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Practical Sheet And Plate Metal Work | by Evan A. Atkins



For the use of boilermakers, braziers, coppersmiths, ironworkers, plumbers, sheet metalworkers, tinsmiths, white-smiths, zincworkers, and others who require a knowledge of the working up of metals or development of surfaces.

TitlePractical Sheet And Plate Metal Work
AuthorEvan A. Atkins
PublisherSir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd.
Year1908
Copyright1908, Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd.
AmazonPractical Sheet And Plate Metal Work

By Evan A. Atkins, A.M.I.M.E., Head of the Metal Trades Department, and Chief Lecturer on Practical Geometry, Municipal Technical School, Liverpool; Honours Silver Medallist in Metal Plate Work, City and Guilds of London Institute; Honours Medallist in Practical Geometry, Board of Education

Second Edition, Revised And Enlarged With 450 Illustrations

-Preface
Having long felt the want of a book that dealt with sheet and plate metal work from a practical point of view, the author some years back decided to write one. In this he was encouraged by the editor ...
-Preface To The Second Edition
That there has been a demand for such a book as this is shown by the very favourable way in which it has been received, and by the call for a second edition. The author has been particularly gratified...
-Chapter I. Introductory
Every workman whose aim it is to become a proficient sheet or plate metal worker should at least have a fair knowledge of practical geometry, mensuration, and the properties of metals. Whilst no attem...
-Chapter II. Elbows For Round Pipes. Pattern For Round Pipe Cut On The Slant
It should be borne in mind that the most important point in the making of patterns is accuracy in determining the lines that are required for the pattern. It is always better to spend a little extra t...
-Flanging
A fair amount of skill is required to throw-off or stretch a flange properly. The first thing that should be done is to cut a gauge (Fig. 3) out of a bit of sheet brass, and with this mark the depth o...
-Square Elbow For Round Pipe
Possibly one of the commonest jobs an iron-plate worker is called upon to do is to make a square elbow for a round pipe. An elbow of this description may be required either for a stove pipe, a rain-wa...
-Elbow With Slip Joint
A ready way of jointing the two pipes of an elbow together is to slip one inside the other, first having turned down the edge inside the throat, and then turn the edge at back over the inside pipe. Th...
-Obtuse Elbow For Round Pipe
The pattern for an obtuse elbow for a round pipe is shown in Fig. 7. The setting out of this pattern requires no additional explanation to that given for previous patterns. In drawing the elevation of...
-Chapter III. Tee-Pieces For Round Pipes. Square Tee-Piece
It is sometimes necessary for sheet and plate metal workers to make what is known as tee-pipes or elbows; the patterns, therefore, of a few examples in round pipes of this kind of work will be given. ...
-Tee-Piece With Unequal Pipes
In the development of the patterns for tee-piece in which the branch pipe is smaller than the main (Fig. 10), the method pursued is the same as with Fig. 8. It will be observed that this pattern is al...
-Oblique Tee-Pipe
For an oblique tee-pipe (Fig. 11), in which both pipes are the same diameter, the elevation of the two pipes is set out to the required angle, and the pattern marked out in the usual manner. The shape...
-Oblique Tee-Piece For Unequal Pipes
Where a junction of two pipes of unequal diameter is formed, as in Fig. 12, it will be necessary first of all to obtain an elevation of the joint line, or of points upon the same. This can be done by ...
-Offside Tee-Piece
When a branch pipe which is smaller than, and square to, a main pipe, and is also required to fit flush on the back of the main pipe (say, to lie against a wall), then its pattern will be obtained as ...
-Offside Oblique Tee-Piece
That the flow of a fluid from a branch pipe into a main pipe may meet with as little resistance as possible, a branch pipe may be required to join on to a main pipe, as in Fig. 14. Here it will be see...
-Chapter IV. Pipe Bends In Segments. Quarter-Bend For Round Pipes
In the two previous chapters we dealt with several examples of the striking out of patterns for circular pipe joints, we now extend the methods there shown to the cases of bends made up in segments. ...
-Quarter-Bend For Square Pipe
A bend for a square or rectangular pipe can be made up much easier than for a round pipe. If the back and throat of the bend are flat, then of course the patterns for these parts will simply be straig...
-Double Bend For Round Pipe
Where it is necessary to join together two lines of piping, so that the flow of liquid or gas passing through the pipe may be interfered with as little as possible, it is a good plan to make a connect...
-Chapter V. Tapered Pipe Elbows And Three-Way Pieces
In the former chapters we dealt with typical cases of pattern-cutting for cylindrical pipe-elbows, selecting such examples as would serve to illustrate the general principles involved. In conical pipe...
-Cylindrical And Conical Pipe Elbow
The centre lines of the pipes may be arranged to meet at any required angle; but, for the sake of simplification, a square elbow (Fig. 19) will be taken first. In work of this character the important...
-Swan-Neck Or Offset
The complete setting out for a swan-neck bend, made up of three conical pipes, is shown in Fig. 20. The double elbow might have been constructed partly conical and partly cylindrical, as in the last c...
-Cylinder And Cone Breeches-Piece
The forms and shapes of breeches-pieces are numerous. Those of the oblique cone order and coppersmith's kind are dealt with in Chapter XXIX (Worked-Up Pipe Bends, Breeches Pieces, Etc. Pipe Bends).; b...
-Irregular Breeches-Piece
The same principle as applied in the former cases can also be adopted as the method of construction for any kind of a three-way or other connecting-piece, built up wholly with conical pipes, or partly...
-Equal-Angled Three-Way Piece
When three pipes of the same diameter fit together at equal angles, as in Fig. 24, the simplest way to obtain the ele-vation, and thus the pattern, is to draw a circle (shown dotted in the figure) equ...
-Chapter VI. Square Pipe Elbows And Tee-Pieces. Square Pipe Elbow
In the making of square pipes for ventilating shafts and other purposes, it is often necessary to construct various kinds of elbows and tee-pipes. We shall, therefore, in this chapter, deal with the s...
-Diagonal Square Pipe Elbow
If the pipes run diagonally and an elbow is required, as shown in Fig. 28, it will be necessary to first obtain a diagonal of the pipe before the elevation can be drawn. This can be done by setting ou...
-Diagonal Tee-Piece
A tee-piece for a square pipe placed diagonally is shown in Fig. 29. The hole on the main pipe is easily marked out when we remember that its length must be equal to the two sides of the pipe and its ...
