has been found by analysis to contain a large proportion of sulphuric acid. It needs no explanation but common sense to decide that such an artif...
-Fermented Fruit Juices
If the fruit juices are allowed to ferment, the aroma is more delicate, and the product of a much better bouquet. After the fruits are crushed, put the mass in wooden tanks or in demijohns or earthenw...
-Fruit Essences
Fruit essences are obtained by macerating the crushed fruits with alcohol, expressing and filtering the liquid and sometimes rectifying it by distillation. The alcohol should not be stronger than 85 n...
-How To Improve Fruit Juices And Fruit Essences
The agreeable aroma of the fruit juices is considerably animated by the addition of a small quantity of acetic ether or some of the artificial fruit essences named in this work. The flavor will be mor...
-Definition Of Compound Ethers, Fruit Ethers, Fruit Oils, Artificial Fruit Essences
Compound ethers, also called fruit ethers and fruit oils, are chemical compounds obtained by etherification. They are divided into two classes, one, the oxides of alcohol radicals, and the other, comp...
-Compound Ethers, Fruit Ethers, Fruit Oils, Artificial Fruit Essences. Continued
Aldehyd It is produced by the influence of oxygen on alcohol - by oxidation. Alcohol is distilled with sulphuric acid and oxide of manganese, or bichromate of potassium. The distillate is dephlegmate...
-Formulas Or Recipes For Artificial Fruit Essences
The appended proportions are given on the authority of Kletzinsky (in Dingler's Polyt. Journal), In each of the Formulae, the figures indicate the number of parts by measure, which are to be added to ...
-Cognac Essence
Formula I Nitrate ethyl, fifty parts; acetate ethyl, six parts; sulphuric ether, one part; thymian oil, six parts; vanilla extract, one part; alcohol, 1000 parts. Formula II True cognac or wine oil...
-Rum Essence And How To Make Artificial Rum
Ethyl buty-rate, eighty parts; ethyl acetate, fifteen parts; vanilla tincture, five parts; tincture of orris root, fifteen parts; alcohol, 1000 parts Mix and add oil of lemon, six grains; oil of cinna...
-Rye And Whiskey Essences
Formula I Ethyl acetate, 250 parts; ethyl nitrate, 200 parts; oil of caraway, one part; oil of anise, one part; oil of juniper, two parts; alcohol, 1000 parts; sugar coloring if desired. Two pints of...
-Chapter XXXVII. Fruit And Mineral Acids
Definition Of Fruit Acids. - Citric Acid. - Impurities and Adulterations. - So-lution of Citric Acid. - Preservation of Citric Acid Solution. - Tartaric, Acid. - Impurities and Adulterations. - Soluti...
-Citric Acid
Citric acid occurs in a free state in the juice of the whole genus of plants citrous, and many other fruits. The lemon, lime, bergamot, sour oranges, are the fruits from which it is extracted. It has ...
-Citric Acid Impurities And Adulterations
Commercial citric acid frequently contains small quantities of calcium salts, sulphuric acid, due to imperfect manufacture, also traces of iron, lead and copper, these last being derived from the vess...
-Detecting Tartaric Acid
Citric acid is frequently adulterated with tartaric acid; oxalic acid and various crystallized salts are said to have been employed for the same purpose. According to Hager, a solution of four parts c...
-Solution Of Citric Acid
Although citric acid is soluble in three-fourths of cold water, viz., one pound in twelve ounces, we propose for practical purposes to prepare a weaker solution, as a strong solution separates crystal...
-Tartaric Acid
Tartaric acid is prepared from crude tartar (acid tartrate of potassium), which is met with either free or in combination with bases especially in grapes, also in sumach berries, tamarinds, pineapples...
-When Tartaric Acid Should Not Be Used
Tartaric acid should never be used to acidify syrups or beverages colored with aniline red, as it affects and precipitates the color, so that all coloring disappears. This fact should especially be bo...
-Acetic Acid
In commerce the largest quantity is obtained from the products of the distillation of wood, and has a distinctly vinegar-like smell, present in all stages of dilution. Acid Acetic of the spec. grav. ...
-Mineral Acids
Tartaric and citric acid are well known to exist naturally in various fruits, and have proved themselves to be thoroughly wholesome, by the enormous quantity which has been consumed for years past; no...
