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The American Cyclopaedia Vol7 | by George Ripley And Charles A. Dana



The American Cyclopaedia - Popular Dictionary Of General Knowledge. Vol7

TitleThe American Cyclopaedia. Vol7
AuthorGeorge Ripley And Charles A. Dana
PublisherD. Appleton And Company
Year1873
Copyright1873, D. Appleton And Company
AmazonThe New American Cyclopędia. 16 volumes complete.

The American Cyclopędia

Edited By George Ripley And Charles A. Dana.

Volume VII. Evesham-Glascock

Other spellings could be: Cyclopaedia, Cyclopedia, Encyclopędia, Encyclopaedia, Encyclopedia

-Contributors of New Articles
Among the Contributors of New Articles to the Seventh Volume of the Revised Edition are the following: Prof. Cleveland Abbe, Washington, D. C. Fog. Frost. WlLLARD BaRTLETT. Ganges. Garrow Hills. Gi...
-Evesham
Evesham, a parliamentary borough and market town of Worcestershire, England, nearly encircled by the Avon, 13 m. S. E. of Worcester; pop. about 5,000. It is well built, and contains three churches, a ...
-Evidence
Evidence. Judicial evidence differs from the proofs by which human judgment is ordinarily determined in non-judicial matters, chiefly in certain rules established for the sake of facility in disposing...
-Evidence. Part 2
The traditional evidence, as it is called in such cases, consists of proof of what has been said long since by persons who may be supposed to have had some personal knowledge, or to have heard from ot...
-Evidence. Part 3
An instance of this is when a man has by some statement or admission induced another with whom he was dealing to enter into a contract; he will not afterward be permitted to deny the truth of such sta...
-Evidence. Part 4
But it is not alone for this purpose that discrimination is required. A question of fact usually involves testimony on both sides, which must be collated, and the relative weight of which must be dete...
-Evolution
Evolution, the term now generally applied to the doctrine that the existing universe has been gradually unfolded by the action of natural causes in the immeasurable course of past time. The question h...
-Evolution. Part 2
On the contrary, they hold that the present conformation and composition of the earth's crust, the distribution of land and water, and the infinitely diversified forms of animals and plants which cons...
-Evolution. Part 3
The same fact is seen in geological distribution. Mr. Wallace observes: Most of the larger and some smaller groups extend through several geological periods. In each period, however, there are peculia...
-Evolution. Part 4
There are differences, also, in the periods of the acquirement of the perfect plumage, the size and shape of the eggs, the nature of flight, and the powers of flight, so-called ' homing' birds having ...
-Evolution. Part 5
The objects of nature undergo changes in time, emerging and vanishing, some quickly and others slowly: is there a universal law by which these changes also are governed ? This was the aim of the resea...
-Evolution. Part 6
No object can exist without being acted upon and altered by forces, and no mass can be thus acted upon in all parts alike; unequal action therefore tends to destroy homogeneity and produce ever increa...
-Evolution. Part 7
5. These secondary changes constitute a transformation of the homogeneous into the heterogeneous-a transformation which, like the first, is exhibited in the universe as a whole and in all (or nearly a...
-Evora
Evora, a city of Portugal, capital of the province of Alemtejo, 75 m. E. S. E. of Lisbon; pop. about 12,000. It is surrounded by a wall, and has remains of two ancient forts. It is the seat of an arch...
-Evreux
Evreux (ane. Mediolanum, or Ciritas Elm-rovicum), a city of Normandy, France. capital of the department of Eure, 55 m. W. by N. of Paris, in a pleasant valley on the Iton, which flows through the city...
-Georg Heinrich August Von Ewald
Georg Heinrich August Von Ewald, a German orientalist, theologian, and historian, born in Gottingen, Nov. 16, 1803. In 1831 he was appointed to the chair of philosophy, and afterward to those of orien...
-Thomas Ewbank
Thomas Ewbank, an American writer on practical mechanics, born at Barnard Castle, Durham, England, March 11, 1792, died in New York, Sept. 16, 1870. At the age of 13 he was apprenticed to a tin and co...
-Richard Stoddard Ewell
Richard Stoddard Ewell, a general of the Confederate States of America, born in. the District of Columbia in 1820, died at Spring Hill, Tenn., Jan. 25, 1872. He graduated at West Point in 1840, and be...
-John Ewing
John Ewing, an American clergyman, born in Nottingham, Md., June 22, 1732, died in Philadelphia, Sept. 8, 1802. He was educated in the college of New Jersey, was tutor in that college and instructor o...
-Thomas Ewing
Thomas Ewing, an American statesman, born in Ohio co., Va., Dec. 28, 1789, died at Lancaster, Ohio, Oct. 26, 1871. In his 20th year he left home and worked in the Kanawha salt establishments, until he...
-Exarch
Exarch (Gr. leader), in the eastern Roman empire, an ecclesiastical or civil dignitary invested with extraordinary authority. At first exarchs were officers delegated by the patriarch or synod to visi...
-Excellency
Excellency, a title borne originally by the Lombard kings, and then by the emperors of the West from Charlemagne to Henry VII. It was adopted in the loth century by the Italian princes, who exchanged ...
-Exchange
Exchange, a gathering place for the transaction of business. In Venice, Genoa, and other Italian cities, regular commercial gathering places existed at an early day. The modern institution of exchange...
-Bill Of Exchange
Bill Of Exchange, in commercial transactions, a written instrument designed to secure the payment of a distant debt without the transmission of money, being in effect a setting off or exchange of one ...
-Excise
Excise, a term employed to designate a particular form of taxation. Excise taxes or duties are distinguished from customs in being such as are imposed upon domestic commodities, chiefly manufactures, ...
-Excommunication
Excommunication (Lat. ex, out of, and communication intercourse), the cutting off' a member of a religious society from intercourse with the other members in things spiritual. This penalty was familia...
-Excretion
Excretion (Lat. excemere, excretum, to purge), the elimination of waste or effete matters from the living body. There is evidence that during the vital processes every exertion of activity by a living...
-Execution
Execution, in law, the final process to enforce the judgment of a court, according to the old maxim, executio est fructus et finis legis. In its larger application it includes the process of sequestra...
-Executor
Executor, the person appointed to carry into effect the directions contained in a last will and testament. By the common law of England, or rather by the law as administered in the ecclesiastical cour...
-Exelmans, Or Exeelmans
Exelmans, Or Exeelmans, Remy Joseph Isidore, count, a French general, born in Bar-le-Duc, Nov. 13, 1775, killed by a fall from his horse in July, 1852. He served first in Italy, became an aide-de-camp...
-Exeter, Rockingham Co., New Hampshire, Situated On Exeter River
Exeter, a town and one of the county seats of Rockingham co., New Hampshire, situated on Exeter river, a branch of the Piscataqua, and on the Boston and Maine railroad, 12 m. S. W. of Portsmouth; pop...
-Exeter, Devonshire, England
Exeter, a city, port, and parliamentary borough of England, capital of Devonshire, and a county in itself, on the Exe, 10 m. from its mouth in the English channel, and 159 m. W. S. W. of London'; pop....
-Exhaustion
Exhaustion (Lat. exhaurire, to draw out), a method of the ancient geometry, applied with success by Archimedes and Euclid, by which the value of an incommensurable quantity was sought by obtaining app...
-Exmouth
Exmouth, a town of Devonshire, England, 10 m. S. E. of Exeter; pop. about 6,000. It is a celebrated sea-bathing place, and is beautifully situated on the E. side of the entrance to the estuary of the ...
-Edward Pellew Exmouth
Edward Pellew Exmouth, viscount, an English admiral, born at Dover, April 19, 1757, died at Teignmouth, Jan. 23, 1833. He entered the navy at the age of 13, and first distinguished himself in the batt...
-Exodus
Exodus (Gr. departure), a book of the Bible, the second of the Pentateuch. It derives its name from the principal event recorded in it, the departure of the Hebrews from Egypt, and contains the histo...
-Exogens
Exogens (Gr. outward, andto generate), a class of plants so called because their woody matter is increased by additions to the outside of that which first surrounds the central pith. As there are no s...
-Exorcism
Exorcism (Gr. adjuration), a rite having for its object to cast out evil spirits, or to withdraw irrational things from their influence. As the natural attendants of a belief in demoniacal possession,...
-Exostosis
Exostosis (Gr. out of, and bone), an osseous tumor developed on the surface of a bone, originally or eventually continuous with its substance, circumscribed, without interior cavity, having the same s...
-Expansion
Expansion, the property displayed by matter of enlarging in bulk by diminution of pressure, increase of heat, or in a few instances by increase of cold, and also of moisture. It is seen in solids in t...
-Explosives
Explosives. An explosion may be occasioned by the sudden removal of resistance to an expanding force, as in the case of steam boilers; but it is more frequently the result of a sudden generation of en...
-Explosives. Part 2
The sulphur acts upon the carbonate of potassa, producing liver of sulphur, a mixture of the sulphide with the sulphate of potassa; this is suddenly oxidized by the decomposition of the nitric acid, ...
-Explosives. Part 3
The modern formula is C3H6N3O9, or CONSTITUENTS. By weight. By volume. Aqueous vapor......... 20 55,400 Carbonic acid.................. 58 46.900 Oxygen.............
-Explosives. Part 4
The anhydric acid cannot be isolated; but the salts (particularly of potassa and baryta) have been extensively employed in the manufacture of explosives, by mixing with combustible materials. Even the...
-Explosives. Part 5
Mercury fulminate (empirical formula, C4N204Hg2) is prepared by dissolving at a moderate heat, in 12 parts of nitric acid of the specific gravity of 1.35, 1 part of mercury, and adding 11 parts of 90 ...
-Explosives. Part 6
Restraint may be offered by an enclosing solid material, or by the inertia of the gases themselves, and the surrounding air. If a block of compressed gun cotton is ignited in the open air by a flame o...
-Exponent
Exponent (Lat. erponere, to manifest), in arithmetic and algebra, a small figure or letter, written to the right of and above a quantity or algebraic term, to show how often the quantity or term must ...
-Express
Express, a messenger or conveyance sent on any special errand, particularly a courier despatched with important communications. In the United States the word is applied to a system organized for the t...
-Extradition
Extradition, the delivering up of fugitives from justice by the authorities of one country or state to those of another. This subject may be considered under two heads, as it relates to the surrender ...
-II. Exteadition Between Sovereign Nations
As a general rule, one nation does not undertake to punish offences not committed within its territories, though the offender may he found there. Many publicists, however, have expressed the view that...
-II. Exteadition Between Sovereign Nations. Continued
This not to apply to offences previously committed, or to offences of a political character, and neither to be bound to surrender its own citizens or subjects; and one accused of a new offence in the ...
-Extreme Unction
Extreme Unction, a sacrament of the Roman Catholic church, and of the Greek and other eastern churches, administered for the spiritual and bodily relief of the sick. The Greeks call it the oil of pra...
-Van Eyck
Van Eyck, the name of three painters, two brothers and a sister, regarded as the founders of the Flemish school, probably the children of Josse van Eyck, a painter, and born at Eyck (now Alden Eyck), ...
-Eye
Eye, the organ of the special sense of vision, lodged in man in a cavity on each side of the upper portion of the face, called the orbit. The orbits have the form of a quadrangular pyramid of which th...
-Eye. Part 2
The eye is frequently destroyed by accident or disease; in cases of removal of the organ artificial eyes are used to remedy the deformity; these are made of glass and enamel, and when having the natur...
-Eye. Part 3
Fig. 3.-Illustration of the change in the form of the lens when adjusted-a to distant, b to near objects. Sommering is said not to exist in any mammals below the quadrumana; the tear gland is found...
-Eye Stone
Eye Stone, the operculum or calcareous mouthpiece of certain species of small univalve shells. The stony-like substance, one third of an inch or less in its largest dimensions, presents a form like th...
-Eylau, Or Eilau
Eylau, Or Eilau, a town of Prussia, province of East Prussia, in the district and 22 m. S. S. E. of the city of Konigsberg; pop. in 1871, 3,723. It is situated on the Pasmar, a small tributary of the ...
-Ezekiel
Ezekiel, the third of the great Hebrew prophets, and contemporary with Jeremiah and Daniel, lived in the 7th and 6th centuries B. C. He was still young when he went into captivity, following King Jeho...
-Ezra
Ezra, a Jewish scribe and priest, according to Josephus, high priest of the Jews in Babylon. Under his guidance, the second expedition of the Jews proceeded from Babylon to Palestine, under the reign ...
-Ezzelino Da Romano, or Etcelino Da Romano
Ezzelino Da Romano, or Etcelino Da Romano, a leader of the G-hibellines in Italy, born at Onaro, April 26, 1194, died at Soncino, Sept. 26,1259. He belonged to a German family which in the 11th centur...
-Letter F
F The 6th letter of the English and Latin, the 20th of the Arabic, and the 23d of the Persian alphabet, indicates a labio-dental sound, produced by the passage of the expired air between the lower lip...
-Frederick William Fiber
Frederick William Fiber, an English clergyman and author, born June 28, 1815, died Sept. 26, 1863. He was educated at Oxford, and became rector of Elton in Northamptonshire, which office he filled unt...
-George Stanley Faber
George Stanley Faber, an English theological writer, uncle of the preceding, born Oct. 25, 1773, died near Durham, Jan. 27, 1854. He studied at the university of Oxford, where he became a fellow and t...
-Fabius
Fabius, the name of an ancient Roman gens, which claimed to be descended from Hercules and the daughter of the Arcadian Evander. Of the various families which belonged to the gens Fabia, the most anci...
-Francois Xavier Pascal Fabre
Francois Xavier Pascal Fabre, a French painter, born in Montpellier, April 1, 1766, died March 12, 1837. He was a pupil of David, and produced in 1787 a painting representing the Execution of the Chi...
-Jean Fabre
Jean Fabre, surnamedthe honest criminal, a Protestant hero, born in Nimes in 1727, died in Cette, May 31, 1797. He was a manufacturer and a member of the small Protestant community at Nimes. He and h...
-Philippe Francois Nazaire Fabredeglantine
Philippe Francois Nazaire Fabredeglantine, a French revolutionist and author, born in Languedoc, Dec. 28, 1755, guillotined in Paris, April 5, 1794. In gratitude for a wild rose {eglantine) of gold aw...
-Raffaello Fabretti
Raffaello Fabretti, an Italian antiquary, born in Urbino in 1618, died in Rome in 1700. At the age of 18 he went to Rome, where he made himself profoundly acquainted with the literature and art of the...
-Fabriano
Fabriano, a town of central Italy, in the province and 34 m. S. W. of the city of An-cona, at the foot of the Apennines; pop. about 6,000. It is the seat of a bishop, has a cathedral and several conve...
-Gentile Da Fabriano
Gentile Da Fabriano, an Italian painter of the Roman school, born at Fabriano about 1370, died in Rome in 1450. Michel Angelo said that his name Gentile, the noble or delicate, was in harmony with the...
-Fabricius
Fabricius (Caius Fabricius Luscinus), a Roman statesman, celebrated for his virtue and integrity. While consul in 282 B. C. he defeated the Lucanians, Bruttians, and Samnites, and enriched the public ...
-Georg Fabricius
Georg Fabricius, a German scholar, born in Chemnitz, Saxony, April 24, 1516, died in Meissen. July 13, 1571. He was director of the college of Meissen. His edition of Horace (2 vols., Basel, 1555) is ...
-Fabricius, Or Fabrizio
Fabricius, Or Fabrizio, Girolamo, surnamed from his birthplace ab Aquapendente, an Italian anatomist and surgeon, born at Ac-quapendente, in the Papal States, in 1537, died in Padua, May 21, 16191 A p...
-Johann Albert Fabricius
Johann Albert Fabricius, a German bibliographer, born in Leipsic, Nov. 11, 1668, died in Hamburg, April 30, 1736. He studied philosophy, medicine, and theology, and in 1699 was appointed professor of ...
-Johann Christian Fabricius
Johann Christian Fabricius, a Danish entomologist, born in Tondern, Schleswig, Jan. 7, 1743, died in Kiel in 1807 or 1808. His academic studies were pursued at Copenhagen, Leyden, Edinburgh, and final...
-Fabyan, Or Fabian
Fabyan, Or Fabian, Robert, an ancient English chronicler, born in London about 1450, died in 1512. He was a merchant, became an alderman and sheriff of London, and wrote a general chronicle of English...
-Facciolato, Or Facciolati
Facciolato, Or Facciolati, Jacopo, an Italian philologist, horn in Torreglia, near Padua, Jan. 4, 1682, died Aug. 26, 1769. Cardinal Bar-barigo sent him to the ecclesiastical seminary of Padua, where ...
-Factor
Factor (Lat., from facere, to do or make), one who conducts business for another. The word originally had almost the same meaning as agent (Lat. agere, to act). But while agent was used to represent e...
-Factor. Continued
It is on this ground that in England and in many of the United States such a factor, whether called commission merchant, consignee, agent, or otherwise, is deemed to be the true owner, so far as to re...
-Thomas Faed
Thomas Faed, a Scottish artist, born at Bur-ley Mill, in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright, in 1826. In 1843 he went to Edinburgh, where his elder brother, John, was painting with success, and for some y...
-Faenza
Faenza (anc. Faventia), a fortified city of central Italy, in the province and 18 m. S. W. of the city of Ravenna, on the Lamone, at its junction with the canal of Zanelli; pop. in 1871, 36,299. It is...
-Joseph Fagnani
Joseph Fagnani, an American artist, born in Naples, Italy, Dec. 24, 1819, died in New York, May 22, 1873. He made crayon portraits before completing his 13th year, left the royal academy at 18, and re...
-Karl Johan Fahlcrantz
Karl Johan Fahlcrantz, a Swedish painter, born in Dalecarlia, Nov. 29, 1774, died Jan. 1, 1861. He was the son of a clergyman, and, although self-taught, his delineations of Scandinavian scenery won f...
-Fahlun, Or Falun
Fahlun, Or Falun (Sw. Fahlu), the capital of the Swedish lan of the same name or Koppar-berg, on the W. shore of Lake Runn, 130 m. N. N. W. of Stockholm; pop. in 1868,5,891. The houses are low and alm...
-Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit
Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit, a German physicist and mechanician, born in Dantzic about 1690. died in Amsterdam, Sept, 16, 1736. His predilection for the natural sciences led him to abandon mercantile li...
-Louis Leon Cesar Faidherbe
Louis Leon Cesar Faidherbe, a French soldier, born in Lille, June 3, 1818. He studied at Paris and Metz, served in Algeria and Guadeloupe, and became in 1854 governor of Senegal, where he distinguishe...
-Michel Etienne Faillon
Michel Etienne Faillon, a French theological and historical writer, born at Tarascon in 1799, died in Paris, Oct. 25, 1870. He was a Sul-pician of Paris, and came to Montreal in 1854 as visitor of the...
-Pierre Louis Charles Achille De Fa Illy
Pierre Louis Charles Achille De Fa Illy, a French soldier, born at Rozoy-sur-Serre, department of Aisne, about 1810. He went to Algeria as sub-lieutenant in 1828, was afterward orderly | officer of Ki...
-Fair
Fair (Lat. feria, a day of rest, a holiday), a . gathering for the purchase and sale of goods, or the hiring of servants, occasionally associated with religious festivals and popular entertainments. T...
-Fair. Continued
It is estimated that the trade of the week of the fair amounts to $4,000,000 or $5,000,000. Equally large are the transactions made at the fair of Guibray, a small suburb of the town of Falaise, held ...
-Sir William Fairbairn
Sir William Fairbairn, a British civil engineer and machinist, born in Kelso on the Tweed, Feb. 19, 1789. He learned engineering at the Percy main colliery, Newcastle, where he remained seven years. I...
-Fairfax
Fairfax, a N. E. county of Virginia, separated from Maryland and the District of Columbia by the Potomac river; area, 430 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 12,952, of whom 4,284 were colored. The Occoquan river t...
-Edward Fairfax
Edward Fairfax, an English poet, born at Denton, Yorkshire, died in the parish of Fay-stone about 1633. The translation of Tasso's Jerusalem Delivered, by which alone his name is remembered, was mad...
-Thomas Fairfax, Third Baron Fairfax of Cameron
Thomas Fairfax, third Baron Fairfax of Cameron, in the Scottish peerage, grand-nephew of the preceding, a parliamentary general in the civil wars of Charles I., born at Denton, Yorkshire, in January, ...
-Thomas Fairfax, Sixth Baron Fairfax of Cameron
Thomas Fairfax, sixth Baron Fairfax of Cameron, a British nobleman, born about 1690, died at Green way Court, near Winchester, Va., in 1782. He was educated at Oxford, enjoyed a reputation as a wit an...
-Fairfield, Connecticut
Fairfield. I. A S. W. county of Connecticut, bordering on Long Island sound and the state of New York, and bounded N. E. by the Housatonic river; area, 647 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 95,276. It has excelle...
-Fairies
Fairies, supernatural beings, generally human in appearance, but endowed with super- human power, who have played an important part in the popular superstition of nearly all nations, and are still bel...
-Fairies. Continued
The fadas were fairy ladies who became the spouses of men, and lived with them in great felicity; but when a husband discovered the secret of their nature, or became unfaithful, he either died instant...
-Faithorne
Faithorne. I. William, an English engraver, born in London about 1625, died there in May, 1691. He was a pupil of Sir Robert Peake, served under him in the royal army, was captured at Basinghouse and ...
-Fakir
Fakir (an Arabic word meaning a poor man), the name of a mendicant order in the East Indies, like the dervishes of Persia and Turkey. The first condition of an Indian mendicant monk is poverty. He wea...
-Falaise
Falaise (Lat. Falesia), a town of Normandy, France, in the department of Calvados, 22 m. S. S. E. of Caen, on the river Ante, and on a branch of the Western railway; pop. in 1866, 8,621. It is built u...
-Falashas
Falashas, the Jewish population of Abyssinia, numbering about 250,000, who have inhabited that country from time immemorial. Their name signifies exiles or wanderers, and they profess to have come ori...
-Falcon
Falcon, a bird of prey, belonging to the order raptores, family falconidoe, subfamily fal-coninm, and to the typical genus falco (Linn.). This subfamily contains the following genera, in addition to f...
-Falcon. Continued
The falcons belong to the former division; from their long and slender and entire wings, when they wish to rise in the air vertically they are obliged to fly against the wind, though obliquely they ea...
-Anicllo Falcone
Anicllo Falcone, an Italian painter, born in Naples in 1600, died in France in 1665. He was a pupil of Spagnoletto, and set up an academy of his own. At the time of Masaniello's revolt he formed his p...
-Hugh Falconer
Hugh Falconer, a British palaeontologist, born at Forres, Scotland, Feb. 29, 1808, died in England, Jan. 31, 1865. He studied at the universities of Aberdeen and Edinburgh, received his diploma as phy...
-William Falconer
William Falconer, a British poet, born in Edinburgh about 1730, lost at sea in 1769. He was the son of a barber, whose other children were all deaf and dumb. At the age of 18, being second mate of the...
-Etienne Manrice Falconet
Etienne Manrice Falconet, a French sculptor, born in Paris in 1716, died in 1791. He was a pupil of Lemoine, and early gained distinction by a statue of Milo of Crotona. Many of his works were destroy...
-Falconry
Falconry, the art of training falcons or other birds of prey for the chase, the sport itself being called in English hawking, in French le vol. A falconry is also the place where such birds are kept. ...
-Falerii
Falerii (also called Aequum Faliscum or Fa-lisca), an ancient city of Italy, one of the 12 Etruscan cities, a few miles W. of the Tiber, and X. W. of Mount Soracte, near Civita Castellana. It was the ...
-Falernus Ager
Falernus Ager, a district in the northern part of ancient Campania, extending from the Massican hills to the bank of the Vulturnus, from which the ancient Romans obtained one of their choicest wines. ...
-Marino Falieri
Marino Falieri, doge of Venice, the most celebrated of the several doges of the same family, born about 1275, beheaded April 17, 1355. In 1346 he rendered eminent services to the republic as commander...
-Johann Daniel Falk
Johann Daniel Falk, a German philanthropist and author, horn in Dantzic in 1768, died Feb. 14, 1826. He entered the university of Halle, where he produced several satirical poems, which attracted the ...
-Falkirk
Falkirk, a municipal and parliamentary burgh of Stirlingshire, Scotland, on a commanding eminence, 24 m. W. of Edinburgh; pop. in 1871, 9,547. Its name, Fallow Kirk, is a translation of the obsolete E...
-Falkland
Falkland, a royal burgh of Fifeshire, Scotland, at the base of the Lomond hills, 22 m. N. of Edinburgh; pop. in 1871, 1,144. The E. Lomond hill rises so abruptly behind it as to intercept the rays of ...
-Lucius Cary Falkland
Lucius Cary Falkland, viscount, an English politician and man of letters, born at Burford, Oxfordshire, in 1610, killed Sept. 20, 1643. His father. Sir Henry Cary, who was made Viscount Falkland in th...
-Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands (Fr. Malouines; Sp. Malxinas), a group in the S. Atlantic, belonging to Great Britain, and consisting of about 200 islands, 300 m. E. of the entrance to the strait of Magellan, betwee...
-Thomas Falkner
Thomas Falkner, an English missionary, born in Manchester about 1731, died at Plow-den Hall, Jan. 30, 1784. He was the son of a surgeon, and followed the same profession in South America and other cou...
-Philipp Jakob Fallmerayer
Philipp Jakob Fallmerayer, a German historian and traveller, born at Tschotsch, near Brixen, in the Tyrol, Dec. 10, 1791, died in Munich, April 26, 18G2. He served as a sublieutenant in the campaigns ...
-Falloppio, Or Fallopius
Falloppio, Or Fallopius, Gabriello, an Italian anatomist, born in Modena about 1523, died in 1562. He was one of the three naturalists who, according to Cuvier, contributed to the revival of the study...
-Frederic Alfred Pierre Falloux
Frederic Alfred Pierre Falloux, viscount de, a French author and statesman, born in Angers, May 7, 1811. He first made himself known by a history of Louis XVI. (Paris, 1840; 2d ed., 1843), and by his ...
-Fallow Deer
Fallow Deer (dama vulgaris), a cervine animal, distinguished from the stag or red deer by its smaller size, spotted coat, and. palmated horns. There are two varieties, the one spotted, said to be desc...
-Fall River
Fall River, a city and port of entry of Bristol co., Massachusetts, on Mount Hope bay, an arm of Narragansett bay, at the mouth of Taunton river, 45 m. S. by W. of Boston; pop. in 1850, 11,524; in 186...
-Falls
Falls, a central county of Texas, intersected by Brazos river; area, 795 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 9,851, of whom 4,681 were colored. Most of the surface is occupied by rolling prairies, the soil of which...
-Falmouth
Falmouth, a parliamentary borough and seaport of Cornwall, England, beautifully situated on the S. W. side of a harbor on the channel, at the mouth of the river Fal, 45 m. S. W. of Plymouth; pop. in 1...
-False Imprisonment
False Imprisonment. The jealous watchfulness of the common law of England for the protection and preservation of personal liberty is nowhere proved more distinctly than in the provisions of the law re...
-False Pretences
False Pretences. Any one who acquires property by means of false pretences has no i legal title to it, and it may be recovered by the party from whom it was thus obtained, ! and who is still the legal...
-Knutsen Magnus Falsen
Knutsen Magnus Falsen, a Norwegian historian, born at Opslo, Sept. 17, 1782, died in Christiania, Jan. 13, 1830. He was a son of the poet Enevold von Falsen, was educated in Copenhagen, became a lawye...
-Falster
Falster, an island of Denmark, in the Baltic, S. of Seeland, separated from the island of Moen on the northeast by Gron sound, and from that of Laaland on the west by Guld-borg sound, and forming part...
-Famagosta, Or Famagusta
Famagosta, Or Famagusta (Anc. Arsinoe; Turk. Mausa), a seaport town of the island of Cyprus, on the E. coast, about 12 m. N. W. of Cape Grego; pop. about 800. It is about two miles in circumference, a...
-Fan
Fan, an implement used to produce coolness by agitating the air. Its origin is traced to remote antiquity, and is ascribed by some historians to Kan-si, daughter of a Chinese mandarin. On the walls of...
-Fanariotes, Or Phanariotes
Fanariotes, Or Phanariotes, the Greeks who reside in the Fanar or Phanar district of Constantinople, whose ancestors had escaped the fury of the Turkish conquerors after the capture of that city by Mo...
-Fandango
Fandango, the oldest national dance of Spain, especially of Andalusia. Some suppose it to have been introduced by the Moors; others say the Moors found the dance already established, and trace its ori...
-Peter Faneuil
Peter Faneuil, the founder of Faneuil hall in Boston, born of a French Huguenot family in New Rochelle, N. Y., in 1700, died in Boston, March 3,1743. He became a merchant in Boston, and in 1740, after...
-Pietro Fanfani
Pietro Fanfani, an Italian philologist and novelist, born at Pistoja, Tuscany, in 1817. He studied medicine, but gave his attention chiefly to philology, and in 1847 founded at Pistoja a magazine rela...
-Francois Anguste And Francois Joseph Fanniere
Francois Anguste And Francois Joseph Fanniere, French engravers and carvers, brothers, the former born at Longwy in 1818, and the latter in 1822. Adopting the profession of their father, they received...
-Fannin
Fannin. I. A X. W. county of Georgia, bordering on Tennessee and North Carolina; area, 425 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 5,429, of whom 114 were colored. The surface is mountainous. The chief productions in 1...
-James W Fannin
James W Fannin., an officer of the Texan revolution, born in North Carolina, killed at Goliad, Texas, March 27, 1836. He was a captain in the Texan service in 1835, and on Oct. 28, at the head of 90 m...
-Fanning David
Fanning David, a tory and freebooter of North Carolina during the war of the revolution, born of low parentage in Wake co., N. C, about 1756, died in Digby, Nova Scotia, in 1825. He seems to have been...
-Fano
Fano, a seaport of central Italy, in the province of Pesaro, on the Adriatic, near the mouth of the Metauro, 30 m. N. W. of Ancona; pop. about 20,000. It is surrounded by old walls, built by the emper...
-Sir Richard Fanshawe
Sir Richard Fanshawe, an English poet and diplomatist, born at Ware Park, Hertfordshire, in June, 1G08, died in Madrid, June 16, 1666. He studied in Jesus college, Cambridge, and in the Inner Temple. ...
-Fantee
Fantee, a country of the Gold Coast, W. Africa, bounded N. W. and X. by Assin and Dubbin, E. by Aquapim, S. by the gulf of Guinea, and W. by Wassaw, lying near lat. 5 30' N., Ion. 1 W. Capit...
-Manfredo Fanti
Manfredo Fanti, an Italian general, born in Carpi, Modena, about 1810, died April 5, 1865. He took part in 1831 in the unsuccessful insurrection against the Austrians, served afterward in the French a...
-Michael Faraday
Michael Faraday, an English chemist and natural philosopher, born at Newington, Surrey, Sept. 22, 1791, died at Hampton Court, Aug. 25, 1867. His father was a blacksmith, of feeble health, and very po...
-Michael Faraday. Part 2
About the year 1822 and for some time after he investigated the subject of the liquefaction of vapors and gases, and in 1823 examined a substance which had been regarded as pure chlorine, but which Da...
-Michael Faraday. Part 3
He performed very little laboratory work till the end of 1844, indulging in the mean time in needful rest. In the beginning of 1845 he made a second series of experiments on the condensation of gases,...
-Faradization
Faradization, a term applied to the pro-duction of induced currents of electricity, and particularly their employment in electro-therapeutics. The generation of this form of electricity was discovered...
-Fareham
Fareham, a market town of Hampshire, England, a station on the Southwestern railway, on slightly elevated ground, at the head of a short arm of the sea, 5 m. N. W. of Portsmouth; pop. in 1871, 7.023. ...
-Guillaume Farel
Guillaume Farel, a French reformer, born near Gap, in Dauphiny, in 1489, died in Neuf-chatel, Sept. 13, 1565. While studying at Paris he embraced the new doctrines, and went with his friend Lefevre d'...
-Manoel De Faria Y Sousa
Manoel De Faria Y Sousa, a Portuguese and Spanish historian and poet, born in Portugal, March 18, 1590, died in Madrid, June 3, 1649. He was a son of Amador Perez de Erro, and assumed the name of his ...
-Faribault
Faribault, a S. county of Minnesota, bordering on Iowa, and drained by Blue Earth river and its branches; area, 720 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 9,940. The surface is mostly prairie; the soil is fertile. The...
-Farinelli
Farinelli (originally Broschi), Carlo, an Italian singer, born in Naples or in Andria, Jan. 24, 1705, died in Bologna, July 15, 1782. The extraordinary beauty of his soprano voice was attributed to hi...
-Hugh Farmer
Hugh Farmer, an English theologian, born in Shropshire in 1714, died in London, Feb. 5, 1787. He was educated at the academy in Northampton under Dr. Doddridge, and became pastor of a dissenting congr...
-John Farmer
John Farmer, an American genealogist, born in Chelmsford, Mass., June 12, 1789, died in Concord, N. II., Aug. 13,1838. After teaching school for ten years, he studied the early settlement of New Engl...
-Farmers General
Farmers General, in France, financial and privileged associations which before the revolution of 1789 took upon lease various branches of the public revenue. This system originated in the 13th century...
-Fearne Farne
Fearne Farne, or Fern Islands, several small islands and rocks in the North sea, from 2 to 5 m. from the English coast, and nearly opposite Bamborough. Two lighthouses have been erected on the largest...
-Farnese
Farnese, a family of Italian princes, who derived their name from their ancestral castle of Farneto near Orvieto, and whose genealogy is traced to the middle of the 13th century. Prominent as a soldie...
-Eliza W Farnham
Eliza W Farnham., an American philanthropist and author, born at Rensselaerville, Albany co., N. Y., Nov. 17, 1815, died in New York, Dec. 15, 1864. Her maiden name was Burhans. In 1835 she went to Il...
-Thomas Jefferson Farnham
Thomas Jefferson Farnham, an American traveller, husband of the preceding, born in Vermont in 1804, died in California in September, 1S48. In 1839 he organized and headed a small expedition across the...
-Faro, Or Pharo
Faro, Or Pharo, a game of chance at cards, said to derive its name from the figure of an Egyptian Pharaoh which was formerly placed on one of the cards. It may be played by any number of persons, who ...
-Faro
Faro, a city of Portugal, capital of the province of Algarve, near the mouth of the Valfermoso, 62 m. E. of Cape St. Vincent, and 140 m. S. E.of Lisbon; pop. about 8,500. It was destroyed by the Engli...
-Jean Baptiste Eugene Farochon
Jean Baptiste Eugene Farochon, a French medallist and sculptor, born in Paris in 1807. He studied under David, early executed busts, small statues, and medallions, received a prize in 1835, studied in...
-Faroe, Or Faro Isles
Faroe, Or Faro Isles (Dan. Faroerne), a group belonging to Denmark, in the Atlantic ocean, N. of Scotland, between lat, 61 20' and 62 25' N., and Ion. 6 10' and 7 35' W.; area, 51...
-George Farquhar
George Farquhar, a British comic dramatist, born in Londonderry, Ireland, in 1078, died in London in April, 1707. After a brief career at Trinity college, Dublin, he appeared in his 17th year as a com...
-David Glaseoe Farragut
David Glaseoe Farragut, an American admiral, born at Campbell's station, near Knox-ville, Tenn., July 5, 1801, died in Portsmouth, N. II., Aug. 14, 1870. He entered the navy as midshipman at the age ...
-Farrar
Farrar. I. John, an American mathematician, born in Lincoln, Mass., July 1, 1779, died in Cambridge, May 8, 1853. He graduated at Harvard college in 1803, and studied divinity at Andover, but accepted...
-Eliza Farren
Eliza Farren, countess of Derby, an English actress, born in Liverpool in 1759, died April 23, 1829. Her father, a native of Cork, who was successively a surgeon, an apothecary, and an actor, left his...
-Fars, Or Farsistan
Fars, Or Farsistan (Pers., land of the Persians; anc. Persis), a S. W. province of Persia, bounded N. W. by Khuzistan, N. by Irak-Ajemi and Khorasan, E. by Kerman, S. by Laristan and the Persian gulf,...
-Farthingale
Farthingale (Fr. vertugadin, It. guardin-fante, Sp. vertugado, guardian of virtue), a petticoat spread to a wide circumference by hoops of willow, whalebone, or iron, introduced into England under thi...
-Fast
Fast (Sax. faestan, to keep), abstinence from food, especially as a religious observance; appliedalso to the period of such abstinence. Fasting was practised in all the old religions known to history,...
-Fasti
Fasti, in Roman antiquity, registers of the days, months, and other divisions of the year, corresponding to modern calendars. The term is variously derived from fas, divine law, and fari, to speak, as...
-Fata Morgana, Or Castles Of The Fairy Morgana
Fata Morgana, Or Castles Of The Fairy Morgana, a mirage occasionally seen from eminences on the Calabrian shore, looking westward upon the strait of Messina. It occurs in still mornings, when the wate...
-Fatimites, Or Fatimides
Fatimites, Or Fatimides, the descendants of Fatima, the daughter of Mohammed, a powerful Arab dynasty which for 2 1/2 centuries ruled Egypt and Syria, while the Abbasside caliphs reigned at Bagdad. Th...
-Hippolyte Fauche
Hippolyte Fauche, a French orientalist, born at Auxerre in 1797, died at Juilly, department of Seine-et-Marne, in 1809. His fortune enabled him to devote his whole life to Hindoo literature, and he tr...
-Leon Faucher
Leon Faucher, a French political economist, born in Limoges, Sept. 8, 1803, died in Marseilles, Dec. 14,1854.When a boy he supported himself and his mother by making designs for embroidery, and afterw...
-Faulk
Faulk, a S. E. central county of Dakota territory, recently formed, and not included in i the census of 1870; area, about 900 sq. m. It is drained by the North fork of Dakota or James river, and consi...
-Fauns
Fauns, in Roman mythology, rural divinities, descended from Faunus, king of Latium, who introduced into that country the worship of the gods and the labors of agriculture. The poets ascribed to them h...
-Henry Fauntleroy
Henry Fauntleroy, an English forger, born in London about 1784, executed there, Nov. 30, 1824. He early joined the London bank- ing house of Marsh, Stracey, and co., and about 1814 began a system of f...
-Fauquier
Fauquier, a N. E. county of Virginia, bounded N. W. by the Blue Ridge, and S. W. by the Rappahannock river and one of its branches; area, 680 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 19,960, of whom 7,856 were colored, ...
-Jean Baptiste Faure
Jean Baptiste Faure, a French vocalist, born at Moulins, Jan. 15, 1830. He first appeared at the Opera Comique in 1852, and in 1857 became professor at the conservatory, where he had been educated. In...
-Claude Charles Fauriel
Claude Charles Fauriel, a French historian and critic, born in St. Etienne, Oct. 21, 1772, died in Paris, July 15, 1844. After receiving a good education he entered the army in 1793, served under La T...
-Faust, Or Faustus
Faust, Or Faustus, Dr. Johann, a prominent character of the national and popular poetry of Germany. According to tradition, he was a celebrated necromancer, born about 1480 at Knittlingen in Wiirtembe...
-Faust, Or Fust
Faust, Or Fust, Johann, an associate of Gutenberg and Schoffer in the first development of the art of printing, born in Mentz, died in Paris about 1466. He was a wealthy goldsmith, and probably had no...
-Annia Faustina
Faustina. I. Annia Galeria, commonly distinguished as Faustina Senior, daughter of Annius Verus, prefect of Rome, and wife of the emperor Antoninus Pius, born about A. 1). 104, died in 141. She ascend...
-Felieie De Faitveau
Felieie De Faitveau, a French sculptress, born in Florence in 1803. She belongs to an old legitimist family of Brittany, and was patronized by Louis XVIII. and Charles X. She i partook in 1832 in the ...
-Jean Baptiste Fautelet
Jean Baptiste Fautelet, a French painter, born in Bordeaux in 1822. He is a disciple of Meissonnier's style of genre painting. His earliest pictures,A Young Man Reading (1845),The Two Roses, and Th...
-Favara
Favara, a town of Sicily, in the province and 3 m. S. E. of the city of Girgenti,- on an eminence; pop. about 13,500. It has a beau-tiful castle, built in the 14th century, and in the neighborhood are...
-Marie Justine Benoite Favart
Marie Justine Benoite Favart, a French actress, born in Avignon in 1727, died in 1772. She was a (laughter of M. du Ronceray, a mu-sician, and first appeared as a vocalist at the Opera Comique, Paris,...
-Pierrette Iguace Favart
Pierrette Iguace Favart, popularly known as Marie Favart, a French actress, born at Beaune, Feb. 16, 1833. Her family name was Pinigaud, but she assumed the name of M. Favart, who adopted her as a dau...
-Fayersham, Or Feversham
Fayersham, Or Feversham, a market town, borough, and parish of Kent, England, and a member of the cinque port of Dover, on a branch of the Swale, 45 m. E. S. E. of London; pop. in 1871, 7,180. It cont...
-Favignana
Favignana (anc. Aegusa or Aethusa, an important Roman naval station), an island of the Aegades group in the Mediterranean, 8 m. from the' X. W. coast of Sicily; pop. 4,000. It is about 5 m. long and f...
-Favosites
Favosites, a family of fossil corals belonging to the hydroid acalephs. Their cells are divided by horizontal partitions, like those of the millepores, which, according to Agassiz, are true acalephs: ...
-Thomas Mahi Favras
Thomas Mahi Favras, marquis de, a French conspirator, born in Blois in 1745, hanged in Paris,.Feb. 19,. 1790. Having entered the army and served in several campaigns, he was made first lieutenant in t...
-Jules Claude Gabriel Favre
Jules Claude Gabriel Favre, a French statesman and advocate, born in Lyons, March 21, 1809. His ancestors came from Piedmont, and his father was a merchant. He studied law in Paris, early acquired emi...
-Henry Fawcett
Henry Fawcett, an English political writer and statesman, born in Salisbury in 1833. He graduated at Trinity hall, Cambridge, in 185G, and was elected a fellow in the same year. In 1857 he unsuccessfu...
-Guy Fawkes
Guy Fawkes, an English conspirator, born in Yorkshire, executed in London, Jan. 30, 1606. He was a soldier of fortune in the Spanish army in the Netherlands, when in 1604 the scheme of blowing up the ...
-Diego Saavedra Faxardo
Diego Saavedra Faxardo, a Spanish author and statesman, born in Algezares, in the province of Murcia, in 1584, died in Madrid, Aug. 24, 1648. Having graduated as a doctor of law at the university of S...