-Oblique Tee-Piece
When the two pipes are of the same diameter, very little more difficulty will be experienced with the patterns than in the last case. An elevation of the two pipes is first drawn (Fig. 30), making the...
-Offside Oblique Tee-Piece #2
When the branch pipe is smaller than the main, and the two pipes are required to lie flush against a wall, the setting out of the pattern and hole becomes somewhat complicated. We will take one typica...
-Twisted Oblique Tee-Piece
In Fig. 32 another representative example of square pipe-jointing is given. The two pipes are of the same diameter, the branch fitting on to the main obliquely, with two of its flat sides parallel to ...
-Chapter VII. Rectangular Pipe Elbows And Transformer Pieces. Square Elbows
In the previous chapter we dealt with the setting out of patterns for the various kinds of elbows used in connection with square pipe work. We now give a few examples that may be useful for rectangula...
-Twisted Connecting Pipe
Some very peculiar jobs occasionally turn up in the way of connecting pieces. A simple but interesting example of this is shown in Fig. 37, in which two rectangular pipes are lying along the corner of...
-Pipe-End Ornament
Multitudes of designs can be adopted to ornament the outlet or inlet end of a length of pipe, the method followed in setting out the shape of sheet or plate to form the cut being practically the same ...
-Bending Bench
In a shop where pipe work is done, and there is no press for bending, or rolls for curving, long lengths of pipes or trough-ing, one of the most useful arrangements to have is a bench fitted up for be...
-Chapter VIII. Hoods
An iron plate worker, whitesmith, or blacksmith may, some time or other, want to make a hood for a smithy hearth or some other purpose. We will therefore describe the setting-out for one or two typica...
-Allowance For Wiring
Add twice the diameter of wire to four times the thickness of metal. A careful study of Fig. 44, and the measurement of the length of centre line of metal will show the above rule to be as near corr...
-Chapter IX. Flat-Sided Tapered Articles. Square, Equal Tapering Cap
There are so many different kinds of the above class of work that there is some difficulty in making a selection of typical examples sufficiently broad to cover the general run of this character of wo...
-Equal Tapering Rectangular Article
The plan of a rectangular hopper or hood is shown in Fig. 51, tgether with the necessary construction lines required for the patterns and the corner angles. In setting out the plates the first t...
-Oblong Hopper Of Unequal Overhang
The marking out of the plates for the above will be similar to the former case; the only difference being in having separate slant-heights for the sides and ends. To obtain these the lengths a b and a...
-Unequal Tapering Square Hood
In the same manner as some circular tapering articles are formed as portions of round oblique cones (Chapter xviii (Articles Of Unequal Overhang. Oblique Cone).), so we may have square objects coming ...
-Irregular-Shaped Oblong Uptake
The plan and elevation of an irregular-shaped funnel or uptake is shown in Fig. 54. The laying out of the plate shapes follow the general principles as explained in connection with Fig. 52. First mark...
-Overhanging Oblong Shoot Or Hopper
This example (Fig. 55) has been chosen to show the laying out of the plate patterns by turning back from the plan; also, and principally, to illustrate the obtaining of the corner angle-iron rakes by ...
-Twisted Square Base
We will bring this chapter to a conclusion by giving an example of an ornamental tapered base made up of flat surfaces. A plan and elevation of the base is shown in Fig. 57. On examination it will be...
-Chapter X. Pan Corners
The sheet metal worker is so often called upon to make all sorts of pans that a consideration of the different kinds of corners that can be formed will not be here out of place. The unprofessional wor...
-Tapered Pan With Solid Corners
This kind of pan (Fig. 63) is of the baking-tin order; but the method of forming the corners can be adopted in all cases where it is necessary to have a pan that will be liquid-tight at temperatures a...
-Pan With Unequal Tapering Sides
Suppose it is required to make a pan whose dimensions are 19 in. by 13 in. at top, 18 in. by 10 in. at bottom, and 2 in deep. Then the overhang of the sides will be - 13 - 10 / 2 = 1 in. And ...
-Double-Flap Solid Corner
A pan whose sides are square or tapered may have its corner formed by a double flap, as shown in Fig. 66. This is no stronger than the single flap (Fig. 62), but gives a little better appearance to th...
-Working Up A Pan
After the four corners of the sheet are cut, the bisecting line of the corner should be placed on the hatchet stake, as shown in Fig. 67, and the sheet bent down on each side. Then the sides and ends ...
-Pan With Moulded Sides
The making up of a pan with moulded sides, as shown in Fig. 71, is not a difficult matter if the pattern for the cut corner is marked out as accurately as possible. This can be done as seen in Fig. 72...
-Chapter XI. Trunks, Boxes, Fenders, Etc
The setting out of the patterns for a trunk or box is usually not a very difficult matter; for whilst their shapes and sizes are of almost infinite variety, there is very little of a complicated natur...
-Moulded Lid Or Cover
A lamp-top, or base, lid or cover for a variety of articles, is sometimes made in the shape shown in Fig. 76. And as this kind of object brings in an important principle, in determining the form of t...
-Sheet-Metal Kerb Fender
The work involved in the making of a sheet-metal kerb fender is of such an elementary character that the ordinary workman or amaterr craftsman should find very little trouble in making one up to his o...
-Chapter XII. Conical Articles Of Short Taper
It is probable that of all the articles that are manufactured out of sheet or plate metals, the larger proportion are conical or circular equal-tapering in shape. It is, therefore, essential that a ca...
-Workshop Protractor
In workshop practice it is a good plan to have a protractor or bevel with which to set out angles. A useful protractor can readily be made out of sheet brass or aluminium, as in Fig. 84. The semicircl...
-Special Conical Shapes
Before passing from conical caps there are one or two peculiar shapes that give interesting results that are worth while specially considering. Thus, in the case of a cone in which the slant height is...
-The Pointer
An old-time but useful article is the pointer or ale-warmer, shown in Fig. 85. It is an exceedingly handy form of vessel for sticking into a fire, and rapidly heating any kind of thin liquid. It can b...
-Articles Formed From Cone Frustums
Most articles that are circular, equal-tapering in shape, do not take the form of a complete cone, but come out as a frustum of a cone - that is, the shape that is obtained when the top of a cone is c...
-To Obtain Pattern Lines By Calculation
It is useful to know that the lengths of lines required in setting out the pattern for any conical article may be obtained by calculation, without previously having drawn an elevation of the object. A...