-Phosphoric Acid
In late years phosphoric acid has been introduced for acidulating beverages, thereby bringing forward a comparatively new class of drinks called phosphates, nerve food, etc. Their introduction bro...
-Phospho-Citric Acid
A solution has recently been offered to the English trade called phospho-citric acid, intended to supersede citric and tartaric acids in mineral waters. We refer to what we previously stated in genera...
-Citrochloric Acid
This is also an English manufacture, and offered as an improved agent for acidulating carbonated beverages. The citro-chloric acid is, according to John 0. Thresh, D. Sc, a solution of three parts of ...
-Chapter XXXVIII. Colorings - Gum Foam - Preservatives
Specification Of The Various Colors Required. - The Manufacture and Use of Sugar Coloring in General. - Method of Preparing Liquid Sugar Color-ing. - Clarifying Liquid Sugar Coloring. - Crystalized Su...
-The Manufacture And Use Of Sugar Coloring In General
The principal secret of the sugar-coloring manufacturers is that they use neither refined nor other cane or beet-sugar at all, although their coloring is said to be made of such, and bears a term that...
-Method Of Preparing Liquid Sugar Coloring
The desired quantity of sugar or glucose, say thirty pounds, and one of carbonate of soda or potash, or one and one-half pound of carbonate of ammonia,' are put into an iron kettle, as hereafter illus...
-Clarifying Liquid Sugar Coloring
We have already mentioned under the foregoing heading that, in the course of converting the sugar or glucose into caramel, most invariably small quantities of sugar and chemical admixtures are charred...
-Crystallized Sugar Color
For home-use some may prefer to have the sugar color crystallized. This is easily accomplished. Operate entirely as directed for converting the sugar or its substitutes as before, but don't pour any w...
-Caramel vs. Burnt Sugar
A controversy as to the meaning of these terms often exists. Caramel is the commercial sugar coloring prepared by heating and converting the sugar or its substitute until it tastes neither sweet nor b...
-Apparatus For Preparing Sugar Color
Sugar coloring on a small scale is made in an iron kettle on an ordinary furnace. On a large scale an arrangement (oven) as represented by the annexed engraving is a practical device. The dimensions o...
-Conditions Required Of Sugar Or Its Substitutes, And Water For The Manufacture Of Sugar Coloring
As already stated, sugar coloring may also be prepared from molasses or glucose, furnishing a coloring that answers for all purposes; to use cane-sugar is therefore rather a luxury. But not all glucos...
-Various Grades Of Sugar Colors And Their Commercial Value
There are sugar colors for carbonated beverages, and for liquors, spirits, tinctures, essences, wines, rum, beer, ale, cider, vinegar, jellies, etc. They appear under different names and different pri...
-Disappearance Of Sugar Coloring In Car Donated Beverages
It has frequently been noticed that in ginger beverages the sugar color disappears, in sarsaparilla and others greatly diminishes in intensity, the shade becoming lighter. Sugar or glucose does not lo...
-Red Colorings
Of the various red colorings only a limited number is valuable for the bottlers' purpose viz.: cudbear, cochineal and its deri-vate carmine, besides aniline red. All other red colorings, such as car-t...
-Cudbear
This is another substance commonly used for coloring purposes. It is nearly identical with orseille. Its origin is vegetable, being prepared from the lichens of the same plant as litmus, having turned...
-Aniline Colors
Aniline is a product of the heavy oil of coal-tar. It is a colorless, limpid, oily liquid. By oxidation with other chemical substances various colors and in different shades are obtained. The aniline...
-Yellow Or Lemon Coloring
To give a yellow color to lemon essence and similar preparations, turmeric and saffron is commonly employed. We are not in favor of these colorings, as by judicious mixture with caramel or even a smal...
-Examination Of Commercial Colorings
The importance of using coloring of the best quality cannot be overestimated. A beautiful brilliant color will make your goods more saleable, but they must not contain any injurious ingredients, and t...
-Gum Acacia Or Gum Arabic For Gum Foam
Gum arabic is the gummy exudation of the gum-yielding species of Acacia, a shrub, or tree indigenous to the East Indies, Arabia, Egypt and Abyssinia. Various sorts and grades of gum arabic are commerc...