-Andras Fay
Andras Fay, a Hungarian poet, born at Ko-hany, in the county of Zemplen, May 30, 1786, died July 26, 1864. He studied law, became an advocate, and subsequently officiated as an administrative officer ...
-Theodore Sedgwick Fay
Theodore Sedgwick Fay, an American author, born in New York, Feb. 10,1807. He received a liberal education, and was admitted to the bar in 1828, but became soon after one of the editors of the New Yo...
-Fayal
Fayal, one of the Azores or Western Islands, belonging to Portugal, in lat. 38 30' N., lon. 28 40' W.; area about 40 sq. m.; pop. about 27,000. The surface is rugged, and in some parts mount...
-Fayette
Fayette, the name of 11 counties in the United States. I. A S. W. county of Pennsylvania, bordering on Maryland and West Virginia, and bounded W. by the Monongahela river; area, about 800 sq. m.; pop....
-Fayetteville
Fayetteville, a city and the capital of Cumberland co., North Carolina, on the W. bank of Cape Fear river, at the head of natural navigation, 100 m. above Wilmington, and at the terminus of the Wester...
-Fayoom, Or Fayum
Fayoom, Or Fayum (Copt. Phioum, the waters), a valley of central Egypt, anciently the Arsinoite nome, about 40 m. S. W. of Cairo, on the W. side of the Nile; length from E. to W. about 40 m., breadth ...
-Jean James Fazy
Jean James Fazy, a Swiss politician, born in Geneva, May 12, 1790. He completed his education in France, wrote several treatises on political economy, and was extensively connected with journalism in ...
-Feather Grass
Feather Grass (stipa pennata, Willd.), a grass readily distinguishable by its elegant and feather-like awns. It grows in close, matted tufts, having very long, fine, wiry, dark green leaves, numerous ...
-Feather River
Feather River, a stream rising in the N. E. part of Plumas co., California, which i flows S. W. and S. through a rich gold region, and empties into the Sacramento, 30 m. above Sacramento City; length ...
-Feathers
Feathers, a complicated modification of the tegumentary system, forming the external covering or plumage of birds. Though chemically similar to and homologous with the hair of mammals, their anatomica...
-Feathers. Part 2
Fig. 1.-Parts of the Feather. 1. The quill. 2. The shaft. 3,3. The vane or beard. 4. The accessory plume. 5. The lower umbilicus. G. Upper umbilicus. Fig. 2.-Matrix of a growing Feather, laid op...
-Feathers. Part 3
Until within the last few years the changes of color in the fur of mammals (as in the ermine in winter), and in the plumage of birds in the season of reproduction, were supposed to be effected by the ...
-February
February (Lat. Februarius, from februare, to purify; so called from februa, the festival J of expiation and lustration, which was held on the 15th of this month), the second month in our present calen...
-Fecamp
Fecamp (formerly Fescan or Fescamp; Lat. Fiscamum or Fiscamnum), a seaport town of France, in the department of Seine-Inferieure, 22 m. N. N. E. of Havre, on a branch railway, from Rouen, and at the e...
-Gnstav Theodor Fechner
Gnstav Theodor Fechner, a German naturalist, born at Gross-Sahrchen, Lusatia, April 19, 1801. He studied at the university of Leipsic, and was professor of physics there from 1834 to 1839, when a dise...
-Charles Albert Fechter
Charles Albert Fechter, a French actor. born in London, Oct. 23, 1824. The son of a German father and a French mother, he was reared principally in England and France, and after a good education he be...
-Alexei Fedchenko
Alexei Fedchenko, a Russian naturalist, born about 1830, died near the summit of the Col du Geant, Switzerland. Aug. 14, 1873. He resided at Moscow, and was a high authority on the geography of centra...
-Federalists
Federalists, a political party in the United States who claimed to be the peculiar friends of the constitution and of the federal government. Their opponents, the republicans, they called anti-federal...
-Fee
Fee, a law term, derived probably from Sax. feh, or more accurately feoh, compensation or payment. As landed estates were given by the northern conquerors of the Roman provinces to their nobles and so...
-Feejee, Fiji, or Viti Islands
Feejee, Fiji, or Viti Islands, a group in the South Pacific ocean, between lat. 15 30' and 20 30' S., and Ion. 176 50'E. and 178 20' W. Feejee is the name in the windward, and Vit...
-Feejee, Fiji, or Viti Islands. Part 2
There is an elegant variety of fern called conini. The dalici bears spike-shaped flowers, and yields a hard and useful timber; but the most useful tree for canoe building, masts, and all kinds of carp...
-Feejee, Fiji, or Viti Islands. Part 3
The best produce of the gardens, the best animals, and the best fish are presented to the chiefs. Pay day of taxes is regarded as a high festival.Whale's teeth, women, and canoes are prominent article...
-Feejee, Fiji, or Viti Islands. Part 4
The future world in their opinion is much the same as the present. But concerning the doctrines of the Feejeean religion it is scarcely possible to learn anything. The people know nothing, and the pri...
-Rhijnvis Feith
Rhijnvis Feith, a Dutch poet, born at Zwolle, Feb. 7, 1753, died there, Feb. 8, 1824. He completed his studies at Leyden in 1770, when he returned to his native town, where he spent the rest of his li...
-Felanitx, Or Felaniche
Felanitx, Or Felaniche, a town of Spain, on the island of Majorca, 25 m. E. S. E. of Palma; pop. about 8,000. It is in a fertile valley surrounded by mountains, and contains spacious streets and six s...
-Feldrirch
Feldrirch, a town of Austria, in Vorarl-berg, on the 111, and on the railway leading from the Tyrol into Switzerland, 20 m. S. S. W. of Bregenz; pop. 3,000. It is the seat of a vicar general who has j...
-Feldspar
Feldspar (Ger. Feldspath, from Feld, field, and Spath, spar), a species of aluminous minerals very abundantly distributed, principally in plutonic and volcanic rocks, as granite, gneiss, greenstone, a...
-Felegyhaza, Or Felegyhaza
Felegyhaza, Or Felegyhaza, a town of Hungary, in the district of Little Cumania, 65 m. S. E. of Pesth; pop. in 1870, 21,313. It is situated in an exceedingly fertile region, and contains a large Roman...
-Fortunato Bartolommeo Felice
Fortunato Bartolommeo Felice, an Italian author, born in Rome about 1725, died at Yverdun, Switzerland, Feb. 7,1789. He studied under the direction of the Jesuits, and became a teacher of various scie...
-Felix
Felix, called Felix of Valois, a saint of the Roman Catholic church, and founder (with John of Matha) of the order of Trinitarians, born in the district of Valois, France, April 19, 1127, died in the ...
-Celestin Joseph Felix
Celestin Joseph Felix, a French preacher, born at Neuville-sur-1'Escaut, near Valenciennes, June 28, 1810. He studied at Cambrai, and after his ordination was employed there in pastoral duties. He ent...
-Fellahs
Fellahs (Aralb, fallah, a cultivator), a term applied without distinction to all the peasantry in Syria, Arabia, and Egypt. Of the various races which exist in Egypt the Fellahs are the most ancient, ...
-Philipp Emanuel Von Fellenberg
Philipp Emanuel Von Fellenberg, a Swiss educator and philanthropist, founder of the institutions at Hofwyl, born in Bern, June 27, 1771, died there, Nov. 21, 1844. His father was a member of the gover...
-Franceis Xavier De Feller
Franceis Xavier De Feller, a Belgian author, born in Brussels, Aug. 18, 1735, died in Ratis-bon, May 21, 1802. He was educated in the Jesuits' colleges at Luxemburg and Rheims, and after becoming a me...
-Robert Fellowes
Robert Fellowes, an English author, born in Norfolk in 1770, died in 1847. He graduated at St. Mary's hall, Oxford, and in 1795 took holy orders, but subsequently rejected the doctrines of the establi...
-Sir Charles Fellows
Sir Charles Fellows, an English traveller and archaeologist, born in Nottingham in 1799, died Nov. 8, 1860, He published a Journal written during an Excursion in Asia Minor (8vo, London, 1839), in w...
-Felo De Se
Felo De Se, one who commits felony against or upon himself. As felony is, in common-law language, any capital offence, and murder is the only capital offence which a man can commit against himself, a ...
-Felony
Felony. The origin and the exact meaning of this common-law term are both uncertain. There is about equally good authority for deriving it from the Saxon words feh, fee, and Ion, price or pay, when it...
-Jakob Felsing
Jakob Felsing, a German engraver, born in Darmstadt in 1802. He received his first instruction from his father, studied at the academy of Milan, and acquired reputation by his faithful reproduction of...
-Felt
Felt, a fabric of wool or fur, separate or mixed, manufactured by matting the fibres together without spinning or weaving. The fur of the beaver, hare, rabbit, and seal, camel's and goat's hair, and t...
-Feltham, Or Felltham
Feltham, Or Felltham, Owen, an English author, died about 1G80. No event of his life is known except that he resided for many years in the house of the earl of Thomond. He wrote Resolves, Divine, Poli...
-Cornelius Conway Felton
Cornelius Conway Felton, an American scholar and writer, born at Newbury, Mass., Nov. 6, 1807, died at Chester, Pa., Feb. 26, 1862. He graduated at Harvard college in 1827. While in college he was dis...
-Feltre
Feltre, a town of Italy, in the province and 18 m. S. W. of the city of Belluno, on the border of Tyrol, at the confluence of two small affluents of the Piave, at the foot of the last slopes of the Rh...
-Fehmern Femern, or Fehmarn
Fehmern Femern, or Fehmarn, an island of Prussia, in the province of Schleswig-Holstein,-separated from Holstein by the Fehmarn sound, and from the Danish island of Laaland by the Fehmarn belt, 37 in....
-Fencing
Fencing, the art of attack and defence with any weapon but such as cut or break by sheer force. The word is, however, understood to allude especially to the management of the small sword or rapier, an...
-Fencing. Continued
The knees were a little more bent, but the body was kept back as if to get out of reach of attack. Among the additions to the defence may be especially noted the half circle (old style), having the ha...
-Bertrand De Salignac Fenelon
Bertrand De Salignac Fenelon, marquis de la Mothe, a French diplomatist, died in 1589. After having served with distinction in the army, he was ambassador to England at the time of the massacre of St....
-Fexelon
Fexelon. I. Francois de Salignac de la Mothe, or Lamotte, a French prelate and author, born at the chateau of Fenelon, in Perigord, Aug. 6, 1651, died in Cambrai, Jan. 7, 1715. He was the son of Pons ...
-Gabriel Jacques De Salignac Fenelon
Gabriel Jacques De Salignac Fenelon, marquis de la Mothe, a French soldier and diplomatist, nephew of the preceding, born in 1688, killed in battle, Oct, 11, 1746. In 1724 he was appointed ambassador ...
-Fenians
Fenians, a political association having for its aim the independence of Ireland. The name is derived from the Fionna or Fianna, an Irish militia or home guard organized in the 3d century, and commande...
-Fenians. Part 2
On Feb. 23, 1864, a riot occurred at a public meeting in the Rotunda, Dublin, in which Mr. A. M. Sullivan, who had openly attacked the I. R. B., was, together with his adherents, the national party,...
-Fenians. Part 3
On Jan. 2,1866, the fourth Fenian congress assembled in New York. More than 400 delegates attended from Canada, Australia, and all parts of the United States. The old constitution was restored and O'M...
-Fenians. Part 4
It therefore behooved Massey and his confederates to be wary. Having resolved to make England the principal field of action, they established a central directory of 15 members in London, while subor...
-Fenians. Part 5
Meanwhile a provisional government had been directing the movements of the home organization. In June, 1807, three of the directors brought against the fourth charges which compelled the dissolution ...
-Fenians. Part 6
Both bodies agreed in creating a commission to proceed to Europe, and endeavor to harmonize the conflicting claims for the control of the home organization, and to secure a governing body on the Amer...
-Fennec
Fennec, an African canine animal, resembling a diminutive fox, belonging to the genus megalotis (Illiger). So vulpine is its look, that Mr. Gray, in his catalogue of the British museum, calls it vulpe...
-Fennel
Fennel (faeniculum, Koel.), a genus of umbelliferous plants, to which the British species (F. vulgare, Willd.), found on chalky cliffs in the southern parts of England, belongs. It is cultivated for t...
-Fenton
Fenton. I. Edward, an English navigator, born in Nottinghamshire about 1550, died at Deptford in 1603. He served for some time in the English army in Ireland, but joined in 1577 one of Frobisher's exp...
-Fentress
Fentress, a N. E. county of Tennessee, bordering on Kentucky, and drained by several affluents of Cumberland river; area, 570 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 4,717, of whom 170 were colored. The surface consist...
-George Fenwick
George Fenwick, proprietor of part of Connecticut, died in 1657. He came to America in 1636 to take charge of the plantation of Saybrook, so called after Lords Say and Brook, who with others had in 16...
-Theodore Feodor, Or Fedor
Theodore Feodor, Or Fedor, the name of three emperors of Russia.-Feodor I., born about 1557, died in January, 1598. He was a son of Ivan IV., the Terrible, and succeeded him in March. 1584. Noted for ...
-Ferdinand. Ferdinand I
Ferdinand, the name of several European sovereigns, arranged below under the heads of Germany, Naples, Spain, and Tuscany; Austria being included under Germany, Sicily under Naples, and Aragon and Cas...
-Ferdinand II, Emperor Of Germany And King of Hungary and Bohemia
Ferdinand II., emperor of Germany and king of Hungary and Bohemia, born July 9, 1578, died in Vienna, Feb. 15, 1637. He was the son of Charles, duke of Styria, third son of Ferdinand I. He was a zealo...
-Ferdinand III, Emperor Of Germany And King of Hungary and Bohemia
Ferdinand III., emperor of Germany and king of Hungary and Bohemia, son of the preceding, born at Gratz in Styria, July 20, 1608, died at Vienna, April 2, 1657. He succeeded his father in 1637. From h...
-Ferdinand I, Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary and Bohemia
Ferdinand I., emperor of Austria and king of Hungary and Bohemia (as such Ferdinand V.), born April 19, 1793. His father was Francis I. (II.), who in 1806 resigned the title of emperor of Germany, hav...
-Ferdinand I, king of Naples
Ferdinand I., king of Naples, illegitimate son of Alfonso the Magnanimous, born about 1424, died Jan. 25, 1494. His father, who had ruled both Naples and Sicily, as well as Ara-gon and Sardinia, beque...
-Ferdinand II, king of Naples
Ferdinand II., king of Naples, grandson of the preceding, and son of Alfonso II., born about 1468, died in 1496. His father, feeling himself universally detested, abdicated in his favor in 1495; but t...
-Ferdinand IV, king of Naples
Ferdinand IV., king of Naples (afterward king of the Two Sicilies as Ferdinand I.), born in Naples, Jan. 12, 1751, died there, Jan. 4, 1825. When in 1759 his father, King Charles, became king of Spain...
-Ferdinand II, king of the Two Sicilies
Ferdinand II., king of the Two Sicilies, grandson of the precedimr, born in Palermo, Jan. 12, 1810, died in Naples, May 22, 1859. He succeeded his father Francis I. in 1830, and at once excited the mo...
-Ferdinand I. the Great, King of Castile, Leon, and Galicia
Ferdinand I, the Great, king of Castile, Leon, and Galicia, born about 1000, died in Leon, Dec. 27, 1065. He was the second son of Sancho el Mayor, king of Navarre. In 1033 he received the hand of San...
-Ferdinand II, King of Leon, Asturias, and Galicia
Ferdinand II., king of Leon, Asturias, and Galicia, son of Alfonso VIII., died in 1188. He succeeded his father in 1157, the kingdom of Castile being given to his brother Sancho III. He carried on sev...
-Ferdinand III, King of Castile and Leon
Ferdinand III., saint, king of Castile and Leon, born in 1199, died in Seville, May 30, 1252. The son of Alfonso IX. of Leon by Berengaria, queen of Castile, he was indebted to his mother for the latt...
-Ferdinand IV, King of Castile and Leon
Ferdinand IV., king of Castile and Leon, son of Sancho IV., born in Seville in 1285, died in 1312. He was only ten years old when his father died, and he saw himself assailed at once by his uncle Enri...
-Ferdinand V
Ferdinand V. of Castile, II. of Aragon, III. of Naples, and II. of Sicily, surnamed the Catholic, born at Sos, Aragon, March 10, 1452, died at Madrigalejo, Jan. 23, 1516. The son of John II., king of ...
-Ferdinand VI
Ferdinand VI., surnamed the Wise, king of Spain, born Sept. 23, 1713, died Aug. 10, 1759. He was the son of Philip V. and Louisa Maria of Savoy, and ascended the throne in 1746. His government was one...
-Ferdinand VII
Ferdinand VII., king of Spain, born in San Ildefonso, Oct. 13, 1784, died in Madrid, Sept. 29, 1833. He was the eldest son of Charles IV. and Louisa Maria of Parma. In 1789 he was declared prince of A...
-Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany and Archduke of Austria
Ferdinand III., grand duke of Tuscany and archduke of Austria, born in Florence, May 6, 1709, died there, June 18, 1824. He came into possession of Tuscany in 1790, when his father Leopold II. was cal...
-Ferdinand IV, Grand Duke of Tuscany and Archduke of Austria
Ferdinand IV., grand duke of Tuscany and archduke of Austria, grandson of the preceding, born June 10, 1835. He married Anna Maria, daughter of the king of Saxony, in 1856, and began to reign in 1839)...
-Augustus Francis Anthony Ferdinand
Ferdinand (Augustus Francis Anthony), titular king of Portugal, born Oct. 29, 1816. He is a son of Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. In 1836 he became the second husband of Queen Maria II. of Por...
-Ferentino
Ferentino (anc. Ferentinum), a town of Italy, in the province and 40 m. S. E. of the city of Rome; pop. about 8,000. It is situated nearly 1,600 ft. above the sea, and is surrounded by ancient walls b...
-Adam Ferguson
Adam Ferguson, a Scottish philosopher and historian, born at Logierait, Perthshire, in 1724, died in St. Andrews, Feb. 22, 1816. He was educated in Perth and in the university of St. Andrews, and stud...
-James Ferguson
James Ferguson, a Scottish experimental philosopher and astronomer, born near Keith, Banffshire, in 1710, died in London, Nov. 16, 1776. His father, a day laborer, taught him to read and write, which ...
-Robert Ferguson
Robert Ferguson, an English physician, born in India in 1799, died June 25, 1805. He studied medicine at the universities of Heidelberg and Edinburgh, took the degree of M. D. in 1825, and settled in ...
-James Fergusson
James Fergusson, a British writer on architecture, born at Ayr, Scotland, in 1808. He was educated at the high school of Edinburgh, and after several years' experience in a counting house in Holland a...
-Sir William Fergusson
Sir William Fergusson, a Scottish surgeon, born at Prestonpans, East Lothian, March 20, 1808. He early became confidential assistant to the celebrated anatomists Dr. Knox and John Turner, and in 1828 ...
-Mohammed Kasim Ferishtah
Mohammed Kasim Ferishtah, a Persian historian, born in Astrabad about 1560, died probably about 1611. His father left his native country to travel in India, where he settled in the Deccan as instructo...
-Jean Baptiste Antoine Ferland
Jean Baptiste Antoine Ferland, a Canadian historian, born in Montreal, Dec. 25, 1805, died in Quebec, Jan. 8, 1864. He was ordained priest in 1828, and afterward appointed professor of history in Lava...
-Fermanagh
Fermanagh, an inland county of Ireland, province of Ulster, bordering on the counties Donegal, Tyrone, Monaghan, Cavan, and Lei-trim; area, 714 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 92,688. It lies almost wholly in t...
-Pierre De Fermat
Pierre De Fermat, a French mathematician, born in southern France in August, 1601, died in Toulouse, Jan. 12, 1665. He studied law, and became in 1631 councillor at the parliament of Toulouse, devotin...
-Fermentation
Fermentation (Lat. fermentum, leaven, a contraction of fervimentum, from fervere, to boil), the conversion of an organic substance into one or more new compounds, under the influence of a body which i...
-Fermentation. Part 2
Yeast, torula cerevisiae or mycoderma vini, is a fungoid vegetable organism, composed of microscopic globules which attain a maximum diameter of about 1/4000 of an inch. Each globule is composed of a ...
-Fermentation. Part 3
Another mode of producing lac-teous fermentation is by the employment of glucose. When a solution of glucose is mixed with new sour cheese, or with milk and chalk, and exposed to a temperature of 75&d...
-Fermentation. Part 4
M. Fremy maintains that certain experiments which he has made controvert the position of the upholders of the physiological theory. At a session of the French academy of sciences held in October, 1872...
-Fermentation. Part 5
Were it not for the bioplasm or germinal matter, the cell would be lifeless and passive, incapable of exciting fermentation or any change whatever; and it may under favorable circumstances undergo dev...
-Fermentation. Part 6
Bucholz found that no fungi could be detected in milk mixed with a small quantity of carbolic acid, but that nevertheless it slowly turned sour. He therefore inferred that lactic fermentation is not d...
-Fermo
Fermo (anc. Firmum Picenum), a town of Italy, in the province of Ascoli, 32 m. S. E. of Ancona, and 3 m. from the Adriatic; pop. about 20,000. It is the seat of an archbishop, has a cathedral and seve...
-Fermoy
Fermoy, a town of Ireland, in the county and 19 m. N. E. of the city of Cork, on both sides of the Blackwater, which is here spanned by a fine stone bridge, built in 1866; pop. in 1871, 7,611. At the ...
-Fernandina
Fernandina, a port of entry and the capital of Nassau co., Florida, situated on the W. shore of Amelia island, at the entrance of Amelia river, which separates it from the mainland, into Cumberland so...
-Fernando De Noronha
Fernando De Noronha, a group of small islands in the Atlantic ocean, belonging to Brazil, situated about 210 m. N. E. of Cape St. Roque; lat. of S. E. extremity of the principal island, 3 50' 8.,...
-Fernando Po
Fernando Po (Port. Fernao do Po), an island in the bight of Biafra, W. coast of Africa, about 25 m. from the mainland, lying between lat. 3 12' and 3 47' N., and lon. 8 26' and 8 5...
-Ferney, Or Fernex
Ferney, Or Fernex, a town of France, in the department of Ain, on the frontier of Switzerland, at the foot of the Jura mountains, 5 m. N. W. of Geneva; pop. about 1,200. It was a place of refuge for t...
-Felicite And Theophile De Fernig
Felicite And Theophile De Fernig, French heroines, sisters, born at Mortagne, department of Le Nord, Felicite in 1776, Theophile in 1779. They distinguished themselves by bravery on many occasions, es...
-Anton Dominik Fernkorn
Anton Dominik Fernkorn, a German sculptor and bronze founder, born at Erfurt, March 17, 1813. He spent a number of years in a foun-dery at Munich, and at the same time attended the academy of Schwanth...
-Ferns
Ferns, the highest order of cryptogamous plants, forming a natural group distinguished for beauty and elegance, and much cultivated for ornament. Ferns are leafy plants producing a stem or rhizome, wh...
-Firmin Eloi Feron
Firmin Eloi Feron, a French painter, born in Paris, Dec. 1,1802. He studied under Gros, and received the great prize in 1825 for his picture of Damon and Pythias. Among his subsequent works are Han...
-Ferozepoor
Ferozepoor, a town of British India, in the Punjaub, about 3 m. S. of the river Ghara, 45 m. S. S. E. of Lahore; pop. about 10,000. The ruins which surround it show that it was once a large city. It c...
-Antoinc Francois Claude Ferrand
Antoinc Francois Claude Ferrand, count, a French politician and historian, born in Paris, July 4, 1751, died there, Jan. 17,1825. At the age of 18 years he was admitted a counsellor in the parliament ...
-Ferrara
Ferrara. I. A province of Italy, formerly a part of the Papal States, bounded N. by the main branch of the Po, which divides it from Lombardy, E. by the Adriatic, S. by the provinces of Ravenna and Bo...
-Gandenzio Ferrari
Gandenzio Ferrari, a painter of the Milanese school, born at Valduggia in 1484, died in Milan in 1550. His principal works are illustrative of the story of creation and of the early events of Christia...
-Ginseppe Ferrari
Ginseppe Ferrari, an Italian philosopher and historian, born in Milan about 1811. In 1831 he graduated as a doctor of law in the university of Pa via, but devoted himself to literature and philosophy,...
-Luigi Ferrari
Luigi Ferrari, an Italian sculptor, born in Venice in 1810. lie studied under his father Bartolorameo, an eminent artist, and was early employed in connection with Canova's monument to Titian. In 1827...
-Theophile Charles Ferre
Theophile Charles Ferre, a French communist, born about 1845, executed at Satory, near Paris, Nov. 28, 1871. He was a merchant's clerk, and was early implicated in revolutionary movements. During the ...
-Antonio Ferreira
Antonio Ferreira, a Portuguese poet, born in Lisbon in 1528, died there of the plague in 1569. He was a contemporary of Camoens, and perfected the elegiac and epistolary style already introduced with ...
-Ferret
Ferret, a carnivorous digitigrade animal, belonging to the weasel family, and the genus putorius (Cuv.). The dentition is: incisors, 6/6; canines, 1-1/1-1; molars, 4/5 4/5, two above and three below b...
-James Frederick Ferrier
James Frederick Ferrier, a Scottish metaphysician, born in Edinburgh in November, 1808, died at St. Andrews, June 11,1864. He was a nephew of Miss Ferrier the authoress, graduated at Oxford in 1832, a...
-Susan Edmonston Ferrier
Susan Edmonston Ferrier, a Scottish novel-ist, born in Edinburgh about 1782, died there in November, 1854. Her works, all published anonymously, are: Marriage (1818),The Inheritance (1824), and De...
-Ferrieres
Ferrieres, a village of France, in the de-partment of Seine-et-Marne, 15 m. E. of Paris; pop. about 800. In the 17th century it was a marquisate, afterward belonged to Fouche, and was finally purchase...
-Ferro, Or Hierro
Ferro, Or Hierro, the most westerly and smallest of the Canary islands, in lat. 27 40' N., lon. 18 W.; length 18 m., greatest breadth 9 m.; area, about 100 sq. m.; pop. about 4,600. The anci...
-Ferrol
Ferrol, a seaport city of Spain, on the N. arm of the bay of Betanzos, in the province and 12 m. X. E. of the city of Corunna; pop. about 23.000. Its harbor, which is defended by Forts Palma and San F...
-Ferry
Ferry, a place where persons, animals, or goods are carried across a river or other water; in law, a liberty or franchise so to transport persons or things. Such a franchise can exist in England only ...
-Axel Fersen
Axel Fersen, count, a Swedish soldier, born in Stockholm about 1750, killed June 20, 1810. He was educated at the military academy of Turin, and entered the Swedish army, but afterward went to Versail...
-Fesca
Fesca. I. Friedrich Ernst, a German composer and musician, born in Magdeburg, Feb. 15, 1789, died May 24, 1826. His father held a minor municipal office in Magdeburg, and devoted much of his time to t...
-Fescenine Verses
Fescenine Verses, licentious poems sung at the private festivals of the ancient Romans, particularly at nuptial celebrations. They derived their name and origin from Fescennium, an Etruscan city, wher...
-Joseph Fesch
Joseph Fesch, cardinal, and archbishop of Lyons, born in Ajaccio, Corsica, Jan. 3, I763 died in Rome, May 13, 1839. He was the son of a Swiss officer in the Genoese service, and half brother of Letizi...
-Thomas Green Fessenden
Thomas Green Fessenden, an American author and journalist, born in Walpole, N. II., April 22, 1771, died in Boston, Nov. 11, 1837. He graduated at Dartmouth college in 1796, and studied law in Vermon...
-William Pitt Fessenden
William Pitt Fessenden, an American statesman, born in Boscawen, N. II., Oct. 16, 1806, died in Portland, Me., Sept. 8, 1869. He graduated at Bowdoin college in 1823, was admit-ted to the bar in 1827...
-Ignaz Anrelins Fessler
Ignaz Anrelins Fessler, a Hungarian author, born in 1756, died in St. Petersburg, Dec. 15, 1839. He was a Capuchin friar, but was dis-missed from that order and became professor of oriental languages ...
-Joseph Fessler
Joseph Fessler, an Austrian prelate, born at Lochau, Tyrol, Dec. 2, 1813. In 1837 he was ordained priest in Brixen, and devoted himself to teaching. He was professor of history and canon law for eleve...
-Fatten Ali Feth Ali
Fatten Ali Feth Ali, Fateh Ali or Fath' Ali, shah of Persia, called before his accession Baba Khan, born about 1762, died in 1834. In 1797 he succeeded his uncle, Aga Mohammed, founder of the Kadjar d...
-Fetiales, Or Feciales
Fetiales, Or Feciales, in ancient Rome, a college of priests, consisting of 20 members belonging to the noblest families, who held office for life, with power to fill vacancies in their number, and wh...
-Feticipi Fetichism
Feticipi Fetichism, or Fetishism (Port, fei-tigao, magic; perhaps connected with the Lat. fascinum, a bewitching), the religious worship of material things (fetiches) as the abodes of spirits. It is t...
-Francois Joseph Fetis
Francois Joseph Fetis, a Belgian composer and writer on music, born in Mons, March 25, 1784, died in Brussels, March 27, 1871. His father was an organist, and at the age of ten he was engaged as organ...
-Sophie De Feucheres
Sophie De Feucheres, baroness, mistress of the last prince of Conde (Louis Henri Joseph, duke de Bourbon), born in the Isle of Wight about 1705, died in England, Jan. 2, 1841. She was the daughter of ...
-Feudal System
Feudal System, the name given to the condition of society that prevailed in Europe during the middle ages. Its germs were probably Asiatic, and in Asia, though never so fully developed, it has outlast...
-Feudal System. Continued
This was usually called commendation,, and appears to have been founded on two very general principles, both of which the distracted state of society inculcated. The weak needed the protection of the ...
-Feierbach
Feierbach. I. Paul Johann Anselm, a German jurist, born in Jena, Nov. 14,1775, died in Frankfort, May 29, 1833. He studied law at Jena, and became professor of feudal law there in 1801, of criminal an...
-Feuillants
Feuillants, a branch of the order of Cistercians, founded in France in 1577 by Jean de la Barriere, abbot of the monastery of Feuillant, in the diocese of Rieux, Languedoc, for the stricter observance...
-Octavo Feiillet
Octavo Feiillet, a French novelist and dramatist, born in St. L6, La Manche, Aug. 11, 1812. He was educated in Paris in the college of Louis-le-Grand, and in 1845 he wrote, under the pseudonyme of Des...
-Paul Henri Corentin Feval
Paul Henri Corentin Feval, a French novelist, born at Rennes, Nov. 28, 1817. He belongs to an old legitimist family, studied law, but became a banker's clerk, and then a writer. His Mysteres de Londre...
-Fever, or Pyrexia
Fever (Lat. febris, probably a transposition for ferbis, from fervere, to be hot), or Pyrexia (Gr. , fromto be feverish, derived from vp, fire), a morbid state characterized especially, as the n...
-Fever Bush, Benzoin Odoriferum
Fever Bush, (Benzoin Odoriferum, Nees), a shrub from 4 to 10 ft. high, with long, slender, and brittle branches, common in the northern United States, and remarkable for its graceful form and large ha...
-Fevers, Or Pyrexiae
Fevers, Or Pyrexiae, diseases characterized by a morbid increase of animal heat not referable to any local affection; that is, diseases in which the febrile state is idiopathic or essential. (See Feve...
-Fevers, Or Pyrexiae. Part 2
It is more likely to emanate from marshy situations than from those in which the soil is dry, and hence it has been called marsh miasm. It is contained in the lower strata of the atmosphere, and is pr...
-Fevers, Or Pyrexiae. Part 3
Suppression of urine occurs in some cases; and convulsions with coma, which sometimes occur, are probably caused by the retention in the blood of the excrementitious principles of the urine. The mode ...
-Fevers, Or Pyrexiae. Part 4
These glandular sacs become enlarged by morbid growth, softening ensues, and at length they exfoliate or slough away leaving ulcera-tions in the spaces they occupied. Perforation of the intestines is ...
-Fevers, Or Pyrexiae. Part 5
In cases of this compound fever the indications for treatment relate to the twofold causation. -5. Spotted Fever. This name was given to a fever which prevailed in New England, New York, and Pennsylva...
-Fevers, Or Pyrexiae. Part 6
The mortality was large, owing to the complications just named. Laryngitis and oedema of the glottis were other complications leading to a fatal result. Irrespective of the danger connected with the l...
-Ernest Ainie Feydeau
Ernest Ainie Feydeau, a French author, born in Paris, March 1G, 1821, died there, Oct. 28, 1873.. He published a volume of poetry in 1844, and acquired notoriety in 1858 by his questionable novel Fann...
-Francisco Benito Jero-Nimo Feyjoo Y Montenegro
Francisco Benito Jero-Nimo Feyjoo Y Montenegro, a Spanish reformer, born probably at Car-damiro, Oct. 8, 1676, died in Oviedo, May 16, 1764. He was a Benedictine monk, and became professor of divinity...
-Fez
Fez (Ar. Fas). I. A province of Morocco, occupying the N. portion of the empire, bounded X. by the Mediterranean, E. by Algeria, and W. by the Atlantic. It is traversed in the east and south by branch...
-Fezzan
Fezzan (anc. Phazania, and the land of the Garamantes), an inland country of X. Africa, supposed to extend from about lat. 23 to 31 N., and from Ion. 12 to 18 E., but the boundarie...
-Jean Baptiste Fiard
Jean Baptiste Fiard, abbe, a French ecclesiastic, born in Dijon, Nov. 28, 1736, died there, Sept. 30, 1818. He accounted for the perversities of human conduct by ascribing them to demoniac agency. It ...
-Fibrine
Fibrine, a nitrogenous organic substance, existing in a fluid form in the blood and lymph, and capable of spontaneous coagulation when withdrawn from the vessels of the living body. Vegetable fibrine,...
-Fichte
Fichte. I. Johann Gottlieb, a German philosopher, born at Rammenau in Lusatia, May 19, 1762, died in Berlin, Jan. 27, 1814. He was the son of a poor weaver, and owed his education to a wealthy noblema...
-Fichtelgebirge
Fichtelgebirge (Pine mountains), a chain of mountain's in Bavaria, province of Upper Franconia, between the Bohemian Forest and the Franconian Jura, covered with forests of firs and pines. By reason o...
-Marsilio Ficino
Marsilio Ficino, a Platonic philosopher of the 15th century, born in Florence, Oct. 19, 1433, died at Careggi, Oct. 1, 1409. He was the son of the first physician of Cosmo de' Medici, and was intended...
-Adolf Fick
Adolf Fick, a German physiologist, born in Cassel in 1829. He received his diploma of M. D. at Zurich in 1852, and was professor of physiology there from 1856 till 1868, and has since rilled the same ...
-Karl Ludwig Ficquelmont
Karl Ludwig Ficquelmont, count, an Austrian general and statesman, born at Dieuze, Lorraine, March 23, 1777, died in Venice, April 7, 1857. He was a son of Count Joseph, who, after emigrating from Lor...
-Fiction
Fiction, in law, a supposition which is known not to be true, but which is assumed to be true in order that certain conclusions and inferences may be supported. Fictions have been made use of in all l...
-Field
Field. I. David Dudley, an American clergyman, born at East Guilford, Conn., May 20, 1781, died at Stockbridge, Mass., April 15, 1867. He graduated at Yale college in 1802, was minister at Haddam, Con...
-Field. Continued
In 1873 he was appointed by the governor of California one of a commission to examine the code of laws of that state, and to prepare amendments to the same for legislative action. IV. Cyrus West, an ...
-John Field
John Field, a British composer, born in Dublin, July 26, 1782, died in Moscow, Jan. 11, 1837. His father was a violin player in the orchestra of the Dublin theatre. He received his first instructions ...
-Fieldfare
Fieldfare, a European bird of the thrush family, the turdus pilaris (Linn.), in form, size, proportions of parts, and characters of the plumage, resembling the migratory thrush or American robin (T. m...
-Copley Vaudyke Fielding
Copley Vaudyke Fielding, an English painter in water colors, born about 1787, died in Worthing, Sussex, March 3, 1855. He belonged to a family of artists, and his first picture was exhibited in 1810. ...
-Henry Fielding
Henry Fielding, an English novelist and dramatist, born at Sharpham Park, near Glastonbury, Somersetshire, April 22, 1707, died in Lisbon, Oct. 8, 175-1. His father was a grandson of the carl of Desmo...
-Sarah Fielding
Sarah Fielding, an English authoress, sister of the preceding, born in 1714, died in Bath in 17G8. Her principal works are The Adventures of David Simple in search of a Faithful Friend (2 vols. 12mo...
-James Thomas Fields
James Thomas Fields, an American author and publisher, born at Portsmouth, X. II., Dec. 31, 1817. He was educated at the high school of his native city, and at the age of 14 went to Boston to become ...
-Fieri Facias
Fieri Facias, the name of a writ at common law, so ancient that its origin is unknown. By it a sheriff, or other competent officer to whom it was directed, was ordered quod fieri facias, de tern's et ...
-Fieschi
Fieschi (singular Fiesco), one of the four principal families of Genoa and its territory, said to be of Bavarian origin. The Fieschi and Grimaldis adhered to the Guelphs. the Dorias and Spinolas to th...
-Joseph Marie Fieschi
Joseph Marie Fieschi, a French conspirator, born in Corsica in 1790, executed in Paris, Feb. 19, 1836. He served in the Russian campaign, and left the army in 1814 with the grade of sergeant. Subseque...
-Giovanni Luigi Fiesco
Giovanni Luigi Fiesco, count of Lavagna, a conspirator of Genoa, born there about 1524, drowned Jan. 2, 1547. Wealthy, accomplished, and of high rank, he evinced from his earliest youth an insatiable ...
-Fiesole
Fiesole (anc. Fasulce), a town of Italy, in the province and 3 1/2 m. N. E. of the city of Florence, with which it is connected by an un-interrupted chain of villas; pop. about 2,500. It is the seat o...
-Joseph Fievee
Joseph Fievee, a French politician and author, born in Paris, April 8, 1767, died there, May 7, 1839. He lost his father at an early age, and was apprenticed in a printing office, devoting himself als...
-Fifeshire
Fifeshire, a peninsular county of Scotland, bounded N., E., and S. by the frith of Tay, the North sea,, and the frith of Forth, and W. by the counties of Clackmannan, Perth, and Kinross; area, 513 sq....
-Fig, Ficus Carica
Fig, the fruit of the ficus carica (Linn.), a tree which is indigenous to Asia and Bar-bary, and is much cultivated in the warmer portions of the globe. The leaves of the fig tree are rough, lobed, an...
-Figeac
Figeac, a town of France, in the department of Lot, on the railway from Perigueux to Ro-dez, in a deep valley of the Cele or Selle, an affluent of the Lot, 30 m. N. E. of Cahors; pop. in 1866, 7,610....
-Figieras
Figieras, a town of Spain, in the province of Gerona, Catalonia, situated on the road from Perpignan to Barcelona, 21 m. N. N. E. of Gerona and 14 m. from the French frontier; pop. about 10,500. The c...
-Estanislao Figueras
Estanislao Figueras, a Spanish statesman, born in Barcelona, Nov. 13, 1819. After completing his studies he espoused the ultra liberal cause, but subsequently separated himself from it and became one ...
-Figueroa
Figueroa. I. Francisco do, a Spanish poet, born at Alcala de Henares about 1540, died about 1620. He received a university education, served in the army, and in 1579 accompanied Carlos of Aragon, duke...
-Guillaimie Louis Figuier
Guillaimie Louis Figuier, a French writer on scientific subjects, born in Montpellier, Feb. 15, 1819. He studied chemistry under his uncle Pierre Oscar Figuier, became a physician in Paris in 1842, pr...
-Filangieri
Filangieri. I. Gaetano, an Italian publicist, born in Naples, Aug. 18, 1752, died July 21, 1788. From 1777 he held various offices at court, and in 1787 he was called to the supreme council of finance...
-Filibuster
Filibuster. The river Vly in Holland is said to have furnished the name fly boat in English, in Spanish flibote, or by a softening of the first syllable filibote, to a sort of small fast-sailing vesse...
-Vincenzo Da Filicaja
Vincenzo Da Filicaja, an Italian lyric poet, born in Florence in 1642, died there, Sept. 24, 1707. His grandfather and father were senators, and he was educated with a view to that position. He studie...
-Filigree
Filigree (It. filigrana, from Lat. filum, thread, and granum, a grain), ornamental work in fine gold or silver wire, often made with little metallic beads or grains interspersed among the wires. The w...
-Fillmore
Fillmore. I. A S. E. county of Minnesota, bounded S. by Iowa; area about 900 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 24.887. It is intersected by Root river and its branches, and has a rolling surface and an excellent ...
-Millard Fillmore
Millard Fillmore, thirteenth president of the United States, born in the township of Locke (now Summerhill), Cayuga co., N. Y., Jan. 7, 1800, died in Buffalo. March 8, 1874. Cayuga co. was then a wild...
-Millard Fillmore. Part 2
Under the circumstances the position of chairman of the committee of ways and means was the most prominent in the house. It was assigned to Mr. Fillmore. The session continued nine months, during whic...
-Millard Fillmore. Part 3
Although Mr. Fillmore's administration, as a whole, was acknowledged to be patriotic, able, and useful;' although his purity as a public man was unquestioned, and not a single other measure of his adm...
-Filter
Filter, an apparatus for separating from fluids the foreign substances mechanically intermixed with them. Beds of sand and gravel constitute natural filters, through which the surface water from rain ...
-Finch
Finch, a name given to many birds of the order insessorcs, suborder oscines, tribe coniros-tres, and family fringillidae, including a numerous series of small and generally brilliant birds, with short...
-Finch. Part 2
The male is bright olive green above, passing into yellow; the quills blackish gray, with outer webs bright gamboge yellow; the tail, except the two middle feathers, which are gray with light yellow m...
-Finch. Part 3
The length of the bird is 6 in., and the extent of the short wings only 8. The habits of this species render it difficult to observe; it runs in the grass more like a mouse than a bird, and is much of...
-Heneage Finch
Heneage Finch, earl of Nottingham, a British statesman and jurist, born in Kent, Dec. 23, 1621, died in London, Dec. 18, 1G82. He was educated at Westminster school and at Christchurch college, Oxford...
-William Finden
William Finden, an English engraver, born in London in 1787, died there, Sept. 20, 1852. He became noted at an early age as an engraver of book plates. Being remarkable for a certain neatness of line ...