-Funnel Patterns
The setting out of the patterns for a funnel is illustrated by Fig. 90. The half-elevation is drawn in the usual manner, and the slant heights of the cones forming the different portions thus obtained...
-Half-Round Tapered Article
There are a great number of articles whose shapes are built up by portions of a cone surface and that of some other solid or plane figure. One such is sketched in Fig. 91. This is a semicircular-ended...
-Wiring
In wiring an edge, care should be taken to draw the one end of wire along from the end of sheet, and to let the other end in, so that the joint in the wire will not coincide with the sheet-joint. This...
-Conical Plate Work
For plate work of a conical character, the centre line of the section should be taken as the slant height of the conical part required for developing the pattern. This is illustrated by line A B in Fi...
-Chapter XIII. Conical Vessels Of Long Taper. Method Of Triangulation
To develop the pattern for a circular article which has very little taper, by the ordinary method, is somewhat inconvenient in practice on account of the long radius required. A way that it can be don...
-Segment Of Circle Method
There are one or two methods that might be of much use in marking-out patterns for circular equal-tapering articles, but which, unfortunately, are little known in practice. They depend upon a few impo...
-Chapter XIV. Part Cone Surfaces
There are a great number of articles and parts of articles whose patterns can be developed as some portion of a cone surface. To explain the method that is followed in setting out patterns for this cl...
-Cone Cut Obliquely
This is shown in Fig. 104, the base of the complete cone being marked 0 6, and the apex C. The part of the cone for which a pattern is required is shown by the thick outline 0 A B D. It is best to ima...
-Circular Spout Pattern
The pattern set out in Fig. 104 has a large application in spouts for all kinds of articles, such as tea and coffee-pots, tin kettles, water-cans, etc. One simple application is shown in Fig. 105, the...
-Offside Circular Hopper
After mastering the setting-out in connection with the last hopper the reader should find no trouble with this, the methods being identical. It will be noticed (Fig. 108) that some of the lengths are ...
-Half-Round Gutter Nozzle
Another application of the geometry of the cone and cylinder is in the making of a pattern for an outlet or drop fitting on to a half-round gutter, as shown in the sketch at top of Fig. 109. In this c...
-Tapered Connecting Pipe
Fig. 111 shows the method of striking out a pattern for a circular-tapered connecting pipe which joins together two lines of parallel piping. The lengths of lines on the pattern are run around from th...
-Galloway Water-Tube
A conical Galloway water-tube for a boiler furnace being formed by part of a cone surface comes in very conveniently at this stage of our work. A section of flue and cross-tube is shown in Fig. 112. ...
-Chapter XV. Articles Formed By Cones Cut Obliquely. Conical Pipe Fitting On Slanting Round Pipe
In addition to the example given in Chapter XIV. of a conical hopper fitting squarely on to a cylindrical pipe, we have yet to deal with the more difficult case of a conical pipe fitting obliquely on ...
-Spout For Cylindrical Vessel
In the last chapter we dealt with the striking out of a pattern for a round spout fitting on to a flat surface, and pointed out a rough way in which the pattern could be altered to suit a circular bod...
-Coal Scoop
It will perhaps not be out of place at this stage of our progress to show the setting-out for all the parts in a complete article; and after having gone over the two previous cases, we shall find no d...
-Chapter XVI. Hip And Sponge Baths. Egg-Shaped Oval
Articles are occasionally required to be made up in the form of an egg-shaped oval; hence a knowledge of how to describe that figure will be useful to a sheet and plate metal worker. The con-struction...
-Oxford Hip Bath
This is a good example of an article which follows the egg-shaped oval form. A sketch of the bath is shown in Fig. 124, and on careful consideration of this and Fig. 125, the reader should find no tr...
-Sponge Bath
The patterns for a sponge bath (Fig. 132) can be laid out by one or other of the several methods already shown in connection with cone-work. The only part that is not conical and that calls for attent...
-Chapter XVII. Oval Articles Of Equal Taper. Construction Of Equal-Ended Oval
There are many articles made out of sheet and plate metal that are either oval or elliptical in shape. Not that these two figures are identical, although they are often confused with each other. The e...
-Pattern For Oval Articles
Having gone over the construction of ovals, we can now turn our attention to the development of oval equal-tapering articles, or those in which the overhang for the sides is the same as for the ends. ...
-Position Of Joints
The pattern thus drawn out is, of course, for one-half of the oval vessel, two pieces off this being required to form the body of the article. It will be necessary to add laps as required for grooving...
-Chapter XVIII. Articles Of Unequal Overhang. Oblique Cone
Many articles may be circular or partly circular in section, also having the property of their surfaces tapering to a point, and yet not be formed of a portion of a right cone (a cone whose axis is pe...
-Tapered Connecting Pipe #2
The frustum of an oblique cone can very conveniently be used to join together two circular pipes of unequal diameter, whose centre lines are parallel, and whose ends are cut square. A connecting pipe ...
-Unequal Tapering Circular Article
Any article whose top and bottom are circular, parallel, and of unequal overhang, such as Fig. 144, can have its pattern developed as a frustum of an oblique cone. The pattern for such an article is s...
-Tapering Y-Piece
The oblique-cone method can be used for setting out the pattern for the connecting pipes in a tapering Y-piece, as shown in Fig. 146. Here the problem resolves itself into jointing up two small pipes ...
-Multiple-Way Piece
If it is desired to join more than two branch pipes on to the main pipe, then the above method will still hold good. The first thing to do is to obtain the plan of a joint line; thus in Fig. 147 the l...
-Chapter XIX. Irregular Tapering Articles. Oblong Bottom
Article with Round Top and Semicircular=ended This is an article (Fig. 148) which belongs to the family of the oblique cone, for its rounded surface at the ends is formed of two half-frustums and its...
-Rounded Corners
The surfaces of many articles are what might be described as of a compound character - that is, they do not follow the surface shape of any one particular solid, but are built up of parts of surfaces ...
-Article With Round Top And Oval Bottom
A vessel of uneven taper having a circular top and an oval bottom can have the pattern for its body set out in a similar manner to that of several of the objects previously dealt with. Examination of ...
-Irregular Tapering Article With Oblong Semicircular-Ended Bottom And Round Top
In addition to those dealt with in the last chapter, there are a number of hoods, hoppers, or body parts that arc formed in a somewhat different manner. Thus Fig. 15G represents an article whose top i...