-Foam Of Whites Of Eggs
This means of producing foam on bot tied beverages we do not recommend at all, as it will decompose in time, and make the syrup, and consequenly the beverage, taste and smell of sulphuretted hydrogen,...
-Sparkling Ingredients
To improve the effervescence of carbonated beverages, the addition of bicarbonate of soda is recommended, about three ounces to twenty gallons of water in fountain, but we think this is erroneous, at ...
-Beverage Preservatives
The preservation of beverages is one of great moment to bottlers, who have used most everything offered for that purpose. To exercise the utmost care in selecting chemical compounds for that purpose i...
-Salicylic Acid
At the present time salicylic acid occupies the foremost position as a preservative, and testimonials are not wanting which favor its continued employment, whilst from many sides we are warned against...
-Solution Of Salicylic Acid
Prepare a solution as follows: take salicylic acid, one ounce; alcohol, five ounces. Of this solution add from two to five drachms to each gallon of syrup. If one ounce of syrup is used to every half-...
-Benzoic Acid
This is obtained by the dry distillation of benzoin, or artificially from urine and tar products; yellowish-white, feathery, flexible, crystalline plates and needles, having an agreeable aromatic odor...
-Peroxide Of Hydrogen
The solution of peroxide of hydrogen is obtained by decomposing peroxide of barium by hydrochloric or hydrofluoric acid in the presence of ice-cold water. The solution usually contains from three to f...
-Glycerine
This well-known article belongs to the preservatives too, and has indeed a great preserving facility. Substances preserved therein keep any length of time, but it does not check fermentation, except w...
-Chapter XXXIX. Compound Syrups And How To Make Them
Flavoring And Compounding Syrups. - General Directions. - Formulae for Compounding Syrups. - Fruit Champagnes. - Clarification and Filtration of Compound Syrups. Flavoring and Compounding Syrups Fla...
-Compound Syrup Recipes
Ambrosia Vanilla syrup, four pints; raspberry syrup, four pints. The addition of Hock wine is an improvement. If this be made of plain syrup, use the flavors proportionally. Color red. Apple Syrup,...
-Compound Syrup Recipes. Part 2
Champagne Syrup, four pints; Rhine wine, two pints; brandy, two ounces; sherry, two ounces. Another. - Syrup, one gallon; champagne lemonade extract, four pints. Proportion, two ounces per pint, and ...
-Compound Syrup Recipes. Part 3
Curacoa Punch Syrup, one gallon; extract or essence of curacoa, one to two ounces; punch essence, two ounces; fruit acid, one ounce; caramel to suit. Currant, Black Or Red Syrup, one gallon; artifi...
-Compound Syrup Recipes. Part 4
Hop Tonic A similar compound, sometimes with some fluid extract of malt, phosphate, iron, etc. Horehound Beer, Carbonated Syrup, one gallon; extract of hore-hound, three ounces; fruit acid solution...
-Compound Syrup Recipes. Part 5
Milk Lemonade Sugar, two pounds, dissolved in two pints of water; add one-half pint of lemon juice, and one pint of milk, then one-half pint of sherry. A nice compound for dispensing. Mint Syrup, o...
-Compound Syrup Recipes. Part 6
Pineapple Punch Syrup, one gallon; artificial pineapple essence, one-half ounce; rum punch essence, two ounces; fruit acid, one ounce; Caramel. Pistachio Syrup, one gallon; extract pistachio, one o...
-Compound Syrup Recipes. Part 7
Sarsaparilla Mead To the above syrup one pint of honey is added, and treated as directed under Mead. Strawberry Prepare as directed for blackberry, substituting artificial strawberry essence. St...
-Fruit Champagnes
These are carbonated beverages, put up in different varieties - that is, lemon, orange, pineapple, pear, raspberry, strawberry, and ginger - in champagne bottles, as represented by Fig. 294, the appea...
-Clarification And Filtration Of Compound Syrups
If all the ingredients of a compound syrup, such as extracts, essences, tinctures, colors, etc., are prepared as directed in this work, they will be perfectly miscible with aqueous liquids, and no cla...
