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Henley's Twentieth Century Formulas Recipes Processes Vol3



Volume 3 of the book containing ten thousand selected household and workshop formulas, recipes, processes and money-saving methods for the practical use of manufacturers, mechanics, housekeepers and home workers.

TitleHenley's Twentieth Century Formulas, Recipes And Processes
AuthorNorman W. Henley
PublisherThe Norman W. Henley Publishing Company
Year1916
Copyright1916, The Norman W. Henley Publishing Company

HENLEY'S TWENTIETH CENTURY

BOOK OF

RECIPES, FORMULAS AND PROCESSES

HENLEY'S TWENTIETH CENTURY

FORMULAS, RECIPES AND PROCESSES

CONTAINING TEN THOUSAND SELECTED HOUSEHOLD AND WORKSHOP FORMULAS, RECIPES, PROCESSES AND MONEY-SAVING METHODS FOR THE PRACTICAL USE OF MANUFACTURERS, MECHANICS, HOUSEKEEPERS AND HOME WORKERS

EDITED BY

GARDNER D. H1SCOX, M.E.

AUTHOR OF "MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS, POWERS AND DEVICES,"

"COMPRESSED AIR," "GAS, GASOLINE AND

OIL ENGINES," ETC., ETC.

NEW YORK

THE NORMAN W. HENLEY PUBLISHING COMPANY

2 WEST 45th STREET 1921

Copyright, 1916, 1914 and 1913, by THE NORMAN W. HENLEY PUBLISHING COMPANY

Copyright, 1912 and 1907, by

THE NORMAN W. HENLEY PUBLISHING COMPANY

Also, Entered at Stationers' Hall Court, London, England

All rights reserved

PRESS OF

PUBLISHERS PRINTING COMPANY

NEW YORK

-Impregnation of Papers with Zapon Varnish
For the protection of important papers against the destructive influences of the atmosphere, of water fungi, and light, but especially against the consequences ...
-Slate Parchment
Soak good paper with linseed-oil varnish (boiled oil) and apply the following mass, mentioned below, several times in succession: Copal varnish, 1 part, by ...
-Metallic Paper
This paper, made by transferring, pasting, or painting a coating of metal on ordinary paper, retains a comparatively dull and dead appearance even after ...
-Paraffine
Rendering Paraffine Transparent A process for rendering paraffine and its mixtures with other bodies (ceresine, etc.) used in the manufacture of transparent ...
-Passe-Partout Framing
It is hardly correct to call the passe-partout a frame, as it is merely a binding together of the print, the glass, and the backing with a narrow edge of paper.
-Razor Pastes
I From jewelers' rouge, plumbago, and suet, equal parts, melted together and stirred until cold. II From prepared putty powder (levigated oxide of tin), 3 ...
-Perfumes
Dry Perfumes: Sachet Powders I Orris root......... 6 ounces Lavender flowers... 2 ounces Talcum........... 4 drachms Musk............. 20 grains Terpinol.......
-Smelling Salts
I Fill small glasses having ground stopper with pieces of sponge free from sand and saturate with a mixture of spirit of sal ammoniac (0.910), 9 parts, and oil ...
-Violet Smelling Salts
I Moisten coarsely powdered ammonia carbonate, contained in a suitable bottle, with a mixture of concentrated tincture of orris root, 2.5 ounces; aromatic ...
-To Scent Advertising Matter, etc.
The simplest way of perfuming printed matter, such as calendars, cards, etc., is to stick them in strongly odorous sachet powder. Although the effect of a ...
-Coloring Liquid Perfumes
Chlorophyll is a suitable agent for coloring liquid perfumes green. Care must be taken to procure an article freely soluble in the menstruum. As found in the ...
-Fixing Agents in Perfumes
The secret of making perfumery lies mainly in the choice of the fixing agents i. e., those bodies which intensify and hold the floral odors. The agents ...
-General Directions for Making Perfumes
It is absolutely essential for obtaining the best results to see that all vessels are perfectly clean. Always employ alcohol, 90 per cent, deodorized by means ...