-Chapter XX. Articles Of Oblique Cylindrical Shape. Oblique Cylinder Pipe
The shapes of some unequal tapering articles may be made up wholly or partly of the surface, or some portion of the surface, of an oblique cylinder; by which is meant a pipe whose ends are circular an...
-Funnel With Central Circular Top And Oblong Semicircular-Ended Bottom
In this particular example (Fig. 160) it should be noted that the diameter of the top and the width of the bottom are equal; hence its curved surface is formed of two upper halves of an oblique cylind...
-Shoe-Shaped Funnel Or Hopper
A funnel may require to be of the shape shown in Fig. 163, which, on inspection, will be seen that its surface is composed of half an oblique cylinder for the front, two right-angled triangles for th...
-Chapter XXI. Elliptical Work. Construction Of Ellipse
There are many objects of elliptical shape that require to be made up out of sheet and plate metal. It is, therefore, essential that workmen in these trades should know one or two practical methods fo...
-Area Of Ellipse
The area of an ellipse can be calculated by multiplying the semi-diameters together, and this product by 3 1/7 Thus, for an ellipse having diameters 24 in. and 18 in. the area equals - 12 x 9 x 3 1/7...
-Elliptical Cone Or Cap
Just as we may have a circular cone, either right or oblique, so in the same way we may have an elliptical cone. A sketch of a cone whose base is an ellipse, and whose axis is perpendicular, is shown ...
-Elliptical Coal -Bucket
There are many different kinds of elliptical coal-buckets, one of the commonest being that known as a Waterloo, a sketch of which is shown in Fig. 169. To set the pattern out for the body of this is...
-Oblique Elliptical Cone
An article may take the shape of a portion of an elliptical cone of the above description - that is, one whose centre line is not square to the base. The setting out of the pattern for an object of t...
-Overhanging Coal-Bucket
A coal-bucket whose body can be set out on the assumption that it is part of an oblique elliptical cone is shown in the elevation (Fig. 173). Fig. 172. The back and front are produced to meet in T...
-Elliptical Round Coal-Vase
A coal-vase sometimes follows the shape shown in Fig. 174, the top being elliptical and the bottom round. If the top were made oval instead of elliptical, the pattern might be set out by one of the m...
-Chapter XXII. Roofing Work. Galvanised Sheets And Gutter Angles
Galvanised corrugated sheet iron has an extensive application in roofing work. It is comparatively cheap, and when properly galvanised fairly durable. There is much dispute as to the length of time it...
-Roofing Fittings
The roofing sheet metal worker is called upon to make mouldings, gutters, ventilators, finials, downspouts, and pipe bends of all descriptions, and in addition much intricate work in the ornamental li...
-Moulding Or Gutter Angles
The commonest form of a gutter angle is perhaps of a square elbow for a half-round gutter (Fig. 176). It may be made out of thin galvanised sheet, say 24 to 20 gauge, having a bead or flange along the...
-Obtuse Gutter Angle
To set out the pattern for a gutter or moulding angle which is required to fit on or into a greater angle than a right angle, will demand a somewhat different method to that shown in the last case. Th...
-Square Angle For O.G. Gutter
Fig. 180 shows a sketch of an internal angle for an O.G. gutter, and patterns for both internal and external angle-pieces. A section of the gutter is set out as shown on the pattern for an external an...
-Valley Gutter Elbow
To mark out the shape of sheet to form a right-angle elbow for a square valley gutter (Fig. 182) is an easy matter. The girth is first laid out (Fig. 183) by setting along the width of bottom, depth o...
-Special Method For Square Elbows
Before leaving gutter or moulding angles it will be as well to call attention to a special method that can be applied to square elbows, in the striking out of patterns to form the cut for any shaped s...
-Chapter XXIII. Roofing Work (Continued). Cornices, Mouldings, And Ridge Caps
In the previous chapter we dealt with the marking out of patterns for sheet metal moulding or gutters that form a plain mitred joint, and in this chapter we purpose explaining the way in which cornice...
-Oblique Cornice Joint
Instead of turning the moulding round the corner and up the gable by two joints, as in the last case, sections of cornices may be made that will come together in one joint at the corner. This particul...
-Double-Rake Moulding Joint
Where the gable-end of a building is not square to the sides, but is inclined, the problem of connecting the two mouldings with a single joint becomes more difficult than in the last case. It represen...
-Ridge-Cap Elbow
The setting-out as shown in Fig. 190 needs little explanation. The girth as taken from the section is first laid out, and construction lines drawn through each division point, these being cut off by t...
-Ridge=Cap Tee-Piece
On comparing the shaded parts of the patterns in Figs. 190 and 191, it will be seen that they are exactly the same; hence the template for the elbow can also be used to mark out the patterns for the t...
-Chapter XXIV. Roofing Work (Continued)
Domes, Finials, and Downspout=Heads. Dome=Covering. In cutting out the shape of the segments for a dome-covering (Fig. 192), no great skill is required. All the setting-out necessary is shown in Fig....
-Roof Finial
There can, of course, be a multitude of designs for a sheet-metal finial, all depending upon the taste of the designer, the limit of cost, and the kind of building that the finial is to be fixed upon....
-Downspout Head
A downspout or hopper-head lends itself admirably for treatment by ornamental work in sheet zinc or galvanised sheet iron. In this case, as in the last, the shape of moulding chosen may be of any sect...
-Chapter XXV. Ventilator And Chimney-Pot Bases, Hoppers, Etc
A very common form of base for a ventilator or cowl is that shown in Fig. 200, and known as a tall-boy base. Fig. 200. It is either square or rectangular at the bottom, ana circular at the top. ...
-Hopper Or Hood With Flat Back
A form of hopper to fit against a wall (Fig. 203) having a square or rectangular top, and a circular bottom, can have its pattern set out in the same way as the tall-boy base. All the necessary marki...
-Article With Square Top And Round Base
An article or part of an article may have a round base and a square or rectangular top, as seen in Fig. 205. Its pattern can be developed by treating the curved portions of the surface as parts of obl...
-Ventilator Base Of Pyramid Shape
A ventilator base may be of the form shown in Fig. 206. Fig. 207, which, it will be seen, amounts, geometrically, to the fitting of a cylinder on to a square pyramid concentrically. The pattern cu...