-Finding
Finding. The law of finding is, in some particulars, not quite settled. It is certain that nothing can be found that was not lost; hence, unless the owner of property has it no longer in his possessio...
-Finds
Finds, a term recently applied by English archaeologists to deposits of objects connected with human life, and sometimes associated with human remains, but of prehistoric or unknown origin. The chief ...
-Finds. Part 2
The polishing of stone instruments was effected by rubbing the object in one of these cavities, in which probably a little water was poured, mixed with zircon or corundum powder, or perhaps merely wit...
-Finds. Part 3
The most valuable finds have been made in the vast burial ground recently discovered at Hallstadt, near Salzburg, in Austria. The swords found there have iron blades and bronze hilts. The warriors' sw...
-Finds. Part 4
Schaaffhausen and Busk speak of it as the most brutal of all known human skulls, and as greatly resembling those of apes. One of the Borreby skulls has also this resemblance, but the others are said t...
-Fingals Cave
Fingals Cave, a grotto on the S. W. coast of the islet of Staffa, Argyleshire, Scotland, 7 m. off the W. coast of Mull, probably called after Fingal, the legendary hero of Gaelic poetry. It is formed ...
-Finistere, Or Finisterre
Finistere, Or Finisterre (Lat. finis terrae, land's end), the extreme \V. department of France, in Brittany, surrounded on three sides by the ocean and the English channel, and bounded E. by the depar...
-Fink, Or Finck
Fink, Or Finck, Friedrich August von, a Prussian soldier, born at Strelitz in 1718, died in Copenhagen, Feb. 24, 17GG. He had gained experience in the Austrian and Russian service previous to entering...
-Finland
Finland (Fin. Suomema, region of lakes), a grand duchy in the northwest of the Russian empire, lying between lat. 59 45' and 70 N., and Ion. 20 50' and 32 50 E., bounded N. by...
-Finland. Part 2
In 1869 a submarine telegraph was laid between Sweden and Finland, via the Aland islands.-With the exception of 41,000 Greek and 800 Roman Catholics, nearly the whole population are Lutherans, divided...
-Finland. Part 3
On April 12, 1872, the customs frontier between Finland and Russia was abolished. -Language and Literature. The Finnish language (Finnish, Suomen Kieli) is one of the chief branches of the Uralo-Finni...
-Finland. Part 4
A Swedish translation of the poem by Castren (Helsingfors, 1844) was speedily followed by a French translation by Leouzon le Due (2 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1845). and by a German translation by A. Schiefner...
-George Finlay
George Finlay, a British historian, born at Glasgow, Scotland, about 1800. He enlisted at an early age in the cause of Greek independence, and has since resided in Athens, acting for many years as the...
-John Finlay
John Finlay, a Scottish poet and biographer, born in Glasgow in 1782, died at Moffat, Dec. 8, 1810. His principal poem,Wallace, or the Vale of Ellerslie, was published when he was only 18 years old. ...
-George Finlayson
George Finlayson, a British surgeon and traveller, born in Thurso about 1790, died on the passage from Bengal to Scotland in August, 1823. He was a surgeon in the British army, was present at the batt...
-James Bradley Finley
James Bradley Finley, an American clergyman, born in North Carolina, July 1,1781. died in Cincinnati, O., Sept. 0, 1850. He joined the Ohio conference of the Methodist Episcopal church in 1809. From 1...
-Samuel Finley
Samuel Finley, an American Presbyterian clergyman, born in Armagh, Ireland, in 1715, died in Philadelphia, July 17, 1766. He arrived in America in 1734, studied theology, and was licensed to preach in...
-Finmark
Finmark, a bailiwick of Norway, forming the N. E. division of the province of Tromso, and the northernmost region of the continent of Europe, formerly including also what is now the bailiwick of Troms...
-Henry J Finn
Henry J Finn., an American actor and author, born at Sydney, Cape Breton, about 1785, perished in the conflagration of the steamboat Lexington in Long Island sound on the night of Jan. 13, 1840. He we...
-Charles G Finney
Charles G Finney., an American preacher and author, horn in Warren, Litchfield co., Conn., Aug. 29, 1792. He studied law in Jefferson co., N. Y. In 1824 he commenced the career of a preacher, and labo...
-Finns
Finns, a race of men inhabiting portions of N. and E. Europe and N. W. Asia. The most important divisions of this race, besides the inhabitants of Finland or Finns proper, are the Lapps, Esths, Sirian...
-Finsteraarhorn
Finsteraarhorn, the loftiest peak of the Bernese Alps, 14,106 (or according to another measurement 14,026) ft. high, situated W. of the Grimsel, and visible from the new carriage road completed since ...
-Ginseppe Fiorelli
Ginseppe Fiorelli, an Italian archaeologist, born in the province of Naples about 1823. He early became one of the directors of the excavations at Pompeii, but being denounced as a liberal, he was rem...
-Pier-Angelo Fiorentino
Pier-Angelo Fiorentino, an Italian author, born in Naples in 1806, died in Paris, May 31, 1864. He early published novels, poems, and dramas, including La Fornarina and H medico di Parma. Alexandre Du...
-Fir
Fir, the popular name of several species of trees of the genus abies. Some botanical authors class the trees known as firs, spruces, and hemlock spruces in the one genus abies, while some others make ...
-Ferdusi Firdusi
Ferdusi Firdusi, or Ferdousi, Abul Kasim Mau-sonr, a Persian poet, born near Thus, in Kho-rasan, about A. D. 940, died in Thus in 1020. He was often called Thusi from that city, and his ordinary name ...
-Fire Engine
Fire Engine, a machine for throwing a stream of water for the purpose of extinguishing fires. The earliest notices of machines used for this purpose are in some allusions of ancient Roman writers to a...
-Fire Extinguisher
Fire Extinguisher. Many attempts have been made to produce apparatus to extinguish fires by excluding atmospheric oxygen from the flame. Among the earliest machines of this kind was that known as Phil...
-Firefly
Firefly, the popular name of many serri-corn beetles, belonging to the families elate-ridoe and lampyridae, and to the old genera elater and lampyris of Linnaeus; the luminous species of the former be...
-Fire-Proofing
Fire-Proofing, a term applied to processes by which fabrics or buildings are rendered proof against taking fire. Cloths saturated with mineral paint are rendered less liable to inflame from falling ci...
-Firkin
Firkin (Dan. fire, four), the fourth part of a barrel, an old English measure of capacity, variously given as containing from 7 1/2 imperial gallons to 10.987 standard gallons. For ale its capacity wa...
-Firmament
Firmament (Lat. firmamentum, support), in ancient astronomy, the eighth sphere or heaven which surrounded the seven spheres of the planets and supported the fixed stars. Two motions were attributed to...
-Firman, Or Ferman
Firman, Or Ferman, a Persian word signifying an order, employed especially in Turkey to designate any decree issued by the Porte, and authenticated by the sultan's own cipher or monogram, called the t...
-Fisc
Fisc (Lat. fiscus), originally, a wicker basket in which money was carried about and kept. Under the Roman republic the state treasury was called cerarium. When the empire was established the name fis...
-George Fisch
George Fisch, a French Protestant divine, born in Switzerland, July 6, 1814. He was educated in the academy at Lausanne, and entering the ministry was for nearly five years pastor of a German-speaking...
-Johann Fischart
Johann Fischart, called Mentzer, a German writer, born probably in Mentz about 1545, died probably at Forbach in or after 1589. He was educated as a jurist in Worms, visited England, spent some time i...
-Ernst Kuno Berthold Fischer
Ernst Kuno Berthold Fischer, popularly known as Kuno Fischer, a German philosopher, born at Sandewalde, Silesia, July 23, 1824. He graduated at Halle, and taught philosophy at Heidelberg from 1850 to ...
-Gotthelf Fischer
Gotthelf Fischer, a Russian naturalist, born at Waldheim, Saxony, in 1771, died in Moscow, Oct. 18, 1853. After graduating as a physician at Leipsic and holding a professorship at Mentz, he settled at...
-Fischer Von Erlach
Fischer Von Erlach. I. Johann Bernhard, a German architect, born in Prague or Vienna in 1650, died in Vienna, April 5, 1723. He acquired in Rome the style of Bernini, which was admired in Vienna, wher...
-Hamilton Fish
Hamilton Fish, an American statesman, born in New York city, Aug. 3, 1808. His father, Col. Nicholas Fish, was a distinguished officer of the revolutionary army. He graduated at Columbia college in 18...
-Fish Culture, Or Pisciculture
Fish Culture, Or Pisciculture, the breeding and rearing of fish. The subject may be divided into two branches: 1, the rearing and fattening of fish in artificial ponds or lagoons; 2, the propagation o...
-Fish Culture, Or Pisciculture. Part 2
The following year Joseph Remy, a fisherman of La Bresse, in the Vosges, apparently without knowledge of the labors of others, resorted to artificial impregnation as an adjunct to his business, restoc...
-Fish Culture, Or Pisciculture. Part 3
By this method about 65 per cent, of the eggs are fecundated. After the eggs have remained in the water 20 minutes or half an hour, they should be carefully washed, when they are ready to be placed in...
-Fish Culture, Or Pisciculture. Part 4
Up to the season of 1863- '4 more than 110,000,000 eggs had been distributed, of which 41,000,000 were those of salmon and trout.With the cession of Alsace and Lorraine, this establishment passed into...
-Fish Culture, Or Pisciculture. Part 5
II. A. Ackley of Cleveland, Ohio, successfully hatched brook trout, and were followed a few years after (1859) by the successful efforts of Stephen II. Ainsworth of West Bloomfield, N. Y., and subsequ...
-Fish Culture, Or Pisciculture. Part 6
It consists of a frame of inch board, about 18 in. square, with a wire-cloth bottom of eight meshes to the inch, and is coated with paraffine varnish, which renders it proof against the growth of fung...
-Fisher
Fisher, a carnivorous digitigrade mammal, belonging to the family mustelidae, subfamily martinoe, and genus mustela (Linn.); this animal (called also Pennant's marten, black cat, and pekan) and the pi...
-Alvan Fisher
Alvan Fisher, an American artist, born in Needham. Mass., Aug. 0, 1792, died in Dcd-ham, Mass., Feb. in, 1863. He began the study of painting at the age of 18, with an ornamental painter of merit name...
-George Park Fisher
George Park Fisher, an American scholar, born in Wrentham, Mass., Aug. 10, 1827. He graduated at Brown university in 1817, and studied theology in the divinity school of Yale college and in that at An...
-John Fisher
John Fisher, an English prelate, a zealous opponent of the reformation, born in Beverley, Yorkshire, in 1459, beheaded June 22, 1535. Having become the confessor of Margaret, countess of Richmond, he ...
-Fisheries
Fisheries, the business of catching fish, and the localities frequented by the kinds of fish that are objects of capture, such as the cod, herring, mackerel, and salmon. The whale fishery and the seal...
-Fisheries. Part 2
At present (1874), under a law passed in 1851, the bounties to the cod fisheries are as follows: for each man of the crew of a vessel employed on the coast of Newfoundland or Iceland, 50 francs; for e...
-Fisheries. Part 3
The English fisheries were exceedingly prosperous between 1795 and 1815. In 1814, 1,200,000 quintals offish were produced, worth $12,000,000. After this period the fishery soon fell entirely into the ...
-Fisheries. Part 4
The principal kinds taken are sardines and anchovies, particularly in the Mediterranean, sword fish in the seas of Sicily, especially near Catania, and cuttle fish near the Adriatic coast of S. Italy....
-Fisheries. Part 5
The cod is the principal fish, though flounders and herrings are also taken, and in smaller quantities salmon, porpoises, and oysters. In 1865, 337 vessels, with a tonnage of 5,330 and about 4,000 men...
-Fisheries. Part 6
The federal government early recognized the importance of the fisheries, and from time to time granted bounties for their encouragement, and imposed protective duties upon the importation of foreign-c...
-Fisheries. Part 7
March 17, 1866, by virtue of notice given by the United States, March 17, 1865, pursuant to one of its provisions. In 1870 difficulties again arose between the United States and Great Britain respecti...
-Fisheries. Part 8
The value in round numbers of the products of the national fisheries of all kinds, as returned in the censuses, was $12,000,000 in 1840, and $10,000,000 in 1850. The tables of fisheries in 1860 includ...
-Fisheries. Part 9
The principal items of the catch were 670,437 cwt. of cod, 144,572 of scale fish (haddock, hake, and pollock), 13,600 of halibut, 240,305 barrels of mackerel, 385,700 of herring, 35,225 of ale-wives, ...
-Fisheries. Part 10
The exports from the Hawaiian islands were in great part the catch of American whalers sold or exchanged at Honolulu. International fishery exhibitions have been recently held at Amsterdam, Holland; a...
-Fishes
Fishes, the lowest class of vertebrated animals, red-blooded, breathing through the medium of water by means of branchioe or gills. Like other vertebrates, they have an internal skeleton, the brain an...
-Fishes. Part 2
These classes have been variously subdivided, and the reader is referred to the article Ichthyology for the numerous classifications from Artedi to Agassiz. The anus may open far behind the ventrals, ...
-Fishes. Part 3
The eyes have neither true lids nor lachrymal apparatus; the pupil is large and permanently open, the lens is spherical, and the flat cornea is covered by the skin. Fishes are very voracious, most of ...
-Fishes. Part 4
The sudden and great increase of the milt and roe is not compatible with a firm bony cavity such as would be formed by ribs and sternum; this explains the physiological reason for their free or floati...
-Fishes. Part 5
The difference in density and chemical constitution of salt and fresh water draws the line between the marine and the fluviatile faunae; below a certain depth, probably not far from 120 fathoms, the a...
-Fish Hawk
Fish Hawk, a bird of prey, of the family fal-conidce, subfamily aquilinoe, and genus pandion (Savigny). This genus, which belongs to the same subfamily with the eagles, is characterized by a short bil...
-Fishkill
Fishkill, a town and village of Dutchess co.. New York, on the Hudson river and the Hudson River railroad, opposite Newburgh, 55 m. N. of New York; pop. of the town in 1870, 11,752; of the village, 73...
-Wilbur Fisk
Wilbur Fisk, an American clergyman and educator, born at Brattleboro, Vt., Aug. 31, 1792, died at Middletown, Conn., Feb. 22, 1838. He was educated at the grammar school in Peacham, Vt., at the univer...
-Fistula
Fistula (Lat., a pipe), an ulcer in the form of a narrow canal, more or less deep and sinuous, lined by a pale false mucous membrane, indolent and indisposed to heal, kept up by some local pathologica...
-Ebenezer Fitch
Ebenezer Fitch, an American clergyman, the first president of Williams college, born in Norwich, Conn., Sept. 26, 1756, died in West Bloomfield, N. Y., March 21, 1833. He graduated at Yale college in ...
-John Fitch
John Fitch, an American inventor, and the pioneer in steam navigation, born in Windsor, Conn., Jan. 21, 1743, died in Bardstown, Ky., in June or July, 1798. He worked on his father's farm till the age...
-Fitchburg
Fitchburg, a city and one of the county seats of Worcester co., Massachusetts, on a branch of the Nashua river, 40 m. N. W. of Boston; pop. in 1850, 5,120; in 18G0, 7,805; in 1870, 11,260, of whom 2,5...
-Fitzgerald
Fitzgerald. I. Edward, lord, an Irish soldier and politician, fifth son of the first duke of Leinster, born near Dublin, Oct. 15, 1703, died June 4, 1798. He was in part educated in France, entered th...
-Fitzherbert
Fitzherbert. I. Sir Anthony, an English lawyer and jurist, born in Norbury, Derbyshire, died in 1538. After a distinguished career at the bar, he was appointed in 1523 a justice of the court of common...
-Maria Fitzherbert
Maria Fitzherbert, wife of George IV. of England, born in July, 1756, died in Brighton, March 29, 1837. Her father, Waller Smythe of Brambridge, Hampshire, was of an old Catholic family, and she was m...
-Robert Fitzroy
Robert Fitzroy, a British admiral, born at Ampton Hall, Suffolk, July 5, 1805, died April 30, 1865. He entered the navy in 1819, and obtained his first commission Sept. 7, 1824. After serving on the M...
-William Weutworth Fitzwilliam Fitzwilliam
William Weutworth Fitzwilliam Fitzwilliam, fourth earl of that name in the peerage of Ireland, and second in that of England, an English statesman, born May 30, 1748, died Feb. 8, 1833. He opposed the...
-Fiume
Fiume (Illyrian, Rjeka; Lat. Vitopolis, afterward Fanum Sancti Viti ad Flumen; Germ. St. Veit am Flaum), a royal Hungarian city and free port, situated in a valley on the gulf of Quarnero, at the mout...
-Fixture
Fixture, a word of frequent use, and in regard to which some little confusion exists, because the exact legal definition is precisely opposed to the meaning commonly given to the word. A fixture, in l...
-Matthias Flacius, Illyricus, Vlacich
Matthias Flacius (originally Vlacich), Matthias, sur-named Illyricus, a German Protestant theologian, born at Albona, Istria, about 1520, died in Frankfort in 1575. He was induced to abandon his origi...
-Flag, Algae
Flag. I. The common name of a large family of the lowest order of plants, known as algae. These algae have all flagging habits, like the common seaweeds, which are usually fixed to rocks by their root...
-Flag
Flag (from a root signifying to hang down or droop, kindred with Lat. flaccus, flabby, or drooping), a piece of stuff or cloth intended to be displayed so as to indicate, by shape, color, or symbols, ...
-Flag. Part 2
In the dexter canton is the cross of Prussia on a black, white, and red field. The Russian imperial standard is yellow charged with the double-headed eagle of Constantine the Great, symbolical of the ...
-Flag. Part 3
The snake was represented generally with 13 rattles; sometimes it was coiled around the pine tree at its base, and sometimes depicted at length on a field of 13 alternate red and white or red and blue...
-Flags Of The Principal Nations
U.S. of AMERICA. GR. BRIT, NAVAL GR. BRIT., MERCHANT. FRANCE. Germany, NAVAL. Germany, MERCHT Russia.NAVAL. Russla,MERCHANT. AUSTRIA. ITALY. Spain.NAVAL. Spain.MERCH...
-Flags Of The American Revolution
FLAG of 1774. BUNKER HILL FLAG. PINE TREE FLAG. PINE TREE FLAG. NAVAL FLAG of l776. RATTLESNAKE FLAG. GRAND UNION FLAG OF 1776. FLAG of 1777. Flags Of The Confederate States Of...
-Flagellants
Flagellants (Lat. flagellare, to scourge), a name given during the middle ages to various societies of penitents, who went about scourging themselves in public. The first organization of this kind aro...
-Flagg
Flagg. I. George Whiting, an American artist, born in New Haven, Conn., June 26, 1816. His boyhood was passed in Charleston, S. C, where his juvenile portrait of Bishop England excited much injudiciou...
-Flahaut De La Billarderie
Flahaut De La Billarderie. I. Anguste Charles Joseph, count, a French general and diplomatist, born in Paris, April 21, 1785, died there, Sept. 2, 1870. His father succeeded Buffon as director of the ...
-Flamborough Head
Flamborough Head, a promontory on the coast of Yorkshire, England, in lat. 54 7' N., Ion. 0 5' W. It is a range of steep and in some places perpendicular chalk cliffs, some of which rise to ...
-Flame
Flame, the luminous appearance caused by the combustion of gases or vapors. When a liquid or solid is burned so as to form a flame, it is first converted into gas or vapor. The small blue flame which ...
-Flame. Continued
If the flame be extinguished by the breath, and while the wick is smoking the gauze be quickly placed a short distance above it, and a lighted taper applied to the upper side, the ascending combustibl...
-Nicolas Flamel
Nicolas Flamel, a French scribe and reputed alchemist, born about 1330, died in Paris, March 22, 1418. He combined the occupations of copyist and bookseller, married Pernelle, a widow of some property...
-Flamen
Flamen, in Roman antiquity, a member of an ancient college of priests, established by Numa, each of whom was confined to the service of a particular deity. The original three, the dialis, martialis, a...
-Flaminian Way
Flaminian Way (Lat. via Flaminia), the principal road leading from ancient Rome to the northern provinces, constructed in 220 B. C, in the censorship of C. Flaminius, from whom it was named. It extend...
-Titns Quintius Flamininus
Titns Quintius Flamininus, a Roman general, born about 230 B. C, died about 175. He was elected consul in 198, and undertook the conduct of the war against Philip, king of Macedon. By pretending that ...
-Cains Flaminius
Cains Flaminius, a Roman general, killed June 23, 217 B. 0. He was a tribune of the people in 232, consul in 223 and 217, and censor in 220. As tribune he carried an agrarian law against the oppositio...
-Camille Flammarion
Camille Flammarion, a French astronomer, born at Montigny-le-Roi, Haute-Marne, Feb. 25, 1842. He first studied theology and afterward astronomy, was attached as a pupil to the Paris observatory from 1...
-John Flamsteed
John Flamsteed, the first English astronomer royal, born at Denby, near Derby, Aug. 19, 1646, died in Greenwich, Dec. 31, 1719. He was educated at the free school of Derby, and at a very early age man...
-Flanders
Flanders (Flem. Vlaenderen, Fr. Flandre), formerly a part of the Netherlands or Low Countries of western Europe, now included in Belgium, Holland (the southern part of the province of Zealand), and Fr...
-East Flanders
East Flanders, a province of Belgium, bounded N. by Holland, E. by the Scheldt (separating it from the province of Antwerp) and by South Brabant, S. by Hainaut, and W. by West Flanders; area, 1,158 sq...
-West Flanders
West Flanders, a province of Belgium, bounded N. W. by the North sea, S. W. and S. by France, and E. by the provinces of Hainaut and East Flanders, and Holland; area, 1,249 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 668,9...
-Engene Napoleon Flandin
Engene Napoleon Flandin, a French painter and archaeologist, born in Naples, Aug. 15,1809. His father was chief of the military commissariat under Murat, and settled in Paris after the downfall of Nap...
-Flandrin
Flandrin. I. Jean Hippolyto, a French historical painter, born in Lyons, March 23, 1809, died in Rome, March 21, 1864. He was the son of an obscure miniature painter, and became a pupil of Ingres in 1...
-Flatbush
Flatbush, a town of Kings co., New York, bordering on Brooklyn; pop. in 1850, 2,977; in 1860, 3,471; in 1870, 6,309. It is the seat of the almshouse, hospital, lunatic asylum, and nursery of the count...
-Flatheads
Flatheads. I. A term applied at different times to tribes of Indians in widely distant parts of America, and incorrectly to the Selish, the tribe now known officially as Flatheads. The name is derived...
-Gustave Flaubert
Gustave Flaubert, a French novelist,.born in Rouen about 1821. He abandoned the study of medicine for literature, and published a licentious novel, Madame de Bovary (2 vols., Paris, 1857), which met w...
-John Flavel
John Flavel, an English clergyman and author, born at Bromsgrove,Worcestershire, about 1627, died in Exeter, June 26, 1691. He was educated at Oxford, became a curate at Diptford, and was called in 16...
-Flax
Flax, the common name of the plant linum usitatissimum, and also of its most important product, the filaments obtained from the fibrous covering of its hollow stems, used from the remotest times in th...
-Flax. Part 2
The finest fibre is obtained by a thick growth of slender stalks. The Dutch take great pains to weed the crop by hand, when the plants are two or three inches high. In June the plants are in bloom, an...
-Flax. Part 3
The addition of a pound of caustic ammonia or of common salt or Glauber salt to every 150 lbs. of rain water is recommended; and the temperature being kept at from 90 to 120, the operation m...
-John Flaxman
John Flaxman, an English sculptor, born in York, July 6, 1755, died in London, Dec. 9, 1826. In the workshop of his father, a moulder of figures in London, he acquired his first ideas of form. Showing...
-Fleabane
Fleabane, the common name of herbs of the genus erigeron, order compositoe, having a naked receptacle, and a rough pappus, consisting of a single row of capillary bristles with minuter ones intermixed...
-Esprit Flechier
Esprit Flechier, a French pulpit orator, born at Pernes, June 10, 1632, died in Montpellier, Feb. 16, 1710. He was educated at Avignon, in the college of the Fathers of the Christian Doctrine, gave ...
-Richard Flecknoe
Richard Flecknoe, a British poet, contemporary with Dryden, died about 1678. Little is known of his life, and he is remembered only because his name furnished Dryden the title of his satirical poem ag...
-Charles Fleetwood
Charles Fleetwood, an English republican, son of Sir William Fleetwood, died in 1692. At the commencement of the civil war he enlisted as a trooper in the parliamentary army, and in 1645 was made colo...
-William Fleetwood
William Fleetwood, an English prelate and author, born in London in January, 1656, died at Tottenham, Aug. 4, 1723. He graduated at Cambridge, and became chaplain of William III., bishop of St. Asaph ...
-Heinrich Leberecht Fleischer
Heinrich Leberecht Fleischer, a German orientalist, born at Schandau, Feb. 21, 1801. He studied in Leipsic and Paris, and was professor at Leipsic from 1835 to 1860. Since then he has occupied the cha...
-Fleming
Fleming, a N. E. county of Kentucky, bounded S. W. by Licking river; area estimated at 500 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 13,398, of whom 1,556 were colored. The E. part is hilly and the W. undulating. The soi...
-John Fleming
John Fleming, a Scottish naturalist, born at Kirkroads, near Bathgate, Linlithgowshire, in 1785, died in Edinburgh, Nov. 18, 1857. Although possessing an unusual taste for the natural sciences, he ent...
-Flemish Language And Literature
Flemish Language And Literature. The Vlaemsch or Duytsch, one of the many Teutonic dialects, is the vernacular of the Vlamin-gen (about 2,500,000) in the Belgian provinces of East and West Flanders, A...
-Paul Flemmimg
Paul Flemmimg, a German poet, born at Hartenstein in October, 1609, died in Hamburg, April 2, 1640. He was the son of a clergyman. His medical studies in Leipsic being interrupted by the thirty years'...
-Flensburg, Or Flensborg
Flensburg, Or Flensborg, a seaport and market town of the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein, at the head of Flensburg fiord, an inlet of the Baltic, 20 m. N. N. W. of Schles-wig; pop. in 1871, 2...
-Andrew (Commonly Called Fletcher Of Saltoun) Fletcher
Andrew (Commonly Called Fletcher Of Saltoun) Fletcher, a Scottish author, born in Saltoun, East Lothian, in 1G53, died in London in 1710. He was educated under the care of Gilbert Burnet, then ministe...
-Fletcher
Fletcher. I. Giles, an English poet, cousin of Fletcher the dramatist, born about 1580, died at Alderton, Suffolk, in 1623. He was educated at Trinity college, Cambridge, and became rector of Alderton...
-John William (Originally Fle-Chiere Fletcher
John William (Originally Fle-Chiere Fletcher, Jean Guillaume de la), a clergyman of the church of England, born at Nyon, Switzerland, Sept. 12, 1729, died at Madeley, England, Aug. 14, 1785. Of a nobl...
-Fleurus
Fleurus, a town of Hainaut, Belgium, near the left bank of the Sambre, 7 m. N. E. of Charleroi; pop. in 1866, 4,093. It has been the scene of four great battles. The first took place Aug. 29, 1622, be...
-Andre Hereule Fleury
Andre Hereule Fleury, cardinal de, a French prelate and statesman, born in Lodeve, June 22, 1653, died in Paris, Jan. 29, 1743. He was educated at a Jesuit college in Paris, and was appointed almoner ...
-Claude Fleury
Claude Fleury, abbe, a French ecclesiastical writer, born in Paris, Dec. 6, 1640, died July 14,1723. For nine years he followed the legal profession, giving much attention to literary and historical p...
-Theodor Fliedner
Theodor Fliedner, a German clergyman and philanthropist, born at Eppstein, Rhenish Prussia, Jan. 21, 1800, died at Kaiserswerth, Oct. 4, 1864. In 1822 he became pastor of the congregation at Kaiserswe...
-Matthew Flinders
Matthew Flinders, an English navigator, born at Donington, Lincolnshire, about 1760, died July 19, 1814. In 1795 ho was midshipman on board the vessel which conveyed Capt. Hunter, the governor of Bota...
-Flint
Flint, a peculiar amorphous variety of nearly pure quartz, found in chalk, in nodular masses or in layers, sometimes forming beds of such extent as to be used for building, as in the counties of Kent,...
-Flint, Genesee Co., Michigan
Flint, a city and the capital of Genesee co., Michigan, on both sides of Flint river, near the centre of the county, about 60 m. N. N. W. of Detroit; pop. in 1850, 1,670; in 1860, 2,950; in 1870, 5,38...
-Austin Flint
Flint. I. Austin, an American physician, born in Petersham, Mass., Oct. 20, 1812. He was educated at Amherst and Harvard colleges, and graduated M. D. at Harvard in 1833. After practising successively...
-Timothy Flint
Timothy Flint, an American clergyman and author, born in North Reading, Mass., July 11, 1780, died in Salem, Aug. 16, 1840. He graduated at Harvard college in 1800, entered the ministry of the Congreg...
-Flint River
Flint River (Indian name, Thronateeska), a river of Georgia, rising in the N. W. part of the state, near Fayetteville, flowing S., and uniting with the Chattahoochee at the S. W. extremity of the stat...
-Flintshire
Flintshire, a N. E. county of Wales, consisting of two separate portions, lying at a distance of 8 m. from each other, with a part of Denbighshire between them, the larger portion bordering on the Iri...
-Floating Islands
Floating Islands. An early notice of this phenomenon is recorded in an interesting letter of the younger Pliny to Gallus, in which ho describes the appearance of a number of floating islands in the La...
-Battle Of Flodden Field
Battle Of Flodden Field, fought Sept. 9, 1513. between the Scots under King James IV. and the English under the earl of Surrey. Henry VIII. was on the continent engaged in his expedition against Franc...
-Henry Flood
Henry Flood, an Irish orator and politician, born in 1732, died Dec. 2, 1791. He was a son of the chief justice of the court of king's bench in Ireland, and was educated at Trinity college, Dublin, an...
-Flora
Flora, the Roman goddess of flowers and spring. She was worshipped in Rome from the very earliest time. Her temple stood near the circus maximus; and her festival was celebrated annually on the last t...
-Florence
Florence (Ital. Firenze). I. A province of central Italy, included in Tuscany, bordering on Modena, Bologna, Ravenna, Forli, Pesaro ed. Urbino, Arezzo, Siena, Pisa, and Lucca; area, 2,263 sq. m.; pop....
-Florence. Continued
The French, German, Dutch, and Flemish schools are also richly represented. Among the statues in the room called the tribune are the famous Venus de' Medici, the Apollino, the Dancing Faun, the Wrest...
-Council Of Florence
Council Of Florence, the 16th general council of the church, according to Roman Catholic theologians. It was convened in Ferrara by Eugenius IV. for the purpose of reuniting the eastern and western ch...
-Flores
Flores, the westernmost of the Azore islands in the N. Atlantic ocean; lat. 39 25' N., Ion. 31 12' W.; length 30 m., breadth 9 m.; pop. in 18G4, 10,522. Its name was given it by the Portugue...
-Floris Flores
Floris Flores, Ende, or Mangarai, an island of the Malay archipelago, N. W. of Timor, between lat. 8 and 9 10' S., and Ion. 119 50' and 123 E.; length E. and W. about 200 m., avera...
-Jean Pierre Claris De Florian
Jean Pierre Claris De Florian, a French author, born at the chateau de Florian in Lan-guedoc, March 6, 1755, died in Sceaux, Sept. 13, 1794. His uncle, the marquis de Florian, placed him when 13 years...
-Saint Florian
Saint Florian, a German martyr, born at Zeiselmauer, Lower Austria, about the year 190, served as a captain in the Roman army, and was drowned for his adherence to Christianity, near Lorch on the Enns...
-Florida
Florida, the southernmost state of the American Union, and the 14th admitted under the federal constitution, situated between lat. 24 30' and 31 N., and Ion. 80 and 87 45' W.; boun...
-Florida. Part 2
St. John's river rises in the great southern marsh, and reaches the ocean after a N.. course of 300 m. in lat. 30 20' N.; for nearly 100 m. from its mouth it is a wide sluggish sheet of water, mo...
-Florida. Part 3
YEAR. Month. Mean barometer. Mean thermometer. Total rainfall, inches. Prevailing wind. 1871.. October......... 30.131 73.5 3.62 Northeast. November.......
-Florida. Part 4
Members of the assembly are chosen for two years and senators for four years. The governor is elected for four years. He is required to be a qualified elector, and to have been a citizen of the United...
-Florida. Part 5
There were in the state 23 newspapers and periodicals, with a total circulation of 10,545; annually issued, 649.220 copies: 2 were tri-weekly, circulation 820; 1 semi-weekly, circulation 300; and 23 w...
-Florida. Part 6
Fernandina, Jacksonville, St. Augustine, and other places on the E. coast were retaken by the national forces early in 1802, and held. Restrictions on commercial intercourse with Florida were removed...
-Jose Monino Florida Blanca
Jose Monino Florida Blanca, count of, a Spanish statesman, born in Murcia about 1728, died in Seville, Nov. 20, 1808. His family was noble, but poor. He became an advocate, was appointed fiscal to the...
-Florida Keys
Florida Keys, a series of islands, extending in the form of a crescent 220 m. S. W. along the S. coast of Florida, beginning near Cape Florida, and ending in the Dry Tortugas, belonging partly to Dade...
-Florin
Florin (It. fiorino), a gold coin first issued in Florence in the 11th century, of about the value of a ducat, bearing an impression on the obverse of a lily, and on the reverse of John the Baptist. I...
-Fraus Floris
Fraus Floris, a Flemish painter, whose real name was De Vriendt, born in Antwerp about 1520, died there, Oct. 1, 1570. He first studied sculpture and then painting, and established a school which brou...
-Friedrich Von Flotow
Friedrich Von Flotow, a German composer, born in Teutendorf, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, April 27, 1812. A fondness for music led him in early youth to Paris, where he was instructed in composition by Reich...
-Flotsam
Flotsam,an old word, used in connection with others equally barbarous, as jetsam and legan (or ligan), to designate different kinds of wrecked goods. Whether lawyers made them, or adopted them from se...
-Flounder
Flounder, a flat fish of the family pleuro-nectidae or planidae, which also includes the halibut, sole, and turbot. This family, containing about 150 species, is found generally in comparatively shall...
-Flourens
Flourens. I. Marie Jean Pierre, a French physiologist, born in Maureilhan, Herault, April 15, 1794, died at Montgeron, near Paris, Dec. 6, 1867. He received the degree of doctor of medicine when only ...
-James Floy
James Floy, an American clergyman, born in New York, Aug. 20, 1800, died there, Oct. 14, 1863. He was educated in Columbia college, and studied three years in Europe. He was received into the New York...
-Floyd
Floyd, the name of counties in five of the United States. I. A S. TV. county of Virginia, drained by Little river; area, 280 sq.m.; pop. in 1870, 9,824, of whom 997 were colored. The surface is mounta...
-John Bnchanan Floyd
John Bnchanan Floyd, an American statesman, born in Montgomery (now Pulaski) co., Va., in 1805, died at Abingdon, Va., Aug. 20, 1803. He was a son of Governor John Floyd. He graduated at South Carolin...
-William Floyd
William Floyd, an American general, and one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, born in Suffolk co., N. Y., Dec. 17, 1734, died in Western, Oneida co., Aug. 4, 1821. He was the son of a...
-Gustav Lebrecht Flugel
Gustav Lebrecht Flugel, a German orientalist, born in Bautzen, Feb. 18, 1802. He studied philology, and especially the oriental languages, at Leipsic, Vienna, and Paris, and in 1832 obtained a profess...
-Johann Gottfried Flugel
Johann Gottfried Flugel, a German lexicographer, born at Barby, near Magdeburg, Nov. 22, 1788, died in Leipsic, June 24, 1855. He was employed as a merchant's clerk till 1810, when he went to the Unit...
-Fluorescence
Fluorescence, a peculiar appearance exhibited by certain bodies, either solid or in so-lution, which is due to a chancre of refrangi-bility in the rays of light. Sir David Brewster in 1833, having thr...
-Fluorine
Fluorine, a gaseous body, regarded as an elementary substance, the chemical equivalent of which, calculated from the combination of calcium and fluorine in fluor spar, is 19. It is found in the teeth ...
-Fluor Spar
Fluor Spar, fluoride of calcium, a mineral species consisting of fluorine 48.7 and calcium 51.3 per cent., named from the Latin fluere, in reference to its property of flowing when used as a flux. It ...
-Flushing, A Village And Town Of Queens Co., New York
Flushing, a village and town of Queens co., New York, about 8 m. N. E. of Brooklyn; pop. of the village in 1870, 0,223; of the town, 14,650. The village is at the head of a bay of the same name openi...
-Flushing, Holland
Flushing (Dutch, Vlissingen), a fortified town and seaport of Holland, in the island of Walcheren, province of Seeland, on the N. shore of the estuary of the W. Scheldt, 50 m. S. W. of Rotterdam; pop....
-Flute
Flute, a wind instrument, which under different forms and names has been in use for more than 4,000 years. It was familiar to the Egyptians from a remote period, and among the Greeks and Romans was a ...
-Fluvanna
Fluvanna, a central county of Virginia, bounded S. by the James river and intersected by Rivanna river; area, 170 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 9,875, of whom 5,097 were colored. The surface is partly level a...
-Flux
Flux (Lat. fluere, to flow), a substance used to facilitate the fusion of minerals, and frequently their decomposition. A great variety of materials serve this purpose, and one or another is used acco...
-Fly
Fly, the popular name of the diptera, or two-winged insects, of which a familiar example is the common house fly. They have a sucking proboscis, two veined and membranous wings, and two poisers behind...
-Flycatcher
Flycatcher, the popular name of many dentirostral or tooth-billed birds, of the order passeres and subfamily muscicapinoe They have bills of various lengths, generally broad and flattened at the base,...
-Flying Fish
Flying Fish (exocoetus, Linn.), a genus of fishes belonging to the order pharyngognatlii and the family scomberesocidoe (Muller), containing, according to Valenciennes, 33 species. This genus is at on...
-Colugo Flying Lemur
Colugo Flying Lemur, or Cat Monkey, the common name of animals of the family galeopi-thecidae, elevated into the order pteropleura or dermoptera by some authors; they evidently constitute the connecti...
-Flying Squirrel
Flying Squirrel (pteromys, Cuv.; Gr. wing, and mouse), a genus of the family sciuridcv, differing from common squirrels principally in the expansion of the skin between the fore and hind feet, by mea...
-Wilheltn Foerster
Wilheltn Foerster, a German astronomer, born at Grunberg, Silesia, Dec. 16, 1832. He studied in Berlin and in Bonn, where he graduated in 1854. He became second assistant at the Berlin observatory in ...
-Fog
Fog, a body of aqueous vapor in the atmosphere, like the clouds seen in the sky above, but distinguished from them both by its position and by the manner of its formation. A large class of clouds resu...
-Bengt Erland Fogelberg
Bengt Erland Fogelberg, a Swedish sculptor, born at Gothenburg about 1787, died in Trieste, Dec. 21, 1854. He was the son of a bronze founder, studied in Stockholm and Paris, and spent upward of 30 y...
-Fogaras
Fogaras, a market town of Transylvania, capital of a district of the same name, on the left bank of the Aluta, 32 m. W. N. W. of Kron-stadt; pop. in 1867, 4,714. It has a strongly fortified castle, bu...
-Foggia
Foggia. I. Also called Capitanata, a province of southern Italy, bounded N. and E. by the Adriatic, and bordering on the provinces of Bari, Potenza, Avellino, and Campobasso; area, 2,955 sq. m.; pop. ...
-Foix
Foix, a town of S. France, capital of the department of Ariege, on the left bank of the river Ariege at its junction with the Arget, in a narrow valley at the foot of the Pyrenees, 404 m. S. of Paris,...
-Counts Of Foix
Counts Of Foix, a French family conspicuous from the 11th to the beginning of the 16th century.-Raymond Roger reigned from 1188 to 1223. He engaged in the third crusade among the followers of Philip A...
-Fokien
Fokien, a maritime province of China, bounded N. by Chekiang, W. and N. W. by Ki-angsi, S. by Kwangtung, and S. E. by the China sea; area, 53,480 sq. m.; pop. estimated in 1842 at 26,000,000. It aboun...
-Foldyar, Or Duna-Foldvar (Foldvar-On-The-Danube)
Foldyar, Or Duna-Foldvar (Foldvar-On-The-Danube), a town of Hungary, in the county of Tolna, on the right bank of the Danube, 47 m. S. of Buda; pop. in 1869, 12,382. It commands the communication betw...
-John Henry Foley
John Henry Foley, an Irish sculptor, born in Dublin, May 24, 1818. At an early age he entered the drawing and modelling schools of the royal Dublin society, and in 1834 became a student at the royal a...
-Foligno
Foligno (anc. Fulginium or Fulginia), a walled city of central Italy, in the province and 20 m. S. E. of the city of Perugia, in a beautiful valley of the Apennines; pop. in 1872, 21,686. It is large,...
-Folkestone
Folkestone, a market town, seaport, and parish of Kent, England, built partly on the level shore and partly on a cliff on the straits of Dover, 7 m. S. W. of Dover, of which it is a sub-port, and 83 m...
-August Follen
August Follen, afterward Adolf Ludwig, a German poet, born in Giessen, Hesse-Darmstadt, Jan. 21, 1794, died in Bern, Switzerland, Dec. 26, 1855. After studying philology and theology in his native tow...
-Follen
Follen. I. Charles, an American clergyman, brother of the preceding, born at Romrod in Hesse-Darmstadt, Sept. 4, 1795, perished in the conflagration of the steamboat Lexington in Long Island sound, on...
-Fonblanque
Fonblanque. I. Albany William, an English journalist, born in 1797, died in London, Oct. 13, 1872. He was the son of an eminent lawyer, and studied for that profession, but soon became a political wri...
-Fond Du Lac, Wisconsin
Fond Du Lac, a S. E. county of Wisconsin, at the S. end of Lake Winnebago; area, 754 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 46,273. It is drained by Fond du Lac river and other streams. A steep ledge of limestone, run...
-Eleonora Pimentel De Fonseca
Eleonora Pimentel De Fonseca, marchioness, an Italian martyr, born in Naples in 1758, executed July 20, 1799. She belonged to an illustrious family, and was celebrated for her beauty, poetical talent,...
-Fontainebleau
Fontainebleau, a town of France, in the department of Seine-et-Marne, 35 m. S. S. E. of Paris, on the Southeastern railway, in the midst of the forest to which it gives its name; pop. in 1866, 10,787....