-Chapter XL. Ropiness: Its Cause And Remedies
What is Ropiness? - How to Prevent Ropiness. - Contamination of Bever-ages. - Metallic Contamination and Tests. - Sediment in Beverages and the Remedies. - Loss of Flavor in certain Beverages. What i...
-How To Prevent Ropiness
Carbonic acid gas is a powerful preservative. We have made the observation, that a beverage from which the atmospheric air has been expelled, according to the rules we explained on page 122, and that ...
-Contamination Of Beverages
Carbonades should contain no foreign salts, and especially no salts of iron or earthy oxides. We have already in a former Chapter referred to the importance to the bottlers, that the water they use sh...
-Metallic Contamination And Tests
Metallic contamination of carbonated beverages is a frequent occurrence. Poisonous metals are apt to be found as impurities in certain commercial organic products, being accidentally introduced during...
-Tests Of Residue On Evaporation
Not for all beverages are the preceding tests for metallic contamination applicable; in some cases it is desirable to evaporate the liquid carefully to dryness, ignite the residue, and test for the me...
-Sediment In Beverages, And The Remedies
This is a very annoying matter to the bottler, and a subject that has been frequently discussed in the trade. We are desirous of making the question clear, as far as we are able to do. Any beverage th...
-Loss Of Flavor In Certain Beverages
Loss of flavor is a mysterious disappearance only in resinous beverages, so far as our knowledge reaches, the ginger flavor in ginger ale being the principal one. Suggestions were invited and remedies...
-Chapter XLI. Fermented (Small) Beers
Definition Of Small Beers. - Fermentation. - Definition of Ferment and its Essential Condition. - Condition of Yeast. - Preservation of Yeast. - Ex-amination of Yeast. - Preparing Various Kinds of Yea...
-Fermentation
Fermentation is that change of organic substances by which their starch, sugar, gluten, etc., under the influence of water, air and warmth are decomposed, usually with evolution of gas and heat, and t...
-Condition Of Yeast
In fermenting, the first requisite is good yeast. The yeast of beer, or brewer's yeast, is most generally used, and its preference is founded on its fermentable power, and on the facility with which i...
-Preparing Various Kinds Of Yeast
If brewer's yeast cannot be had, baker's stock yeast might be employed, but when neither of the above can be obtained a very good yeast can be made by taking the dry yeast cake - such as are kept for ...
-Sugar, Its Substitutes And Proportions Employed
The substance and body of the beer is composed of three parts, and requires to be well proportioned. First, the extract, which gives the flavor or bouquet and body to the beer; second, the sweetening;...
-Kind Of Water To Be Used
As to water used for these beers, it is hardly necessary to say that the very best spring water usually gives the best of results, and such waters, diluted with foreign matters and sub-stances, or oth...
-The Extracts For Small Beers
The extract which gives the flavor and body to the beer should always be of the first quality and kind. When possible, oils should not be used when extracts can be had (see Killing of Yeast, later o...
-Killing Of Yeast
The killing of yeast occurs very easily when there is no particular pains paid to it; it is a very sensitive plant, and very likely to be destroyed by too much heat or cold, salt, alcohol, sulphur, gl...
-Clarifying Of Small Beers
The clarifying of the beer is another feature in the art and process of making these light, fermented beers, that must receive considerable attention. Strong beer, made from malt and hops, ferments so...
-Employing Herbs, Barks, Roots, Etc
There are still other points worth mentioning, considering and remembering. It is not always necessary to flavor these light fermented beverages or give them the bouquet and body with extracts, becaus...
-Coloring And Foaming Matter
Coloring matter, as well as foaming substance, is also added to beers. ...
-Preparing And Bottling Small Beers
When a beer preparation has been made, as directed before, let it ferment until it has worked itself quite clear. The barrel or tank containing it must be filled up to the top, so as to permit the scu...
-Preservation Of Barrels Or Tanks
When the tank or barrel in which the beer fermented is not immediately used for the same purpose again, it must be well cleansed and dried, and thereupon be given a coat of a solution consisting of li...
-Alcoholic Strength Of Small Beers
This depends on the excise regulations, the limit being two per cent.; however, manufacturers of those non-intoxicating beers must remember that the spirit in them is an increasing quantity, for they ...
