This section is from the book "American Plumbing Practice", by The Engineering Record. Also available from Amazon: Plumbing: A working manual of American plumbing practice.
Figures io and 11 are conventional diagrams which are not drawn to scale nor position, but are simplified to show principles and operation. Figure 10 illustrates the hot-water supply and circulation system. Water is delivered under tank pressure to the 400-gallon boiler in the basement, and is there heated by an interior coil of 2 inch brass pipe about 30 feet long that is supplied with either live or exhaust steam# The heated water rises from the top of the boiler through a main that runs along the basement ceiling across the center of the building and over to the side wall, thence rises to the twelfth story, and crossing horizontally to the opposite side descends and returns full sized to the under side of the boiler, thus forming a complete circulation system of itself. Distribution branches are taken at intervals from this main to supply toilet rooms and slopsinks, and a check valve at the bottom, opening towards the boiler, prevents a reverse draft of water and permits free circulation. A connection is made with the janitor's kitchen boiler so as to permit him to draw from the main system through a check valve that closes downwards to prevent the escape of water from his boiler if the pressure there should be the greater. A relief pipe terminates in a Bryant safety and vacuum valve, wasting into the roof tank. All the hot-water pipes are of tin-lined brass.
Figure 11 shows the relation of pump and tank service to the filtered water supply. A branch from the tank-pressure house-supply main in the basement connects with a Loomis filter, which delivers through a special riser line to faucets in one vertical set of slopsinks in the corridors, where drinking-water can be secured on each floor. Regular emptying and washing valves, etc. for the filter are of course provided, but are not here shown.
Figure 14 shows a slopsink supplied with hot, cold, and filtered water controlled by the three upper valves, and also commanded by three lower valves at L, behind the sink, to cut off the supply for repacking or repairing the valves. Delivery is through a special long and heavy spout, designed for this work, and re-enforced by a brass knee brace underneath.
Figure 15 shows the connections of the urinals, where access is had for cleaning out the trap through a 1½ -inch brass ferrule that extends through the slab and is capped in front under the urinal. The flues in general are rectangular and so proportioned that each urinal has a branch 2 inches in diameter, and the main vents an area equal to all the branches. From the twelfth-floor toilet-room urinals a 6-inch vent is run well above the roof, with 8-inch jacket and globe ventilator. From the basement toilet-room a 12x18-inch heavy galvanized sheet-iron vent duct, with white enamel register face, is run on the ceiling to the space in the chimey around the inclosed boiler flue. All local vent urinal flues and branches are of 20 ounce cold-rolled copper with soldered joints. All fixtures are set open without wood casings, and all traps, wastes, vents, supplies, and fittings about all fixtures are also exposed and generally nickel-plated. Each water-closet has a large-sized plain pine copper-lined syphon cistern, which is cased in marble. The flush-tank cistern is on top of the marble wainscoting and overhangs, so that the position of the flush pipe is on the face of the marble, and it is made perfectly straight, without bend, curve, or offset. Each water-closet is connected to the soil pipe by a 4 inch lead bend with heavy brass floorplate. The vent from the lead bend is a 2-inch lead and steel branch. Each cistern is supplied through a ½-inch nickel-plated branch with separate globe valve and hush pipe on the ball cock. All urinals waste through 2-inch lead trap and waste, with 1½ - inch nickel-plated trap screw brought through the face of the marble back, and with 1½ - inch vent branch. Each urinal, or set of two to four urinals, is flushed through a 1¼ - inch nickel-plated flush pipe from an automatic syphon cistern set and fitted like the water-closet cisterns. The main copper local vent runs behind the marble as high up as practicable, and a 2 inch branch drops down to each urinal waste. These are of lead, wiped to the brass waste fitting and carried up to the copper vent. Besides the house tank, suction tank, receiving tank, filter, and two water meters, there are 46 water-closets, 29 urinals, 203 washbasins, nine slopsinks, one sink, and in the janitor's apartments one sink, one bathtub, three washtrays, one boiler, and one water-closet. The entire plumbing and drainage system was tested by the plumber with a force pump and mercury gauge under an air pressure equal to 20 inches of mercury, and the gauge column did not show any appreciable loss of pressure in five minutes.