-Fontana
Fontana, the name of many Italian painters of the 16th and 17th centuries, prominent among whom was Prospero (1512-97), the instructor of the Carracci. He was one of the most prolific painters of the ...
-Louis Fontanes
Louis Fontanes, marquis de, a French writer, born in Niort, March 6, 1757, died in Paris, March 17, 1821. Going to Paris when still very young, he contributed some poetical pieces to the Mercure de Fr...
-Marie Angelique De Scoraille De Roussile Fontanges
Marie Angelique De Scoraille De Roussile Fontanges, duchess de, a mistress of Louis XIV., born in the district of Rouergue in 1661, died in Paris, June 28, 1681. A member of a noble but impoverished f...
-Fontenay-Le-Comte
Fontenay-Le-Comte, a town of France, formerly the capital of a department in Poitou, now in the department of Vendee, 33 m. S. E. of Napoleon-Vendee; pop. in 1866, 8,062. It has several remarkable chu...
-Bernard Le Bovier Or Le Bouyer De Fontenelle
Bernard Le Bovier Or Le Bouyer De Fontenelle, a French writer, born in Rouen, Feb. 11, 1657, died in Paris, Jan. 9, 1757. He was the nephew of Corneille by his mother. He studied law, but not succeedi...
-Fontenoy
Fontenoy, a village of Belgium, in the province of Hainaut, 5 m. S. E. of Tournay; pop. 800. It is noted for a victory of the French over the English, Dutch, and Austrians, May 11, 1745, fought by the...
-Fontevrault
Fontevrault (Lat. Fons Euraldi), Order of, amonastic order in the Roman Catholic church, founded about the year 1100 by Robert of Arbrissel. The abbey of La Roe, in the forest of Craon, was an establi...
-Wilfrid De Fonvielle
Wilfrid De Fonvielle, a French author, born in Paris in 1828. He taught mathematics and devoted himself to the popularization of scientific subjects, to journalism, and to aeronautics. His principal w...
-Fuzhou, Foochow, Fuchow, Fuh-chau or Hokchew
Fuzhou, Foochow, Foochoo, Fuh-chau or Hokchew, or Foochow-foo (called also by the inhabitants Hok-cHIN,Happy Region), a city of China, capital of the province of Fokien, and one of the ports open to...
-Fool, Or Jester
Fool, Or Jester, a character in mediaeval courts and noble families, whose business it was to entertain the household by amusing sallies. Somewhat similar were the parasites of antiquity, who were won...
-Fulbe (Sing Foolahs. Pullo), Fellani, or Fel-latah
Fulbe (Sing Foolahs. Pullo), Fellani, or Fel-latah, a people of west and central Africa, comprising many tribes scattered along the Niger valley, between Timbuctoo and the kingdom of Dahomey, and Bond...
-Feast Of Fools
Feast Of Fools, a mediaeval grotesque religious ceremony, celebrated for several centuries, chiefly in France, at the festivals of the Nativity, the Circumcision, the Epiphany, the Murder of the Innoc...
-Foot
Foot, a measure of length indicating its origin by its name, in general use in all civilized countries, and supposed to be adopted from the length of the human foot, possibly at first of some reigning...
-Foota
Foota, a territory of Senegambia, west Africa, extending from the Senegal on the northwest to North Gangara on the southeast, between lat. 15 and 16 20' N., and Ion. 12 30' and 16 ...
-Foota Jallon, Or Futajallon
Foota Jallon, Or Futajallon, a large territory of Senegambia, W. Africa, situated about the sources of the Gambia,Rio Grande or Jeba, and Joliba or Niger, and intersected by lat. 12 N. and Ion. 1...
-Andrew Hull Foote
Andrew Hull Foote, an American naval officer, born in New Haven, Conn., Sept. 12, 1806, died in New York, June 26, 1863. He entered the navy in 1822 as acting midshipman, became passed midshipman in 1...
-Henry Stuart Foote
Henry Stuart Foote, an American politician, born in Fauquier co., Va., Sept. 20, 1800. He graduated at Washington college, Lexington, Va., in 1819, was admitted to the bar in 1822, and in 1824 removed...
-Samuel Foote
Samuel Foote, an English dramatist and actor, born in Truro, Cornwall, in 1720, died in Dover, Oct, 21, 1777. He was entered at Worcester college, Oxford, but his powers of mimicry involved him in ind...
-Foraminifera
Foraminifera (Lat. foramen, an opening, and ferre, to carry), an order of the protozoa, of the class of rhizopods, having the power of projecting and retracting through openings in their calcareous sh...
-Forbach
Forbach, a town of Alsace-Lorraine. Germany, on the railroad near the frontier of Prussia, 11 m. N. W. of Saargemiind; pop. in 1871, 5,428. Near the town are the coal mines of Petite Rosselle, Urselsb...
-Duncan Forbes
Duncan Forbes, a Scottish statesman, horn at Buchrew, near Inverness, Nov. 10, 1685, died Dec. 10, 1747. He was educated at Inverness and Edinburgh, and at the university of Leyden, and in 1709 became...
-Edward Forbes
Edward Forbes, an English naturalist, born in Douglas, isle of Man, early in 1815, died at Wardie, near Edinburgh, Nov. 18, 1854. In his 17th year he went to London with some idea of becoming a painte...
-James David Forbes
James David Forbes, a Scottish physicist, horn in Edinburgh, April 20, 1809, died at Clifton, Eng., Dec. 31, 1868. He was educated at the university of Edinburgh, and at the age of 17 he began a corre...
-Sir John Forbes
Sir John Forbes, a British physician and writer on medical science, born at Cuttlebrae, Banffshire, Scotland, in 1787, died in London, Nov. 13, 1861. He was educated at Marischal college, Aberdeen, se...
-Eugene Forcade
Eugene Forcade, a French author, born in Marseilles in 1820, died at Billancourt, near Paris, Nov. 8, 1869. He founded in 1837 the Semaphore, the principal newspaper at Marseilles, and edited it till ...
-Peter Force
Peter Force, an American journalist and historian, born at Passaic Falls, N. J., Nov. 26, 1790, died in Washington, Jan. 23, 1868. He removed to New York when a child, became a printer, and in Novembe...
-Egidio Forcellini
Egidio Forcellini, an Italian lexicographer, born near Padua, Aug. 26,1688, died April 4, 1768. Admitted into the seminary of Padua, his progress in the ancient languages induced his master Facciolato...
-Johann Georg Forchhammer
Johann Georg Forchhammer, a Danish geologist and chemist, born at Husum, Schleswig, July 26, 1794, died in Copenhagen, Dec. 13, 1865. He became secretary of Oersted, ac-companied him on a mineralogica...
-Forcible Entry
Forcible Entry. In law, the phrase forcible entry and detainer means the unlawful and violent entry upon and taking possession or keeping of lands or tenements, with actual or threatened force or viol...
-Ford
Ford. I. A X. E. county of Illinois, drained by the middle fork of Vermilion river; area, 450 sq. in.; pop. in 1870, 9,103. The surface is level and the soil fertile. The Chicago branch of the Illinoi...
-John Ford
John Ford, an English dramatist, born at Hsington, Devonshire, April 17, 1586, died there about 1640. At the age of 16 he was entered a student of law in the Middle Temple, and having been regularly c...
-Richard Ford
Richard Ford, an English author and traveller, horn in London in 1796, died at Heavi-tree, near Exeter, Sept. 1, 1858. He was educated at Winchester and at Trinity college, Cambridge, and was called t...
-Fordham
Fordham, formerly a village in the town of West Farms, Westchester co., New York, but since Jan. 1, 1874, included in the 24th ward of New York city, situated on the New York and Harlem railroad, abou...
-David Fordyce
David Fordyce, a Scottish philosopher, born in Aberdeen in 1711, died in 1751. He was educated for the church at the university of his native city, where in 1742 he became professor of moral philosoph...
-Forest
Forest, a N. W. county of Pennsylvania; area, 370 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 4,010. The Clarion river runs along the S. E. border, and the Alleghany intersects the N. W. part. The surface is hilly and irre...
-Forest Grove
Forest Grove, a post village of Washington co., Oregon, on the Oregon Central railroad, 23 m. W. of Portland; pop. in 1870, 922. It is the seat of Pacific university, which has preparatory, normal, sc...
-Foresti
Foresti, E. Felice, an Italian patriot, born at Conselice, near Ferrara, about 1793, died in Genoa, Sept, 14, 1858. He took the degree of doctor of laws at the university of Bologna, and practised as ...
-Elie Frederic Forey
Elie Frederic Forey, a French soldier, horn in Paris, Jan. 10, 1804, died in Besangon, June 20, 1872. He was a graduate of the military school at St. Cyr, and accompanied the first expedition to Alger...
-Forfar
Forfar, a royal and parliamentary burgh of Scotland, capital of Forfarshire, situated in the valley of Strathmore, near a small loch of the same name, 13 m. N. by E. of Dundee; pop. of the town in 187...
-Forfarshire, Or Angus
Forfarshire, Or Angus, an E. county of Scotland, on the coast of the North sea, and bordering on the counties of Kincardine, Aberdeen, and Perth, with the frith of Tay on the south; area, 875 sq. m.; ...
-Forfeiture
Forfeiture, in law, the loss of property as a consequence of some act which the law forbids and attaches this penalty to, or which the party has agreed not to do under the same penalty. Forfeiture is ...
-Forge
Forge, a manufactory in which iron or steel is softened by heat and worked under the hammer. The term is also applied to works in which the native oxides of iron are reduced without fusion to a metall...
-Forgery
Forgery, in general, the illegal falsification or counterfeiting of a writing. Although this offence is the subject of a great variety of cases in England and the United States, the definitions do not...
-Forget-Me-Not
Forget-Me-Not, the common name in several languages (Ger. Vergissmeinnicht, Fr. ne-moubliez-pai,) of the plant myosotis palustris (With.), of the family horraginaceoe; other species of the genus are c...
-Fork
Fork, an implement consisting of a handle and two or more prongs, used to lift certain substances. Table forks do not seem to have been known in antiquity, though archaeologists have found articles am...
-Johana Nikolans Forkel
Johana Nikolans Forkel, a German composer and author, born at Meeder, near Coburg, Feb. 22, 1749, died in Gottingen, March 17, 1818. He was more distinguished as a writer upon musical subjects than as...
-Forli
Forli. I. A province of Italy, formerly part of the Papal States, bordering on the Adriatic, the republic of San Marino, and the provinces of Pesaro ed Urbino, Florence, and Ravenna; area, 716 sq. m.;...
-Melozzo Da Forli
Melozzo Da Forli, an Italian painter, born at Forli in 1438, died about 1492. He was the first who applied the art of foreshortening to the painting of vaulted ceilings. About 1472 he painted the Asce...
-Karl Formes
Karl Formes, a German vocalist, born at Mulheim on the Rhine, Aug. 7, 1818. He received instructions from Oehrlein, a bass singer at Cologne, and Bassadone in Vienna, and made his first appearance in ...
-Formic Acid
Formic Acid (Lat.formica, an ant), a chemical product so named from its being found in the bodies of ants. It is artificially prepared by dissolving sugar, starch, or tartaric acid in water, adding su...
-Formosa
Formosa (Port, llha Formosa, beautiful island; Malay, Pekan or Pekando; Chinese, Tai-wan, the terraced harbor), an island in the China sea, between lat. 21 58' and 25 15' N, and Ion. 120°...
-John Weiss Forney
John Weiss Forney, an American journalist, born at Lancaster, Pa., Sept. 30, 1817. In 1833 he became an apprentice in the printing office of the Lancaster Journal, and in 1837 editor and joint propr...
-Edwin Forrest
Edwin Forrest, an American actor, born in Philadelphia, March 9, 1806, died there, Dec. 12, 1872. His father was Scotch, his mother of German birth. He exhibited from an early age a taste for the stag...
-Peter Forskal
Peter Forskal, a Swedish traveller and naturalist, born in Kalmar in 1736, died in Yerim, Arabia, July 11, 1763. He studied at Gottin-gen and at Upsal, published a thesis in opposition to the then dom...
-Forste
Forste, a town of Brandenburg. Prussia, on an island in the Neisse, 44 m. S. by E. of Frankfort-on-the-Oder; pop. in 1871, 7,950. It consists of the town proper and two suburbs; has a castle and two P...
-Ernst Joachim Forster. Friedrich Forster
Forster. I. Ernst Joachim, a German painter and writer upon art, born at Munchengossen-stadt, Bavaria, April 8, 1800. He studied theology, philosophy, and philology at Jena and Berlin, but afterward d...
-George Forster
George Forster, an English traveller, died in Nagpoor in 1792. He was in the service of the East India company, and in 1782 undertook an overland journey from India to Russia. Disguised as a Mussulman...
-Heinrich Forster
Heinrich Forster, a German pulpit orator of the Roman Catholic church, born in Glo-gau, Prussian Silesia, Nov. 24, 1800. He studied theology in Breslau, was ordained as priest in 1825, appointed canon...
-Johann Georg Adam Forster. Johann Reinliold Forster
Forster. I. Johann Reinliold, a German traveller and naturalist, born in Dirschau, , Prussia, Oct. 22, 1729, died in Halle, Dec. 9, 1798. He was descended from an exiled Scottish border family, was ed...
-John Forster
John Forster, an English journalist and author, born in Newcastle in 1812. He was educated at the university of London, and was a member of its first law class. With his classmates he established the ...
-William Edward Forster
William Edward Forster, an English statesman, born at Bradpole, Dorsetshire, July 11, 1818. His father was a minister of the society of Friends, who died during an anti-slavery mission to Tennessee. H...
-Forsyth
Forsyth. I. A N. W. county of North Carolina, bounded W. by Yadkin river, and drained by its affluents; area about 250 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 13,050 of whom 2,334 were colored. The surface is much dive...
-William Forsyth
William Forsyth, an English author, born in 1812. He graduated at Cambridge in 1834, studied law, became a queen's counsel in 1857, and subsequently was appointed commissary of the university of Cambr...
-Fort Bend
Fort Bend, a S. E. county of Texas, intersected by Brazos river, which is here navigable by steamboats during part of the year, and touched on the S. W. by San Bernard river; area, 920 sq. m.; pop. in...
-Fort Dodge
Fort Dodge, a city and the capital of Webster co., Iowa, on the Des Moines river, and the Iowa division of the Illinois Central railroad, at the terminus of the Des Moines Valley line, 70 m. X. X. W. ...
-Fort Donelson And Fort Henry
Fort Donelson And Fort Henry, two fortifications in N. W. Tennessee, near the border of Kentucky, erected by the confederates late in 1861, and captured by the Union forces in February, 1862. The Cumb...
-Fort Edward
Fort Edward, a village and town of Washington co., New York, on the E. bank of the Hudson river, and on the Champlain canal, 40 m. N. of Albany; pop. of the village in 1870, 3,492; of the town, 5,125....
-Sir John Fortescue
Sir John Fortescue, an English lawyer, who lived in the reigns of Henry VI. and Edward IV. The place and date of his birth are unknown; he is supposed to have died about 1485. In 1426 he was appointed...
-Fort Gaines
Fort Gaines, a town and the capital of Clay co., Georgia, on the Chattahoochee river, at the terminus of a branch of the Southwestern railroad, 155 m. S. by W. of Atlanta; pop. in 1870, 758. It is a s...
-Forth
Forth, a river of Scotland, the third of that country in size, and one of the most noted for romantic scenery. It is formed by the confluence of two small streams, the Duchray and the Dhu, which unite...
-Fortification
Fortification, the military art of preparing a place to resist attack.. The means used for this purpose may be those presented by nature, as woods and rivers, or those formed by art, as shelters of ea...
-Fortification. Part 2
This new method is known as the polygonal system, and as many recent fortifications in Germany have been constructed according to it, it is often called the German system. Whatever be the system used,...
-Fortification. Part 3
These may be removed either by arranging the lines of the work with this object in view, as in the bastioned system, or by means of auxiliary works, termed capon-nieres, scarp galleries, counterscarp ...
-Fortification. Part 4
The surface of the embankment of the covered way is made, from the interior crest to the exterior, with a gentle slope. The principle to be attended to in arranging these glacis planes is, that they s...
-Fortification. Part 5
The caponniere in many cases extends across the ditch, projecting into the outwork on the other side, and also into the interior of the enceinte. It serves in this case three purposes: to flank the di...
-Fortification. Part 6
It is probable that no great general has ever entertained a different opinion from them on this subject.-The selection of the points to be fortified will be influenced by the natural features of the c...
-Fortification. Part 7
The height of the interior crest above the ground within the work must not be less than 6 ft. 6 in.We assume it ordinarily to be 8 ft., and limit its greatest height to 12 ft., owing to the difficulty...
-Fort Madison
Fort Madison, a city and the capital of Lee co., Iowa, on the Mississippi river, 12 m. above the lower rapids, and 17 m. S. W. of Burlington, on the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy, and the Burlington...
-Fort Royal, Or Fort De France
Fort Royal, Or Fort De France, a seaport of the French West Indies, capital of Martinique, situated on a deep and well sheltered bay on the W. side of the island; pop. about 12,000. It is defended by ...
-Fort St. David, India
Fort St. David, a town of India, on the Coromandel coast, in South Arcot, 3 m. N. of Cuddalore, and 12 m. S. S. W. of Pondicherry. It was formerly well fortified. The town was called Tegnapatam till 1...
-Fort Scott
Fort Scott, a city and the capital of Bourbon co., Kansas, on the Marmiton river, a branch of the Osage, about 100 m. S. of Leavenworth; pop. in 1860, 262; in 1870, 4,174. The Missouri River, Fort Sco...
-Fort Smith
Fort Smith, a city of Sebastian co., Arkansas, on the right bank of the Arkansas river, at the head of steamboat navigation, about 130 m. W. N. W. of Little Rock, and near the boundary of the Indian t...
-Fortuna
Fortuna, in Roman mythology, the goddess of chance, both happy and unhappy, called by the Etruscans Nursia. Among the Greeks she was known under the name of Tyche, as the daughter of Oceanus, accordin...
-Fortunatus
Fortunatus, the title of a collection of popular tales, the earliest known publication of which took place in Augsburg in 1509, though it includes fairy lore and popular legends of an earlier period. ...
-Robert Fortune
Robert Fortune, a Scottish botanist, born in Berwickshire in 1813. He was brought up as a horticulturist, and having procured employment in the botanical gardens of Edinburgh, attended the lectures of...
-Fort Wayne
Fort Wayne, a city and the capital of Allen co., Indiana, on an elevated plain at the confluence of the St. Mary's and St. Joseph's rivers, which here form the Maumee, and on the Wabash and Erie canal...
-Forum
Forum, in ancient Roman cities, an open place used for the administration of justice or the sale of goods, and for the transaction of all kinds of public business. In this respect it corresponded with...
-Forwarding Merchant
Forwarding Merchant, one whose business it is to send forward goods to a distant consignee. There are in the United States persons who engage in this business almost exclusively, especially in the wes...
-Francesco Foscari
Francesco Foscari, doge of Venice, born about 1373, died Oct. 31, 1457. Elected doge in 1423, the whole period in which he governed the republic was one of war and tumult. The sultan Amurath II. layin...
-Nicolo Ugo Foscolo
Nicolo Ugo Foscolo, an Italian poet and miscellaneous writer, born in the island of Zante, of a Venetian family, Jan. 26, 1777, died at Turnham Green, near London, Sept. 14, 1827. He was educated in V...
-Fossano
Fossano, a town of Piedmont, Italy, on the left bank of the Stura, in the province and 13 m. N. N. E. of the city of Coni, and 34 m. S. by E. of Turin; pop. about 7,000. It is an antique, dismal, but ...
-Fossil
Fossil (Lat. fossilis, dug up), a term formerly applied to all mineral substances, but now used to designate only the remains of organic bodies found in geological formations. The general subject will...
-Fossil Footprints, Or Iehnolites
Fossil Footprints, Or Iehnolites(Gr. a track, anda stone), in geology, impressions originally made by animals in clay or in sand, and preserved in the shale or sandstone rock resulting from the soli...
-Fossombrone
Fossombrone (anc. Forum Sempronii), a town of central Italy, in the province of Pesaro ed Urbino, 9 m. E. S. E. of Urbino; pop. about 10,000. It is situated on the road from Fano to Rome, in a narrow ...
-Foster
Foster, a X. E. county of Dakota, intersected by the Sheyenne, a branch of Red river: area about 1,700 sq. m. It has been recently formed, and is not included in the census of 1870. The Dakota or Jame...
-Birket Foster
Birket Foster, an English artist, born at North Shields in 1812. At the age of 16 he was placed with Mr. Landells, a wood engraver, by whom he was advised to turn his attention to drawing rather than ...
-James Foster
James Foster, an English dissenting minister, born in Exeter, Sept. 16, 1697, died Nov. 5, 1753. He was educated in his native city, began to preach in 1718, and after removing from Devonshire to Melb...
-John Foster
John Foster, an English essayist, born in Halifax, Yorkshire, Sept. 17, 1770, died at Sta-pleton, near Bristol, Oct. 15, 1843. In early life he was a weaver, but at the age of 17, having united with t...
-John Wells Foster
John Wells Foster, an American geologist and archaeologist, born at Brimfield, Mass., in 1815, died in Chicago, June 29, 1873. He graduated at Wesleyan university, Middletown, Conn., in 1835, and one ...
-Randolph S Foster
Randolph S Foster., D.D., an American clergyman, born at Williamsburg, Ohio, Feb. 20, 1820. He was educated at Augusta college, Kentucky, and in 1837 entered the itinerant ministry of the Methodist Ep...
-Stephen Collins Foster
Stephen Collins Foster, an American ballad composer, born in Pittsburgh, Pa., July 4, 182(3, died in New York, Jan. 13, 1804. Early in life he evinced a fondness for music, learned unaided to play on ...
-Fotheringay
Fotheringay, a parish and village of Northamptonshire, England, on the river Nene, 27 m. N. E. of Northampton. Its famous castle., the birthplace of Richard III., and the scene of the imprisonment, tr...
-Leon Foucault
Leon Foucault, a French natural philosopher, born in Paris, Sept. 18, 1819, died Feb. 11, 1868. While studying medicine he was impressed by the discoveries of Daguerre, and turned his attention exclus...
-Joseph Foiche
Joseph Foiche, a French revolutionist and minister of police, born at La Martiniere, near Nantes, May 29, 1763, died in Trieste, Dec. 25, 1820. He was sent to Paris to study theology, but without taki...
-Fougeres
Fougeres, a town of France, in the department of Ille-et-Vilaine, on a hill near the Nan-con. 27 m. N. E. of Rennes; pop. in 1866, 9,580. It is the seat of a subprefecture, a court of primary jurisdic...
-Achille Fould
Achille Fould, a French statesman and financier, of Jewish parentage, horn at Paris, Nov. 17, 1800, died at Tarbes, Oct. 5, 1807. His father was a hanker of great wealth, and he enjoyed an unusually c...
-Robert Foulis
Robert Foulis, a Scottish printer, born in Glasgow, April 20, 1707, died in Edinburgh in 1770. He was a barber's apprentice, but falling under the notice of Dr. Hutcheson, professor of moral philosoph...
-Foundling Hospital
Foundling Hospital, a public institution for the reception and support of deserted children. Some of the nations of antiquity were notorious for their disregard of the promptings of humanity in the tr...
-Foundling Hospital. Part 2
Many of the children are sent to the country to be nursed, and among them the mortality is said to be the greatest. There are several other foundling hospitals in Rome; the total number of foundlings ...
-Foundling Hospital. Part 3
In l798, 11,000,000 francs were assigned toward their support, and it was ordered that two lying-in hospitals should be connected with the foundling house in Paris. But the usefulness of the instituti...
-Foundling Hospital. Part 4
There are foundling hospitals in Christiania and other Norwegian cities, and the number of foundlings for the past five years has been more than 9 per cent. of the total number of births.-The foundlin...
-Fountain
Fountain, a W. county of Indiana, bounded W. by the Wabash river, and drained by Coal and other creeks; area, about 400 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 1(3,389. It is intersected by the Indianapolis. Bloomingto...
-Friodrich Heinrich Karl De La Motte Fouque
Friodrich Heinrich Karl De La Motte Fouque, baron, a German novelist and poet, born in the town of Brandenburg, Feb. 12, 1777, died in Berlin, Jan. 23, 1843. The grandson of a distinguished general of...
-Fouquet, Or Foncquet
Fouquet, Or Foncquet, Nieolas, marquis de Belle-Isle, a French minister of finance, born in Paris in 1615, died March 23, 1680. He entered the public service at an early age, became procurator general...
-Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville
Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville, a French revolutionist, born in Herouel, near St. Quen-tin, in 1747, guillotined in Paris, May 7, 1795. He studied law in Paris, was for a time procurator at the Cha...
-Autoine Francois Fourcroy
Autoine Francois Fourcroy, count, a French chemist, born in Paris, Jan. 15, 1755, died there, Dec. 16, 1809. The son of a druggist in reduced circumstances, he tried to gain a living by several callin...
-Pierre Fourier
Pierre Fourier, called also Pierre de Ma-taincourt, a French religious reformer and founder, born at Mirecourt, Lorraine, Nov. 30, 1565, died in Gray, Franche-Comte, Dec. 9, 1640. After having graduat...
-Francois Marie Charles Fourier
Francois Marie Charles Fourier, a French writer on social science, born in Besancon, April 7, 1772, died in Paris, Oct. 10, 1837. From his earliest infancy he manifested a singular originality and for...
-Francois Marie Charles Fourier. Continued
In 1835 Fourier published another work, La fausse Industrie, morcelee, repugnante et mensongere, et l'antidote, l'industrie naturelle, comhinee, attray-ante, teridique, dormant quadruple produit (1 vo...
-Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier
Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier, baron, a French savant, born in Auxerre, March 21, 1768, died in Paris, May 16, 1830. He was professor of mathematics at Auxerre, afterward a teacher in the polytechnic s...
-Benoit Fourneyron
Benoit Fourneyron, a French inventor, born in St. Etienne, Oct. 31, 1802, died in Paris, July 8, 1867. He was educated at the school of mines in his native city, and upon leaving it in 1819 was employ...
-Edouard Fournier
Edouard Fournier, a French author, born in Orleans, June 15, 1819. He early devoted himself to literary labors, and produced many plays alone or in collaboration with others. One of his best efforts i...
-Fowler
Fowler. I. Orson Squire, an American phrenologist, born in Cohocton, Steuben co., N. Y., Oct. 11, 1809. He graduated at Amherst college in 1834, and immediately began to lecture on phrenology. In 1835...
-Fowling Piece
Fowling Piece, a weapon used by sportsmen for killing small game. It has always been, among dilettanti addicted to hunting as a pastime, the object of much extravagant and capricious fancy. Like bibli...
-Fox
Fox (vulpes, Cuv.) a carnivorous animal belonging to the vulpine division of the family canidae. Foxes may be distinguished from the dogs, wolves, and other diurnal canidae, by their lower stature, po...
-Charles James Fox
Charles James Fox, an English statesman and orator, born in London, Jan. 24, 1740, died at Chiswick, Sept, 13, 1806. His father, Henry Fox, afterward Lord Holland, had amassed a great fortune as payma...
-George Fox
George Fox, the founder of the society of Friends, born at Drayton, Leicestershire, England, in July, 1624, died in London, Jan. 13, 1(391. His father was a zealous Presbyterian, too poor to give his ...
-John Fox
John Fox, an English author, born in Boston, Lincolnshire, in 1517, died in London in 1587. He was educated at Oxford, and elected a fellow of Magdalen college in 1543, but becoming a convert to Prote...
-William Johnson Fox
William Johnson Fox, an English clergyman and politician, born in Wrentham, Suffolk, in 1786, died June 3, 1864. He was educated at Homerton Independent college, embraced Unitarian doctrines, and beca...
-Foxes
Foxes, a tribe of North American Indians of the Algonquin family, noted in history as turbulent, daring, and warlike. They were of two stocks, one calling themselves Outagamies or Foxes, whence our En...
-Fox River
Fox River. I. A river of Wisconsin, called by the Indians Neenah. It rises in the S. central portion of the state, and flows first nearly S. W. to within 1 1/2 m. of the Wisconsin, when it turns sudde...
-Maximilien Seliastien Foy
Maximilien Seliastien Foy, a French soldier and orator, born at Ham, Feb. 3, 1775, died in Paris, Nov. 28, 1825. He entered the army in 1791 as second lieutenant of artillery, served successively unde...
-Fraction
Fraction (Lat. frangere, to break), in arithmetic and algebra, an expression for an unexecuted division, originally invented to represent a quantity less than a unit. Thus | originally signified three...
-Fracture
Fracture, in surgery, a disruption or separation between the parts of a bone or cartilage, produced by external violence or the sudden and forcible contraction of muscles. The fracture is said to be s...
-Framingham
Framingham, a town of Middlesex co., Massachusetts, on the Boston and Albany railroad, at its junction with a branch to Milford, and at the junction of several divisions of the Boston, Clinton, and Fi...
-Franc
Franc, the monetary unit in France, Belgium, and Switzerland. The first coins having this name were struck under John the Good of France in 1360; they bore the impression of the king on horseback, and...
-Antoine Francais
Antoine Francais, count, popularly known as Francais de Nantes, a French politician and author, born at Beaurepaire, Isere, Jan. 17, 1756, died in Paris in 1836. He was the son of a notary, received a...
-Francois Louis Francais
Francois Louis Francais, a French painter, born at Plombieres, Nov. 17, 1814. He went to Paris in 1829. became a bookseller's clerk, employed his leisure in studying painting, and produced bis first l...
-Frame
Frame (Lat. Gallia or Francia; Ger. Frankreich, empire of the Franks), one of the principal countries of Europe, occupying the western end of the central part of that continent, between lat. 42 2...
-Frame. Part 2
The Pyrenees also send some secondary ramifications through the southwest. The highest summits of this great chain within the limits of France are from 9,000 to 11,000 ft. above the sea. In the Cevenn...
-Frame. Part 3
Of the productive portion 50 per cent. is arable land and gardens, 4 per cent. vineyards, 28 per cent. meadows and pastures, and 18 per cent. forests.-The climate,/ being on the whole temperate, is on...
-Frame. Part 4
The herring fishery, the headquarters of which are at Dieppe, has also some importance, as well as the sole, ray, and mackerel fisheries. The tunny fishery is pursued on the Mediterranean. Dunkirk, Bo...
-Frame. Part 5
Of the male sex there were 17,980,476, of the female 18,-122.445; owing to the war, the decrease of the former since 1866 had been almost double that of the latter (235,880 to 131,105). In respect to ...
-Frame. Part 6
Watches are made at Besancon, Mont-bediard, Pontarlier, and Versailles. Leather is exported from France in larger quantities than from any other country of Europe; the best manufactures of leather war...
-Frame. Part 7
The aggregate length of telegraph lines at the beginning of 1870 (inclusive of Alsace and Lorraine) was 26,282 m.; of wires, 71,930 m. France is well provided with highways, which are divided into nat...
-Frame. Part 8
The French government not only supports the pastors of this church, but also those of the Protestant and Jewish communions. France, exclusive of its colonies, is divided into 84 Catholic dioceses, 67 ...
-Frame. Part 9
Of similar importance are the college de France, where lectures are delivered on the highest topics of science and literature; the museum of natural history, an admirable collection of animal, vegetab...
-Expenditures
Expenditures. (Sums in Francs.') 1. Public debt and special appropriations. Consolidated debt...... 542,127,185 Funded debt....... 426,055,076 Floating...
-Expenditures. Part 2
The population of Algeria in 1872 was 2,414,218; the aggregate population of the other French colonies amounted in 1872 to about 2,300,000; that of the protected countries to 1,024,000. The aggregate ...
-Expenditures. Part 3
His son, Louis le Debonnaire (814-840), a weak and superstitious prince, was peculiarly unfitted for the heavy task which devolved upon him; and the selfish ambition of Louis's successors hastened the...
-Expenditures. Part 4
On the direct branch of the Capetians becoming extinct by the death of Charles IV. without male heirs, Philip of Valois, both by right of relationship and by choice of the peers, succeeded to the thro...
-Expenditures. Part 5
Francis I., the successor and distant relative of Louis, in his turn appeared in Italy as a conqueror, and his first victory at Marignano or Melegnano (1515) seemed to forebode permanent conquest; but...
-Expenditures. Part 6
He then returned to the old policy of Francis I., and meditated the humiliation of the house of Austria; great preparations were made for the enterprise, and Henry was on the eve of his departure for ...
-Expenditures. Part 7
Politically the French government, controlled in turns by unscrupulous princes, by Cardinal Fleury (who, however good his internal administration, failed to support the national dignity abroad), by th...
-Expenditures. Part 8
For the first time this classification met with the most determined opposition; and in June, on the proposition of a member, the abbe Sieyes, the deputies of the third estate declared themselves the s...
-Expenditures. Part 9
The refusal of the majority of the clergy to take an oath of conformity to the civil constitution of their order as prescribed by the assembly led to further troubles; the influence of the clubs in th...
-Expenditures. Part 10
Suddenly they received from the king a message commanding them to cease all resistance and retire to their barracks. They obeyed, and gave up their posts. The assailants, however, now renewed the atta...
-Expenditures. Part 11
In Bordeaux, Marseilles, and Lyons, which had resisted the authorities at Paris, but had been subdued, the most barbarous massacres were perpetrated. Carrier in Nantes invented novel horrors (the noya...
-Expenditures. Part 12
It provided for the institution of two legislative bodies, the council of 500 and the council of ancients, numbering 250. The executive power was placed in the hands of a directory of five members. Bu...
-Expenditures. Part 13
May 18, 1804, he reformed and reorganized legislation at home by the formation of the civil code, the organization of public instruction, and the improvements he introduced in all the branches of publ...
-Expenditures. Part 14
On Jan. 29-30, 1853, Napoleon married Eugenie de Montijo. The chief event of the early portion of this reign was the Crimean complication, in which, largely through the influence of Napoleon and his a...
-Expenditures. Part 15
The year 1867, although the international exposition (which was opened in the spring in Paris with great splendor) made it outwardly appear a prosperous period for the French government, was in realit...
-Expenditures. Part 16
Having been confirmed by a senatus consultum (April 20), a plebiscite was ordered upon it for May 8. By the most strenuous exertions of the imperialists, and their interference everywhere with the ele...
-Expenditures. Part 17
On the 28th Napoleon, who had from the beginning announced his intention to lead the army, left Paris with the prince imperial, and proceeded to Metz to take the actual command, having on the 23d appo...
-Expenditures. Part 18
By it nearly one half of all the French troops in the field were effectually shut up within a surrounded fortress; while the Germans, leaving the greater part of the first and second armies as a besie...
-Expenditures. Part 19
The German headquarters were established at Versailles. A portion of the French government of national defence remained in the capital; a portion, in order to be in communication with the provinces, w...
-Expenditures. Part 20
The approach of the army of Manteuffel at almost the same time compelled the French troops to abandon Dijon. The retreating army of Bourbaki (who had now been succeeded by Clinchant) did not again ass...
-Expenditures. Part 21
On Aug. 12 the members of the left centre introduced into the assembly a bill prolonging the presidency of Thiers for three years, conferring upon him the official title of president of the French rep...
-Expenditures. Part 22
During the month of May President Thiers made a number of changes in the ministry, which, as they were not accepted as sufficiently conservative by the members of the right, placed him again in sharp ...
-Language And Literature Of France
Language And Literature Of France. The French is the most important of the six Romanic languages produced from Latin by the influence of other tongues. The Italian, the Roumanic or Wallachian, the Pro...
-Language And Literature Of France. Part 2
S, x, z, t, being the principal grammatic letters, are most frequently joined in this manner. On French pronunciation Malvin-Cazal, Mme. Sophie Dupuis, and Bescherelle (Plus de grammaires) may be adva...
-Language And Literature Of France. Part 3
They were succeeded by satirical and allegorical poems of equally vast proportions, some of which enjoyed unparalleled popularity, such as the Roman du renard and the Roman de la rose, from which Chau...
-Language And Literature Of France. Part 4
Descartes, in his Discours sur la methode, showed that the French vernacular was now equal to the highest philosophical subjects; and Pascal, in his Lettres provinciates, in which comic pleasantry and...
-Language And Literature Of France. Part 5
He was for half a century the king of public opinion. His wonderful versatility enabled him to treat successfully almost all branches of literature; as a tragic poet he takes rank next to Corneille an...
-Language And Literature Of France. Part 6
A reactionary movement was attempted when the illustrious actress Rachel appeared with such striking effect in the tragedies of Corneille and Racine. Ponsard and Latour St. Ybars returned to the old f...
-Language And Literature Of France. Part 7
Among the other poets, Casi-mir Delavigne, whose Messeniennes rivalled for a while the success of Lamartine's Meditations, Auguste Barbier, the author of the lambes, Victor de La Prade, and the brilli...
-Language And Literature Of France. Part 8
This revolution, prepared by Royer-Collard, Maine de Biran, and others, has been accomplished by Victor Cousin and his disciples, who, under the name of eclecticism, unfurled the banner of spiritualis...
-Wines Of France
Wines Of France. In respect to soil, climate, and the abundance and variety of the wines which she produces, France has been called the vineyard of the earth. Nearly seven eighths of her territory is ...
-Wines Of France. Part 2
The wine of Chateau Suduiraut, of the Preignac growth, also very celebrated, is worth not above 4.000 to 5,000 francs the tonneau. The remaining districts of Gironde produce wines of a quality conside...
-Wines Of France. Part 3
The Beaujolais, formerly part of the province of Lyonnais, but now mainly forming an arrondissement of which Villefranche is the chief place, lies between Macon and Lyons on the right bank of the Saon...
-Wines Of France. Part 4
They are much exported to England and America, and are often described as a species of Burgundy. They can, however, lay no better claim to this title than the wines of the Ma-connais or even of the Be...
-Franche-Comte
Franche-Comte (free country), an ancient province of France, now comprised in the departments of Jura, Doubs, and Haute-Saone. Its capital was Besancon. It is drained by the Saone, Doubs, and Ain, is ...
-Ansonio Franchi
Ansonio Franchi, an Italian philosopher, whose real name is Francesco Bonavino, born at Pegli, in the province of Genoa, in 1820. Having adopted rationalistic views, he left in 1849 the priesthood and...
-Francesco Francia
Francesco Francia, a painter of the Bolo-gnese school, whose real name was Francesco Raibolini, born in Bologna about 1450, died in 1517, or, according to Lanzi, in 1533. He was originally a goldsmith...
-Jose Gaspar Rodriguez (Commonly Called Dr Francia
Jose Gaspar Rodriguez (Commonly Called Dr Francia. Francia), dictator of Paraguay, born in Asuncion about 1757, died there, Sept. 20, 1840. He boasted that he was of French extraction, but his father ...
-Francis
Francis, the name of several sovereigns of France, Germany (including Austria), and the Two Sicilies. ...
-Francis I, king of France
Francis I., king of France, son of Charles, count of Angouleme (cousin german of Louis XII.), and Louisa of Savoy, born at Cognac, Sept. 12, 1494, died at Rambouillet, March 31, 1547. He married Claud...
-Francis II, King of France
Francis II., king of France, born in Fontainebleau, Jan. 19, 1543, died in Orleans, Dec. 5, 1560. He was the eldest son of Henry II. and Catharine de' Medici. His father had succeeded in obtaining som...
-Stephen Francis I, Emperor of Germany
Francis I. (Stephen), emperor of Germany, born Dec. 8, 1708, died at Innspruck, Aug. 18, 1765. He was the son of Leopold, duke of Lorraine, and of a niece of Louis XIV., and was the great-grandson of ...
-Francis II, Emperor of Germany
Francis II., emperor of Germany (I. of Austria), born in Florence, Feb. 12, 1768, died in Vienna, March 2, 1835. He was the son of the emperor Leopold II. and of Maria Louisa, daughter of Charles III....
-Francis Joseph
Francis Joseph, emperor of Austria, grandson of the preceding, eldest son of the archduke Francis Charles, and nephew of the emperor Ferdinand L, born Aug. 18, 1830. He was educated under the care of ...
-Francis I, King of the Two Sicilies
Francis I., king of the Two Sicilies, born in Naples, Aug. 19, 1777, died there, Nov. 8, 1830. He was the son of Ferdinand I. and Caroline Maria. The death of his elder brother in 1778 made him heir t...
-Francis II, son of Ferdinand II
Francis II., son of Ferdinand II. and of the princess Christina of Savoy, born Jan. 16, 1836. His mother died two weeks after his birth, and his father, contracting a second marriage with the archduch...
-Convers Francis
Convers Francis, an American clergyman and author, born at West Cambridge, Mass., Nov. 9, 1795, died at Cambridge, April 7, 18G3. He graduated at Harvard college in 1815, and after completing his stud...
-John Wakefield Francis
John Wakefield Francis, an American physician and author, born in New York, Nov. 17, 1789, died there, Feb. 8,1861. His father was a German, and his mother of Swiss descent. In his youth he was employ...
-Sir Philip Francis
Sir Philip Francis, a British politician and pamphleteer, born in Dublin, Oct. 22, 1740, died in London, Dec. 22, 1818. He was the son of the Rev. Philip Francis, author of an elegant and popular tran...
-Francis Of Assisi
Francis Of Assisi, a saint of the Roman Catholic church, and founder of the order of Franciscans, born in Assisi in 1182, died near that city, Oct. 4, 1226. His father was Pietro Bernardone, a wealthy...
-Saint Francis Of Paula
Saint Francis Of Paula, founder of the order of Minims, born at Paula or Paola, Calabria, in 1416, died at Plessis-les-Tours, France, April 2, 1507. His family name has been variously given as Martore...
-Francis De Sales
Francis De Sales, a saint and bishop of the Roman Catholic church, born at the chateau de Sales, near Annecy, Savoy, Aug. 21, 1567, died in Lyons, Dec. 28, 1622. Both his parents were of noble birth. ...
-Gray Friars Franciscans
Gray Friars Franciscans, or Minorites (Lat. Fratres Minores), a religious order in the Roman Catholic church, founded in 1209 by St. Francis of Assisi. When the number of his disciples had increased t...
-Adolphe Franck
Adolphe Franck, a French philosopher of Jewish parentage, born at Liocourt, department of Meurthe, Oct. 9,1809. He studied at Nancy and Toulouse, taught in various institutions, and since 1854 has bee...
-August Hermann Francke
August Hermann Francke, a German preacher, founder of the orphan house at Halle, born in Lubeck, March 23, 1663, died June 8, 1727. He studied at the universities of Erfurt, Kiel, Gotha, and Leipsic, ...