-Ventilator With Conical-Square Base
Sometimes a ventilator base follows the design shown in Fig. 209, which it is not difficult to imagine represents the intersection of a round pipe and cone for the top, and a cone and square pipe for ...
-Chapter XXVI. Ship Ventilators, Etc
Ventilators for ships are made in many shapes, forms, and sizes, one of the commonest kind being that shown in Fig. 211. It is usually made of iron, and occasionally of copper or brass. Several metho...
-Small Ventilator Heads
The body of a small head may be worked up from one piece, in much the same manner as a copper kettlespout. In Fig. 213 an elevation of a small head is shown. To mark out the pattern the centre line, A...
-Irregular Circular-Ended Tapering Article
A ship's ventilator may also be constructed in segments, as shown in Fig. 215. In order that the method adopted in obtaining the shape of the segment patterns may be clearly understood, it will be an ...
-Ventilator Head In Segments
An elevation which illustrates this method of constructing a head is shown in Fig. 215; the body being divided into three segments, A, B, and C. The patterns for two of the parts are shown set out, a...
-Conical Ventilators, Etc
The patterns for a ship's rib-head ventilator, instead of being set out by the method of triangulation, as just explained, can often be more conveniently developed by treating each segment of the vent...
-Cone And Pipe Connection
The most important thing to take notice of in jointing together a cone and pipe is to so arrange them that the elliptic cut on the cone shall be exactly the same shape and size as the cut on the pipe....
-Ship's Rib-Head Ventilator
An elevation of one form of this is shown in Fig. 217, the head being made up in four pieces. So that each segment shall come out as a portion of a cone, it will be necessary to construct circles on ...
-Round Pipe On Cone
In this case, where the two centre lines are at right angles, the patterns come out in an easy manner. An elevation of such a cylindrical pipe and cone fitting together is shown in Fig. 219. So that t...
-Pipe On Cone Obliquely
When the centre line of the pipe is inclined to that of the cone (Fig. 220), then the determining of the joint curve is a more difficult matter. The only real difference, however, between the construc...
-Lobster-Back Cowl
The construction of a lobster-back cowl (Fig. 221) follows somewhat similar lines to that of a quarter-bend, made up in segments, as shown in Chapter IV (Pipe Bends In Segments. Quarter-Bend For Round...
-Chapter XXVII. Hollowed Articles
To obtain the exact shape of a plate or sheet in the flat, for an article whose surface has a double curvature, is generally almost impossible. In practice, however, very good approximations can nearl...
-Spherical Bowl
The simplest article of hollow work to obtain the pattern for is probably that of a bowl as seen in Fig. 223. The size of disc for this can be obtained in several ways, all based upon the assumption t...
-Raising A Bowl
In working up a bowl or any similar article or part of an article, the sheet may be either raised or hollowed. The raising process is more particularly suitable to the softer metals, such as lead,...
-Hollowing A Bowl
In hollowing, the sheet metal is hammered into a recess in either a block of wood, cast iron, or lead. For general work it is most convenient to have a wooden hollowing block as shown in Fig. 229. Rec...
-Wrinkling Circle
Whether the hemispherical bowl is raised or hollowed, it will be observed that the centre portion of the disc is stretched, whilst that part which is nearer to the edges will contract; there must, the...
-Patterns For Copper
The setting out of the patterns for a copper (Fig. 230) conveniently comes in with our consideration of the sphere. A diagram of the vessel is shown in Fig. 231, from which it will be seen how to obt...
-Chapter XXVIII. Solid Pans, Jugs, Expansion Bulbs, Etc. Solid Round Pan
A circular pan or vessel, such as that shown in Fig. 236, can be raised or drawn out of the solid plate when such malleable metals as copper, brass, etc., are used. Articles of this description, when ...
-Solid Round-Tapered Pan
If the size of the disc is required for working up into a circular pan, having a flat bottom and tapered sides, then, with some little modification, the rules, as used in the former case, can be appli...
-Vessels With Double-Curved Surfaces
The patterns for articles whose surfaces are of double curvature can be marked out very approximately by an adaption of the methods already explained. Before, however, the methods can be applied to th...
-Barrel-Shaped Vessel
Fig. 239. For the benefit of those readers who can manipulate figures, we will now explain how to obtain the radius of the pattern disc by calculation, and then afterwards show how the same resul...
-Capacity Of Barrel-Shaped Vessel
Seeing that we have the dimensions in connection with Fig. 239, it will, perhaps, be better to explain how to find its volume before passing on. It should be remembered that whilst the calculations th...
-Pattern For Barrel-Shaped Vessel By Construction
To find the radius of the pattern disc, graphically, the line A N (fig. 239) is made equal to the length of the arc A D E, and N P drawn square to it and equal to the radius O E. Line E R is then draw...
-Circular Pan With Sides Curved Outwards
The method shown above will apply to all kinds of different-shaped circular vessels, the only difference being in the finding of the centre of gravity of the side section. Perhaps one further example ...
-Copper Expansion Bulb
A copper expansion bulb, or ball, as shown in Fig. 241, is sometimes fixed upon a length of steam or hot-water pipe, to allow for the varying length of the pipe due to changes of temperature. It is us...
-Steam Exhaust-Pipe Bell-Mouth
Fig 211. The setting out for the pattern is shown in Fig. 244. The bead is first of all allowed for by lengthening the pipes by the distance A B, which is equal to the length C D E measured around ...
-Copper Jug
The second example is that of a jug, as shown in Fig. 245. The jug is made in four parts - the body, bottom, spout, and handle. The setting out of the patterns is shown in Fig. 246. A half-elevation, ...
-Chapter XXIX. Worked-Up Pipe Bends, Breeches Pieces, Etc. Pipe Bends
Solid drawn pipes, both of steel and copper, of diameters up to 6 in. or 7 in., can now by the aid of hydraulic or other bending machines be bent to form bends of various shapes, so that simple pipe b...
-Quarter-Bend
A quarter, or square, bend is usually made up in two pieces, the joints running along the back and throat, or along the two sides, as shown in Fig. 247. This latter method has several advantages over ...
-Worked-Up Breeches-Piece
The methods applied to obtain the patterns in the last cases can with some little modification be used for all sorts of made-up bends. We will now explain the application to a three-way piece, as show...
-Three-Way Tee-Piece
A sketch of this is shown in Fig. 254. The tee-piece may be of two shapes, one when the bulb is greater in diameter than the diameter of the large pipe as in the sketch, and the other when it is of th...