-Tinctures for Perfumes
a. Ambergris, 1 part; alcohol, 96 per cent, 15 parts. b. Benzoin, Sumatra, 1 part; alcohol, 96 per cent, 6 parts. c. Musk, 1 part; distilled water, 25 parts; ...
-Bay Rum
Bay rum, or more properly bay spirit, may be made from the oil with weak alcohol as here directed: I Oil of bay leaves.... 3 drachms Oil of orange peel... 1/2 ...
-Colognes
In making cologne water, the alcohol used should be that obtained from the distillation of wine, provided a first-class article is desired. It is possible, of ...
-Cologne Spirits or Deodorized Alcohol
This is used in all toilet preparations and perfumes. It is made thus: Alcohol, 95 per cent. . 1 gallon Powdered unslaked lime.............. 4 drachms Powdered ...
-Lavender Water
This, the most famous of all the perfumed waters, was originally a distillate from a mixture of spirit and lavender flowers. This was the perfume. Then came a ...
-Liquid Perfumes For The Handkerchief, Person, Etc.
Acacia Extract French acacia...... 400 parts Tincture of amber (l in 10)......... 3 parts Eucalyptus oil...... 0.5 parts Lavender oil....... 1 part Bergamot ...
-Navy Bouquet
Spirit of sandalwood.. 10 ounce s Extract of patchouli. . 10 ounces Spirit of rose........ 10 ounces Spirit of vetivert..... 10 ounces Extract of verbena... 12 ...
-Handkerchief Perfumes
I Lavender oil...... 10 parts Neroli oil......... 10 parts Bitter almond oil. . 2 parts Orris root......... 200 parts Rose oil.......... 5 parts Clove oil......
-Marechal Niel Rose
In the genus of roses, outside of the hundred-leaved or cabbage rose, the Maréchal Niel rose (Rosa Noisetteana Red), also called Noisette rose and often, ...
-Artificial Violet
Ionone is an artificial perfume which smells exactly like fresh violets, and is therefore an extremely important product. Although before it was discovered ...
-Double Extract
By weight Cassia extract, 2d pomade........ 100 parts Violet extract, 2d pomade........ 150 parts Jasmine extract, 2d pomade..... 100 parts Rose extract, 2d ...
-Toilet Waters
Toilet waters proper are perfumed liquids designed more especially as refreshing applications to the person accessories to the bath and to the operations of ...
-Eau de Merveilleuse
Alcohol........... 3 quarts Orange flower water 4 quarts Peru balsam....... 2 ounces Clove oil........... 4 ounces Civet............. 1.25 ounces Rose geranium ...
-Lilac Water
Terpineol.......... 2 drachms Heliotropin........ 8 grains Bergamot oil....... 1 drachm Neroli oil.......... 8 minims Alcohol........... 12 ounces Water........
-Perfumed Pastilles
These scent tablets consist of a compressed mixture of rice starch, magnesium carbonate, and powdered orris root, saturated with heliotrope, violet, or lilac ...
-Perfumes for Hair Oils
I -Heliotropin........ 8 grains Coumarin......... 1 grain Oil of orris......... 1 drop Oil of rose......... 15 minims Oil of bergamot.... 30 minims II Coumarin.
-Soap Perfumes
See also Soap. I Oil of lavender..... 0.5 ounce Oil of cassia.........30 minims Add 5 pounds of soap stock. II Oil of caraway...... Oil of clove........ Oil of ...
-The Preparation of Emulsions of Crude Petroleum
Kerosene has long been recognized as a most efficient insecticide, but its irritating action, as well as the very considerable cost involved, has prevented the ...
-Petroleum for Spinning
In order to be able to wash out the petroleum or render it saponifiable, the following process is recommended: Heat the mineral oil with 5 to 10 per cent of ...
-Glow Pictures
These can be easily produced by drawing the outlines of a picture, writing, etc., on a piece of white paper with a solution of 40 parts of saltpeter and 20 ...
-Phosphate Substitute