-Fracnois
Fracnois. I. Jean Charles, a French engraver, born in Nancy in 1717, died in Paris in 1769. He was among the first to introduce engravings representing crayon and chalk drawings, and was pensioned by ...
-Francolin
Francolin, a gallinaceous bird of the grouse family, subfamily perdicinoe or partridges, and genus francolinus (Steph.). There are about 30 species found in the warm parts of the eastern hemisphere, e...
-Franconia
Franconia (Ger. Franken, or Frankenland, land of the Franks), an old duchy and afterward a circle of the German empire. In the 5th century it formed a part of the Thuringian kingdom, on its dismemberm...
-Franeker
Franeker, a town of the Netherlands,in the province of Friesland, on the Trekschuyten canal, between Harlingen and Leeuwarden, 10 m. W. of the latter; pop. in 1867, 6,293. In 1585 a university was est...
-Frank
Frank. I. Johann Peter, a German physician, born at Rothalben, Baden, March 19, 1745, died in Vienna, April 24, 1821. He first studied theology, then medicine, taking his degree at Heidelberg in 1766,...
-Zacharias Frankel
Zacharias Frankel, a German rabbi and author, born in Prague, Oct. 18, 1801. He studied in Pesth, became rabbi at Leitmeritz in 1832, and chief rabbi for Dresden and Leipsic in 1836. He contributed gr...
-Frankenhausen
Frankenhausen, a town of Germany, capital of one of the two sections of the principality of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, on a branch of the Wipper, 10 m. E. of Sonders-hausen; pop. in 1871, about 4,900....
-Frankenstein
Frankenstein, a town of Prussian Silesia, capital of a circle of the same name, 36 m. S. W. of Breslau; pop. in 1871, 7.328. It has manufactures of stockings, saltpetre, and aquafortis, and a trade in...
-Frankfort
Frankfort, a city of Franklin co., Kentucky, capital of the county and state, situated on both banks of the Kentucky river, here 250 yards wide and spanned by two bridges, 62 m. above its mouth, and o...
-Frankfort-On-The-Main
Frankfort-On-The-Main (Ger. Frankfurt am Main), a city of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, formerly a free city and the seat of the Germanic diet, situated in a fertile valley on the...
-Frankfort-On-The-Oder
Frankfort-On-The-Oder, a city of Brandenburg, Prussia, capital of a district of the same name, on the left bank of the river Oder, 45 m. E. S. E. of Berlin; pop. in 1871, 43,211. The prosperity of the...
-Frankincense
Frankincense, a designation of resinous substances which when burned give out an agreeable odor, and are used in the ceremonies of the Roman Catholic church. The common frankincense of commerce, also ...
-Ludwig August Frankl
Ludwig August Frankl, a German poet of Jewish parentage, born at Chrast, Bohemia, Feb. 3, 1810. He received a diploma as physician in Italy in 1837, but devoted himself to poetry and journalism, was s...
-Franklin Counties, United States
Franklin, the name of counties in 22 of the United States. I. A W. county of Maine, bordering on Canada, and drained by Dead and Sandy rivers, branches of the Kennebec; area, 1,600 sq. m.; pop. in 187...
-Franklin Counties, United States. Continued
Capital, Chambersburg. VI. A S. W. county of Virginia, bounded N. E. by Staunton river, and N. W. by the Blue Ridge; area, 864 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 18,264, of whom 5,996 were colored. The surface is...
-Franklin
Franklin. I. A borough and the capital of Venango co., Pennsylvania, on French creek or Venango river, just above its entrance into the Alleghany, 52 m. S. by E. of Erie, and 64 m. N. of Pittsburgh; p...
-Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin, an American philosopher and statesman, born in Boston, Jan. 17, 1706, died in Philadelphia, April 17, 1790. He was the youngest, except two daughters, of a family of 17 children. Hi...
-Benjamin Franklin. Part 2
He had altercations with his fellow journeymen on the subject of temperance; they were beer-drinking sots, and many of them he reformed altogether; he was strong and athletic, while they could carry l...
-Benjamin Franklin. Part 3
Though it has been said of him by English historians that he had usually a keen eye to his own interests, they are forced to add that he had ever a benevolent concern for the public good. While, an ac...
-Benjamin Franklin. Part 4
Before leaving Paris he concluded the treaties with Sweden and Prussia, embodying many of his great international principles. He had been throughout the whole period of his mission an object of marked...
-Sir John Franklin
Franklin. I. Sir John, an English naval officer and arctic explorer, born at Spilsby, Lincolnshire, April 16, 1780, died in the arctic regions, near lat. 09 37' N., Ion. 98 4' W., June 11, 1...
-William Franklin
William Franklin, the last royal governor of New Jersey, an illegitimate son of Benjamin Franklin, born in Philadelphia in 1729, died in England, Nov. 17, 1813. It is not known who his mother was. Abo...
-William Buel Franklin
William Buel Franklin, an American soldier, born in York, Penn., Feb. 27,1823. He graduated first in his class at West Point in 1843, and was stationed on the survey of the northern lakes. In the summ...
-Franklinite
Franklinite, a mineral composed of peroxide of iron, oxide of zinc, and oxide of manganese, in appearance much like the magnetic oxide of iron. It is found in considerable quantity only in Sussex co.,...
-Franks
Franks, a confederacy of German tribes, which first appeared under this name near the lower Rhine about the middle of the 3d century. It is now generally believed that the tribes which constituted the...
-Robert Franz
Robert Franz, a German composer, born at Halle, June 28, 1815.' His parents were in moderate circumstances, and having themselves no love for music discountenanced it in their son. It was not till his...
-Frascati
Frascati, a town of central Italy, in the province and 8 m. E. S. E. of the cityof Rome, on the X. W. declivity of the Tusculan mount;pop. about 6,000, chiefly engaged in agriculture. It was the favor...
-Gaetano Fraschini
Gaetano Fraschini, an Italian vocalist, born in Pavia in 1817. He studied under Moretti, and has been distinguished in Italy since 1837, and at the Italian opera in Vienna since 1862, as a powerful an...
-Alexander Campbell Fraser
Alexander Campbell Fraser, a Scottish metaphysician, born at Ardchattan, Argyleshire, in September, 1819. He was educated at the university of Edinburgh, and in 1846 was appointed lecturer on mental p...
-Charles Fraser
Charles Fraser, an American artist, born in Charleston, S. C, Aug. 20, 1782, died there, Oct. 5, 1860. At 12 or 14 years of age he was in the habit of sketching the scenery of Charleston and its neigh...
-Fraud
Fraud. Few principles of law are oftener or more emphatically asserted than that fraud avoids every contract tainted with it, and annuls every transaction. It is seldom that this is not true; but ther...
-Statute Of Frauds
Statute Of Frauds. This is a very peculiar law, and in its extent and systematic form is quite unknown out of the British empire and the United States. It originated, nearly two centuries ago, in the ...
-Statute Of Frauds. Continued
But it will be more convenient to state the law in this behalf under the title Guaeanty. The third clause, which relates to promises in consideration of marriage, is held not to apply to a promise o...
-Frauenburg
Frauenburg, a town of Prussia, in the province of East Prussia, 41 m. S. W. of Konigs-berg, on the Frische Haff, and at the mouth of the Baude; pop. about 4,000. It is the seat of the Catholic bishop ...
-Frauenfeld
Frauenfeld, a town of Switzerland, capital of the canton of Thurgau, on the Murg, an affluent of the Thur, 23 m. N. E. of Zurich; pop. in 1870, 5,138, most of whom belong to the Reformed church. It ha...
-Christian Martin Julius Frauenstadt
Christian Martin Julius Frauenstadt, a German philosopher, born at Bojanowo, in Posen, April 17, 1813. He studied in Berlin, was tutor in the family of Baron Meyendorff in 1841-'4, and next in that of...
-Joseph Von Fraunhofer
Joseph Von Fraunhofer, a German optician, born in Straubing, Bavaria, March 6,1787, died June 7, 1826. The son of a glazier, he exercised in boyhood the trade of his father. In the intervals of labor ...
-Fraustadt
Fraustadt, a town of Prussia, in the province of Posen, 7 m. from the frontier of Silesia, and 14 N. E. of Glogau; pop. in 1871, 6,515. It has a convent, an orphan house, a Realschule of the first cla...
-Denis Luc Frayssinous
Denis Luc Frayssinous, a French prelate and statesman, born at Curieres, in the district of Rouergue, May 9, 1765, died at St. Geniez, Dec. 12, 1841. He studied theology at Paris, was admitted to orde...
-Fredegonda
Fredegonda, a Frankish queen, the rival of the famous Brunehaut, born about 545, died in 597. She was maid of honor to Audovera, queen of Chilperic I. of Neustria, and the king being captivated by her...
-Frederick, Maryland
Frederick. I. A N. county of Maryland, bordering on Pennsylvania, and separated from Virginia on the S. W. by the Potomac river; area about 770 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 47,572, of whom 7,572 were colored...
-Frederick
Frederick, the name of several monarchs and princes, arranged below under their respective countries in alphabetical order: Frederick I Frederick I., grand duke, born Sept. 9, 1820. The second son o...
-Frederick, Elector Palatine (V.) and King of Bohemia
Frederick, elector palatine (V.) and king of Bohemia, born in Amberg in 1596, died in Mentz, Nov. 19, 1032. He was the son of the elector Frederick IV., and by his mother grandson of William I. of Ora...
-Frederick VI
Frederick VI., king of Denmark, son of Christian VII. and the princess Caroline Matilda, born Jan. 28, 1768, died Dec. 3, 1839. He was declared regent at the age of 16. His education had been much neg...
-Frederick VII
Frederick VII., king of Denmark, son and successor of Christian VIII., born in Copenhagen, Oct. 6, 1808, ascended the throne Jan. 20, 1848, died at Gliicksburg, Nov. 15, 1863. His mother was the princ...
-Frederick I, Barbarossa (Redbeard), emperor of Germany
Frederick I., emperor of Germany, sur-named Barbarossa (Redbeard), son of Duke Frederick II. of Swabia, and Judith, daughter of Henry the Black, duke of Bavaria, born in 1121, drowned in Asia Minor, J...
-Frederick II, a German Emperor And King Of Naples And Sicily
Frederick II., a German emperor and king of Naples and Sicily, grandson of the preceding and son of Henry VI. and Constantia of Sicily, born at Jesi, near Ancona, Dec. 26, 1194, died at Fiorentino or ...
-Frederick III, The Pacific, Fourth Emperor Of Germany
Frederick III., surnamed the Pacific, fourth emperor of Germany of the house of Hapsburg (Frederick IV. as king of Germany, and V. as archduke of Austria), son of Duke Ernest of Styria and a Polish pr...
-Frederick William, elector of Hesse-Cas-sel
Frederick William, elector of Hesse-Cas-sel, born Aug. 20, 1802. He succeeded to the electorate Nov. 20,1847. Although his mother was a daughter of king Frederick William II. of Prussia, he joined Aus...
-Frederick Francis II
Frederick Francis II., grand duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, a German soldier, born Feb. 28, 1823. He became grand duke in 1842, was in the same year made a general in the Prussian army, and participate...
-Frederick William, elector of Brandenburg
Frederick William, elector of Brandenburg, usually styled the Great Elector, and the founder of the Prussian monarchy, born in 1620, died in Potsdam, April 29, 1688. He came to the electoral power at ...
-Frederick I, First King of Prussia
Frederick I., first king of Prussia, son of the preceding, born in Konigsberg, July 22, 1657, died Feb. 25,1713. He became heir apparent on the death of his elder brother. Deformed by having been drop...
-Frederick William I
Frederick William I., second king of Prussia, son of the preceding and Elizabeth, a princess of Hesse-Cassel, born in 1688, died May 31, 1740. He served in the allied army against France, and distingu...
-Frederick II, Third King Of Prussia, Frederick The Great
Frederick II., third king of Prussia, known as Frederick the Great, eldest son of the preceding and the princess Sophia Dorothea, daughter of George I. of England, born in Berlin, Jan. 24, 1712, died ...
-Frederick II, Third King Of Prussia, Frederick The Great. Part 2
In the next campaign, at Ho-henfriedberg, he defeated a joint army of Austrians and Saxons (June 4, 1745), in a manner which placed him at the head of contemporary commanders. This victory was followe...
-Frederick II, Third King Of Prussia, Frederick The Great. Part 3
He had proved himself the greatest commander of his age, although he owed many a defeat to his own rashness, and many a victory to such generals as Ferdinand of Brunswick, Schwerin, Seydlitz, Ziethen,...
-Frederick William II
Frederick William II., king of Prussia, born Sept. 25, 1744, died Nov. 16, 1797. He was the grandson of Frederick William I., nephew of Frederick the Great, and son of the prince Augustus William, who...
-Frederick William III
Frederick William III., eldest son and successor of the preceding, born Aug. 3, 1770, died June 7, 1840. Educated with care by his virtuous mother, Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt, he had ample opportunity ...
-Frederick William IV
Frederick William IV., son and successor of the preceding, born Oct. 15, 1795, died at the chateau of Sans Souci, near Potsdam, Jan. 2, 1861. He received a careful scientific education, though his boy...
-Frederick Charles Nicholas
Frederick Charles Nicholas, prince of Prussia, a German general, born in Berlin, March 20, 1828. He is the only son of Prince Charles, elder brother of the emperor William. He studied at Bonn, where V...
-Frederick William Nicholas Charles
Frederick William Nicholas Charles, a German general, crown prince of Prussia and of the German empire, born in the new royal palace near Potsdam, Oct. 18, 1831. He received a thorough scientific educ...
-Frederick III, The Wise, Elector Of Saxony
Frederick III., surnamed the Wise, elector of Saxony, born in Torgau, Jan. 17, 1463, died May 5, 1525. He succeeded his father Ernest in 1486, in a part of his possessions, governing the rest in commo...
-Frederick Augustus I
Frederick Augustus I., first king of Saxony, eldest son of the elector Frederick Christian, born Dec. 23, 1750, died May 5, 1827. He succeeded his father in December, 1763, under the tutelage of Princ...
-Frederick Augustus II
Frederick Augustus II., king of Saxony, born May 18, 1797, died Aug. 9, 1854. He was the eldest son of Maximilian, brother of the kings Frederick Augustus I. and Anthony. Having lost his mother, Carol...
-Wilhelm Karl, Frederick I, First King of Wurtemberg
Frederick I. (Wilhelm Karl), first king of Wurtemberg, son of the duke Frederick Eugene, born at Treptow, Pomerania, Nov. 6, 1754, died Oct. 30, 1816. He received his first instruction from his accomp...
-Fredericksburg
Fredericksburg, a city of Spottsylvania co., Virginia, pleasantly situated in a fertile valley on the right bank of the Rappahannock river, at the head of tide water, about 50 m. X. of Richmond, and 1...
-Battle Of Fredericksburg
Battle Of Fredericksburg, fought Dec. 13, 1862, between the Union forces under Gen. Burnside and the confederates under Gen. Lee. After the battle of Antietam (Sept. 16 and 17, 1862), the Union army, ...
-Battle Of Fredericksburg. Continued
Here the confederates encountered so severe a fire that they recoiled, and fell back to their old position on the heights. This put an end to the action on the Union left. The federals here lost about...
-Fredericton
Fredericton, a city and port of entry of New Brunswick, Canada, capital of the province and of the county of York, on the right bank of St. John river, 84 m. from the bay of Fundy, and 54 m. N. N.W. o...
-Frederiksborg
Frederiksborg, a royal palace built by Christian IV. of Denmark in 1606-20, after a plan by Inigo Jones, near the town of Hille-rod, on the island of Seeland, 22 m. N. N. W. of Copenhagen. It is a Got...
-Frederikshald, Or Frederikshall (Formerly Halden)
Frederikshald, Or Frederikshall (Formerly Halden), a seaport of Norway, in the province of Christiania, on the Iddefiord near its junction with the gulf of Swinesund, Skager Rack, 57 m. S. E. of Chris...
-Frederikshamn
Frederikshamn (Finnish, Hamina), a town and fortress of Finland, Russia, in the government of Viborg, on the gulf of Finland. 115 m. N. W. of St. Petersburg; pop. in 1867, 3,278. Here, on Sept, 17, 18...
-Frederikstad
Frederikstad, a town and fortress of Norway, in the province of Christiania. at the mouth of the Glommen, 48 m. S. E. of Christiania; pop. in 1865, 6,833. It has manufactories of nails, buckles, fish ...
-Fredonia
Fredonia, a village in the town of Pomfret, Chautauqua co., New York, on the Dunkirk, Alleghany Valley, and Pittsburgh railroad, about 3 m. from Dunkirk; pop. in 1870, 2,546. There is a spring of natu...
-Freeborx
Freeborx, a S. county of Minnesota, bordering on Iowa, drained by Shell Rock river; area, 720 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 10,578. The surface is diversified and has a number of small lakes, and the soil is ...
-Free Church Of Scotland
Free Church Of Scotland, an ecclesiastical body originally formed by a separation from the national establishment in the year 1843. On May 18 the general assembly of the established church of Scotland...
-Freedmen
Freedmen (liberti libertini), the designation of manumitted slaves in Roman antiquity. They were called liberti with reference to their masters, and libertini with reference to their new rank or condi...
-Edward Augustus Freeman
Edward Augustus Freeman, an English author, born at Harborne, Staffordshire, in 1823. He was educated at Trinity college, Oxford, where he filled the office of examiner in law and modern history in 18...
-James Freeman
James Freeman, an American clergyman, born in Charlestown, Mass., April 22, 1759, died in Newton, Nov. 14, 1835. After graduating at Harvard college in 1777, he went to Quebec, returned to Boston in 1...
-Freemasonry
Freemasonry, the system of secrets, ceremonies, and principles peculiar to the order or society of freemasons. This order, as it now exists, is a secret association organized for the purpose of social...
-Freeport
Freeport, a city and the capital of Stephenson co., Illinois, on the Pekatonica river and at the intersection of the Western Union railroad with the Galena division of the Chicago and Northwestern, an...
-Freesoilers
Freesoilers, the name of a political party in the United States, founded upon the principle of non-extension of slavery to the territories. It was an outgrowth of the liberty party in 1840, and was me...
-Freestone
Freestone, an E. central county of Texas, bounded E. by Trinity river and intersected by Pecan creek; area, 900 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 8,139, of whom 3,3(58 were colored. It is heavily timbered. The so...
-Free Thinkers
Free Thinkers, a name applied to the opponents of Christianity in England in the 17th and 18th centuries. Lord Herbert of Cher-bury, Hobbes, Toland, Tindal, Woolston, Chubb, and Anthony Collins were a...
-Freetown
Freetown, a town of W. Africa, capital of the British colony of Sierra Leone, on the left bank of Sierra Leone river, about 5 m. from the sea; lat. 8 29' N, Ion. 13 9' W.; pop. estimated at ...
-Freewill Baptists, Or Free Baptists
Freewill Baptists, Or Free Baptists, a denomination of evangelical Christians in the United States and Canada. Its founder was Benjamin Randall (1749-1808), who was one of Whitefield's hearers at Port...
-Artificial Freezing
Artificial Freezing, the reduction of the temperature of fluids to such an extent as to render them solid. It is usually applied to the freezing of water and of articles of food. There are two general...
-Freiberg, Or Freyberg
Freiberg, Or Freyberg, a walled town of Saxony, on the N. declivity of the Erzgebirge, and on the river Miinzbach, 19 m. S. W. of Dresden; pop. in 1871, 21,673. It is a well built town, containing han...
-Freiburg
Freiburg (Ger. Freiburg im Breisgau), a city of Germany, in the grand duchy of Baden, capital of the circle of the Upper Rhine, in the old district of Breisgau, on the Dreisam, 72 m. S. S. W. of Carls...
-Freiburg Unterm Firstenstein
Freiburg Unterm Firstenstein, a town of Prussia, in the province of Silesia, on the Polsnitz, 35 m. W. S. W. of Breslau; pop. in 1871, 6,792. The principal establishment is a flax spinnery, but there ...
-Ferdinand Freiligrath
Ferdinand Freiligrath, a German poet, born in Detmold, June 17, 1810. He attended the gymnasium of his native city, and became a mercantile clerk at Soest, Amsterdam, and Barmen. His first productions...
-Freysing Freising
Freysing Freising, or Freisingen, a town of Bavaria, in the district of Upper Bavaria, on the Isar, 20 m. N. E. of Munich; pop. in 1871, 7,778. It has a theological faculty, a gymnasium, a normal scho...
-Frejus
Frejus (anc. Forum Julii), a maritime town of S. France, in the department of Var, on an eminence overlooking the sea at the mouth of the Argens, 45 m. N. E. of Toulon; pop. in 1866, 2,887; with the s...
-Frelinghuysen
Frelinghuysen. I. Frederick, an American statesman, born in New Jersey, April 13,1753, died April 13, 1804. He graduated at Princeton college in 1770, and in 1775 was sent as a delegate from New Jerse...
-Emmanuel Fremiet
Emmanuel Fremiet, a French sculptor, born in Paris about 1824. He acquired the rudiments of his art in the studio of his uncle, the late Francois Rude, and was employed in anatomical labors at the cli...
-Fremont, Iowa
Fremont. I. A S. W. county of Iowa, bordering on Missouri, and bounded W. by the Missouri river, which separates it from Nebraska; area about 500 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 11,174. It has a rich soil and a...
-Fremont, Sandusky Co., Ohio
Fremont, a city and the capital of Sandusky co., Ohio, on the W. bank of Sandusky river, which is crossed by a bridge, at the head of navigation, and at the intersection of the Lake Shore and the Lake...
-John Charles Fremont
John Charles Fremont, an American explorer and soldier, born in Savannah, Ga., Jan. 21, 1813. His father was a Frenchman who had settled in Norfolk, Va., where he supported himself by teaching his nat...
-John Charles Fremont. Continued
This was granted, but was almost immediately revoked, and Fremont was peremptorily ordered to leave the country without delay. He as peremptorily refused to comply. The Mexican governor, Gen. Castro, ...
-Edmond Fremy
Edmond Fremy, a French chemist, born at Versailles in 1814. His father, a professor of chemistry, instructed him in that science, and he perfected his knowledge as assistant of T. J. Pelouze and of Ga...
-French
French, a N. E. county of Dakota territory, recently formed and not included in the census of 1870; area about 1,450 sq. m. It is drained by the Sheyenne river, and contains a portion of Minnewakan or...
-French Broad River
French Broad River, a river of North Carolina and Tennessee, rising in Transylvania co. of the former state, near the foot of the Blue Ridge, flowing N. W. into Tennessee, bending toward the S. W, and...
-Philip Freneau
Philip Freneau, an American poet, born in New York, Jan. 13, 1752, died near Freehold, N. J., Dee. 18, 1832. He was educated at Nassau Hall, Princeton, N. J., where James Madison was Lis room mate, an...
-Frere
Frere. I. Charles Theodore, a French painter, born in Paris in 1815. He studied with Ro-queplan, and exhibited but little talent until he visited the East. He has since won some reputation as a deline...
-John Hookham Frere
John Hookham Frere, an English poet and diplomatist, born in London, May 21, 1769, died in Malta, Jan. 7, 1846. He was educated at Eton and Cambridge, and while a school boy translated the remarkable ...
-Nicolas Freret
Nicolas Freret, a French scholar, born in Paris, Feb. 15, 1688, died there, March 8, 1749. Admitted in 1714 to the academy of inscriptions and belles-lettres, of which he was afterward perpetual secre...
-Freron I
Freron I. Elie Catherine, a French journalist, born in Quimper in 1719, died in Paris, March 10, 1776. He studied under the Jesuits in the college of Louis-le-Grand at Paris, in which he was for a sho...
-Fresco Painting
Fresco Painting (Ital. fresco, fresh), a method of ornamenting the walls and ceilings of buildings by painting designs in colors ground in water and mixed with lime upon the freshly laid plaster. It w...
-Fresco Painting. Part 2
As a means of conveying thoughts, ideas, and information, not then, as now, acquired through literature, it continued to subserve a useful purpose even after the invention of printing. Hence the early...
-Fresco Painting. Part 3
The most famous are those covering the walls and ceilings of the chambers in the Vatican, known as the Stanze of Raphael, although many of these works, as well as the decorations of the log-gie or o...
-Karl Remigins Fresenius
Karl Remigins Fresenius, a German chemist, born in Frankfort, Dec. 28, 1818. He completed his studies at Bonn and at Giessen under Liebig, whose assistant he became. In 1845 he was appointed professor...
-Augustin Jean Fresnel
Augustin Jean Fresnel, a French physicist, born at Broglie, in Normandy, May 10, 1788, died at Ville d'Avray, near Paris, July 14, 1827. At a very early age he exhibited a taste for mechanical and phy...
-Augustin Jean Fresnel. Part 2
If now a circular central part of the curved surface of a planoconvex lens is moved parallel to itself until at its edges the glass is very thin, the diminution of thickness will not affect the parall...
-Augustin Jean Fresnel. Part 3
When one of the lenses came opposite the observer, the eye received a bright flash preceded and followed by a short eclipse. Before and after the eclipses the fixed light was visible. This arrangement...
-Fresnillo
Fresnillo, a city of Mexico, in the state of Zacatecas, 305 m. N. W. of Mexico; pop. about 15,000. It is 7,284 ft. above the sea, and is partially surrounded by eminences formed by a gradual rise of t...
-Fresno
Fresno, a S. central county of California, between the Sierra Nevada and the Coast range; area, 8,750 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 6,336, of whom 427 were Chinese. It is watered by the San Joaquin river and ...
-Wilhelm Freund
Wilhelm Freund, a German lexicographer, born of Hebrew parents at Kempen, Posen, Jan. 27, 1806. He studied philology in Berlin and Breslau, and in 1828 opened in the latter city a Jewish school, but a...
-Louis Claude Desaulsesde Freycinet
Louis Claude Desaulsesde Freycinet, a French navigator, born in Montelimart, Aug. 7, 1779, died near Loriol Aug. 18, 1842. In 1799 he served in the Mediterranean under Admiral Brueys. The next year he...
-Georg Wilhelm Friedridi Freytag
Georg Wilhelm Friedridi Freytag, a German orientalist, born in Liineburg, Sept. 19, 1788, died in Bonn, Nov. 16, 1861. He studied theology and philosophy at Gottingen, and in 1811 became tutor there, ...
-Gustav Freytag
Gustav Freytag, a German novelist, born at Kreuzburg, Silesia, July 13, 1816. He studied at the universities of Breslau and Berlin, and wrote poetry and plays, some of which were favorably received. A...
-Fribourg, Or Freyburg
Fribourg, Or Freyburg. I. A canton of Switzerland, the 9th in extent and in the order of admission into the confederation, bordering on the cantons of Bern and Vaud and the lake of Neufchatel; area, 6...
-Friction
Friction (Lat.fricare, to rub), in mechanics, the resistance caused by the moving of the surfaces of bodies over each other. It is usual to distinguish two kinds of friction, that which is produced wh...
-Friday
Friday, the sixth day of the week, called by the Saxons Frige daeg, or day of Frigga (the wife of Odin), whence our name, and by the Romans dies Veneris, or Venus's day. (See Good Friday.) ...
-Fridericia, Or Frederiria
Fridericia, Or Frederiria, a town and fortress of Denmark, in the S. E. part of the province of Jutland, on the Little Belt; pop. in 1870, 7,186. The town has several sugar refineries, iron founderies...
-Friedland
Friedland. I. A town of Prussia, in the province of East Prussia, on the Alle, 27 m. S. E. of Konigsberg; pop. in 1868, 2,478. It has manufactures of linen and woollen cloth and leather, and a trade i...
-Johann Friedrich
Johann Friedrich, a German theologian, born at Poxdorf, Bavaria, in 1836. He was ordained a Roman Catholic priest in 1859, became private teacher in 1862, in 1865 professor of theology at the universi...
-Friendly or Tonga Islands
Friendly or Tonga Islands, a group in the southern Pacific ocean, lying between lat. 18 and 23 S., and Ion. 174 and 175 3O' W. Tonga is the native name of the group. They were disc...
-Friends
Friends, a sect of Christians commonly called Quakers, which was founded in England about the middle of the 17th century. At first they were known as the Professors of the Light or Children of the Li...
-Friends. Part 2
To the matter of the oath they made no objection, but swear to it they would not. They resolutely refused to violate the divine command, Swear not at all, which they construed literally, and to which...
-Friends. Part 3
They believed in and inculcated the utmost plainness and simplicity; nothing for show, nothing for ornament, nothing for pleasure. The construction and interior arrangements of their meeting houses we...
-Friends. Part 4
The society docs not call them the Word of God, this term being peculiarly applied in them to the Lord Jesus; yet it believes them to be the words of Cod, written by holy men as they were moved by the...
-Friends. Part 5
In each preparative meeting there are usually two or more Friends of each sex chosen as overseers to take cognizance of any improper conduct of the members, to admonish them in love, and if necessary ...
-Elias Fries
Elias Fries, a Swedish botanist, born Aug. 15, 1794. He was appointed adjunct professor of botany at Lund in 1810, and professor in 1828. In 1834 he was called to the chair of economy at Upsal, to whi...
-Ernst Fries
Ernst Fries, a German painter, born in Heidelberg, June 22, 1801, died in Carlsruhe, Oct. 11, 1833. He studied at the academy of Munich, travelled through Germany, Tyrol, and Switzerland, and resided ...
-Jakob Friedrich Fries
Jakob Friedrich Fries, a German philosopher, born at Barby, near Magdeburg, Aug. 23, 1773, died in Jena, Aug. 10, 1843. He was educated in a Moravian school, and studied philosophy at Leipsic and Jena...
-Friesland, Or Vriesland
Friesland, Or Vriesland (Anc. Frisia). I. A N. province of Holland, sometimes called West Friesland to distinguish it from East Friesland in Hanover, bounded N., W., and S. W. by the North sea and Zuy...
-Frigate Bird
Frigate Bird (called also frigate pelican and man-of-war bird), a tropical web-footed bird, belonging to the family pelecanidce (Gray), and to the genus tetchypetes (Vieillot). The bill is longer than...
-Fringe Tree
Fringe Tree (chionanthus Virginica, Linn.), a beautiful tree of 10 to 30 ft. in height, with somewhat oval, smooth, entire leaves, white, narrow-petalled flowers in drooping racemes, and oval, purple ...
-Frio
Frio, a S. W. county of Texas, intersected by the Rio Frio and Rio San Miguel; area, 1,050 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 309, of whom 15 were colored. The surface is diversified; there is good farming land al...
-Frisians
Frisians, a Germanic people, inhabiting the N. W. coasts of Germany, portions of Holland, and some adjacent islands. The Romans called them Frisii; Ptolemy, the ancient Norsemen, Frisir; the Anglo-Sa...
-William Powell Frith
William Powell Frith, an English artist, born at Studley, near Ripon, Yorkshire, in 1819. He is one of the most successful painters of genre of the modern English school, selecting his subjects from S...
-Samuel Fritz
Samuel Fritz, a German Roman Catholic missionary, born in Bohemia in 1650, died in Jeberos, Ecuador, in 1730. Being sent as a missionary to the Omagua Indians of South America, he selected as his fiel...
-Friuli
Friuli (Ger. Friaul; so named from the ancient town of Forum Julii, now Cividale del Friuli), an old province of N. Italy, formerly embracing some adjoining districts and divided between Austria and t...
-Sir Martin Frobisher
Sir Martin Frobisher, an English explorer, born near Doncaster, died in Plymouth, Nov. 7, 1594. After spending 15 years in fruitless endeavors to get up an expedition to find the northwest passage, he...
-Frobisher Bay
Frobisher Bay, an arm of the sea in British North America, setting up westward from the Atlantic near the entrance to Davis strait, between Hudson strait and Northumberland inlet. It penetrates the re...
-Froebel
Froebel. I. Friedrich, a German educator, founder of the Kindergarten system of schools, born at Oberweissbach, April 21, 1782, died in Marienthal, June 21, 1852. In 1826 he published the first volume...
-Frog
Frog, a batrachian reptile of the anourous or tailless order, embracing the group phanero-glosses (Dum. and Bib.), with the families rani-dcB or common frogs, and hyladoe or tree frogs. The general ch...
-Frog. Part 2
The tadpole is half an inch long when hatched; the mouth is distinct, but small and without lips; the gills rapidly enlarge, and when at their maximum development afford beautiful objects for displayi...
-Frog. Part 3
The phenomena of cutaneous absorption, exhalation, and respiration have derived their fullest illustration and explanation from experiments made on the soft and naked skin of the frog. Thus this despi...
-Jehan Froissart
Jehan Froissart, or Jean, a French chronicler, born in Valenciennes in 1337, died at Chimay about 1410. His father, a heraldic painter, destined him to the clerical profession. He was scarcely 20 year...
-Frome
Frome, a town and parliamentary borough of Somersetshire, England, 19 m. S. E. of Bristol; pop. in 1871, 11,846. It is pleasantly situated on an affluent of the Avon. The parish church, an ancient Got...
-Eugene Fromentin
Eugene Fromentin, a French painter and author, born in La Rochelle in December, 1820. He studied under Cabat, and exhibited in 1847 excellent pictures of Algerian scenery and public buildings. He was ...
-Fronde
Fronde, a political faction in France which headed an insurrectionary movement during the latter part of the minority of Louis XIV. The name of frondeurs, which means literally slingers, was applied t...
-Frontenac
Frontenac, an E. county of Ontario, Canada, bounded S. by the St. Lawrence river, near its bead in Lake Ontario; area, 323 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 28,717. It contains many small lakes, and is traversed ...
-Louis De Buade Fhontenac
Louis De Buade Fhontenac, count de, a French governor of Canada, born about 1620, died in Quebec in November, 1G98. He entered the army at the age of 17, served in Italy, Flanders, and Germany, and in...
-Frontier
Frontier, a S. W. county of Nebraska, formed since the census of 1870, drained by affluents of Frenchman's fork of the Republican river; area, about 675 sq. m. ...
-Frosinone
Frosinone (anc. Frusino), a town of Italy, formerly capital of a papal legation of the same name, now in the province and 48 m. E. S. E. of the city of Rome; pop. about 8,000. It contains several chur...
-Charles Auguste Frossard
Charles Auguste Frossard, a French soldier, born in 1807. He was educated at the polytechnic school in Paris and the military school in Metz, entered the army in 1827, participated in the Belgian camp...
-Frost
Frost (from the root of freeze), in a general sense, the act or process of freezing, but more commonly used to signify crystals of frozen dew; in the latter case called also hoar frost. When the atmos...
-William Edward Frost
William Edward Frost, an English painter, born in Wandsworth, Surrey, in September, 1810. He commenced his career as a portrait painter, and executed in the course of 14 years upward of 300 pictures o...
-Frothlngham
Frothlngham. I. Nathaniel Langdou, an American clergyman, born in Boston, July 23, 1793, died there, April 4, 1870. He graduated in 1811 at Harvard college, where in the following year he became instr...
-Richard Frothingham
Richard Frothingham, jr., an American historian, born in Charlestown, Mass., Jan. 31, 1812. He was for many years a member of the staff of the Boston Post, was chosen to the Massachusetts house of r...
-Froude
Froude. I. James Anthony, an English historian, a son of Archdeacon Froude, born at Dartington rectory, Totness, Devonshire, April 23, 1818. He entered Oriel college, Oxford, in 1836, took his degree ...
-Elizabeth Fry
Elizabeth Fry, an English philanthropist, born at Bramerton, near Norwich, May 21, 1780, died in Ramsgate, Oct. 12, 1845. She was the daughter of John Gurney of Norwich. The family belonged to the soc...
-William Henry Fry
William Henry Fry, an American composer and journalist, born in Philadelphia in August, 1815, died in the island of Santa Cruz, Dec. 21, 1864. His father, William Fry, was proprietor of the National ...
-Fryken
Fryken, a series of small lakes of Sweden, about 12 m. N. W. of Lake Wener. They consist of three distinct parts connected by narrow channels, extend about 40 m. from S. to N., and present the appeara...
-Anders Fryxell
Anders Fryxell, a Swedish historian, born at Hesselskog, in Dalecarlia, Feb. 7, 1795. He studied in the university of Upsal, became a professor, a clergyman, and provost of North Wermland, which post ...
-Fuad Pasha
Fuad Pasha, a Turkish statesman, born in Constantinople about 1814, died in Nice, Feb. 11, 1869. He received an excellent education, and his father's fortune having been confiscated by Sultan Mahmoud,...
-Fuca, Or Juan De Fuca
Fuca, Or Juan De Fuca, Strait of, a body of water lying between the N. W. portion of Washington territory and the S. E. extremity of Vancouver island. It enters the Pacific at Cape Flattery, and commu...
-Johann Nepomuk Von Fuchs
Johann Nepomuk Von Fuchs, a German chemist, born at Mattenzell, May 15, 1774, died in Munich, March 5, 1850. He was professor of mineralogy and chemistry at Landshut and subsequently in Munich, where ...
-Konrad Heinrich Fuchs
Konrad Heinrich Fuchs, a German physician, born in Bamberg, Dec. 7, 1803, died in Gottin-gen, Dec. 2, 1855. He studied at Wurzburg, where he became an assistant of Schonlein, and was subsequently prof...
-Fuchs, Or Fuchsias
Fuchs, Or Fuchsias, Leonhard von, a German botanist, born at Wemdingen, Swabia, Jan. 17, 1501, died May 10, 1506. He studied at Erfurt and Ingolstadt, adopted the doctrines of Luther, became in 1520 p...
-Fuchsia
Fuchsia, popularly called Ladies' Eardrop, a genus of ornamental and mostly very showy plants, belonging to the natural order ona-graceoe. The flowers of the fuchsia have the tube of the calyx adheren...
-Fucus
Fucus (Gr. a seaweed), a genus of marine melanospermous alga}. Of this genus, which is readily recognized by the inflated air vessels in the substance of the stem or branches, there are but two specie...
-Fuel
Fuel, the material used for producing heat by combustion. Wood, the most universally known variety of fuel, presents itself in forms and qualities varying with the tree, and to some extent with the pa...
-Fuel. Part 2
Table Showing The Comparative Value Of Different Woods As Fuel VARIETY OF WOOD. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. White ash, fraxinus Americana..............................
-Fuel. Part 3
For practical purposes a mere change in the mechanical structure may give an entirely different character to them, while their real calorific power is not altered. This is apparent in the coals, which...
-Fuenterrabia, Or Fontarabia
Fuenterrabia, Or Fontarabia, a city and port of Spain, in the Basque province of Guipuzcoa, at the mouth of the Bidassoa, on the French frontier; pop. about 3,000. It was formerly well fortified, but ...
-Fueros
Fueros (from Lat. forum, a law court), a term applied in Spanish law to customs, codes, charters, and grants, and to courts and their jurisdiction. The Fuero Juzgo, or Forum Jv-dicum, is a collection ...
-Fuerte, Or Villa Del Fuerte
Fuerte, Or Villa Del Fuerte, a town of Mexico, in the state of Sinaloa, on the Fuerte river, about 60 m. from the gulf of California, and 150 m. S. S. E. of Guaymas; pop. about 5,000. It is situated i...
-Figger
Figger, the name of a German princely family, whose founder was Johannes, a weaver in Graben, near Augsburg, in the first half of the 14th century, who acquired a large property in lands by commerce i...
-Fugitive
Fugitive (Lat. fugire, to flee), literally, one who flees away. Under this head might bo considered two classes of cases: 1, that of fugitives from justice, by which is meant those who flee from one j...
-Fugue
Fugue (Lat. fuga, flight), a species of musical composition in which one voice or part seems to be perpetually flying away from another, whence the name. The principal musical thought of the piece, or...
-Joseph Von Fuhrich
Joseph Von Fuhrich, a German painter, born at Kratzau, Bohemia, Feb. 9,1800. He studied in Prague and Home, and was early associated with Overbeck and other artists in decorating the villa Massimi. In...
-Fulda
Fulda, a town of Prussia, in the province of Hesse-Nassau, on a river of the same name, here crossed by three bridges, 56 m. N. E. of Frankfort; pop. in 1871, 9,490. It contains a palace and gardens, ...
-Fulham
Fulham, a suburb of London, on the left bank of the Thames, about 6 m. S. W. of St. Paul's cathedral; pop. of the parish in 1871, 23,378. The village of Fulham is connected with Putney by a wooden bri...
-Andrew Filler
Andrew Filler, an English Baptist theologian, born at Wicken, Cambridgeshire, Feb. 6, 1754, died at Kettering, Northamptonshire, May 7, 1815. He was settled first at Soham in 1775, and afterward at Ke...
-Richard Filler
Richard Filler, an American clergyman, born in Beaufort, S. C, April 22, 1804. He graduated at Harvard college in 1824, studied law, and before his 21st year was admitted to the bar of South Carolina....
-Thomas Filler
Thomas Filler, an English author, born at Aldwinckle, Northamptonshire, in June, 1(508, died Aug. 15, 1661. He was educated at Queen's college, Cambridge, won the highest university honors, received t...
-Fullers Earth
Fullers Earth, an unctuous sort of clay, much of it kaolinite, useful in fulling cloth, from its property, common to aluminous earths, of absorbing oil and grease. That variety of clay is preferred wh...
-Lady Georgiana Charlotte Ffllerton
Lady Georgiana Charlotte Ffllerton, an English authoress, born Sept. 23,1812. She is the daughter of the first earl of Granville, and was married in 1833 to Capt. Alexander George Fullerton. Her first...
-Fulling
Fulling, also called Milling, the operation of removing greasy matters from woollen goods, and of giving to them a more compact texture by causing the fibres to entangle themselves more closely togeth...
-Fulmar
Fulmar, a species of large petrel of the genus procellaria (Linn.) or fulmarus (Leach). This bird (P. glacialis, Linn.) is about 20 in. long, with an alar extent of 3 ft. and a weight of 1 1/4 lb.; th...
-Fulminic Acid
Fulminic Acid (Lat, fulmen, lightning), one of the isomeric modifications of cyanic acid, represented by the formula Cy2H202. Its compounds are distinguished for their explosive character, in which th...
-Fulton Counties, United States
Fulton, the name of eight counties in the United States. I. An E. county of New York, drained by Sacandaga river and East Canada creek; area about 530 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 27,064. The soil is fertile...
-Fulton
Fulton. I. A village of Oswego co., New York, on the E. bank of the Oswego river, about 10 m. S. S. E. of Oswego, and on the Oswego canal, and the Oswego and Syracuse and New York and Oswego Midland r...
-Robert Fulton
Robert Fulton, an American inventor, born at Little Britain, Lancaster co., Pa., in 1765, died in New York, Feb. 24, 1815. When about three years old he lost his father. He received a common school ed...