-Chapter XXX. Kettle And Jug Spouts, Handles, Etc. How To Make A Kettle Spout
The making of a kettle spout, to the novice, is just one of those jobs for which it is somewhat difficult to find a beginning or ending without previous instruction. Spouts are usually made up from on...
-Square Spout For Conical Jug
A square spout for a jug, as seen in Fig. 267, represents a good example of flat sheet surfaces fitting on to a conical surface. It may be applied in a variety of ways other than in the case shown. Th...
-Curved Spout For Conical Jug
The method for setting this out will be exactly the same as that shown for the sponge bath lip in Chapter XVI (Hip And Sponge Baths. Egg-Shaped Oval). ...
-Half-Round Jug Handle
The jug in Fig. 267 is fitted with a half-round hollow handle, and if it is desired to make this in one piece, the pattern for same can be struck out as shown in Fig. 269. A quarter-circle is describe...
-Chapter XXXI. Vases, Brackets, Dustpans, Etc
There are a great many different things that can be constructed in sheet metal which are particularly suitable for making by the amateur. It is true that some of them can be bought for a few pence, bu...
-Hexagonal Vase
Fig. 272 shows a sketch of a simple kind of hexagonal vase that can be made up either of tinplate, zinc, galvanised iron, brass, or copper. A half-elevation, Fig. 273, shows the exact shape or section...
-Tobacco Or Biscuit Box
A sketch of a square box is shown in Fig. 274, the body being made up in four pieces, and jointed at the corners. The lid is in form a square pyramid, and is worked up from one piece, as will be furth...
-Wall Bracket
Another piece of work that can be made by the amateur, who exercises carefulness and patience, is the wall bracket, as shown in Fig. 276. The shape of a wall bracket can be made up by any number of p...
-Phonograph Horn
The making of a phonograph horn in segments, as illustrated by Fig. 278, is particularly suitable for amateur's work, as it can be readily constructed with few tools and at little cost of material. It...
-Dustpans
Of all household utensils, perhaps the most difficult to obtain is a strong, serviceable dustpan. After having put up with broken handles, cracked corners, and other defects of the modern dustpan, the...
-Fire-Shovels
A fire-shovel is another common article that can quite readily be worked up by the amateur. A simple design is that of Fig. 282, the pattern for the body of which being shown in Fig. 283. The sides an...
-Hand Scoops
The cone surface, as we have seen, plays a most important part in building up the shapes of a multitude of articles. A simple application, and one that can be readily understood by the amateur, is in ...
-Chapter XXXII. Plater's Work, Tanks, Shells, Etc. Allowance For Metal Thickness
It is absolutely essential in the making of patterns or templates to cover for the necessary allowance for the thickness of sheet or plate if the different parts that form the article are to fit toget...
-Cylindrical Shell Plates
In setting out plater's work for boilers or other similar class of work, a high degree of accuracy is required if joints are to be properly constructed, and the various parts made to fit together as t...
-Tanks
A most interesting example of a particularly simple method of jointing is that used in the construction of tanks, when the plates are flanged and lapped and no angle-iron used. Fig. 293 shows the outs...
-Chapter XXXIII. Plater's Double-Curvature Work
Double-curved work in wrought iron or steel plates is, of course, much more difficult to manipulate than in the softer metals, and, on account of the greater resistance that iron or steel offers to be...
-Furnace Blast Pipe
Fig. 300. The patterns are shown set out in Fig. 300. An elevation of a segment is first drawn, the arc A B being made equal to the width of a segment between the centre lines of the rivets on the ...
-Patterns For Buoy-Plates
We may consider the buoy, shown in Fig. 301, as being constructed of a cone and a hemisphere. It will be seen from the position of the joints that the girth of the buoy is divided up into six plates. ...
-Rounded Corner For Tank
A rounded corner-plate for a tank, motor-car hood, or other object can be set out in the flat very much the same as explained in connection with Fig. 302. A sketch of the corner-plate is shown in Fig....
-Chapter XXXIV. Patterns For Irregular Articles. Rectangular Pipe Fitting On Conical Hood
In several cases of ornamental and other work it may be necessary to joint together square, or rectangular, and conical pipes, as shown in Fig. 305. The pipes may fit concentrically (which means havin...
-Tapered Square Pipe Fitting On Conical Dome
A tapered square pipe fitting concentrically on to a conical cap, or dome, as shown in the half-elevation, Fig. Fig. 307. 307, may for some kinds of ventilator, or other work, require to be made u...
-Round Pipe On Conical Cap
If a cylindrical pipe fits on to a conical pipe, both having the same centre line, it will be manifest that the cylindrical pipe will be cut square at the joint, and that the conical pipe will come ou...
-Circular Tapered Pipe Fitting On Conical Dome
If the centre lines of these two conical surfaces coincide, it is evident that each part will come out as a frustum of cone; but if the centre lines are not common to each, but parallel, then the two ...
-Round Pipe With Spiral Joint
If a pipe is required to have a twisted seam as shown in Fig. 311, the rake of the pattern strip can be quite easily determined by the method of construction as seen in the figure. The pipe girth is l...
-Sheet Metal Worm
Sheet metal screws for moving grain along a trough, as shown fitted to a shaft in Fig. 312, are usually made up out of rings which are shaped by hammering and riveted together. Being a twisted surface...
-Twisted Rectangular Pipe Bend
A peculiar application of the last case can be made to that of an oblong pipe bend, as shown in Fig. 313. In this the top and bottom pieces will be formed by a quarter of a ring as explained in connec...
-Junction Of Straight And Bent Round Pipes
If a straight pipe is to fit on to a curved bend, as shown in Fig. 315, it will be necessary to obtain the shape of the joint line before the pattern can be set out. This is very simply done by descri...
-Oblique Square Connecting Pipe
When two square pipes, having their ends cut level, need connecting, this may be accomplished by joining them with an oblique square pipe, as shown in Fig. 316. The setting out of the pattern is obvi...
-Tapered Oblique Square Connecting Pipe
In a similar manner to the previous case, when two square pipes of unequal sizes require connecting, the intermediate pipe will come out as a frustum of an oblique square pyramid, as shown in Fig. 317...
-Square Hopper Or Outlet On Round Pipe
The setting out shown in Fig. 318 is for an outlet fitting on the underside of a pipe, but the method of laying out the pattern will be exactly the same if the case is that of a hopper resting on top ...