-Birch Beer
The birch tree contains a colorless acid and sweet sap, which may be obtained by boring holes about one or two inches deep into the trunk during spring, and putting tubes into the holes, with cups at ...
-Corn Beer
Ten gallons water, four quarts molasses, two quarts sound corn, crushed or ground. Put all into a keg and shake well; in a few days a fermentation will have been brought on as nicely as with yeast. Ke...
-Cottage Beer
Half pint good wheat bran, three handfuls hops, two tablespoons yeast, ten gallons water, two quarts molasses. Boil bran and hops in the water until both sink to the bottom; strain through a hair siev...
-Ginger Beer
Ginger Beer 1 1. Granulated sugar, twenty-eight pounds; water, one barrel; yeast, one pint; powdered ginger (fine), one pound; essence of lemon, one-half ounce; essence of cloves, one-quarter ounce. ...
-Ginger Wine And Ginger Beer
These products are made of the same ingredients, but differ in this, that the former is more completely fermented for the purpose of preservation, whereas the latter is made for immediate use, and bot...
-Hop Beer
Ten pounds sugar; one pound of hops; one pound of ginger, bruised. Boil the hops for three hours, with five gallons of water, then strain; add five more gallons of water and the ginger; boil a little ...
-Horehound Beer
To make ten gallons, make an infusion of two ounces of quassia with two dozen sprigs of horehound; boil with part of this liquid thirty cayenne pods for twenty minutes, then add ten fluid ounces of li...
-Koumiss
This is a beverage which has been used by the nomadic tribes of Asia for centuries. It is made by the Tartars of mares' milk, and now is made of pure cows' milk, with the addition of a little sugar, t...
-Lemon Beer
Ten pounds sugar; ten lemons, sliced; one pint yeast; ten gallons warm water; one ounce ginger, bruised. Let it stand twelve to twenty hours, after which it may be bottled. Lime juice or soluble essen...
-Mead
This is a beverage made by fermenting a mixture of water and honey. It is commonly confounded with metheglin, but the latter strictly denotes a fermented drink made from honey and wine, beer, etc. M...
-Scotch Mead
Honey, twenty-five pounds; brown sugar, twenty-five pounds; water, ten gallons; yeast, one pint; hops, one-half pound; lemon peel, two ounces; ginger, two ounces. Dissolve the honey and the sugar in t...
-Methegelin
1. Ten gallons water; two lemons, cut in slices; two gallons honey; a handful dried ginger root. Mix together and boil one-half hour, carefully skimming all the time. While boiling add two ounces hops...
-Molasses Beer
One pound brown sugar, one ounce bruised ginger, one pound molasses, one-half ounce hops. Boil for a few minutes with three quarts of water; strain and add five quarts of water and a spoonful of yeast...
-Nettle Beer
One peck green nettles, one handful dandelion, one ounce ginger, one ounce yeast, one handful colts-food, two pounds brown sugar, one ounce cream tartar, three gallons boiling water; infuse the herbs ...
-Persimmon Beer
Sweet, ripe persimmons, mashed and strained, one bushel; wheat bran, one and one-half bushels; mix well together and bake in loaves of convenient size. Break them in a barrel, and add twelve gallons o...
-Root Beer
Take of molasses three gallons, add to this ten gallons of boiling water. Let this stand for two hours, then pour into a barrel, and add: powdered or bruised sassafras bark, one-half pound; winter-gre...
-Sarsaparilla Beer
Take of compound syrup of sarsaparilla, one pint; good pale ale, seven pints; use no yeast. ...
-Sarsaparilla Mead
Sarsaparilla root, contused, one pound; sassafras, eight ounces; anise seed, two ounces; ginger, two ounces; cloves, one ounce. Boil for fifteen minutes in eight gallons of water and strain. Add three...
-Spruce Beer
1. The following recipe is for spruce beer (common), the ingredients being: forty-eight gallons of water, thirty-six pounds of molasses, one and one-half pounds of essence of spruce, one and one-half ...
-Tonic Beer
Simple syrup, 25, ten gallons; oil of sassafras, five drachms; oil of wintergreen, five drachms; oil of orange, five drachms; oil of cloves, one-half drachm; oil of anise, one-half drachm. Mix we...









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