-Fulvia
Fulvia, a Roman lady, born about 80, died about 40 B. C. She was married successively to Clodius, Curio, and Mark Antony, and had part in arranging the fearful proscription of the second triumvirate. ...
-Funchal
Funchal, a seaport town and the capital of the island of Madeira, on the S. E. coast, in lat. 32 37' N., Ion. 16 54' 30 W.; pop. about 25,000. It stands on a wide shallow bay, embraced by t...
-Bay Of Fundy
Bay Of Fundy, a deep inlet of the Atlantic, separating the Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. It is about 170 m. long, and from 30 to 50 m. wide. From its mouth, between the S.W. ext...
-Funen
Funen (Dan. Fyen), an island of Denmark, having on the N. the S. W. prolongation of the Cattegat, E. the Great Belt, W. the Little Belt, and S. the archipelago connecting the two Belts; area about 1,1...
-Gregorio Funes
Gregorio Funes, an Argentine historian, born in Cordova, died there in 1820. He was educated at Cordova, entered holy orders, became dean in the cathedral church, and attempted to introduce into the u...
-Funfkirchen
Funfkirchen (five churches; in Hungarian Pecs, which in the language of the surrounding Slavic tribes means five), a town of Hungary, capital of the county of Baranya, 105 m. S. S. W. of Buda; pop. in...
-Fungi
Fungi (Gr. a sponge), an extensive family of cryptogamic plants, generally known under the names of mushrooms, toadstools, rusts, smuts, bunt, and mildews. With rare exceptions, they are parasitic pl...
-Fungi. Part 2
They differ from lichens mainly in deriving their sustenance from the object on which they grow (though this has exceptions), in not producing a foliaceous thal-lus, and in not forming green chlorophy...
-Fungi. Part 3
Within a few years much attention has been given in England to the edible fungi, and societies and clubs have been formed for the purpose of making the useful species better known by means of exhibiti...
-Fungi. Part 4
The mildews grow on the surface of fruits, and injure them more by choking up their pores and mechanically confining them with their dense, felty growth, than by abstracting their juices. The potato r...
-Fungi. Part 5
An extensive group of this order comprises those minute pustular forms which, resembling the true ascigerous fungi in many respects, differ in producing their spores on the ends of the filaments inste...
-Fungible
Fungible, a word supposed to be derived from the phrase functionem recipere, in the civil law. It is not much known in English law, but is often used in French and Scotch law, and has recently been in...
-Fur
Fur, the covering of certain animals, especially such as inhabit the lands or waters of cold countries, distinguished from hair by its greater fineness and softness; also the skins of such animals dre...
-Fur. Part 2
In 1813 they acquired possession of Astoria on the Columbia, the settlement having been sold to them by Mr. Astors partners in consequence of the war between the United States and Great Britain. The t...
-Fur. Part 3
These are nearly all collected by the natives of the territory, and traded off for the necessaries of their mode of life. The catching of fur seals, however, is a special branch of the trade. The dema...
-Fur. Part 4
At present it may be worn by any one: the modes of ornamenting it, however, as it is worn on state occasions, serve still to distinguish the sovereign and the rank of the peers, peeresses, judges, etc...
-Fur. Part 5
The skin of the hair seal, found on the E. coast of North America, is used for trunks, military purposes, etc.; that of the wool seal is used largely in the French army for knapsacks.-The skins of the...
-Fur. Part 6
The skins of the black and the brown bear sell for from $20 to $40 each, while that of the grisly bear commands a somewhat lower price. The skins of the wolf and the wolverene are generally used for s...
-Fur. Part 7
Another process is to steep the skins in a liquid containing bran, alum, and salt, in order to cleanse them from greasiness, and then to apply a preparation of soap and soda, which removes a kind of o...
-Fireedpoor, Or Dacca Jelalpoor
Fireedpoor, Or Dacca Jelalpoor, a district of the commissionership of Dacca, Bengal, British India, bounded X. by Mymunsing, E. by Dacca, S. by Backergunge, and W. by Jes-sore and Pubna; area, 2,052 s...
-Antoine Firetiere
Antoine Firetiere, a French author, born in Paris about 1620, died May 14, 1688. He was successively an advocate, a fiscal agent, an abbe, and a prior, and was admitted into the French academy in 1662...
-Furlong
Furlong (Sax. far or fur and long), an old English measure of 40 rods or poles, equivalent to 1/8 of a mile. In Ireland it is 0.15 of a mile, and in Scotland 0.1409. In the United States the measure i...
-Furnace
Furnace (Lat. fornax), a structure containing a fireplace, intended for maintaining intense heat. In many of the useful arts the first requisite is the means of obtaining a very high temperature. In a...
-Furnace. Continued
A plumbago crucible, d, sets upon a perforated plumbago cylinder, e, and is covered to a considerable depth with quartz pebbles from half an inch to an inch in diameter; f f are plugs which may be rem...
-William Henry Furness
William Henry Furness, I). P., an American clergyman and author, born in Boston, Mass., April 20, 1802. He studied at the Boston Latin school, graduated at Harvard college in 1820, completed his theol...
-Furruckabad
Furruckabad, a city of British India, capital of a district of the same name, in the division of Agra, Northwest Provinces, 95 m. N. W. of Lucknow; pop. about 65,000. It is a walled town, and has clea...
-Julius First
Julius First, a German orientalist of Jewish descent, born at Zerkowo, in the grand duchy of Posen, May 12, 1805, died in Leipsic, Feb. 9, 1873. He studied at Posen and Breslau, and in 1839 became lec...
-Furth
Furth, a town of Bavaria, in the province of Middle Franconia, at the confluence of the Red-nitz and Pegnitz rivers, 4 1/2 m. by rail N. W. of Nuremberg; pop. in 1871, 24.509. This railway, opened in ...
-Safety Fuse
Safety Fuse, a tubular cord of cotton, rendered slowly combustible for communicating fire to the explosive used in blasting. The cavity in the centre of the cord is filled with some slow-burning compo...
-Fusel Oil, Or Amyl Alcohol
Fusel Oil, Or Amyl Alcohol, a liquid colorless when pure, of offensive smell and burning taste, obtained by continuing the distillation of the fermented infusions used for the preparation of ardent sp...
-John Henry Fuseli
John Henry Fuseli, a painter and writer on art, born in Zurich, Switzerland, Feb. 7, 1741, died near London, April 16, 1825. His father was John Casper Fussli, also a painter. He received a good class...
-Fusibility
Fusibility, that property by which solid bodies are rendered liquid by the application of heat. It is probably possessed by all bodies, but some are so altered by chemical changes among their own elem...
-Fusiyama
Fusiyama, a volcano of Japan, a peak in the chain which traverses the whole length of the island of Niphon, and the loftiest mountain in the empire, its height being 14,177 ft. It is covered with perp...
-Fistic
Fistic, the dyewood of the morus tincto-rid, a tree which grows to a great height in Brazil and the West India islands. A yellow dye is obtained by boiling the wood, and this is principally used for c...
-Futtygurh Futtehghur
Futtygurh Futtehghur, or Fataghur, a town of British India, division of Agra, Northwest Provinces, situated on the right bank of the Ganges, in the district and 3 m. E. of the city of Furruckabad. It ...
-Futtehpoor
Futtehpoor, a city of British India, capital of a district of the same name, in the division of Allahabad, Northwest Provinces, on the line of the great trunk railway, 70 m. N. W. of Allahabad; pop. a...
-Futtehpoor Sikra
Futtehpoor Sikra, a town of British India, Northwest Provinces, in the district and 23 m. W. of the city of Agra; pop. about 5,000. It was enclosed by a high stone wall, 5 m. in circuit, with towers a...
-Fyzabad, Or Bangla
Fyzabad, Or Bangla, a town of British India, in the province of Oude, on the right bank of the Gogra, which in the rainy season is here sometimes 1 1/2 m. wide, 73 m. E. of Lucknow; pop. estimated at ...
-Letter G
G The seventh letter in the Latin alphabet, and in others derived directly from it, as the English, French, German, and Italian. In Hebrew, Greek, and some other alphabets of Phoenician origin, it is ...
-Hans Conon Yon Der Gabelentz
Hans Conon Yon Der Gabelentz, a German philologist, born at Altenburg, Oct. 13, 1807. He completed his studies at the universities of Leipsic and Gottingen, entered the service of Saxe-Altenburg, and ...
-Gaboon
Gaboon (called also the Mpongo or Mpongwe in the language of the people at its mouth), a bay on the coast of west Africa, about lat. 0 30' N, Ion. 9 20' E. It receives the united stream of t...
-Emile Gaboriau
Emile Gaboriau, a French novelist, born about 1834, died in Paris, Sept. 29, 1873. His literary career began with sketches of theatrical, military, and fashionable life, published in the loser Parisia...
-Amedee Gabourd
Amedee Gabourd, a French historian, born about 1805, died in 1867. He began life as a journalist, and became chief of bureau in the ministry of the interior. He published many historical works in the ...
-Gabriel
Gabriel (Heb., the mighty one of God), the angel sent to Daniel to interpret the vision of the ram and the he goat (Dan. viii.), and to communicate the prophecy of the 70 weeks (ix. 21-27); employed a...
-Gabriel Channel
Gabriel Channel, a remarkable channel in Patagonia, between Dawson island and Tierra del Fuego, about lat. 54 20' S., Ion. 70 40' AT. It is 25 m. long and from 1/2 to 1 1/2 m. wide, with sho...
-Catarina Gabrielli
Catarina Gabrielli, an Italian vocalist, born in Rome in 1730, died in 1796. She was the daughter of a cook employed by Count Ga-brielli, who, being struck with the girl's remarkable voice, had her ed...
-Nicolo Gabrielli
Nicolo Gabrielli, count, an Italian composer, born in Naples in 1815. He was for 14 years director of the music of ballets in the San Carlo theatre at Naples, and subsequently removed to Paris. He has...
-Louis Prosper Gachard
Louis Prosper Gachard, a Belgian archivist, born in Paris, Oct. 12, 1800. He was a journeyman printer, joined the Belgian revolution of 1830, and was naturalized in Belgium in 1831. He was appointed a...
-Gad
Gad (Heb., fortune), the seventh son of Jacob, elder son of Zilpah, Leah's maid, and whole brother of Asher. Of his youth there is no record. At the descent into Egypt he had seven sons.-The tribe of ...
-Gadara
Gadara, an ancient city of Palestine, the capital of Peraea (the country beyond or E. of the Jordan), and one of the ten cities called the Decapolis. It was about 8 m. S. E. of Lake Tiberias, and gave...
-Gaddi
Gaddi. I. Gaddo, a Florentine artist, born in 1249, died in 1312. He was an excellent worker in mosaic, and is considered the founder of the modern mosaic art. He also painted altarpieces. II. Taddeo...
-Niels Wilhelm Gade
Niels Wilhelm Gade, a Danish composer, born in Copenhagen, Feb. 22, 1817. He commenced the study of music at a comparatively advanced age, and in a few years became an accomplished performer on the vi...
-Gadfly
Gadfly, a dipterous insect, belonging to the genus tabanus (Linn.), with three-jointed antennae and wide-spreading wings. The gadflies attack not only man, but cattle, horses, camels, and various rumi...
-Gadsden
Gadsden, a N. county of Florida, bordering on Georgia, bounded E. by the Oeklockonnee river and W. by the Appalachicola; area, 700 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 9,802, of whom 6,038 were colored. It is traver...
-Christopher Gadsden
Christopher Gadsden, an American statesman, born in Charleston, S. C, in 1724, died there, Aug. 28, 1805. His father having lost his large estate in play with Admiral Anson, the son engaged in mercant...
-Gadwall
Gadwall, a fresh-water or river duck of the subfamily anatinoe, and the genus chaulelasmus (Gray). In this genus the bill is as long as the head, the lamellae distinctly visible below its lower edge, ...
-Gael, Or Gail
Gael, Or Gail (Gaelic, Gaedhil, Gadhel, or Gaoidheal), the plural of Gal or Cal (akin to Latin celo, to hide, as the people dwelt or were hidden in forests; or more probably signifying wanderer), the ...
-Gaeta
Gaeta (anc. Caeta), a fortified city of S. Italy, in the province of Caserta, on the gulf of Gaeta, an arm of the Mediterranean, 72 m. S. E. of Rome; pop. of the city, including its suburbs, about 8,0...
-Gaetulia
Gaetulia, an ancient country of Africa, S. of Mauritania and Numidia, bounded E. by hills separating it from the country of the Gara-mantes, W. by the Atlantic ocean, and S., according to Pliny, by th...
-Gagarin
Gagarin, the name of a princely Russian family, deriving its origin from the rulers of Starodub, having its seat in Moscow, and of which the most distinguished members are the following. I. Matfei Pet...
-Gage
Gage, a S. E. county of Nebraska, bordering on Kansas, and intersected by Big Blue river; area, about 900 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 3,359. The surface is diversified; the soil fertile. The chief productio...
-Thomas Gage
Thomas Gage, the last royal governor of Massachusetts, born in England, died there in April, 1787. He was an active officer during the seven years1 war, was appointed governor of Montreal in 1760, and...
-Gail
Gail. I. Jean Baptiste, a French author, born in Paris, July 4, 1755, died there, Feb. 5,1829. He acquired eminence as a Hellenist, and became in 1791 adjunct and in 1802 titular professor of Greek li...
-Gaillac
Gaillac, a town of France, in the department of Tarn, on the right bank of the river Tarn, an affluent of the Garonne, 12 m. W. by-S. of Albi; pop. in 1866, 7,870. It is in a fertile region, abounding...
-Gabriel Henri Gaillard
Gabriel Henri Gaillard, a French historian, born at Ostel, near Soissons, March 26, 1720, died at St. Firmin, near Chantilly, Feb. 13, 1800. He studied law, but devoted himself to literature, and was ...
-Gaines
Gaines. I. Edmnnd Pendleton, an American general, born in Culpeper co.,Va., March 20, 1777, died in New Orleans, June 0, 1849. He entered the army as ensign in 1799, was for many years actively employ...
-Gainsborough
Gainsborough, a town of Lincolnshire, England, on the right bank of the Trent, which is crossed here by an arched stone bridge, 16 m. N. N. W. of Lincoln; pop. in 1871, 7,564. It contains a fine paris...
-Thomas Gainsborough
Thomas Gainsborough, an English landscape and portrait painter, born in Sudbury, Suffolk, early in 1727, died in London, Aug. 2, 1788. At a very early age he manifested a taste for drawing. About 1744...
-William Gairdner
William Gairdner, a British physician, born near Ayr, Scotland, Nov. 11, 1793, died in Avignon, France, in April, 1867. He graduated in medicine at Edinburgh in 1813, and until 1822 spent most of his ...
-Gajus Gails
Gajus Gails, or Cains, a Roman jurist, who flourished in the 2d century of our era, during the reigns of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius. Of his personal history little or nothing is know...
-Galactometer
Galactometer (Gr. gen.milk, andmeasure), an instrument for determining the specific gravity of milk. The common hydrometer may be used for this purpose, but a better instrument is that called the cent...
-Galangal
Galangal, the root of an unknown Chinese plant, probably belonging to the ginger family. Two kinds, the larger (Alpinia galanga) and smaller, are described. It resembles ginger in many respects, and i...
-Galapagos
Galapagos, a group of islands lying in the Pacific ocean, under the equator, about 600 m. from the coast of Ecuador, to winch politically they belong. They were discovered by the Spaniards, who named ...
-Galashiels
Galashiels, a burgh of Scotland, partly in Selkirkshire and partly in Roxburghshire, on both sides of the Gala, 27 m. S. E. of Edinburgh; pop. in 1871, 6,433 (in 1801, 1,214, and in 1831, 2,209). The ...
-Galatia
Galatia, an ancient province of Asia Minor, bounded N. by Bithynia and Paphlagonia, E. by Pontus, S. by Cappadocia and Lycaonia, and W. by Phrygia, of which it was once a part. The Halys traversed it ...
-Epistle To The Galatians
Epistle To The Galatians, a letter addressed by the apostle Paul to the churches of Galatia, and forming one of the canonical books of the New Testament. It is one of those Pauline epistles whose auth...
-Galatz, Or Galaez
Galatz, Or Galaez, a town of Roumania, in Moldavia, on the left bank of the Danube, between the mouths of the Sereth and Pruth, 120 m. S. by E. of Jassy; pop. nearly 80,000, including many Greeks and ...
-Galaxy
Galaxy (Gr. , milk; the milky zone), the via lactea, or milky way, an irregular band of light visible in the heavens on a clear night. The following is an abridgment of Sir John Herschel's account of ...
-Senilis Sulpicius Galba
Senilis Sulpicius Galba, a Roman emperor, born near Terracina, Dec. 24, 3 B. C, died Jan. 15, A. D. 69. As he inherited great wealth and possessed great talents, it was predicted both by Augustus and ...
-Galbanum
Galbanum. a gum resin obtained from India and the Levant. The plant which produces it is not known with certainty, but it is probably a species of ferula, a genus of the order umbel-liferoe. The drug ...
-James An English Inventor Gale
James An English Inventor Gale, born near Plymouth in July, 1833. Before reaching manhood he became totally blind. He was for a time a partner in a manufacturing house, and afterward practised as a me...
-Theophilus Gale
Theophilus Gale, an English theologian, born at King's Teignton, Devonshire, in 1628, died at Newington in March, 1678. He graduated at Magdalen college, Oxford, in 1649, became a fellow and an active...
-Christoph Bernhard Von Galen
Christoph Bernhard Von Galen, a German soldier and prelate, born at Bispink, Westphalia, about 1600, died at Ahaus, Sept. 19, 1678. Early connected with the church, and having studied at the Jesuits' ...
-Galen
Galen (Galenus), Claudius, an ancient physician, born in Pergamus in Mysia, A. D. 130, died, according to Suidas, in 200 or 201, but according to his Arabic and some other biographers, from 10 to 18 y...
-Galena, Sulphuret Of Lead
Galena, sulphuret of lead, the ore which furnishes most of the lead of commerce. It occurs in highly crystalline masses, which separate into cubical fragments. Its structure is also granular, and some...
-Galena, Jo Daviess Co., Illinois
Galena, a city, port of delivery, and the county seat of Jo Daviess co., Illinois, and the centre of the region known as the Galena lead mines, situated on both sides of the Galena river, 6 m. from i...
-Caius Valerius Maximiauus Galerius
Caius Valerius Maximiauus Galerius, a Roman emperor, reigned from A. D. 305 to 311. A native of Dacia and the son of a peasant, he distinguished himself in the armies by his courage, and was appointed...
-Gales
Gales. I. Joseph, an American journalist, born in England about 1760, died in Raleigh, N. C, Aug. 24, 1841. He was originally a printer and bookseller at Sheffield, where he founded and published the ...
-Galesburg
Galesburg, a city and the county seat of Knox co., Illinois, on the .Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy railroad, at the junction of the Burlington and Peoria branches, 160 m. W. S. W. of Chicago and 40 ...
-Galesville
Galesville, a town and the capital of Trempealeau co., Wisconsin, situated on Beaver creek, about 6 m. from the Mississippi, and 120 m. N. W. of Madison; pop. in 1870, 1,068. It is the seat of Galesvi...
-Galicia
Galicia (Ger. Galitzien, Pol. Galicya), a crownland or province of the Cisleithan division of the Austro-IIungarian empire, now comprising the kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, the duchy of Auschwitz ...
-Galicia, Spain
Galicia, an old province, now a captaincy general, of N.W. Spain, comprising the modern provinces of Corunna, Lugo, Orense, and Ponte-vedra, bounded N. and W. by the Atlantic, S. by Portugal, and E. b...
-Galilee
Galilee, the northernmost of the three western main divisions of Palestine in the time of the Romans, subdivided into Upper and Lower Galilee. Upper Galilee was bounded N. and W. by Mt. Lebanon, Cade-...
-Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei (Galileo, by which he is commonly known, being his Christian name), an Italian philosopher and mathematician, born in Pisa, Feb. 15, 1564, died in Arcetri, Jan. 8, 1642. He came of a n...
-Galileo Galilei. Part 2
The account of his discoveries, which he entitled Sidereus Nuncius, the Sidereal Messenger, was received by the astronomers of the old school with insults and incredulity. Some exclaimed against the ...
-Galileo Galilei. Part 3
The principal ground of complaint was the disobedience of the command of 1616, and the scientific reasons which Galileo again urged in support of his theory were not appreciated any better than before...
-Nicolas Anguste Galimard
Nicolas Anguste Galimard, a French painter, born in Paris, March 25, 1813. He studied under Ingres, and exhibited his first works in 1835. The Ode, exhibited in 1846, was purchased for the gallery of...
-Pierre Galin
Pierre Galin, a French musician, born in 1786, died in Paris about 1822. He studied and taught mathematics at Bordeaux, and the application of this science to music led him to the invention of a new m...
-Gall
Gall, a saint of the Roman Catholic church, called the apostle of Switzerland, born in Bangor, Ireland, about 551, died in St. Gall, Oct. 16, 646. According to some biographers, his original name was ...
-Franz Joseph Gall
Franz Joseph Gall, the founder of phrenology, born at Tiefenbronn, near Pforzheim, in Baden, March 9, 1758, died at Montrouge, near Paris, Aug. 22,1828. After literary studies at Baden and Bruchsal, h...
-William D Gallagher
William D Gallagher., an American journalist and poet, born in Philadelphia in August, 1808. He went in 1816 to Cincinnati, where in 1825 he entered the printing office of a newspaper. He wrote occasi...
-Louis Gallait
Louis Gallait, a Belgian historical painter, born in Tournay in 1810. He spent several years in studying his art in Paris. Among his pictures most celebrated and popular in Belgium are one illustratin...
-Antoine Galland
Antoine Galland, a French antiquary and linguist, born near Montdidier, in Picardy, April 4,1646, died in Paris. Feb. 17, 1715. He became attached to the French embassy at Constantinople in 1670, visi...
-Gallas
Gallas, an African race, generally classed with the Ethiopic division of the Semitic family, inhabiting portions of Abyssinia and the regions S. of it to the equator. Their skin varies between light a...
-Matthias von Gallas
Matthias von Gallas, count, a German soldier, born in 1589, died in Vienna in 1647. He belonged to an ancient family of the district of Trent, and acquired military experience under Prince Bauftremont...
-Gallatin
Gallatin. I. A N. county of Kentucky, separated from Indiana by the Ohio river; area, about 150 sq. in.; pop. in 1870, 5,074, of whom 6OO were colored. It is diversified by well wooded hills, and abou...
-Albert Gallatin
Albert Gallatin, an American statesman, born in Geneva, Switzerland, Jan. 29, 1761, died at Astoria, N. Y., Aug. 12,1849. His original name was Abraham Albert Alphonse de Gallatin. His father was a co...
-Gallaudet
Gallaudet. I. Thomas Hopkins, founder of the first institution in America for instruction of the deaf and dumb, born in Philadelphia, Dec. 10, 1787, died in Hartford, Conn., Sept. 9, 1851. He was of H...
-Gall Bladder
Gall Bladder, the pear-shaped membranous reservoir, situated in a slight depression on the lower surface of the right lobe of the liver, which contains the bile during the intervals of digestion. The ...
-Johaun Gottfried Galle
Johaun Gottfried Galle, a German astronomer, born at Pabsthaus, near Wittenberg, June 9, 1812. He studied at Wittenberg and Berlin, and became a teacher and subsequently an assistant at the observator...
-Johann Georg August Galletti
Johann Georg August Galletti, a German historian and geographer, born in Altenburg, Aug. 19, 1750, died in Gotha, March 16, 1828. He was a professor at the gymnasium of Gotha from 1783 to 1819, and pu...
-Galley
Galley (Fr. galere), a long, low, narrow vessel of war, propelled by oars and sails. The derivation of the word is uncertain, but it is generally supposed to be from galea, a helmet, either because it...
-Galley. Continued
The largest were 1G2 ft. long on deck and 133 ft. on the keel, with 32 ft. beam and a stern post of 23 ft. They had three masts with one large lateen sail on each, and 32 oars on a side, arranged in a...
-Gallia
Gallia, a S. county of Ohio, separated from West Virginia by the Ohio river and drained by Raccoon and Symmes creeks; area about 420 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 25,545. It has a rough surface, underlying wh...
-Gallic Acid
Gallic Acid, a product of the decomposition of tannic acid or tannin, obtained in slender, silky needles or crystals. When pure, these are colorless, without odor, sour, and astringent. They are solub...
-Gallican Church
Gallican Church, a name sometimes used as merely signifying the Catholic church in France, while more commonly it is applied to that church only so far as it holds to certain national privileges, doct...
-Publins Licnius Egnatins Gallienus
Publins Licnius Egnatins Gallienus, a Roman emperor, son of the emperor Valerian, born about A. D. 235, died in 268. On Valerian's accession to the throne in 253 he immediately associated his son with...
-Gallinule
Gallinule, a wading bird, of the suborder gralloe, family rallidae, and subfamily gallinu-linae; comprising the genera porphyrio (Briss.), tribonyx (Dubuis.) from Australia, gallinula (Briss.), and fu...
-Junius Gallio
Junius Gallio, a brother of the philosopher Seneca, adopted by the rhetorician Junius Gal-lio, whose name he assumed, died in A. D. 65. In 53 and 54 he was proconsul of Achaia under Claudius, and resi...
-Gallipoli, Turkey
Gallipoli (anc. Callpolis), a town of Turkey, in the vilayet of Edirneh, 120 m. W. S. W. of Constantinople; pop. about 50,000. It is on a peninsula at the N. E. extremity of the Dardanelles, and was f...
-Gallipoli, Callipolis or Anxa, Italy
Gallipoli (anc. Callipolis or Anxa), a fortified seaport town of Italy, in the province of Lecce, on an island in the gulf of Taranto, 29 m. W. S. W. of Otranto; pop. about 9,500. It is connected with...
-Gallipolis
Gallipolis, a city and the capital of Gallia co., Ohio, pleasantly situated on a high bluff on the Ohio river, 83 m. S. S. E. of Columbus; pop. in 1870, 3,711. It is surrounded by a fertile district, ...
-Roland Michel Barrin Gallissonniere
Roland Michel Barrin Gallissonniere, marquis de la, a French admiral, born in Roche-fort, Nov. 11, 1693, died at Nemours, Oct, 26, 1756. After rising through various grades in the navy, he was appoint...
-Golitzin Gallitzin
Golitzin Gallitzin, or Galitzin, a princely Russian family, numerous members of which have distinguished themselves as soldiers, statesmen, or authors. Their origin is traced to Gedemin, prince of Lit...
-Gallitzin
Gallitzin. I. Demetrius Augustine, a Russian missionary priest, son of Prince Dimitri Alexe-yevitch Gallitzin and Amalia von Schmettau, born at the Hague, Dec. 22, 1770, died at Lo-retto, Pa., May 6,1...
-Gallon
Gallon, an old English measure of capacity, subdivided into 4 quarts, or 8 pints, or 32 gills. Formerly there were gallons of different capacities, one for wine, another for ale or beer, and a third f...
-Joseph Galloway
Joseph Galloway, an American loyalist, born in Maryland about 1730, died in England, Aug. 29, 1803. He was educated for the bar, and practised law successfully at Philadelphia. In 1764 he became a mem...
-Galls, Or Nntgalls
Galls, Or Nntgalls, excrescences growing on a species of small oak, quercus infectoria, inhabiting Asia Minor and the middle latitude of Asia. They originate from the puncture of a fly, which deposits...
-Joseph Adam Gallup
Joseph Adam Gallup, an American physician and author, born in Stonington, Conn., March 30, 1769, died in Woodstock, Vt., Oct. 12, 1849. He received a good education, and in 1798 graduated in medicine ...
-Galt, Waterloo Co., Ontario, Canada
Galt, a town of Waterloo Co., Ontario, Canada, situated on both sides of Grand river, near the mouth of Mill creek, and on the Gait and Guelph branch of the Great Western railway, 54 m. W. S. W. of To...
-John Galt
Galt. I. John, a Scottish author, born in Irvine, Ayrshire, May 2,1779, died in Greenock, April 11, 1839. After spending some years in mercantile life he began to study law, but in 1809 set out on a t...
-Sir Alexander Tilloch Galt
II. Sir Alexander Tilloch, a Canadian financier, son of the preceding, born in Chelsea, England, Sept. 6, 1817. At the age of 16 he entered as a junior clerk the service of the British American land c...
-Francis Galton
Francis Galton, an English traveller and author, born at Dudderton, near Birmingham, in 1822. He studied medicine at Birmingham, and afterward at King's college, London, and graduated at Trinity colle...
-Baldassare Galuppi
Baldassare Galuppi, an Italian musician, sur-named Buranello, born on the island of Bu-rano, near Venice, in 1703, died there in January, 1785. He received instruction from his father and from the com...
-Galuppi, Or Galluppi
Galuppi, Or Galluppi, Pasquale, an Italian philosopher, born at Tropea, Calabria, April 2, 1770, died in Naples, Dec. 13, 1846. He studied at the university of Naples, and was professor of philosophy ...
-Aloisio Or Lnigi Galvani
Aloisio Or Lnigi Galvani, an Italian physician, born in Bologna, Sept. 9, 1737, died there, Dec. 4,1798. He was educated for the priesthood; but his tastes inclined toward the natural sciences, and ab...
-Galvanism, Or Voltaic Electricity
Galvanism, Or Voltaic Electricity (So Named From Its Discoverers, Galvani of Bologna and Volta of Pavia), that form of dynamical electricity which is developed by chemical action. An account of the di...
-Galvanism, Or Voltaic Electricity. Part 2
After separation the plates will not present the same appearance as during connection; but the evolution of hydrogen gas on the surface of the copper will cease, and if the ends of the wires are exami...
-Galvanism, Or Voltaic Electricity. Part 3
+ - Copper plate. CI II CI H Cl H Cl Zinc plate. H - + - + - + + - + The polarizatio...
-Galvanism, Or Voltaic Electricity. Part 4
It consists in applying metallic mercury to the cleared surface of the zinc plates, by which the pure zinc becomes dissolved and brought to the surface where the action of the acid is confined. In imp...
-Galvanism, Or Voltaic Electricity. Part 5
Fig. 6.-Hare's Calorimotor. Fig. 7.-Cell of Daniell's Battery-. + Porous partition. _ Copper plate Zinc plate. Cu2 SO4 CU2 so4 H2...
-Galvanism, Or Voltaic Electricity. Part 6
Davy supposed that this effect was due to the difference in action of the two liquids upon the platinum; but if two cups, each containing a solution of the same salt, as nitre, are placed one on eithe...
-Galvanism, Or Voltaic Electricity. Part 7
It is usual, however, except in the most delicate tests, to have one of the needles slightly stronger than the other, so that there shall be a slight directive tendency north and south to the system. ...
-Galvanism, Or Voltaic Electricity. Part 8
The tension of galvanic is far less than that of frictional electricity, but by greatly multiplying the number of pairs in a battery the tension of frictional electricity may be approached. Thus, a ba...
-Galvanism, Or Voltaic Electricity. Part 9
To measure the resistance of any conductor, the rheostat and sine galvanometer may be used in the following manner: In fig. 22, let m be a conductor whose resistance is to be measured or compared. One...
-Galvanism, Or Voltaic Electricity. Part 10
Fig. 23. Fig. 24.-Voltameter. - A A + H2 SO4 H2 S04 H2 S04 H2 O + - + i - + - + - Other binary compounds are very readily decompose...
-Galvanism, Or Voltaic Electricity. Part 11
Water cannot be decomposed when in a state of ice, and other substances, as oxide of lead and chloride of silver, require for electrolysis to be fused to give them conducting power. 2. The energy of e...
-Galvanism, Or Voltaic Electricity. Part 12
The production of light by the passage of the electric current through a resisting conductor, as a fine metallic wire, is caused, as is generally believed, by a correlation of forces, that is, by the ...
-Galvanism, Or Voltaic Electricity. Part 13
The object to be plated is connected with the negative electrode of a battery or a magneto-electric machine and suspended in a hot solution of the cyanide, and a plate of silver connected with the pos...
-Galvanized Iron
Galvanized Iron, a name given to iron coated with zinc, or zinc and tin. The process is a French invention, and was not introduced into England till 1837, when a patent was obtained by Mr. Crawfurd. T...
-Galveston
Galveston. I. A S. E. county of Texas, including the island of the same name; area, 680 sq. m., of which 274 sq. m. are water; pop. in 1870, 15,290, of whom 3,236 were colored. The main portion of the...
-Bernardo Galvez
Bernardo Galvez, count de, a Spanish soldier and statesman, born in Malaga in 1756, died in Mexico, Nov. 30,1786. He was the son of Don Matias de Galvez, his predecessor as viceroy, and nephew of Jose...
-Galway
Galway. I. A maritime county of Con-naught, Ireland, bordering on the Atlantic and Galway bay, and on the counties of Mayo, Roscommon, Kings, Tipperarv, and Clare; area, 2,342 sq. m.; pop. in 1871,24...
-Joze Basilio Da Gama
Joze Basilio Da Gama, a Brazilian poet, born in 1740, died in Lisbon, July 31, 1795. He was brought up as a member of the society of Jesus, but left it, and went to Lisbon and to Rome, where he was fo...
-Gama
Gama,Vasco da, a Portuguese navigator, born at Sines, died in Cochin, India, Dec. 25, 1524. Bartholomew Dias, a Portuguese explorer, Laving visited the cape which he called Cabo Tor-mentoso, or Stormy...
-Gamaliel
Gamaliel, a Jewish doctor of the law, member of the sanhedrim, and teacher of Saul, the future apostle Paul, died about A. D. 52. In the Talmud he is surnamed Hazzaken,the Elder, to distinguish him f...
-Leon Gambetta
Leon Gambetta, a French statesman, of Genoese-Jewish descent, born in Cahors, Oct. 30, 1838. He studied law, and became a member of the Paris bar in 1859. In 1863 he acquired eminence as an ultra libe...
-Gambia
Gambia, a British colony of W. Africa, occupying both banks of the river whence it derives its name, and consisting'of the island of St. Mary, the ceded mile on the Barra Shere, and McCarthy's island,...
-Gambia River
Gambia, a large river of W. Africa, rising in the interior of the continent, and, after a course of more than 600 m., discharging itself into the Atlantic ocean at Bathurst, in lat. 13 30' N., Io...
-Gambier
Gambier, a village of Knox co., Ohio, on the Cleveland, Mt. Vernon, and Columbus railroad, 50 m. N.E. of Columbus; pop. in 1870, 581. It occupies a beautiful site on a high ridge nearly surrounded by ...
-James Gambier
James Gambier, baron, a British admiral, born in the Bahama islands, Oct. 13,1756, died at Iver, near Uxbridge, April 19,1833. He was of a French Protestant family, expatriated by the revocation of th...
-Gambir, Or Gambier
Gambir, Or Gambier, one of several astringent vegetable extracts, much used in tanning, dyeing, etc. Like the allied catechu and cutch, it consists largely of a modification of tannic acid, and is sim...
-Gamboge, Or Camboge
Gamboge, Or Camboge, a gum resin of Siam and Cochin China, and produced also in Ceylon. The tree from which it is obtained is the hebradendron cambogioides of Dr. Graham of Edinburgh. The gum was firs...
-Game Laws
Game Laws, statutes which declare what birds and beasts are to be considered game, and impose penalties on those who unlawfully kill or destroy them. The game laws of England had their origin in the a...
-Gaming
Gaming, the playing together of two or more persons at some game, whereby one shall lose and the other win money or other property staked upon the issue. The game may be one of chance, as that of faro...
-William Gammell
William Gammell, an American author, born in Medfield, Mass., Feb. 10, 1812. He graduated at Brown university in 1831, and soon afterward was appointed a tutor in the university; in 1835 he was chosen...
-Ganges
Ganges (Hind. Gangd, stream), one of the great rivers of British India, rising on the S. slope of the Himalaya mountains, and flowing southerly and easterly into the northern portion of the bay of Ben...
-Ganglion
Ganglion (Gr. a little swelling), in anatomy, a small rounded or elongated nervous mass, of a reddish gray color, situated in the course of the nerves. There are two kinds of nervous ganglia, one form...
-Gangrene
Gangrene (Gr. ), the loss of life in any of the soft parts of the body, without extinction of the vital powers in the rest of the organism. The term sphacelus has been applied to the condition in whic...
-Ganjam
Ganjam, a town of India, in the district of the same name, presidency of Madras, on the left bank of the river Rosikoila, just above its entrance into the bay of Bengal, 168 m. N. E. of Vizagapatam. I...
-Jean Nicolas Gannal
Jean Nicolas Gannal, a French chemist, born in Saarlouis, July 28, 1791, died in Paris in January, 1852. After being employed in a drug shop, he was in 1808 attached as an apothecary to the medical de...
-Gannet
Gannet, a web-footed bird, of the family sulidae and genus sula (Briss.). The genus is characterized by a bill longer than the head, strong, straight, and broad at the base; the sides compressed and g...
-Ezra Stiles Gannett
Ezra Stiles Gannett, an American clergyman, born in Cambridge, Mass., May 4, 1801, died from a railroad accident at Revere, Mass., Aug. 26,1871. He studied at Phillips academy, Andover, entered Harvar...
-Ganoids
Ganoids (Gr. yavoc, splendor), in Midler's classification, an order of fishes, having either enamelled scales, bony plates, or a naked skin; fins generally, but not always, covered anteriorly by spiny...
-Ganoids. Continued
Among the most interesting genera is dipterus, in which D. macrolepiJotus of the old red sandstone resembles a fish carved in ivory, crusted with enamel, and thickly dotted with minute punc-turings; w...
-Eduard Gans
Eduard Gans, a German jurist, horn of Jewish parents in Berlin, March 22, 1798, died there, May 5, 1839. He studied successively at the universities of Berlin, Gottingen, and Heidelherg, and became ea...
-Peter Gansevoort
Peter Gansevoort, an American soldier, born in Albany, July 17, 1749, died July 2, 1812. In 1775 he received the appointment of major in the second New York regiment, and joined the army which under M...
-Ganymede
Ganymede (Gr. ), a Trojan prince, son of Tros and brother of Ilus, was the most beautiful of mortals, and was carried off, according to the legend, by the eagle of Jupiter, to succeed Hebe as cup-bear...
-Gap
Gap (anc. Vapincum), a town of France, capital of the department of llautes-Alps, 47 m. S. E. of Grenoble, at the confluence of the Bonne and the Luye, affluents of the Durance; pop. in 1866, 8,219. I...
-Daniel Garakonthie
Daniel Garakonthie, an Onondaga chief, died at Onondaga, X. Y., in 1675. For many years he exercised great influence over the Five Nations, and was esteemed by the English of New York and the French o...
-Dominique Joseph Garat
Dominique Joseph Garat, a French writer and politician, born at Ustaritz, near Bayonne, Sept. 8, 1749, died Dec. 9, 1833. He was a contributor to the Encyclopedic methodique and the Mercure de France....
-Janos Garay
Janos Garay, a Hungarian poet, born at Szekszard, in the county of Tolna, in 1812, died in Pesth, Nov. 5,1853. His chief productions are the epic poems Csatar, Sophia Bosnyak, The Wife of Frangepa...
-Garcia
Garcia. I. Manuel dc Populo Vicente, a Spanish composer, born in Seville, Jan. 21, 1775, died in Paris, June 9, 1832. Having acquired celebrity as a tenor singer in Spain, he made his debut in Paris i...
-Garcilaso De La Vega (Garcias Laso)
Garcilaso (Garcias Laso) De La Vega. I. A Spanish lyric and pastoral poet, born in Toledo in 1503, died in Nice in November, 1536. His father was councillor of state to Ferdinand and Isabella, and his...
-Joseph Heliodorc Garcin De Tassy
Joseph Heliodorc Garcin De Tassy, a French orientalist, born in Marseilles, Jan. 20, 179-4. He studied in Paris, and at the recommendation of his teacher, Sylvestre de Sacy, a new chair was establishe...
-Gaud
Gaud, a S. E. department of France, in Lan-guedoc, bounded S. by the Mediterranean and E. by the Rhone, and by the departments of Herault, Aveyron, Lozere, Ardeche, Vaucluse, and Bouches-du-Rhone; are...
-Lake Anc Garda. Benacus Lacus
Lake Anc Garda. Benacus Lacus, the largest of the Italian lakes, between the provinces of Brescia and Verona, and projecting at its N. and narrowest part into the Tyrol. It is 33 m. long from N. to S....
-Gardaia, Or Gliardeia
Gardaia, Or Gliardeia, a town of Algeria, in the province of Algiers, situated in the oasis of the Beni Mzab, on the Wady Mzab, in the Sahara, about lat. 32 30' N., Ion. 4 E.; pop. about 60...
-Alexander Garden
Alexander Garden, a British physician and naturalist, born in Scotland in 1728, died in London in 1792. He studied philosophy in the university of Aberdeen, and medicine under Dr. John Gregory, and em...
-Gardiner, Kennebec Co., Maine
Gardiner, a city of Kennebec co., Maine, on the W. bank of the Kennebec river, 10 m. below Augusta, at the head of summer navigation, and on both sides of the Cobbossecon-tee; pop. in 1870, 4,497. A b...
-James Gardiner
James Gardiner, a Scottish soldier, born at Carriden, Linlithgowshire, Jan, 11, 1688, killed Sept. 21, 1745. At the age of 14 he obtained a commission in the Dutch service. He afterward entered the En...
-Stephen Gardiner
Stephen Gardiner, an English Roman Catholic prelate, born at Bury St. Edmund's in 1483, died Nov. 12, 1555. He was educated at Cambridge, became secretary of Wolsey, and was soon in high favor with He...
-Gardiner
Gardiner. I. Sylvester, an American physician, born in Kingston, R. I., in 1717, died in Newport, Aug. 8, 1786. He studied medicine in London and Paris, subsequently practised his profession in Boston...
-Italo Gardom
Italo Gardom, an Italian vocalist, born in 1820. He first appeared at the opera of Paris in 1844 as Earl Bothwell in Maria Stuart, and was applauded as almost equal to Mario, both in the sympathetic e...
-Gar Fish, Or Gar Pike (Lepidosteus)
Gar Fish, Or Gar Pike (Lepidosteus), a ganoid fish, belonging to the same order as the polyp-terns of Africa, the mud fish (amia) of America, and the sturgeon family; it is the only genus of its famil...
-Giuseppe Garibaldi
Giuseppe Garibaldi, an Italian patriot, born in Nice, July 4, 1807. His father educated him to his own profession, that of a mariner. His second voyage was to Rome, when the condition of that city mad...