-Spherical Surface Dome In Sectors
A flat dome like a gasholder top (Fig. 319) can have the patterns for its sectors struck out by assuming that each ring or tier of plates forms part of a cone surface. Thus a pattern for the outer rin...
-Cylindrical Pipe On Spherical Dome
A pipe fitting as above is shown in Fig. 320. Before its pattern can be developed a series of points on the elevation of the joint line will have to be determined. As the method of finding each point ...
-Conical Spout Fitting On Conical Vessel
Perhaps the most complicated patterns to mark out are those for objects where the two parts fitting together are both conical. Such a case is shown in Fig. 321. As usual the first thing to do is to l...
-Oblique Circular Hood Fitting On Round Pipe
The intersection of an oblique cone with a cylinder, as shown in Fig. 322, presents a way by which a circular-mouthed hood can be run into a vertical pipe. The determination of the joint line and the...
-Gusset Plate For Round Pipe Elbow
The exact shape of the pattern for a gusset may be found as set out in Fig. 323. A quarter-circle is described, divided into three equal parts, and lines run up to meet the joint line of gusset in 0'...
-Round Pipe Elbow With Twisted Arms
A peculiar case of an elbow is that shown in Fig. 324, where one arm is twisted so that the elbow would not lie flat on a plane surface, or geometrically, when the centre lines of the arms are not in ...
-Chapter XXXV. Sheet Metal Joints
There are really only five ways in which the edges of sheet and plate metals can be fastened together - viz., by soldered, brazed, welded, grooved, and riveted joints. But whilst we are limited to the...
-Sheet Metal Joints. Continued
The next joint (2) is known as a countersunk or flush joint, and is used either for soldering or riveting where one face of the article is required to be level or flush. The crease also adds stiffness...
-Soldering And Brazing
Every mechanic who is a worker in any kind of metals should at least be able to make a simple soldered or a brazed joint. To acquire a. knowledge of the operations is not at all difficult, a working a...
-Brazing Joints
Brazing joints are important, as they present to us the somewhat peculiar instance in which it is possible to make a joint as strong as the solid plate. In ordinary riveted joints it is never possible...
-Brazed Outlet Or Tee-Pipe
Figs. 331 and 332 show outside and sectional views of the way in which an outlet may be brazed on to a pipe. The outlet is flanged to fit on the main pipe as shown, whilst the hole in the latter is ma...
-Pipe Flange Brazing
In brazing on pipe flanges (see sketch of four-way piece in Chapter XXIX (Worked-Up Pipe Bends, Breeches Pieces, Etc. Pipe Bends).) great care must be taken that both they and the pipe ends are proper...
-Chapter XXXVI. Riveted Joints
The making of a good sound riveted joint is one of the most important operations in plate metal work; hence in this chapter we intend to consider a few of the main points that should be taken into acc...
-Diameter Of Rivets
With any given thickness of plate, the first thing to determine is the diameter of the rivet which is most suitable for the joint. And, in considering this, we shall see that there are several practic...
-Pitch Of Rivets
The distance from centre to centre of the rivets can be calculated from the principle that the part of plate in between each pair of holes should be the same strength as one rivet. It may be put in th...
-Width Of Lap
The distance of the centre of rivet from the edge of plate is generally taken to equal one and a half times the diameter of the rivet, so that a single-riveted lap-joint would have an overlap of three...
-Caulking
Where caulking is to be done for work which is to be subjected to pressure, it is important that the lap should not be greater than that named above, as the plates may spring in caulking or in use. T...
-Shapes Of Rivets
The heads and tails of rivets are of various forms, several of which are shown in Fig. 334. (a) shows a cup or snap-head and tail, the dotted lines also showing a nobbled head; (6) and (c) have pan or...
-Riveting
The bulk of riveting is now done either by hydraulic or pneumatic power; but where the work is done by hand, it should be observed that the rivet is made red-hot the whole length, so that in being ham...
-Forms Of Joints
There are a multitude of different forms and combina- Fig. 334. tions of riveted joints. A few kinds only, however, will be shown - just sufficient to explain the arrangement of the plates...
-Strength Of Joints
The relative strength of joint to solid plate expressed in the form of a percentage will be equal to pitch - diameter of hole / pitch X 100. And using the example for 1/2 in. steel plates, already ca...
-Bursting Strength Of Cylindrical Shell Or Pipe
The bursting pressure of a solid shell or pipe can be determined from the following rule: Multiply together the thickness of the metal and its strength in lbs., and divide by the shell radius in inch...
-Planishing Or Flattening
To the uninitiated the levelling of plates or sheets presents one of the most awkward jobs it is possible to have. Yet with the exercise of thought and some practice the difficulties soon disappear. B...
-Chapter XXXVII. Surface Treatment Of Sheet Metals
All metals more or less oxidise or corrode when exposed to a damp atmosphere or corroding fumes. And if the oxide so formed is dissolvable in water or other liquid, or readily detaches itself from the...
-Galvanising
As galvanising is the commonest process adopted for applying a protective coating to sheet-iron work we shall explain the method followed with some fulness. Essentially the process consists in applyin...
-Galvanising. Continued
Spelter used per Ton of Galvanised Sheets. Kind of Sheets Single Rolls Double Rolls 28 gauge ...... 504 1b. ... ... 3101b. 26 ,....... ...
-Tinning
The process of tinning sheets follows very much the same lines as galvanising, the molten metal in this case being tin, and the flux generally a solution of chloride of zinc. The plates are run throug...
-Lacquering, Colouring, Etc
To obtain various artistic effects, metals are sometimes coloured by dipping into different chemical solutions or by the combined action of air and heat to form tinted oxides, or by the application of...
-Protecting Plate Iron Work
For plate work, other than boilers, there is no more effectual initial coating than boiled oil. To be lasting, the plates should first be cleaned of all scale that is likely to become detached. When b...
-Chapter XXXVIII. Metals And Their Properties
There are altogether in Nature between 50 and 60 different metals, but on account of the unfitness of many through difficulty of extraction from their ores, rarity, or rapid oxidation when exposed to ...
-Table Of Weights, Expansion Multipliers, Etc
Metal Weight per Cubic Foot, in lbs. Linear Expansion for 1o(Cent). Specific Heat Aluminium............ 166 .000023 .2143 Brass...
