This section is from the book "American Plumbing Practice", by The Engineering Record. Also available from Amazon: Plumbing: A working manual of American plumbing practice.
A list of the principal fixtures includes 79 water-closets, 24 urinals, seven earthenware hopper slopsinks, five cast-iron slopsinks, one cast-iron sink in engineer's basement toilet-room, and three cast-iron drip sinks, etc. in the basement. There are 291 washbasins, mostly single, 12^x15 inches, and one porcelain-lined roll-rim bathtub, besides two school sinks temporarily connected up in the basement for use as workmen's water-closets. One end of the elevator shaft is partitioned off to make a separate main vertical flue through which the pump and tank risers and other stacks of pipes are run, and into which foul-air flues for the ventilation of toilet-rooms are connected on different floors. In this ventilation shaft a special galvanized-iron flue is run and provided with branches extending to within 2 feet of the different water-closets and urinals, from each of which a local vent pipe 3 inches or 2 inches respectively is taken to the flue branch. The top of the main flue opens freely in an iron exhaust chamber on top of the roof, where an electrically driven 5-foot Blackman fan exhausts the air from both the toilet-rooms and their fixtures.
Figure 2 shows the location of basement pumps, tank, hot and cold water drums, and the arrangement of distribution lines and position of the valves by which they can be completely controired from this one point near the engineer's headquarters.
Separate metered supplies are taken from the two adjacent street mains and discharged through four i^-inch ball cocks into a 1,000-gallon open iron suction tank, from which the two i4"x7"x10" Deane house pumps are supplied. The pumps deliver through a 4-inch pipe D to the roof tanks, and also through two 3-inch fire lines E E that have valve and hose couplings on every floor. A third similar fire line is branched overhead from pipe D, but is not here shown. Pipe D has a check valve, opening up to prevent the escape of water from the tanks. The supply and pressure from the tanks is brought through a 4 inch pipe F to the distribution drum G, 8x2 feet, that has dished heads, is tested to 200 pounds hydraulic pressure, and is hung from the floor beams above by iron suspension straps. This drum has two 8-inch handholes, and distributes the house supply of cold water through 12 1½ -inch risers H, etc., which are controlled by the angle valves I I, etc., and may be separately emptied through the drip pipes and waste valves just above. A 2-inch pipe K from the bottom of the drum supplies the hot-water boiler J, whose contents are heated by two interior 3-inch brass coils, each 30 feet long, and connected to the live and exhaust steam mains. This boiler delivers hot water under tank pressure to the different groups of fixtures through the three 2-inch lines LLL that vent above the roof tanks, and are connected above their highest fixtures with ¾-inch return-circulation pipes M M M, that are branched into the 2-inch emptying pipe N, between its valve and the boiler. These pipes are commanded by valves O, and each one can be separately and independently emptied by closing its valve O and opening its valve P.
Each of the three systems, hot water, cold water, and tank delivery, has a blow-off above the roof tank. The pipe Q that supplies the first floor and basement fixtures with cold water is connected as shown with the mains from each of the two streets and by a valve not shown with tank-pressure system, which is usually cut off, but may be used if necessary. All hot water, to basement fixtures inclusive, is supplied under tank pressure.
Each of the duplicate Deane steam pumps receives steam through pipe V and valve U, which is usually open , and admits it to a valve T which is operated by a piston attached to its stem and continued in hydraulic cylinder S. This cylinder is connected with the roof tanks by a small pressure pipe R so arranged that when the water in the tank is more than 6 inches below the overflow it opens valve T, admits steam to the pumps and starts them; when the water rises in the tank to 1 inch below the overflow line the valve automatically closes and stops the pumps, the practical result being that the pump -usually works very slowly most of the time, the valve T being only a little open. Of course valve T can be fixed open and the pumps operated by hand by valve U. Another pressure pipe and dial in the engine-room, not here shown, indicates constantly the height of water in the tank by a spring gauge with its index arranged to show feet instead of pounds.
PLUMBING IN THE PRESBYTERIAN BUILDING, NEW YORK CITY.
Figure 3 shows the arrangement of storage tank T T in the roof house. Each tank is made of ¼-inch steel plates, with 3x4 inch vertical T-bar stiffeners 4 feet apart inside, a 4x3 inch flange angle around the upper edge inside, and two sets of nine 1- inch horizontal tie-rods hooked to inside lugs riveted to the side plates. The tanks measure 10'x12'x6' high and have a capacity of 5,000 gallons below the overflow line. The tanks are supported on 10-inch rolled-steel I beams that distribute its weight upon the columns of the building and are placed in a ¼-inch iron safe pan 3 inches deep and 12'8"x29' 2", projecting 16 inches beyond the sides of the tanks and drained by two 3-inch safe waste pipes.
The connections of the pipes are clearly indicated in the illustration. All pipes have flange joints to tanks. The main tanks T T are filled through separate valves from 4-inch pump riser D, that is carried along the ridge of the roof about 8 feet above their tops and has a vent and air valve at its highest point. They are connected at the bottom by an equalizing pipe B, with valves to cut off either tank if requisite for cleaning, painting, alterations, repairs, etc., and from this pipe the 4-inch house-supply pipe F and three 3-inch fire lines E E E (see also Fig. 2) are branched, the latter with check valves to prevent fire-pump pressure from entering the tanks. All the lines are separately valved, though the valves are normally kept open and a small vent pipe suffices to promote the ready emptying of all of them. The arrangement of pump governor pressure gauge, overflow and emptying pipes is clearly shown, and a frame A made of 2-inch riveted angles rests upon the top of one tank and supports a 500 gallon tank J that is elevated to give sufficient head for the supply to janitor's apartments on the same floor as the main tanks T T.