-Garlic
Garlic, the bulb of the allium sativum, a plant of the same genus as the onion (A. cepa) and the leek (A. porrum). The plant is perennial, and grows wild in the southern parts of Europe, but its nativ...
-Francois Xavier Garneau
Francois Xavier Garneau, a Canadian historian, born in Quebec, June 15, 1809, died Feb. 3, 1866. He was admitted as a notary in 1830, and became clerk of the legislative assembly, member of the counci...
-Garnet
Garnet, the name of a mineral species, presenting many varieties; also applied by Dana to designate a section of the silicates; and in geology it is the name of a rock made up of some variety of the m...
-Adolphe Garnier
Adolphe Garnier, a French eclectic philosopher, born in Paris, March 27, 1801, died in May, 18G4. He aided Jouffroy in translating the works of Thomas Reid, was in 1827 appointed professor of philosop...
-Charles Georges Thomas Garnier
Charles Georges Thomas Garnier, a French author, born in Auxerre, Sept. 21, 1746, died there, Jan. 24, 1795. He was educated at the college of Plessis, and became an advocate, though the weakness of h...
-Jean Louis Charles Garnier
Jean Louis Charles Garnier, a French architect, born in Paris, Nov. 6, 1825. He entered the school of fine arts in 1842, and studied under MM. Leveil and Hippolyte Lebas. He took the grand prize in 18...
-Lonis Antoine Garnier-Pages
Lonis Antoine Garnier-Pages, a French politician, born in Marseilles, July 18, 1803.While employed as a merchandise broker in Paris he found time to attend the sittings of the secret associations whic...
-Garonne River
Garonne (ane. Gurumna), a river of S. France, which derives its name from its two head streams, the Gar, which rises in the Spanish valley of Aran, and the Onne, which descends from the glaciers of A6...
-Garrard County
Garrard, a central county of Kentucky, bounded N. by the Kentucky river and W. by Dick's river; area, 250 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 10,376, of whom 3,404 were colored. It has a hilly or rolling surface, a...
-Garrett County
Garrett, the W. county of Maryland, bordering on Pennsylvania and West Virginia, from which it is separated on the S. by the Potomac river, formed in 1872 from Allegany co.; area, 690 sq. m.; pop. in ...
-Elizabeth Garrett
Elizabeth Garrett, an English physician, born in London in 1837. She began to study medicine at Middlesex hospital in 1860, and after perfecting her knowledge at St. Andrew's, Edinburgh, and the Londo...
-Freeborn Garrettson
Freeborn Garrettson, an American clergyman, born in Maryland in 1752. died in New York, Sept. 26; 1827. He entered the Methodist ministry in 1775, travelled extensively in several of the states, and i...
-David Garrick
David Garrick, an English actor, born in Hereford, Feb. 20, 1716, died in London, Jan. 20,1779. His grandfather Game, or Garrique, was a French Protestant who took refuge in England after the revocati...
-William Lloyd Garrison
William Lloyd Garrison, an American abolitionist, born in Newburyport, Mass., Dec. 12, 1804. His parents were natives of the province of New Brunswick. His father, Abijah Garrison, was master of a ves...
-William Lloyd Garrison. Continued
His lectures were attended by large audiences, and awakened in some minds a permanent interest in the anti-slavery cause. His experiences as a lecturer, however, convinced him that Boston rather than ...
-Garrote
Garrote, a mode of execution practised in Spain and the Spanish colonies. The criminal is seated, and leans his head back against a support prepared for it. An iron collar closely encircles the throat...
-Garrow or Garo Hills
Garrow or Garo Hills, an elevated district of British India, situated in the bend of the Brahmapootra, where that river turns from its westerly course southward, between lat. 25 and 26'o N., and ...
-Order Of The Garter
Order Of The Garter, the highest British order of knighthood, and one of the oldest and most illustrious of the military orders of knighthood in Europe, commonly said to have been instituted by Edward...
-Sir Samuel Garth
Sir Samuel Garth, an English physician and poet, born in Yorkshire, died in London, Jan. 18, 1711). He studied medicine at Cambridge, settled in London in 1093, and soon secured an extensive practice,...
-Joseph Gartner
Joseph Gartner, a German botanist, born in Calw, Wurtemberg, March 22, 1732, died July 13, 1791. He studied at Tubingen and Gottingen, travelled in Italy, France, England, and Holland, became professo...
-Christian Garve
Christian Garve, a German philosopher, born in Breslau, Jan. 7, 1742, died there, Dec. 1, 1798. He succeeded Gellert as professor of philosophy at Leipsic in 1709, but ill health compelled him to retu...
-Gas
Gas (Sax. gast, Ger. Geist, Dutch geest, spirit), a generic term used to designate any aeriform fluid which is neither liquefied nor solidified at ordinary temperatures and pressure, introduced by Van...
-Gas. Part 2
Fig. 1.-Collection by Displacement. Fig. 2.-Gas-holder. Fig. 3.-Gas-holder. Fig. 4.-Woulfe's Bottles. When the upper vessel contained hydrogen, the time occupied in diffusion was about 12 ...
-Gas. Part 3
Its composition, according to Profs. Silliman and Wurtz, is: marsh gas, 82.41; carbonic acid, l0.11; nitrogen, 4*31; oxygen, 0.23; illuminating hydrocarbon, 2.94. It was carried in a wooden main to th...
-Gas. Part 4
A longitudinal section of a furnace and two retorts is shown in fig. 7, and also a plan of the different parts of a gas works, so arranged as to give an idea of the process of manufacture, but not sho...
-Gas. Part 5
It has, however, been explained that the exhauster is placed between these two pieces of apparatus. A drawing of the machine has been omitted in the cut from want of room, but the reader can supply th...
-Gas. Part 6
The apparatus is a little more than half filled with water. A tube, c, passing through the axis of the cylinder, rises a little above the surface of the water, and delivers gas to the central compartm...
-Gas. Part 7
Rape oil, according to Lefort, has the formula C10H18O2.; hemp oil, C15H28O2. All the fatty oils yield by dry distillation principally defiant gas, a small quantity of carbonic acid, and no sulphurett...
-George Gascoigne
George Gascoigne, an English poet, born about 1537, died in Stamford, Oct. 7, 1577. He was educated at Cambridge and began to study law; but having fallen into irregular habits, he was deprived by his...
-Gasconade
Gasconade, an E. county of Missouri, bounded N. by the Missouri river, and intersected by the Gasconade river; area, 540 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 10,093, of whom 80 were colored. The surface is much brok...
-Gascony
Gascony (Fr. Gascogne), an old province in the S. W. corner of France, bounded N. by Guienne, E. by Languedoc. and the county of Foix, from which it was partly separated by the upper Garonne, S. by th...
-William Gascoygne
William Gascoygne, the inventor of the micrometer, born in England about 1621, killed fighting for Charles I. at Marston Moor, July 2,1644. The instrument, as constructed by him, consisted principally...
-Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell
Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell, an English authoress, born at Chelsea about 1810, died at Alton, Hants, Nov. 12, 1865. Her maiden name was Stevenson, and she was the wife of a Unitarian clergyman, who was...
-Gasparin
Gasparin. I. Adrien Etienne Pierre, count de, a French statesman and agriculturist, born in Orange, June 29, 1783, died there, Sept. 7, 1862. He entered the army, but was soon compelled by illness to ...
-Gaspe
Gaspe, an E. county of Quebec, Canada, bordering on the river and gulf of St. Lawrence, indented by the bay of the same name, and including the Magdalen islands; area, 4,578 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 18,7...
-Friedrich Willhelm Heinrich Joachim Gass
Friedrich Willhelm Heinrich Joachim Gass, a German theologian, born in Breslau, Nov. 28, 1813. After studying at the principal universities, he became professor of theology successively at Breslau, Gr...
-Pierre Gassendi
Pierre Gassendi, a French philosopher, born at Champtercier, Provence, Jan. 22, 1592, died in Paris, Oct. 24, 1655. After having studied philosophy at Aix, he was appointed at the age of 16 professor ...
-Gastein
Gastein, a valley in the Austrian duchy of Salzburg, famous for its romantic scenery and for its mineral springs. It is about 30 m. long and 2 m. broad, is surrounded by mountains in some parts about ...
-Gasteropoda
Gasteropoda (Gr. belly, and foot), a class of the mollusca distinguished by the under side of the body forming a single muscular foot, on which the animal creeps or glides. The snails, limpets, an...
-Gaston
Gaston, a S. W. county of North Carolina, bordering on South Carolina, bounded E. by Catawba river and intersected by Catawba creek; area, about 350 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 12,602, of whom 4,172 were co...
-William Gaston
William Gaston, an American jurist, born in New Berne, N. 0., Sept. 19, 1778, died in Raleigh, Jan. 23,1844. He graduated at Princeton, N. J., in 1796, with the highest honors, studied law, and was ad...
-Gaston De Foix
Gaston De Foix, duke of Nemours, a French general, born in 1489, killed at Ravenna, April 11, 1512. He was the son of Jean de Foix, viscount of Narbonne, and of Marie d'Orleans, sister of Louis XII. I...
-Thomas Gataker
Thomas Gataker, an English ecclesiastic, born in London, Sept. 4, 1574, died June 27, 1654. He wrote several works illustrative of the Scriptures. In 1642 he was chosen member of the assembly of divin...
-Gatchina, Russia
Gatchina, a town of Russia, in the government and 28 m. S. S. W. of the city of St. Petersburg, on a small lake formed by the Izhora river; pop. in 1867, 8,337. It is the private property of the emper...
-Gates County
Gates, a N. E. county of North Carolina, bordering on Virginia, bounded S. W. by Chowan and Nottaway rivers, the former of which is here navigable; area, 353 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 7,724 of whom 3,207 ...
-Horatio Gates
Horatio Gates, an American soldier, born in England in 1728, died in New York, April 10, 1806. He early entered the British army, and was an officer under Braddock, at whose defeat in 1755 he was seve...
-Gateshead
Gateshead, a municipal and parliamentary borough of Durham, England, on the right bank of the river Tyne, opposite Newcastle, with which it is connected by a fine railway viaduct and by a stone bridge...
-Gath, Philistia
Gath, one of the five chief cities of Philistia, often mentioned in the history of David and his successors. The giant Goliath, who was slain by David, was either a native or an inhabitant of Gath. It...
-Richard Jordan Gatling
Richard Jordan Gatling, an American inventor, born in Hertford co., N. C, Sept. 12, 1818. While yet a boy he assisted his father in perfecting a machine for sowing cotton seed, and another machine for...
-Gauchos
Gauchos, horsemen of the plains in the Argentine and other South American republics. They are generally of pure Spanish race, having mingled but little with the aborigines. They are usually tall and g...
-John Gauden
John Gauden, an English prelate, born in Mayland, Essex, in 1605, died Sept, 20, 1662. Having preached an acceptable sermon before the parliament, he received from it the living of Bocking and other p...
-Charles Gaudichaud-Beaipre
Charles Gaudichaud-Beaipre, a French botanist, born in Angouleme, Sept. 4, 1780, died in Paris, Jan. 26, 1854. In 1817 he accompanied, in the capacity of pharmaceutic botanist, the scientific expediti...
-Gauging
Gauging, the operation of measuring the capacity of any receptacle, as for example that of a cask, barrel, or vat. It may be performed either by measuring the dimensions of the receptacle and then cal...
-Gaul
Gaul (Lat. Gallia), the name applied by the Romans to two great divisions of their empire, Cisalpine and Transalpine (in regard to Rome). I. Cisalpine Gaol {Gallia Cisalpina or Citerior), comprising t...
-Gaul. Continued
The internal development of the main parts of Transalpine Gaul, during the times when the Cisalpine country was successively Gallicized and Romanized, cannot be traced in historical records. When the ...
-Jean Joseph Gaume
Jean Joseph Gaume, a French author, born at Fuans, Doubs, in 1802, died March 22, 1869. He received holy orders at an early age, was appointed in 1827 professor of theology in the seminary of Nevers, ...
-Karl Friedrich Gauss
Karl Friedrich Gauss, a German mathematician, born in Brunswick, April 30, 1777, died in Gottingen, Feb. 23, 1855. He early displayed such remarkable capacity for mathematical calculation, that the du...
-Jean Francois Engene Gautier
Jean Francois Engene Gautier, a French composer, born at Vaugirard, near Paris, in 1822. He became an excellent violinist, and produced many comic operas, the most successful of which, Flore et Zephir...
-Theophile Gautier
Theophile Gautier, a French author, born in Tarbes, Aug. 31, 1811, died in Paris, Oct. 23, 1872. He was educated at the college of Charlemagne, on leaving which he entered the studio of Rioult to stud...
-Gavarni
Gavarni, the pseudonyme of Sulpice Guil-laume Paul Chevalier, a French caricaturist, born in Paris in 1801, died at Auteuil, Nov. 23, 1866. He was employed by an engineer as draftsman at Tarbes, and b...
-Alessandro Gavazzi
Alessandro Gavazzi, an Italian preacher and political agitator, born in Bologna in 1809. He joined the order of the Barnabites in 1825, and afterward officiated as professor of rhetoric at Naples. He ...
-Gavelkind
Gavelkind, a tenure in England by which the estate descends, not to the eldest son, as by common law, but to all the sons, or if there be no sons, to all the brothers. The word is said by some persons...
-Gavial, Or Garrhial
Gavial, Or Garrhial, a crocodilian reptile of Asia and Africa, of the genus gavialis (Geof-froy), characterized by its very long, straight, and narrow jaws, somewhat enlarged at the extremity. The num...
-Claude Gay
Claude Gay, a French traveller and naturalist, born at Draguignan, March 18,1800. After having studied the natural sciences at Paris and travelled in Greece and the East, he went to Chili in 1828 and ...
-Ebenezer Gay
Ebenezer Gay, an American clergyman, born in Dedham, Mass., Aug. 26, 1696, died March 18, 1787. He graduated at Harvard college in 1714, and was in 1718 settled over the church at Hingham, Mass., wher...
-John Gay
John Gay, an English poet, born near Tor-rington, Devonshire, in 1688, died in London, Dec. 4, 1732. After receiving an elementary education at the grammar school of Barnstaple, he was apprenticed to ...
-Marie Franchise Sophie Gay
Marie Franchise Sophie Gay, a French novelist, born in Paris, July 1, 1776, died March 5, 1852. She was the daughter of a French financier named Nichault de la Valette, and was married in 1793 to M. L...
-Gaya
Gaya, a town of Bengal, British India, in the district of Behar, 265 m. N. W. of Calcutta; pop. about 40,000. It consists of two parts, the old town, in which the Brahmans reside, and the new town, in...
-Pascual De Gayangos
Pascual De Gayangos, a Spanish orientalist, born June 21, 1809. He studied at Paris under Sylvestre de Sacy, travelled through northern Africa in 1828, married an English lady at Algiers, and was from...
-Charles Gayarre
Charles Gayarre, an American historian, born in Louisiana, Jan. 9, 1805. He was educated at the college of New Orleans. In 1825, the draft of a criminal code having been laid before the state legislat...
-Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac
Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, a French chemist, born at St. Leonard, Limousin,- Dec. 6, 1778, died in Paris, May 9, 1850. He was educated at the polytechnic school of Paris, then called Lecole centrale des...
-Gaza
Gaza (Arab. Ghazze or Ghuzze), a town of Syria; built partly on a steep hill, partly on the plain below, on the road leading to Egypt, between the Mediterranean and the desert; pop. about 15,000. It i...
-Theodore Gaza
Theodore Gaza, one of those learned Greeks who contributed to the revival of letters in Italy, born in Thessalonica about 1400, died in Abruzzo in 1478. After the capture of his native town by the Tur...
-Gazel, Or Ghazel
Gazel, Or Ghazel, a kind of lyric poem, consisting of from 5 to 17 stanzas of two lines each, all the second lines of which rhyme together. It is a favorite form in the poetry of the Turks and the Per...
-Gazelle
Gazelle, the type of a group of the antelope family (see Antelope), of beautiful form, small size, and graceful carriage. Both sexes are provided with horns, nearly over the orbits, annulated and stri...
-Geauga
Geauga, a K E. county of Ohio, drained by the sources of Cuyahoga, Grand, and Chagrin rivers; area, about 430 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 14,190. It has an undulating surface, admirably adapted to pasturage...
-Abu Musa Jaffar Al-Sofi Geber
Abu Musa Jaffar Al-Sofi Geber, founder of the school of Arabian chemists about the close of the 8th century, born in Thus, Persia, or, according to Abulfeda, in Harran, Mesopotamia. He is reckoned by ...
-Gebweiler
Gebweiler (Fr. Guebwiller), a town of Germany, capital of a circle of Upper Alsace, situated on the Lauch in a valley of the Vosges mountains, 15 m. S. W. of Colmar; pop. in 1871, 11,338. It lias thre...
-Gecko
Gecko, a name applied to a family of nocturnal lizards (ascalabotae of Dumeril and Bi-bron), numerous in species, living in warm climates, and presenting characters of form, structure, and habits whic...
-William Ged
William Ged, a Scottish mechanic, the inventor of stereotyping, born in Edinburgh about 1690, died Oct. 19, 1749. He was originally a goldsmith in his native city, and is said to have first attempted ...
-Alexander Geddes
Alexander Geddes, a Scottish Roman Catholic ecclesiastic, born in Arradowl, Banffshire, Sept. 4, 1737, died in London, Feb. 20, 1802. He was educated at the Scotch college in Paris, where he distingui...
-Gnillannie Geefs
Gnillannie Geefs, a Belgian sculptor, born in Antwerp, Sept. 10; 1806, died May 10, 1860. After completing his studies he went to Paris, where he spent some time in the studio of M. Ramey. Soon after ...
-Geelong
Geelong, a city of Victoria, Australia, near the head of Corio bay or Geelong harbor, the W. arm of Port Phillip bay, 45 m. S. W. of Melbourne, with which it is connected by railway; pop. in 1871, 14,...
-Karl De Geer
Karl De Geer, baron, a Swedish naturalist, born at Finspang, Feb. 10, 1720, died in Stockholm, March 8, 1778. He studied at Utrecht and Upsal, was a pupil of Linnaeus, and published Memoires pour serv...
-Charles Henri Geerts
Charles Henri Geerts, a Belgian sculptor and wood carver, born in Antwerp in 1808, died in 1855. He was professor at the academy of Louvain. Among his principal works are Christ sinking under the Wei...
-Geestermunde
Geestermunde, a seaport of Prussia, in the province of Hanover, at the confluence of the Geeste and Weser, separated by the Weser from Bremerhafen; pop. in 1871, 3,219. It was established by the gover...
-Fabre Geffrard
Fabre Geffrard, a mulatto soldier and president of Hayti, born at L'Anse-Veau, Sept. 19, 1806. His father, Nicholas Geffrard, was a general of the war of independence and one of the framers of the nat...
-Gefle
Gefle, a seaport town of Sweden, capital of the Ian of Gefieborg, situated near the gulf of Bothnia and the mouth of the river of its name, 92 m. N. N. W. of Stockholm. It formerly contained a populat...
-Gehenna
Gehenna (Heb. Ge-Hinnom, the vale of Hin-nom), a valley adjacent to Jerusalem, on the south and southwest, also called Tophet, and often mentioned in Scripture in connection with the idolatrous rites ...
-Emannel Geibel
Emannel Geibel, a German poet, born in Lubeck, Oct. 18, 1815. He became associated in 1836 at Berlin with Chamisso, Gaudy, and Kugler, and was professor of aesthetics in the university of Munich from ...
-Abraham Geiger
Abraham Geiger, a German rabbi, orientalist, and Biblical critic, born in Frankfort, May 24, 1810. He studied at the universities of Heidelberg and Bonn, gaining in the latter the prize for a disserta...
-Eric Gustaf Geijer
Eric Gustaf Geijer, a Swedish historian and poet, born at Ransater, Wermland, Jan. 12, 1783, died in Upsal, April 23, 1847. At the age of 16 he was sent to the university of Upsal. He neglected to tak...
-Gela
Gela, an ancient city of southern Sicily, on a river of the same name (now Fiume di Terra-nova), founded about 690 B. C. by a colony of Rhodians from Lindus and Cretans. It soon became flourishing, an...
-Gelatine
Gelatine, an azotized substance obtained from various parts of the animal body, such as the white fibrous tissue, the skin and serous membranes, and cartilage, by boiling in water. The substance as it...
-Gelderland, Or Gnelderland
Gelderland, Or Gnelderland, a province of Holland, bounded N. W. by the Zuyder Zee, S. E. by Prussia, and on the other sides by the provinces of Overyssel, Utrecht, South Holland, and North Brabant; a...
-Geldern
Geldern, a town of Prussia, in the province of the Rhine, on the Niers, 28 m. N. W. of Dusseldorf; pop. in 1871, 5,096. It has a Catholic and a Protestant church, two convents, manufactures of cloth, ...
-Sir William Cell
Sir William Cell, an English scholar, born at Hopton, Derbyshire, in 1777, died in Naples, Feb. 4, 1836. He graduated at Cambridge in 1798, and was sent on a secret mission to the Ionian Islands. In 1...
-Christian Furchtegott Gellert
Christian Furchtegott Gellert, a German poet and moralist, born in Hainichen, Saxony, July 4, 1715, died in Leipsic, Dec. 13, 1769. He was one of the early promoters of the great literary movement whi...
-Aulus Gellius
Aulus Gellius, a Roman grammarian, who flourished about the middle of the 2d century A. D., supposed to have been born in Rome. He studied rhetorio there, and philosophy at Athens. He was still a yout...
-Gelon
Gelon, a ruler of Syracuse, born in Gela in Sicily, died about 478 B. C. He served as commander of the cavalry under Hippocrates, tyrant of Gela; on whose death, the people revolting against his sons,...
-Gem
Gem (Lat. gemma, a bud), the designation of precious stones prized for their brilliant lustre and splendid colors or perfect limpidity. They possess also a hardness which renders them susceptible of t...
-Gem. Part 2
Their specimens are distinguished by low relief, a granular border surrounding the engraving, stiffness in the figures, peculiar style of letters and writing, wings given to the deities which the Gree...
-Gem. Part 3
After the stone is engraved the polish is restored to the fiat surface by a pewter polishing disk or lap fed with rotten stone and water. The engraved portions are polished with great care, first by u...
-Gemini
Gemini (the twins), the third constellation in the zodiac, so named from its two brightest stars, to which the names Castor and Pollux are given, and which are about midway between Aldebaran and Regul...
-George Gemistus
George Gemistus, surnamed Pletho, a scholar and philosopher of the 15th century, born in Constantinople, and said to have lived to the age of 100. He held a high position at the court of the Palaeolog...
-George Gemunder
George Gemunder, an American violin maker, born at Ingelfingen, Wurtemberg, April 13, 1816. He was a pupil of Baptiste Vuil-laume in Paris, and removed to the United States in 1847. establishing himse...
-Auguste Nicolas Gendrin
Auguste Nicolas Gendrin, a French physician, born at Chateaudun, Dec. 6,1796. He received a doctor's diploma in 1821, and published on this occasion Du traitement de le blennor-rhagie, relating to his...
-Auguste Gendron
Auguste Gendron, a French painter, born in Paris in 1818. He studied under Delaroche and in Italy, and became famous (1844-'6) by his picture representing Les willis, or maidens resuscitated from thei...
-Bonaventnra Genelli
Bonaventnra Genelli, a German painter, born in Berlin about 1798, died in Weimar, Nov. 13, 18G8. He studied under his father, who was a landscape painter, and at the academy in Berlin, and during ten ...
-Genesee River
Genesee, a river of western New York, rises in Potter co., Pa., within a few yards of the head waters of the Alleghany and the north branch of the Susquehanna, flows N. W. and N. E. through Alleghany,...
-Genesee County
Genesee. I. A W. county of New York, drained by Tonawanda creek; area, about 48G sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 21,562. The surface is almost level, and the soil, consisting chiefly of a very sandy loam, is we...
-Genesis
Genesis, the name of the first book in the Bible, denoting in Greek the generation, i. e., the account of the generation or production of all things. In Hebrew Bibles it is called Bereshiih, signifyi...
-Genest
Genest (in this country commonly written Genet), Edmond Charles, a French diplomatist, born in Versailles, Jan. 8,1765, died at Schodack, Rensselaer co., N. Y., July 14,1834. Although his father was a...
-Genet
Genet (genetta, Cuv.), a digitigrade carnivorous mammal of the family viverridce, inhabiting Africa, and occasionally found in southern Europe. The dentition and structural characters are the same as ...
-Geneva, Alabama
Geneva, a S. E. county of Alabama, bordering on Florida and intersected by the Choctaw-hatchee and Pea rivers; area, about 550 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 2,957, of whom 227 were colored. Pine forests aboun...
-Geneva, Ontario Co., New York
Geneva, a village of Ontario co., New York, beautifully situated at the N. W. extremity of Seneca lake, on the New York Central and the Geneva and Ithaca railroads, 100 m. E. of Buffalo; pop. in 1870,...
-Geneva
Geneva (Fr. Geneve; Ger. Genf; Ital. Gine-vra), I. A canton of Switzerland, bounded N. by Vaud and the lake of Geneva, and on all other sides by France; area, 109 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 93,239, of whom...
-Lake Of Geneva
Lake Of Geneva, or Lake Leman (anc. Lacus Lemanus), the largest lake of Switzerland, extending in the form of a crescent, with its horns toward the south, between France, on the south, and the cantons...
-Genevieve
Genevieve, I. The patron saint of Paris, born in Nanterre about 422, died in Paris in 512. According to the most common tradition, her parents, Severus and Gerontia, were very poor, and Genevieve's ea...
-Genghis Khan, Zingis Khan
Genghis Khan, or Zingis Khan, an Asiatic conqueror, born about 1160, died in August, 1227. His father was the chief of a horde, consisting of numerous families or clans, and tributary to the khan of e...
-Felicite Stephanie Ducrest De Saint-Anbin Genlis
Felicite Stephanie Ducrest De Saint-Anbin Genlis, countess de, a French authoress, born near Autun, Jan. 25, 1746, died in Paris, Dec. 31, 1830. She had a taste for music, acquired great proficiency o...
-Gennesaret, Or Genesareth
Gennesaret, Or Genesareth, Lake of, called also the sea of Chinnereth (Heb. Yam Kinne-reth), the sea of Galilee, the sea of Tiberias, and by the Arabs Bahr Tubariyeh, situated in Palestine, 65 m. N. o...
-Genoa
Genoa (Ital. Genova; Fr. Genes; anc. Genua). I. A N. W. province of the kingdom of Italy, bordering on the provinces of Porto Maurizio, Coni, Alessandria, Pavia, Piacenza, Parma, and Massa Carrara, an...
-Genoa. Part 2
The richest part is the chapel of St. John the Baptist, into which no woman can enter except on one day in the year, in recollection of the daughter of Herodias. In it is preserved the sacro catino, a...
-Genoa. Part 3
Kaffa, or Feodosia, in the Crimea, became one of the finest commercial cities of Europe. Favored by the friendship and indolence of the Byzantines, they carried on the commerce of the East, including ...
-Tommaso Alberto Vittore Genoa
Tommaso Alberto Vittore Genoa, duke of, an Italian prince, born Feb. 6,1854. He is the son of Victor Emanuel's late brother Ferdinand, and of a Saxon princess, the duchess of Genoa (privately remarrie...
-Genoude
Genoude (originally Genoud), Antoine Engene do, a French journalist and author, born in Montelimart in February, 1792, died in Hy-eres, April 19, 1849. He was the son of a cabaret keeper. He began his...
-Antonio Genovesi
Antonio Genovesi, an Italian philosopher and political economist, born at Castiglione, near Salerno, Nov. 1, 1712, died in Naples, Sept. 22, 1709. He received priest's orders in Salerno in 1730, and h...
-Genseric
Genseric (from Gaiserich, prince of the spear), a Vandal conqueror, bastard brother and successor of Gonderic, died in 477. The Vandals had passed the Alps and the Pyrenees, and devastated and conquer...
-Gentian
Gentian, in medicine, the root of the plant gentiana lutea, growing wild in the mountainous portions of Europe, and imported into the United States from Germany. Some other species are also used for m...
-Gentiles
Gentiles (the equivalent of the Heb. goyim and Gr. ), the name by which the Jews distinguished all other nations or gentes from themselves. In its religious bearing it nearly corresponded to our word ...
-Orazio Gemileschi
Orazio Gemileschi, an Italian painter, whose family name was Lomi, born in Pisa in 1503, died in London, or according to some authorities in Rome, about 1646. At the invitation of Charles I. he took u...
-Gentry
Gentry, a N. W. county of Missouri, intersected by Grand river and drained by its E. and W. forks; area, about 500 sq. in.; pop. in 1870, 11,607, of whom 56 were colored. The chief productions in 1870...
-Friedrich Von Gentz
Friedrich Von Gentz, a German diplomatist and publicist, born in Breslau in 1764, died in Vienna, June 9, 1832. He was considered a dunce until, in his 21st year, he attended Kant's lectures at Konigs...
-Gems
Gems, a closely allied group of animals or plants, characterized by ultimate structural peculiarities. Great confusion prevails among describers in the formation of genera, from their considering form...
-Geode
Geode, a hollow shell of stone, commonly of quartz, found in various rocks, and usually lined with crystals pointing toward the centre. These crystals are for the most part of quartz, often amethystin...
-Geodesy
Geodesy (Gr. earth, andto divide), the science and art of laying out divisions of the earth's surface upon a large scale. It differs from ordinary surveying in its measurements, being constantly refer...
-Geoffrey Of Monmouth
Geoffrey Of Monmouth, an old English chronicler, born about 1100, died about 1154. He is supposed to have received his education in the Benedictine monastery near Monmouth, where he compiled his Chron...
-Marie Therese Geoffrin
Marie Therese Geoffrin, a French lady, born in Paris, June 2, 1699, died there in October, 1777. Her father, M. Rodet, was in the service of the dauphiness. She was barely 15 when she married M. Geoff...
-Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire
Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. I. Etienne. a French zoologist, born in Etampes, April 15, 1772, died in Paris, June 19, 1844. He was educated for an ecclesiastical life, but evinced a taste for natural philo...
-Geography
Geography (Gr. the earth, and to write), the description of the earth. The science comprises three principal divisions: mathematical, physical, and political geography. Mathematical or astronomical ge...
-Geography. Part 2
But his discoveries were neither appreciated nor applied to any practical use till long after his time. About a century and a half after Hipparchus, Strabo, a Greek of Pontus and a great traveller, wr...
-Geography. Part 3
Within 20 years from the time of Gama's arrival in India, the coasts of E. Africa, Arabia, Persia, Hindustan, and Further India had been explored, and many of the islands of the great archipelago disc...
-Geology
Geology (Gr. the earth, anddiscourse), the science which treats of the structure of the earth, and of the methods by which its materials have been arranged. Under this term are confounded two distinct...
-Geology. Part 2
About this time collections of these curiosities were mad for public museums and private cabinets; they were deposited in the museum of the Vatican at Rome, and that of Canceolarius at Verona be...
-Geology. Part 3
They were supposed to have been formed while animals and vegetables existed in numbers, and to have been partly chemical and partly mechanical in their origin. The fourth class contained the alluvial ...
-Geology. Part 4
The piles of strata of various kinds indicated changes in the character of the deposits introduced, sandstones formed from sand, alternating with shales formed from muddy and clayey deposits, and with...
-Geology. Part 5
This branch of the subject will be more particularly treated in the article Palaeontology.-In the latter part of the last and early part of the present century papers upon geological subjects occasion...
-Geology. Part 6
II. Hitchcock, in 1858-'60, the latter of whom is now (1874) engaged in a resurvey of New Hampshire. In 1836 was commenced the survey by H. D. Rogers and his assistants of the state of Pennsylvania, w...
-Geology. Part 7
In accordance with this notion, they were designated metamorphic strata, and this term is by many geologists used as synonymous with stratified crystalline rocks. It was noticed that in some instances...
-Geology. Part 8
Our divisions into systems and groups have been based in great part upon these interruptions, corresponding to omitted leaves in the succession, which the progress of investigation is now gradually su...
-Geology. Part 9
The succession of the members of the palaeozoic series in this country was first clearly defined by the geological survey of New York, which in its reports in 1842 included under the name of the New Y...
-Geology. Part 10
The same name is applied to sandstones of similar age which are found in Prince Edward island and Nova Scotia, in the valley of the Connecticut, and in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and North Ca...
-Geology. Part 11
Besides these contemporaneous deposits, veins or lodes carrying the ores of various metals are found cutting rocks of all ages, and are probably even now in process of formation. - The question of eru...
-Geometry
Geometry (Gr. fromthe earth, andto measure), the science of relations in space. As its name indicates, it originally denoted the measurement of land, and was equivalent to what is known in modern time...
-Geometry. Part 2
The number of different forms in space is infinite, and unless their relations to each other were fixed and definite, and they were susceptible of classification and comparison, there could be no scie...
-Geometry. Part 3
Whether they are destined to remain merely monuments of the ingenuity and acute-ness of their authors, or are to become mighty instruments in the investigation of old and the discovery of new truths, ...
-Geometry. Part 4
They thus transformed the circle into all the conic sections, without any reference to a cone. The great Newton also invented a means to the same end, so that the consideration of the ellipse and para...
-Lewis George
Lewis George I., king of Great Britain and Ireland, first sovereign of the Hanoverian line, born in Osnabri'ick, May 28, 1660, died near that place, June 10, 1727. He was the eldest son of the elector...
-Augustus George
Augustus George II., son of the preceding and of Sophia Dorothea, born in Hanover, Oct. 30, 1683, died in Kensington palace, Oct. 25, 1760. Little is known of his early history, except that he was neg...
-Augustus George. Continued
At the birth of his first child the prince left Hampton court and took up his residence at Norfolk house. The queen died in 1737, recommending her husband to Walpole with her last breath. In 1738 a s...
-William Frederick George
William Frederick George III., grandson of the preceding, and son of Frederick, prince of Wales, and of Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, born June 4, 1738, died in Windsor castle, Jan. 29, 1820. He was not lik...
-William Frederick George. Continued
Lord Chatham urged a conciliatory policy with the Americans in 1777. The same year Bur-goyne's army surrendered, and four years later Cornwallis capitulated. The fortunes of England were never before ...
-Augustus Frederick George
Augustus Frederick George IV., son of the preceding and of Queen Charlotte, born Aug. 12, 1762, died June 2G, 1830. He was educated with great care, and closely restrained until 18 years of age, when ...
-George I
George I., king of Greece, born in Copenhagen, Dec. 24,1845. He is the second son of Christian IX., king of Denmark, and brother of the princess of Wales. On June 6, 1863, he accepted the crown of Gre...
-George V
George V., ex-king of Hanover, born in Berlin, May 27, 1819. He is a son of King Ernest Augustus and of a sister of Queen Louisa of Prussia, and married in 1843 the princess Mary of Saxe-Altenburg. Al...
-George, Prince of Denmark
George, prince of Denmark, born April 21. 1653, died Oct. 28, 1708. He was the second son of Frederick III. and Sophia of Luneburg. On the death of his father in 1670 war was renewed with Sweden, and ...
-Saint George
George. I. The patron saint of England, born, it is supposed, at Lydda or at Ramleh in Palestine in the latter half of the 3d century, said to have died in Nicomedia, April 23, 303. He appears to have...
-George, the Fuller, the Arian, and George of Cappadocia
II. Called the Fuller, the Arian, and George of Cappadocia, born in Epipha-neia, Cilicia, about 300, died in Alexandria toward the close of 361. From the fuller's shop kept by his father, he is said b...
-Enoch George
Enoch George, a bishop of the Methodist Episcopal church in the United States, born in Lancaster co., Va., in 1767 or 1768, died at Staunton, Va., Aug. 23, 1828. After preaching one year at the head w...
-Lake George
Lake George, a picturesque sheet of water inWarren and Washington cos., New York, 36 m. long from N. E. to S.W., from 3/4 m. to 4 m. wide, and in some places 400 ft. deep, discharging into Lake Champl...
-George Of Trebizond
George Of Trebizond, a Greek scholar, born in the island of Crete in 1396, died in Rome in 1486. He arrived in Italy in 1430 at the invitation of Francesco Barbaro, a noble Venetian, and became profes...
-Marguerite Josephine Georges
Marguerite Josephine Georges, mademoiselle, a French actress, born at Bayeux, Feb. 23, 1787, died at Passy, Jan. 12, 1867. She was a daughter of an actress and of a military tailor, Wemmer (long erron...
-Georgetown County, South Carolina
Georgetown, an E. county of South Carolina, bordering on the Atlantic, bounded S. W. by Santee river and intersected by the Great Pedee, Black, and Waccamaw, which unite just above the seat of justice...
-Georgetown, District of Columbia
Georgetown. I. A port of entry of the District of Columbia, situated at the head of navigation on the left bank of the Potomac, 125 m. from its mouth, and 2 1/2 m. N. W. of the capitol, Washington, fr...
-Georgetown, British Guiana
Georgetown (Dutch, Stabroek), the capital of British Guiana, and of the county of Dem-erara, situated on the E. bank of Demerara river, at its mouth, here about 1 m. wide; lat. 6 49' 24 N., Ion....
-Georgia
Georgia, one of the thirteen original states of the American Union, situated between lat. 30 21' and 35 N, and Ion. 80 48' and 85 40' W., having an extreme length N. and S. of 320...
-Georgia. Part 2
These mountains attain an elevation of from 1,200 to 4,000 ft.-The coast of Georgia extends S. S. W. from Tybee sound to Cumberland sound, a distance of about 100 m., with a shore line estimated at 48...
-Georgia. Part 3
The chief deposits are in a belt, 15 to 20 m. wide, extending across the state on the E. slope. The production from 1829 to 1838 is estimated at 800,000 ounces; from 1838 to 1849, at 200,-000 ounces; ...
-Georgia. Part 4
INDUSTRIES. No. of establishments. Capital. Value of products. Agricultural implements........ 10 $39,550 $77,450 Hoots and shoes........ 244 118,665 493,S62 ...
-Georgia. Part 5
No town or city can be granted permission to become a stockholder in or to contribute to any railroad or work of public improvement, unless a majority of the voters desire it; and restrictions are pla...
-Georgia. Part 6
YEARS. ASSESSED VALUE. True value of real and personal. Real. Personal. Both. 1850 .. ........ ........ ........ $335,425,714 1860 .. $179,801,441 $438...
-Georgia. Part 7
These boards constitute a tribunal for the determination of any local controversy respecting the construction and administration of the school laws, an appeal lying from their decisions to the state s...
-Georgia. Part 8
It is not restricted as to color or sex, but is designed especially for the higher education of colored youth. Preparatory, normal, collegiate, agricultural, and theological departments have been orga...
-Georgia. Part 9
The constitution of the United States was ratified by Georgia on Jan. 2, 1788. After the revolutionary war Georgia suffered on her frontiers from the incursions of the Creeks and Cherokees. In 1790 an...
-Georgia. Part 10
The result was a majority of 17,699 for ratification, and the election of Rufus B. Bullock, republican, by 7,047 majority over John B. Gordon, democrat. The legislature consisted of 22 republicans and...
-Georgia, Grusia, Iberia, Gurjistan
Georgia (Russ. Grusia; Pers. Gurjistan; anc. Iberia), the name formerly applied to that part of western Asia comprised in the Russian Transcaucasia, lying between the Caspian and the Black seas, and t...
-Georgia, Grusia, Iberia, Gurjistan. Continued
In the 13th century the Mongolians subdued the country, but in the middle of the 14th George VI. threw off their yoke and extended his sway over the neighboring provinces. Tamerlane reduced the countr...
-Gulf Of Georgia
Gulf Of Georgia, an arm of the sea lying between Vancouver island and the mainland of British Columbia, between lat. 48 50' and 50 K, and Ion. 122 40' and 125 W. On the south it is...
-Georgia Bark
Georgia Bark, the common name of Pincl-neya Pubens, one of the handsomest of our native shrubs. It grows in bogs and along the banks of streams from South Carolina to Florida, and sometimes attains th...
-Gepidae
Gepidae, a Germanic people, akin to the Goths, who first appear in history in the 3d century A. C. as living on the Baltic near the Vistula. They subsequently moved further S. and settled N. of Pannon...
-Gera
Gera, a town in the German principality of Reuss-Schleiz, in a beautiful valley on the right bank of the White Elster, 35. m. S. S. W. of Leipsic; pop. in 1871, 17,959. It consists of the town proper ...
-Ferdinand De Geramb
Ferdinand De Geramb, baron, a French Trap-pist. born in Lyons, April 17,1772, died in Rome, March 15, 1848. He was educated in Vienna, and served against the French in the Austrian, Spanish, and Engli...
-Joseph Marie De Gerando
Joseph Marie De Gerando, baron, a French philosopher and statesman, born in Lyons, Feb. 29, 1772, died in Paris, Nov. 11, 1842. He was educated in the college of the Oratory at Lyons, and was preparin...
-Geranium
Geranium (Gr. a crane), the botanical name of one genus and the popular name of another genus of plants belonging to the family geraniacem. Plants of the genus geranium are herbs with perennial, bienn...
-Gerard
Gerard, the Blessed, a saint of the Roman Catholic church, and founder of the order of knights hospitallers of Saint John of Jerusalem. (See Saint John of Jerusalem.) ...
-Cecile Jules Basile Gerard
Cecile Jules Basile Gerard, a French officer, born at Pignans, Var, June 14, 1817, drowned in Africa in September, 1864. Enlisting in the spahis, he landed in Africa in 1842, and two years later kille...
-Etienne Maurice Gerard
Etienne Maurice Gerard, count, a French marshal, born at Damvillers, April 4, 1773, died in Paris, April 17, 1855. He enlisted in 1791 as a private, served under Dumouriez and Jourdan, and obtained a ...
-Francois Pascal Simon Gerard
Francois Pascal Simon Gerard, baron, a French painter, born in Rome in 1770, died in Paris, Jan. 11, 1837. He entered the studio of David in 1786; in 1792 he visited Italy, but soon returned, and exhi...
-Gerard The Nerval (Gerard Labeunie)
Gerard The Nerval (Gerard Labeunie), a French author, born in Paris, May 21, 1808, died there, Jan. 24, 1855. He published when 18 years old a series of poems entitled Elegies uationalcs, and in 1828 ...
-Geromc Gerardmer
Geromc Gerardmer, or Giromeix, a town of France, in the department of Vosges, on the margin of Lake Gerardmer, near the German frontier, 22 m. S. E. of Epinal; pop. in 1866, 6,225. It covers a conside...