-Iron
On account of the large supply, cheapness, and its many useful properties, iron ranks as the chief of metals. It is hardly, if ever, found in Nature in its pure state. It is extracted from its ores in...
-Copper
This is the only metal which possesses a distinctly red colour, and of the ordinary manufacturing metals is, when pure, by far the toughest. It is most durable and an excellent conductor of heat; and ...
-Zinc
The chief use of this metal, which is known in the ingot form as spelter, is in galvanising sheet iron. Its great advantage is, that while it quickly tarnishes or oxidises, the film so formed is ind...
-Aluminium
This is a white malleable metal which is a little softer than zinc. Its chief property is its remarkable lightness, being only about one-third the weight of iron. For sheet metal work its chief drawba...
-Tin
This is a white metal with a slight yellow tinge, and is used principally as the coating metal for tinplates. It is not readily attacked by vegetable acids or meat juices, and this makes it of great v...
-Lead
Of the ordinary manufacturing metals lead is the softest and possesses the least strength. It is very heavy, being more than four times the weight of aluminium. Its softness renders it particularly su...
-Bismuth
This is a white metal with a peculiar reddish tinge, and is very brittle. Its chief use is in being added to alloys of tin and lead, whose melting point it reduces in a remarkable manner. ...
-Antimony
This is a bluish-white feathery-looking metal, which is so crystalline that it may be broken and ground up to a powder. Its chief use is for hardening alloys of lead and tin, such as Britannia and Bab...
-Alloys
Metals are often compounded with each other to obtain various properties not possessed by the metals themselves, such as: (1) Reduction of melting point to something lower than that of one or more of ...
-Chapter XXXIX. Mensuration Rules. Circumference Of Circle
Length of circumference = diameter multiplied by 3 1/7 or more accurately diameter x 3.1416. Area Of Triangle Multiply the base by half the perpendicular height. Area Of Circle Multiply radius by ...
-Weights Of Black Steel Per Square Foot With Thicknesses In Inches And Millimetres
Gauge Lbs. per Square Foot Thickness. Inches. Thickness. Mm. 3/16 7.50 .1874 4.770 8 6.28 .1570 3.988 9 5.59 .13...
-Steel Coke Tinplates
Size Plates in Box 1 c........... 14 X 10 225 1 c................ 10 X 20 225 1 c.............. 14 X 20...
-Approximate Weights Per Square Foot Of Iron, Copper, And Brass
W. G. Number Iron In lbs. per sq foot. Copper In lbs. per sq. foot. Brass In lbs. per sq. foot. 1 12 14 13 2 11 13 12 ...
-Sheet Zinc
Approximate Weights of light strengths in Sheets 8 ft. x 3 ft., showing the equivalent Wire Gauge To Zinc Gauge No. 4 Zinc = about 34 W.G. = ...
-Sheet Copper
Equivalent Gauges and Weights for Sheets 4 ft. x 2 ft. 4 ft. X 2 ft. X 4 lb. = 30 W.G. 4 ft. X 2 ft. X 5 ...
-Chapter XL. Annealing, Welding, Etc. Annealing
In the operation of rolling, hammering, or drawing. metals become hard and brittle; and to avoid fracture in further working the sheets or plates, it is essential that these should be softened, or ann...
-Autogenous Welding
The welding together of two pieces of the same metal without the introduction of a solder is termed autogenous soldering. The term, therefore, has a very restricted meaning, and up to the present ca...
-Cutting Metal With Oxygen
In addition to welding, as explained above, acetylene can also be used as the heating agent in a special blowpipe for oxygen cutting. The blowpipe is so arranged that a separate jet of oxygen may be d...
-Chapter XLI. Miscellaneous Patterns. Gear Case For Mitre Wheels
The making of a sheet metal covering to act as a guard for bevel wheels is not by any means a difficult matter, the chief consideration being the setting out of the patterns to work up exactly to the ...
-Square Cover Or Dome Of Semicircular Section
Fig. 341. A very effective-looking cover can be made up out of four pieces of sheet metal to the shape as shown in Fig. 341. The shape is semicircular in both directions. The pattern is marked out...
-Conical Pipe On Spherical Dome
If the conical pipe has to fit on the middle of the spherical dome, it will at once be seen that the cut on the end of the cone must be square to its centre line. But if the conical pipe fits on the s...
-Cylindrical Crossed Tubes
A. somewhat interesting case of pattern cutting is that drawn in Fig. 346. It will be seen that the tubes cross and cut part way into each other, and as both pipes are the same size, the shape of the ...
-Curved Square Hood
A hood with curved back, throat, and sides, as shown in Fig. 347, can have its patterns marked out with very little trouble if the method as shown on the diagram is followed. For the cheek pattern, t...
-Offside Conical Crosspipe In Conical Tube
Perhaps one of the most peculiar and difficult patterns to mark out is that for a conical pipe which fits inside another conical pipe, and whose centre lines do not meet and are also inclined to each ...
-Chapter XLII. Sheet And Plate Metal Working Machines And Tools
The machines and tools used in sheet and plate metal work are of almost infinite variety, especially in the former class of work. For plate work the machines usually used are those for straightening,...
-Folding And Angle Bending Machine
Wiring Machine. Long Arm Swaging Machine. Swaging Machine. Bath Beading Machine. Astragal Forming Machine. Cone Rolling Machine. Knocking-up Machine Pipe Cutting Shears. ...
-Funnel Stake With Beck
Small Beck Stake. Pan Stake (Square). Pan Stake (Round-ended). Horse and Heads. Pipe Stake. Small Pipe Stake. Creasing Iron. Creasing Stake and Horn. Double-ended Round and S...
-A List Of Books Published By Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd
(Incorporating WHITTAKER & CO.) 1 AMEN CORNER, LONDON, E.C. 4 A complete Catalogue giving full details of the following books will be sent post free on application. ALL PRICES ARE NET. ...
-Tinsmiths And Sheet Metal Workers' Machines And Tools
Rhodes Foot-worked Guillotine. Guaranteed the Best on the Market. Prices Reasonable. Prompt Despatch. J. Rhodes & Sons, Ltd. (ESTABLISHED 1824). GROVE IRONWORKS, Wakefield, Yorkshire ...
-Books for the Mechanical Engineer
Practical Ironfounding. By J Horner.A.M.I.M.E. Fourth Edition, Revised And Enlarged. This Book Is Written Both For The Student And Practical Man. The Principles Are Clearly Explained, and the most rec...









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