-Gerasa, Or Galasa (Now Jerash)
Gerasa, Or Galasa (Now Jerash), a ruined city of Palestine, E. of the Jordan, in the ancient The Little Theatre at Gerasa. Decapolis, 55 m. N. E. of Jerusalem, on the opposite slopes of two hills,...
-Hyacinthe Sigismond Gerdil
Hyacinthe Sigismond Gerdil, a Savoyard philosopher, born at Samoens, June 23, 1718, died in Rome, Aug. 12, 1802. He became a Barna-bite, studied theology in Bologna, won the friendship of Cardinal Lam...
-Pierre Nicolas Gerdy
Pierre Nicolas Gerdy, a French physiologist, bornatLoches, Aube, May 1.1797, died in Paris, March 18, 1856. In 1834 he became professor in the Paris faculty of medicine, and in 1837 was elected a memb...
-Eduard Gerhard
Eduard Gerhard. a German archaeologist, born in Posen, Nov. 29, 1795, died May 12, 1867. Resigning a professorship at Breslau on account of weak eves, he travelled in Italy, and resided 15 years in Ro...
-Charles Frederic Gerhardt
Charles Frederic Gerhardt, a French chemist, born in Strasburg. Aug. 21, 1816, died there, Aug. 19, 1856. The son of a manufacturer of chemical products, he studied in 1835 in Liebig's laboratory at G...
-Paul Gerhardt
Paul Gerhardt, a German poet and theologian, born at Grafenhainichen, near Wittenberg, March 12, 1607, died at Lubben, June 7, 1070. Little is known of his life till in 1651 he became pastor at Mitten...
-Jean Louis Theodore Andre Gericault
Jean Louis Theodore Andre Gericault, a French painter, born in Rouen in 1790, died in Paris, Jan. 18, 1824. He was a pupil of Carle Vernet and of Guerin, and his first pictures, theGuide of the Imper...
-Otto Von Gerlach
Otto Von Gerlach, a German theologian, born in Berlin in 1801, died there, Oct. 24, 1849. He held various ecclesiastical offices, and not long before his death became professor at Berlin. He published...
-German Catholics
German Catholics (Deutschhatliolilcen), a religious denomination, formed in 1844 by secession from the Roman Catholic church of Germany. It owed its origin mainly to a letter written Oct, 1, 1844, by ...
-Germanic Races And Languages
Germanic Races And Languages. Before the political history of Germany began, or a distinct German nation appeared, Germanic races moulded the political organizations of the north and west of Europe, a...
-Germanic Races And Languages. Part 2
It is impossible to state the precise limits of the different tribes. There was a constant shifting of settlements, and the subsequent migrations have rendered the boundaries of Tacitus totally undist...
-Germanic Races And Languages. Part 3
They may be divided into Low German and High German dialects, of which the latter may be subdivided into South German and Middle German. Since the time of Luther these historical peculiarities of spee...
-Germanic Races And Languages. Part 4
Old Norse is the dialect which from an unknown period to the 11th century was spoken in Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and the adjacent islands. It is believed that it was split at a very early date into tw...
-Germanicus Caesar
Germanicus Caesar, a Roman general, born in Rome, 15 B. C, died near Antioch in A. I). 19. He was the son of Claudius Nero Drusus and Antonia, the daughter of the triumvir Antony, and was adopted by h...
-German Ivy
German Ivy (senecio scandens), a house plant cultivated for its quick-growing, ivy-like foliage, but which is not properly an ivy. It is one of the composite family, and a native of the Cape of Good H...
-German Silver, Or Argentane
German Silver, Or Argentane, an alloy resembling silver, made of variable proportions of its ingredients according to the uses for which it is designed. A composition of 8 parts of copper to 3 each of...
-Germantown
Germantown, formerly a post borough of Philadelphia co., Pennsylvania, 6 m. N. W. of the state house, Philadelphia, and included since 1854 in the 22d ward of that city; pop. of the ward in 1870, 22,6...
-Germanus
Germanus (Fr. St. Germain l'Auxerrois), a saint of the Roman Catholic church, born in Auxerre, central Gaul, about 380, died in Ravenna, July 31, 448 or 449. He was of a senatorial family, studied lit...
-Germany
Germany (Ger. Dentschland; Fr. Allemagne), formerly a large empire of central Europe, with an area at the time of the first French revolution of 267,714 sq. m., and 26,265,000 inhabitants. From 1806 t...
-Germany. Part 2
The spurs of this ridge, extending as far X. as the Neckar river, there meet with the Odenwald (grand duchy of Hesse), which, by the Spessart and Rhon (N. W. frontier of Bavaria), and again by the Thu...
-Germany. Part 3
The following deserve to be mentioned: the lake of Constance (Bodensee), the banks of which belong to five different states, Baden, Wuirtemberg, Bavaria, Austria, and Switzerland; Ammer, Wurm, Chiem, ...
-Germany. Part 4
The culture of the vine extends to lat. 51 30'. (See Germany, Wines of.) -The three free cities excepted, the greatest density of population prevails in the principality of Reuss elder line (473 ...
-Germany. Part 5
In the 14th century the silk manufacture was introduced, and the first paper mill was established as early as 1390. During the 15th century Germany became celebrated for its watch manufacture. Printin...
-Germany. Part 6
These coins will be received at their old value until Jan. 1, 1875, when they will be superseded. According to the new law for the uniformity of the coinage throughout the empire, published in 1872, t...
-Germany. Part 7
Such sections of the imperial constitution as provide for the rights of particular states can only be changed with the consent of the state concerned. States which fail to fulfil their federal duties ...
-Germany. Part 8
Breslau, Bonn, and Tubingen have two theological faculties, Catholic and Protestant; in Munich, Wurzburg, and Freiburg, the theological faculty is Catholic, in all the others Protestant. Among the uni...
-Germany. Part 9
The contest between these and the imperial power fills the history of Germany for centuries. The feeble successor of Charlemagne was unable to keep the vast empire together. In 843 it was divided betw...
-Germany. Part 10
The Protestant princes of northern Germany leagued themselves against the imperial authority, and though Charles defeated them (1547) by the aid of Maurice of Saxony, he was compelled by his former al...
-Germany. Part 11
When at last the bill of rights had been agreed upon (December, 1848), the counter-revolution had already been victorious in Austria and Prussia, and it became apparent that these great powers would n...
-Germany. Part 12
The latter succeeded in proving that the assertion of the emperor had no foundation in fact, and that he had been purposely misled by false representations of the French ruler at the interview of Vill...
-Germany. Part 13
The great majority of princes assented to the project of the emperor of Austria, according to which a directory of five princes (Austria, Prussia, Bavaria, and two others) was to be at the head of the...
-Germany. Part 14
This was regarded by Prussia as a termination of the Gastein convention; her troops were at once marched into Holstein, and the Austrian governor of Holstein was invited to reenter into the joint occu...
-Germany. Part 15
In Baden both the government and the chambers expressed a wish to enter the confederation. Bismarck issued a circular note on the demonstrations of public opinion, which he declared to be significant ...
-Germany. Part 16
The conflict between them and the imperial government became more intense in 1872. One expression in a speech which the pope had made on June 25 was regarded by the majority of Germans as a direct wis...
-Language Aud Literature Of Germany
Language Aud Literature Of Germany. The formation, the history, and the philological affinities of the German tongue have been treated at length in the article Germanic Races and Languages, and we sha...
-Language Aud Literature Of Germany. Part 2
On synonymes, see Gottsched, Beobachtungen vber den Gebrauch und Missbrauch vieler deutscher Worter (1758); Heynatz (1795); Eberhard (1802); Maass, Wiegand, Ch. F. Meyer, etc.-German Literature receiv...
-Language Aud Literature Of Germany. Part 3
An important event of this century, in its general influence upon the future development of German literature, was the establishment of the university of Prague in 1348, soon followed by universities ...
-Language Aud Literature Of Germany. Part 4
In the 16th century their corporation derived great prestige from the genius of Hans Sachs, the poet and cobbler of Nuremberg (then the headquarters of the Meistcrsa,nger), whom Herder calls the Meist...
-Language Aud Literature Of Germany. Part 5
Gottsched in Leipsic (1700-1766), laboring in the same direction as Thomasius, exerted himself to make the German language the sole medium of instruction, and published in it manuals and abridgments o...
-Language Aud Literature Of Germany. Part 6
Among the members of the union were Burger (1748-94), the author of Lenore and other wild and picturesque ballads and songs; Voss (1751-1826), one of the most learned and eloquent philologists of his ...
-Language Aud Literature Of Germany. Part 7
This epoch comprises the lyrical poets Schenkendorf (1783-1817), Stageimann (1763-1840), Kosegarten (1758-1818), Bagge-sen the Dane (1764-1826), Matthisson (1761-1831), Mahlmann (1771-1826), Salis (17...
-Language Aud Literature Of Germany. Part 8
Here belong also the semi-historical novels of Louise Miihlbach (Mme. Mundt, 1814-'73), which have enjoyed a very wide popularity, but are not entitled to high rank either from a literary point of vie...
-Language Aud Literature Of Germany. Part 9
Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859) gave a powerful impulse to almost all departments of knowledge by his Cosmos, Travels, Views of Nature, and the general sugges-tiveness of his labors. While he ma...
-Language Aud Literature Of Germany. Part 10
Another pleasing narrator of his journeys is Mundt. A voluminous writer of travels is the tourist Kohl (born 1808). Ida Pfeiffer (1797-1858) showed herself a most intrepid and indefatigable tourist an...
-Rhine Wine And Gorman Wine, Germany
Germany, Atincs of. The wine-producing area of Germany is limited chiefly to those parts watered by the Rhine and its tributaries, the Moselle, the Nahe, the Neckar, the Main, and several smaller stre...
-Rhine Wine And Gorman Wine, Germany. Continued
The first quality has been known to command from $5 to $8 a bottle; but the auction wines are much less valuable, and sell for from $250 to $1,000 the piece, according to the qualities they possess fo...
-Germersheim
Germersheim, a fortified town of Rhenish Bavaria, at the confluence of the Queich and the Rhine, 7 m. S. W. of Spire; pop. in 1871, 6,223. It has several churches and schools, and an active trade in g...
-Karl Gerok
Karl Gerok, a German prelate and poet, born at Vaihingen, Wiirtemberg, Jan. 30, 1815. He studied at the gymnasium of Stuttgart, held various ecclesiastical offices, and in 1868 was appointed first pre...
-Jean Leon Gerome
Jean Leon Gerome, a French painter, born in Vesoul, -May 11, 1824. In 1841 he went to Paris and studied under Paul Delaroche, whom he accompanied to Italy, He returned to Paris in 1845, and exhibited ...
-Gerona
Gerona. I. A province of Spain, in Catalonia, forming the N. E. extremity of the peninsula, bordering on France and the Mediterranean, and on the provinces of Barcelona and Lerida; area, 2,272 sq. m.;...
-Elbridge Gerry
Elbridge Gerry, an American statesman, fifth vice president of the United States, born in Marblehead, M ass., July 17, 1744, died in Washington, Nov. 13, 1814. He graduated at Harvard college in 1762,...
-Gers
Gers, a S. W. department of France, formed from parts of Gascony and Guienne, bordering on the departments of Lot-et-Garonne, Tarn-et-Garonne, Haute-Garonne, Hautes-Pyrenees, Basses-Pyrenees, and Land...
-Gerson Ben Judah
Gerson Ben Judah, a rabbi of France, distinguished by the appellations Rabbenu (our master), Hazzaken (the old man), and Meor haggolah (light of the exiled), horn in Germany about 960, died about 1030...
-Friedricli Gerstacker
Friedricli Gerstacker, a German traveller and novelist, born in Hamburg in May, 1816, died in Vienna, May 31, 1872. After a brief term in a commercial school he was apprenticed to a grocer in Cassel; ...
-Georg Gottfried Gervinus
Georg Gottfried Gervinus, a German historian and statesman, born in Darmstadt, May 20, 1805, died in Heidelberg, March 18, 1871. He was educated at the university of Heidelberg, afterward spent severa...
-Frierich Heinrith Wilhelm Gesenius
Frierich Heinrith Wilhelm Gesenius, a German orientalist, born in Nordhausen, Feb. 3, 1786, died in Halle, Oct. 23, 1842. He studied at the universities of Helmstedt and Gottingen, and was appointed i...
-Konrad Von Gesner
Konrad Von Gesner, a Swiss naturalist and philologist, born in Zurich, March 26, 1516, died there, Dec. 13, 1565. He studied at Zurich, Strasburg, Paris, Basel, and Montpellier, and was successively m...
-Salomon Gessner
Salomon Gessner, a Swiss painter and poet, born in Zurich, April 1,1730, died there, March 2, 1788. His father attempted in vain to engage him in his own business of bookselling, and allowed him to fo...
-Getae
Getae, a Thracian tribe mentioned by Herodotus and Thucydides as living S. of the Ister (Danube), and by later writers among the tribes N. of that river. Some critics regard them as identical with the...
-Gethsemane
Gethsemane (from Heb. gath shemen, oil press), a garden or olive plot near Jerusalem, and across the brook Kedron, to which Jesus with his disciples often repaired, notably on the night of his betraya...
-Gettysburg
Gettysburg, a borough and the capital of Adams co., Pennsylvania, situated on elevated ground in a rich farming country, at the terminus of the Susquehanna, Gettysburg, and Potomac railroad, 36 m. S. ...
-Battle Of Gettysburg
Battle Of Gettysburg, fought July 1, 2, and 3, 1863, between the Union army of the Potomac under Gen. Meade, and the confederate army of Northern Virginia under Gen. Lee. After the battle of Chancello...
-Battle Of Gettysburg. Continued
Opposite this is Seminary ridge, upon which the greater part of Lee's army was posted; Ewell's corps, however, lay at the foot of Gulp's' hill, 2 m. distant. The forces present or close at hand were a...
-Geysers
Geysers (Icelandic, geysa, to burst forth violently), intermittent hot springs found in various parts of the world. In Iceland the principal geysers are in the S.W. part of the island, about 35 m. N....
-Geysers. Part 2
By successive efforts enough of the superincumbent column is thrown off to raise nearly all the water in the tube to the boiling point, until at last the relief from pressure is sufficient to permit t...
-Geysers. Part 3
Hot and cold springs, boiling springs, and quiet springs lie within a few feet of each other. They differ also in color, smell, and taste. Some are clear and transparent, others white, yellow, or red ...
-Geysers. Part 4
The Cavern has a basin 15 by 20 ft. wide and 20 ft. in depth; the water is of a bright blue tint, and of wonderful clearness. . The mud springs of this group are from an inch or two to 20 or 30 ft. in...
-Geysers. Part 5
This immense body of water is kept up to this height for about 20 minutes, when it gradually recedes and again becomes quiescent. On the opposite side of the river is the Castle, so called from its re...
-Angnst Friedrieh Gfrorer
Angnst Friedrieh Gfrorer, a German historian, born in Calw, March 5, 1803, died in Carlsbad, July 10, 1861. He studied theology at Tubingen from 1821 to 1825, was appointed in 1828 tutor in the theolo...
-Ghadames, Or Gadames
Ghadames, Or Gadames, a town of Africa, in an oasis near the S. E. corner of the Algerian part of the desert of Sahara, about 300 m. S. W. of Tripoli; pop. about 7,000, mainly Arabs, Moors, and negroe...
-Ghafts
Ghafts (literally, mountain pass; whence, through the Teutonic languages, the English word gate), the name of two ranges of mountains in S. Hindostan. The principal of these is the Western, which exte...
-Ghazepoor, Or Ghazceporc
Ghazepoor, Or Ghazceporc, a town of British India, in a district of the same name, division of Benares, Northwest Provinces, situated on the left bank of the Ganges, 42 m. N. E. of Benares; pop. about...
-Ghee
Ghee, a kind of butter used in many parts of India, prepared generally from the milk of buffaloes. The milk is successively boiled, cooled, and mixed with a little curdled milk. The process is complet...
-Gheel
Gheel, a town and commune of Belgium, in the province and 26 m. E. by S. of the city of Antwerp; pop. in 1867, 11,200. It has several churches and some manufactures. The commune has been from the 13th...
-Ghent
Ghent (Flem. Gend; Fr. Gand; Ger. Gent), a city of Belgium, capital of the province of East Flanders; pop. in 1871, 123,765. It is situated at the junction of the Scheldt and the Lys, 30 m. N. W. of B...
-Ugolino Della Gherardesca
Ugolino Della Gherardesca, an Italian partisan leader, died in Pisa in 1289. His ancestors originally came from Tuscany and removed to Pisa as prominent Ghibellines. In order to secure his supremacy i...
-Gheriah, Or Viziadroog
Gheriah, Or Viziadroog, a town and fort of the province of Bombay, British India, in the collectorate of Rutnagherry, South Concan, 170 m. S. of Bombay. It has a safe harbor at the mouth of the river ...
-Lorenzo Ghiberti
Lorenzo Ghiberti, an Italian sculptor, architect, and painter, born in Florence about 1380, died there about 1455. The son of a goldsmith, he early learned to imitate ancient medals, and began to exer...
-Ghilan
Ghilan, a province of Persia, bounded X. by Russia, E. and N. E. by the Caspian sea, S. E. by the province of Mazanderan, S. and S. W. by Irak-Ajemi, and N. W. by Azerbijan. It is about 120 m. long an...
-Ghirlandaio
Ghirlandaio (otherwise called Corradi, or Bigordi), Domenico del, an Italian painter, the master of Michel Angelo, born in Florence in 1451, died there in 1495. His father was a goldsmith, called Ghir...
-Ghuzni, Ghiznee, Or Ghazna
Ghuzni, Ghiznee, Or Ghazna, a fortified city of Afghanistan, on the river Ghuzni, 80 m. S. S. W. of Cabool; pop. estimated at from 3,000 to 10,000. It is a commercial entrepot between the Punjaub and...
-Giant
Giant (Gr. gen.fromthe earth, and obsoleteto be born, earthborn), a person of extraordinary stature. The Hebrew word nephilim (Gen. vi. 4.), which the Septuagint renders giantshas had a variety of int...
-Giants Causeway
Giants Causeway, a series of columnar basaltic rocks in the county Antrim, on the N. E. coast of Ireland, between Bengore Head and Port Rush. For 8 m. along the coast, from Bengore to Fairhead, the la...
-Giaour
Giaour, a term of insult applied by the Turks to all unbelievers in Mohammedanism, and especially to Christians. The sultan Mah-moud II. forbade his subjects to apply it to any European Christian. It ...
-Gibbon
Gibbon (hylobates), a genus of apes, sometimes called wood-walkers from their astonishing agility in swinging from tree to tree. They seem to form a connecting link between the apes and the baboons, h...
-Edward Gibbon
Edward Gibbon, an English historian, born in Putney, April 27,1737, died in London, Jan. 16, 1794. He was the eldest of a family of six sons and a daughter, all the rest of whom died in infancy, and h...
-Edward Gibbon. Continued
Near the close of 1775 the first volume of his history was completed. It was refused by the bookseller Elmsley, but accepted by Cadell and Strahan. It appeared in February, 1776; its success was immed...
-Grinling Gibbons
Grinling Gibbons, an English wood carver and sculptor, born about 1650, died in London, Aug. 3, 1721. He was the son of a Dutchman who settled in London; and as he early excelled in his art, Evelyn re...
-Orlando Gibbons
Orlando Gibbons, an English composer, born in Cambridge in 1583, died in 1625. At the age of 21 he was made organist of the royal chapel. In 1622 the degree of doctor of music was conferred on him by ...
-Josiah Willard Gibbs
Josiah Willard Gibbs, an American philologist, born in Salem, Mass., April 30, 1790, died in New Haven, March 25, 1861. He graduated at Yale college in 1809, and was tutor in that institution from 181...
-Wolcott Gibbs
Wolcott Gibbs, an American chemist, born in New York, Feb. 21, 1822. He graduated at Columbia college in 1841, and studied chemistry under Prof. Hare at Philadelphia, and medicine at the New York coll...
-Gibeon
Gibeon (Heb., hill city), one of the principal cities of Palestine, about 5 m. N. W. of Jerusalem. Before the conquest of Canaan by Joshua, it was inhabited by Hivites, who by stratagem secured their ...
-Gibraltar
Gibraltar (Arab. Jebel al-Tarik, mount of Tarik), a fortified rock on the S. coast of Andalusia, Spain, belonging to Great Britain, and giving name to a town and bay on its W. side, and to the strait ...
-Gibson
Gibson. I. A W. county of Tennessee, drained by Forked Deer and Obion rivers; area, 520 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 25,666, of whom 6,856 were colored. The surface is generally even and the soil fertile. Th...
-John Gibson
John Gibson, an English sculptor, born at Conway, North Wales, in 1791, died in Rome, Jan. 27, 1866. His father, who was a market gardener, removed to Liverpool, and young Gibson, after endeavoring to...
-Joshua Reed Giddings
Joshua Reed Giddings, an American statesman, born at Athens, Pa., Oct. 6, 1795, died in Montreal, May 27, 1864. In his infancy his parents removed to Canandaigua, N. Y., where they remained till he wa...
-Gideon
Gideon, surnamed Jerubbaal, the fifth judge in Israel, was the son of Joash, of the tribe of Manasseh, and dwelt at Ophrah. His history is narrated in Judges vi.-ix. Israel had been for seven years hu...
-Gien
Gien, a town of France, in the department of Loiret, on the right bank of the Loire, crossed here by a fine stone bridge of 12 arches, 38 m. S. E. of Orleans; pop. in I866, 6,717. It is built on a hil...
-Friedrieh Wilhelm Benjamin Von Giesebrecht
Friedrieh Wilhelm Benjamin Von Giesebrecht, a German historian, born in Berlin, March 5, 1814. His father, Karl Heinrich Ludwig, was a dramatist, and his uncle, Heinrich Ludwig Theodor, was a poet and...
-Johann Karl Ludwig Gieseler
Johann Karl Ludwig Gieseler, a German church historian, born at Petershagen, March 3, 1792, died in Gottingen, July 8, 1854. He interrupted his studies in the university of Halle to serve as a volunte...
-Giessen
Giessen, a town of Germany, capital of the province of Upper Hesse, in the grand duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, situated at the confluence of the Wieseck with the Lahn, 30 m. N. of Frankfort; pop. in 1871,...
-Helen Selina Gifford
Helen Selina Gifford, countess of, an English poetess, born in 1807, died June 13, 1867. She was a daughter of Richard Brinsley Sheridan, and sister of the duchess of Somerset and of the Hon. Mrs. Nor...
-Robert Swain Gifford
Robert Swain Gifford, an American painter, born in Naushon, Mass., Dec. 23, 1840. He studied in New York with Albert Van Beest, and in 1869 made an extensive sketching tour through California and Oreg...
-Sandford Robinson Gifford
Sandford Robinson Gifford, an American painter, born in Greenfield, Saratoga co., N. Y., July 10, 1823. His childhood and youth were passed at Hudson, and in 1842 he entered Brown university, where he...
-William Gifford
William Gifford, an English author, born in Ashburton, Devonshire, in April, 1757, died in London, Dec. 31, 1826. He was left an orphan in childhood, and apprenticed to a shoemaker. His master refused...
-Gift
Gift, a voluntary transfer of property of any kind. The word give is generally employed among the words of transfer in deeds of land; but by gifts, in law, are usually meant transfers of chattels or p...
-Francois Regis Gignoux
Francois Regis Gignoux, a French painter, born in Lyons in 1816. His art education was acquired chiefly in Paris, where he was under the instruction of Delaroche, Vernet, and other eminent masters. In...
-Joan Francois Gigoux
Joan Francois Gigoux, a French painter, born in Besancon in 1806. He is said to have been originally a blacksmith, and became famous in 1835 by his Death of Leonardo da Vinci. In 1850 he exhibited ...
-Gijon
Gijon, a seaport of Asturias, Spain, on the bay of Biscay, in the province and 15 m. N. N. E. of the city of Oviedo; pop. about 10,500. It is built on a low headland, surmounted by a hill. Some ancien...
-Gila
Gila, a river of New Mexico and Arizona, the principal tributary of the Colorado river of the West. It rises in the Sierra Madre mountains in Socorro co., New Mexico, flows S. W. to near the Arizona b...
-Sir Humphrey Gilbert
Sir Humphrey Gilbert, an English navigator, half brother of Sir Walter Raleigh, born at Dartmouth in 1539, lost at sea about the end of 1583. He was educated at Eton and Oxford, followed the military ...
-Sir John Gilbert
Sir John Gilbert, an English painter, born in 1817. He exhibited in 1836 a water-color drawing,The Arrest of Lord Hastings, in the Suffolk street gallery, and an oil painting in the royal academy. In...
-Gilbertines
Gilbertines, an English religious order, so called from the founder, St. Gilbert of Sem-pringham(bornin 1083, diedFeb.4,1189). They were also called the Order of Sempringham. Gilbert, who was by birt...
-Gilbert Islands, Or Kingsmill Group
Gilbert Islands, Or Kingsmill Group, a cluster of coral islands in the Pacific, on both sides of the equator, between Ion. 172 and 174 30' E.; pop. estimated at 60,000. The largest are Taput...
-Gilboa
Gilboa, a mountain in Palestine, between the river Jordan and the plain of Esdraelon, the scene of the defeat and death of Saul and Jonathan. The name Gilboa signifies a bubbling fountain, and was pro...
-Gildas
Gildas, surnamed the Wise, a British historian, born, according to some authorities, in 493, according to others in 511, died in 570 or 590. He was the son of Caw, a British prince who emigrated to ...
-Otto Gildemeister
Otto Gildemeister, a German writer, born in Bremen, March 13, 1823. He studied at the university of Bonn, and became in 1845 connected with and in 1850 editor-in-chief of the Weserzeitung. In 1852 he...
-Gilding
Gilding, the covering of the surfaces of bodies with a thin coating of gold. This method of economizing the precious metal, and imparting to solid bodies the appearance of being wholly composed of it,...
-Gilead
Gilead, the name of a mountain group in the eastern division of ancient Palestine. From it the southern districts of the same division were also called Gilead, which is often mentioned in contradistin...
-Giles
Giles. I. A S. W. county of Virginia, intersected by Kanawha or New river; area, 350 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 5,875, of whom 598 were colored. The surface is high and rugged, the mean elevation being 1,6...
-Henry Giles
Henry Giles, an American clergyman and lecturer, born in county Wexford, Ireland, Nov. 1, 1809. He was educated in the Roman Catholic church, but after various changes of opinion joined the Unitarians...
-William Branch Giles
William Branch Giles, an American statesman, born in Amelia co., Va,, Aug. 12, 1762, died at The Wigwam, in the same county, Dec. 4,1830. He entered Princeton college, N. J., but left it before comp...
-George Gilfillan
George Gilfillan, a Scottish author, born at Comrie, Perthshire, in 1813. The son of a minister of the Secession church, he was educated for the same profession, and has officiated since 1836 as minis...
-Gillespie
Gillespie, a S. W. central county of Texas, watered by affluents of the Colorado; area, 925 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 3,566, of whom 77 were colored. It has a hilly surface, about one tenth of which is su...
-William Mitchell Gillespie
William Mitchell Gillespie, an American author, born in New York in 1816, died there, Jan. 1, 1868. He graduated at Columbia college in 1834, and spent nearly ten years in Europe in travel and study. ...
-John Gillies
John Gillies, a Scottish historian, born in Brechin, Forfarshire, Jan. 18, 1747, died in Clapham, near London, Feb. 15, 1836. He was educated at the university of Glasgow, where he became professor of...
-Gilliflower
Gilliflower, the trivial name of the garden species of mathiola, usually called stocks by the florists, and sometimes stock gilliflowers and gillies. The name gilliflower has a curious origin: the Fre...
-Qnincy Adams Gillmore
Qnincy Adams Gillmore, an American soldier and engineer, born at Black River, Lorain co., Ohio, Feb. 28, 1825. He graduated at West Point in 1849, and served in the engineer corps and as assistant ins...
-Joseph Gillott
Joseph Gillott, an English manufacturer, born in Warwickshire about 1800, died in Birmingham, Jan. 6, 1872. He began life as a grinder of cutlery in Sheffield. Then he removed to Birmingham, and with ...
-James Gillray
James Gillray, an English engraver and caricaturist, born in Chelsea about 1757, died in London, June 1, 1815. He was the son of a Chelsea pensioner, studied in the royal academy, and about 1784 becam...
-Chandler Robbins Gilman
Chandler Robbins Gilman, an American physician, born at Marietta, Ohio, Sept. 6, 1802, died at Middletown, Conn., Sept. 26, 1865. During his childhood his father removed to Philadelphia. He took the d...
-John Taylor Gilman
John Taylor Gilman, an American statesman, born in Exeter, N. H., Dec. 19, 1753, died there, Sept. 1, 1828. On the morning after the news of the battle of Lexington and Concord reached Exeter, he marc...
-Gilman
Gilman. I. Samuel, an American clergyman, born in Gloucester, Mass., Feb. 16, 1791, died in Kingston, Mass., Feb. 9, 1858. He graduated at Harvard college in 1811, studied theology, and was tutor in m...
-Gilmer
Gilmer. I. A N. W. central county of West Virginia, watered by Little Kanawha river; area, 512 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 4,338, of whom 27 were colored. It has a rough surface, much of which is thickly wo...
-Gilolo, Or Halmahora
Gilolo, Or Halmahora, an island of the Indian archipelago, in the Molucca group, between Celebes and New Guinea, separated from the former by the Molucca passage and from the latter by Gilolo strait; ...
-Gilpin
Gilpin, a N. central county of Colorado, lying chiefly in the foot hills; area, about 150 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 5,490. The average altitude of the county is about 9,000 ft.,but the climate is mild. Th...
-Bernard Gilpin
Bernard Gilpin, an English ecclesiastic, born in Kentmire, Westmoreland, in 1517, died in Houghton, Durham, in 1583. He was educated at Oxford, became a convert to Protestantism after a disputation wi...
-Gin, Or Geneva
Gin, Or Geneva (Fr. genievre, juniper), an alcoholic liquor, distilled generally from rye and barley and flavored with juniper. It was made originally in Holland, whence it is sometimes called hollan...
-Anton Gindely
Anton Gindely, a German historian, born in Prague, Sept. 3, 1829. He became in 1853 professor of the German language and literature at the Bohemian Oberreahcliule in Prague, and in 1862 of Austrian hi...
-Ginger
Ginger, the scraped and dried rhizoma of zingiber officinale, a plant of the order zingi-beracem, a native of Hindostan, but cultivatad both in the East and West Indies, and in Sierra Leone. It has a ...
-Gingko
Gingko (Salisburia adiantifolia), a large tree from China and Japan, belonging to the yew suborder of coniferae. No tree can appear less like a member of the pine family than the ginkgo; it is a rapid...
-Gingras
Gingras, a N. E. co. of Dakota territory, recently formed, and not included in the census of 1870; area, about 1,450 sq. m. Dakota or James river rises here, and Cheyenne river flows through the N. pa...
-Pierre Louis Ginguene
Pierre Louis Ginguene, a French historian, born in Rennes, April 25, 1748, died in Paris, Nov. 16, 1816. He went to Paris in 1772, being then acquainted with classical, French, Italian, and English li...
-Ginseng
Ginseng, the root of the perennial herb formerly called panax quinquefolium, but now placed in the genus aralia. The Chinese ginseng is probably derived from another species of the same genus. The roo...
-Giovanni Antonio Gioberti
Giovanni Antonio Gioberti, an Italian chemist, born at Mangardino, Piedmont, Oct. 28, 1761, died Sept. 14, 1834. He introduced the principles of Lavoisier into Italy; in 1790 became perpetual secretar...
-Vincenzo Gioberti
Vincenzo Gioberti, an Italian philosopher, born in Turin, April 5,1801, died in Paris, Oct. 20, 1852. He studied at the university of Turin, and in 1825 was ordained priest. Becoming professor of theo...
-Giocondo, Or Jocundus
Giocondo, Or Jocundus, Fra Giovanni, an Italian architect, born in Verona about 1450, died in Rome about 1530. He was a Dominican friar, studied archaeology in Rome, and collected in that city upward ...
-Gioja, Or Gioja Dal Colle
Gioja, Or Gioja Dal Colle, a town of Italy, in the province of Bari, situated on the crest of the E. branch of the Apennines, on the road from Bari to Taranto, 18 m. E. by S. of Altamura; pop. in 1862...
-Melchiorre Gioja
Melchiorre Gioja, an Italian political economist, born in Piacenza, Sept. 20, 1767, died in Milan, Jan. 2, 1829. He studied in his native city at the college Alberoni, and received holy orders. He liv...
-Luca Giordano
Luca Giordano, an Italian painter, born in Naples in 1632, died there, Jan. 12, 1705. He studied at first under Ribera, and afterward went to Rome and studied under Pietro da Cortona. He painted with ...
-Giotto
Giotto, called also Giotto di Bondone from his father, and by some Ambrogiotto, the regenerator of Italian art, born at Vespignano, near Florence, in 1270, died in the latter place about 1337. Traditi...
-Paolo (Paulus Jovius) Giovio
Paolo (Paulus Jovius) Giovio, an Italian Latin historian, born in Como, April 19, 1483, died in Florence, Dec. 11, 1552. He studied at Pa via, abandoned medical for historical inquiries, was protected...
-Giraffe, Or Camelopard {Giraffa Camelopar-Dalis Of Most Authors; Cervus Canelopardalis Of Linmeus)
Giraffe, Or Camelopard {Giraffa Camelopar-Dalis Of Most Authors; Cervus Canelopardalis Of Linmeus), an African genus of the ruminants, with persistent horns, common to both sexes, having but a single ...
-Philippe De Girard
Philippe De Girard, a French inventor, born near Avignon, Feb. 1, 1775. died in Paris, Aug. 26, 1845. In 1806 he exhibited an improvement in lamps, and in the same year made some improvement in the st...
-Stephen Girard
Stephen Girard, an American merchant and banker, born near Bordeaux, France, Mav 24, 1750, died in Philadelphia, Dec. 26, 1831.* He was the son of a seaman, and sailed about 1760 as cabin boy to the W...
-Girardin
Girardin. I. Emile de, a French journalist, born in Paris, June 22, 1806. The natural son of Count Alexandre de Girardin and Mrae. Dupuy, wife of a counsellor, and registered at his birth under the na...
-Jean Pierre Lonis Girardin
Jean Pierre Lonis Girardin, a French chemist, born in Paris, Nov. 16, 1803. He has popularized chemistry by teaching its application to art, industry, and agriculture, as professor at Rouen from 1838 ...
-Marc Girardin
Marc Girardin, or, as he signed himself, Saint-Marc, a French journalist, born in Paris in February, 1801, died there, April 11, 1873. After completing his classical studies at the college of Henry IV...
-Francois Girardon
Francois Girardon, a French sculptor, born in Troyes, March 16, 1628, died in 1715. He was furnished by Chancellor Seguier with the means of studying his art in Paris and Italy. He was patronized by ...
-Charles Joseph Barthelemy Giraud
Charles Joseph Barthelemy Giraud, a French jurist, born at Pernes, Vaucluse, Feb. 20, 1802. He studied at Aix, where he became professor of administrative science and president of the academy. In 1842...
-Girgenti
Girgenti. I. A province of Sicily, on the S. W. coast; area, 1,491 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 289,018. Its surface is mountainous, with numerous valleys, which are exuberantly fertile, and yield corn, wine...
-Anne Louis (Girodet De Coussy) Girodet-Trioson
Anne Louis (Girodet De Coussy) Girodet-Trioson, a French painter, born in Montargis in 1767, died in Paris, Dec. 9, 1824. He was a pupil of David, and obtained the great prize, which enabled him to go...
-Gironde
Gironde, a S. W. department of France, formerly a part of the province of Guienne, bordering on the bay of Biscay and the departments of Charente-Inferieure, Dordogne, Lot-et-Garonne, and Landes; area...
-Girondists
Girondists (Fr. Girondins), a French political party, which played a conspicuous part in the legislative assembly and the convention. They derived their name from the deputies of the department of Gir...
-Conrad Gislason
Conrad Gislason, an Icelandic philologist and lexicographer, born July 3, 1808. He is the son of a popular poet, and studied at the university of Copenhagen, where he became professor of the Norse lan...
-Gisors
Gisors, a town of Normandy, France, in the department of Eure, in a fertile plain on the banks of the Epte, 33 m. E. S. E. of Rouen; pop. in 1800, 3,753. It is surrounded by gar-dons and beautiful pro...
-Gitschin
Gitschin, a town of Bohemia, on the Cyd-lina, 50 m. N. E. of Prague; pop. in 1869, 6,570. It is walled, and has three gates and four suburbs. The parish church is built after the model of that of Sant...
-Giulio Romano
Giulio Romano, an Italian painter and architect, whose family name was Pippi, born in Rome in 1492, died in Mantua in 1540. He was the most distinguished pupil of Raphael, whom he assisted in many of ...
-Giurgevo
Giurgevo, a town and river port of Rou-mania, in Wallaehia, on the left bank of the Danube, opposite Rustchuk, and 34 m. S. by W. of Bucharest; pop. about 15,000. Its citadel, the only one of its fort...
-Paolo Emiliani Giudici
Paolo Emiliani Giudici, an Italian author, born at Mussomelli, Sicily, June 13, 1812. He removed to Florence in 1840, and in 1844 published Storia della letteratura italiana (2 vols., 2d ed., 1853). H...
-Giuseppe Giusti
Giuseppe Giusti, an Italian poet, born at Monsummano, in Tuscany, in May, 1809, died in Florence, March 31, 1850. He graduated as an advocate at the university of Pisa, and entered the law office of t...
-Agostino Pantaleone Giustiniani
Agostino Pantaleone Giustiniani, an Italian prelate and philologist, born in Genoa in 1470, died at sea in 1536. Educated by the Dominicans of Florence, he became a professed member of that order in 1...
-Givet
Givet, a town of France, in the department of Ardennes, on the Meuse, 22 m. N. by E. of Mezieres, on the Belgian frontier; pop. in 18G6, 5,801. It is a fortified place of considerable importance, its ...
-Givors
Givors, a town of France, in the department of Rhone, on the Gier and the Rhone, 13 m. S. of Lyons; pop. in 1866, 9,957. It has extensive glassworks and tanneries, brick yards, founderies, and silk fa...
-Ghizeh Gizeh
Ghizeh Gizeh, or Jizeh, a town of Egypt, capital of a province of the same name, on the W. bank of the Nile, 3 m. S. W. of Cairo. It was once a large city, but is now a petty village surrounded by hea...
-Glacier
Glacier (Fr. glacier, from glace, ice), a vast body of ice, filling some alpine valley, down which it slowly moves, the outlet of the snows which accumulate in the elevated portions of the mountain gr...
-Glacier. Part 2
But by comparative observations made at different times, it is perceived that the great mass itself moves. The constant renewal of the waste at the lower extremity, already referred to, is one evidenc...
-Glacier. Part 3
Agassiz discovered that the central portion moved faster than the marginal, and he was the first to correct the erroneous views into which he had been led by others on this point, from the fact of the...
-Gladbach
Gladbach, the name of two towns of Prussia, in the province of the Rhine. I. Monchen-Gladbach, in the district and 16 m. TV. by S. of the city of Dusseldorf; pop. in 1871,'26,326 (against 4,090 in 185...
-Gladiators
Gladiators (Lat. gladius, a sword), in Roman antiquity, men who fought with each other or with wild animals at the public games, for the entertainment of spectators. They were originally captives, sla...
-Gladiolus
Gladiolus (Lat. gladius, a sword), a genus of ornamental plants of the iridaceoe or iris family. A flattened solid bulb or corm sends up a stem bearing several long, sword-shaped, strongly nerved leav...
-William Ewart Gladstone
William Ewart Gladstone, a British statesman, born in Liverpool, Dec. 29, 1809. He is the fourth son of Sir John Gladstone, a wealthy merchant, who relinquished a small business in Glasgow about 1785,...
-Gladwin
Gladwin, an E. county of Michigan, intersected by Titibiwassee river; area, 570 sq. m.; returned without population in 1870. Its surface is uneven, and its soil consists of a sandy loam. ...
-Glagolitic
Glagolitic, one of the two ancient Slovenic, or less correctly Slavonic, forms of writing. The name is derived from the fourth letter, glagol, equivalent to our hard g; it is also known as the Bukvitz...
-Jean Baptiste Glaire
Jean Baptiste Glaire, a French theologian and orientalist, born in Bordeaux, April 1, 1798. He completed his theological studies at St. Sulpice seminary, Paris, and afterward studied the oriental lang...
-Alexandre Glais-Bizoin
Alexandre Glais-Bizoin, a French politician, born at Quintin, department of C6tes-du-Nord, March 9, 1800. He acquired prominence as an opposition member of the chamber under Louis Philippe. After the ...
-James Glaisher
James Glaisher, a British meteorologist, born about 1800. He early became conspicuous as an aeronaut, and subsequently as a meteorologist. In one of his balloon ascensions, Sept. 5, 1862, he reached t...
-Glamorganshire
Glamorganshire, a S. county of Wales, bordering on Caermarthenshire, Brecknockshire, Monmouthshire, the Severn, and Bristol channel; area, 855 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 396,010. The northern portion is mo...
-Gland
Gland (Lat. glans, an acorn), in anatomy, the general name of a variety of organs whose functions are to elaborate the various products of secretion from the blood, to perform certain offices connecte...
-Glanders
Glanders, a malignant disease of the horse and other equine species, of a highly contagious character, and which may be communicated to man, but not, it is said, to other animals. It occurs in two for...
-Glanvil, Or Glauville
Glanvil, Or Glauville, Raunff de, chief justiciary of England in the reign of Henry II., died in 1190. He was of Norman descent, signalized his valor under Henry II. in repelling the invasion of Engla...
-Joseph Glawill
Joseph Glawill, an English divine and philosopher, born in Plymouth in 1G36, died in Bath, Nov. 4, 1680. He was educated at Oxford, became a priest, and was made rector of the abbey church, Bath, in 1...
-Glaris, Or Glaris
Glaris, Or Glaris. I. One of the smallest of the Swiss cantons, bounded N. and E. by St. Gall, S. by Grisons, and W. by Uri and Schwytz; area, 267 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 35,150, of whom 28,238 were Pro...
-Glascock
Glascock, an E. county of Georgia, bounded S. W. by Ogeechee river and drained by Rocky Comfort creek; area, 225 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 2,736, of whom 819 were colored. The surface is level and the soi...
-References E-F-G
Faustin I See Soulouque. Johannes Ewald See Evald. Excelmans See Exelmans. Exosmose See Exdosmose. Eyalet See Vilayet. Faesulae See Fiesole. Battle Of Fair Oars See Chickahominy. Falling...









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