An artificial phosphate is thus prepared: Melt in an oven a mixture of 100 parts of phosphorite, ground coarsely, 70 parts of acid sulphate of soda; 20 parts ...
-Phosphorescent Mass
See also Luminous Bodies and Paints. Mix 2 parts of dehydrated sodium carbonate, 0.5 parts of sodium chloride, and 0.2 parts of manganic sulphate with 100 ...
-Phosphorus Substitute
G. Graveri recommends persul focyanic acid = H2(CN)aS3 as meeting all the requirements of phosphorus on matches. It resists shock and friction, it is readily ...
-Photography Developers And Developing Of Plates
No light is perfectly safe or non-actinic, even that coming through a combined ruby and orange window or lamp. Therefore use great care in developing. A light ...
-Pyro and Soda Developer
I Pure water......... 30 ounces Sulphite soda, crystals ............ 5 ounces Carbonate soda, crystals......... 2.5 ounces II Pure water......... 24 ounces ...
-Rodinal Developer
One part rodinal to 30 parts pure water. Use repeatedly, adding fresh as required. Bromo-Hydrochinon Developer For producing great contrast and intensity, also ...
-Metol Developer
I Water............. 8 ounces Metol.............100 grains Sulphite of soda, crystals......... 1 ounce II Water............. 10 ounces Potassium carbonate 1 ...
-Tolidol Developer
Standard formula for dry plates and films: Water......... 16 ounces Tolidol. ....... 24 grains Sodium sulphite ....... 72 (144) grains Sodium carbonate......
-Pyrocatechin Developer (One Solution)
Dissolve in the following range: Sulphite of soda crystallized.......... 25.5 drachms Caustic soda (purified in sticks) .... 3.5 drachms Distilled water.....
-Hauff's Adurol Developer
One solution. Water............. 10 ounces Sulphide of sodium, crystals.......... 4 ounces Carbonate of potassium ............ 3 ounces Adurol............ 0.5 ...
-Developing Powders
By weight I Pyrogallol......... 0.3 parts Sodium bisulphite .. 1.2 parts Sodium carbonate .. 1.2 parts II Eikonogen......... 1.1 parts Sodium sulphite.. .. 2.4 ...
-Developing Papers
Light The paper can be safely handled 8 feet from the source of light, which may be Welsbach gas light, covered with post-office paper, incandescent light, ...
-Pyrocatechin Formula
Solution A Pyrocatechin...... 2 parts Sulphite of soda, crystals......... 2.5 parts Water............ 100 parts Solution B Carbonate of soda. 10 parts Water....
-Platinum Papers: General Instructions
To secure the most brilliant results the sensitized paper, before, during, and after its exposure to light, must be kept as dry as possible. The paper is ...
-"Water Tone" Platinum Paper
Water tone platinum paper is very easily affected by moisture; it will, therefore, be noticed when printing in warm, damp weather that the print will show ...
-The Glycerine Process
The glycerine process, or the process of developing platinotype prints by application of the developing agent with the brush, is perhaps one of the most ...
-The Carbon Process
The paper used is coated on one surface with a mixture of gelatin and some pigment (the color of which depends upon the color the required print is to be), and ...
-Lantern Slides
The making of a good slide begins with the making of the negative, the operations in both cases being closely allied, and he who has mastered the first, which ...
-Lantern Slides. Continued
As to time of exposure, very little can be said. That varies with the different makes of plates, with the quality of the light, and the nature and density of ...
-Negatives: How To Utilize Waste Material
Undoubtedly spoiled negatives form the greatest waste. The uses to which a ruined negative may be put are manifold. Cut down to 3.25 inches square and the ...
-Fixing And Clearing Photo Baths: The Acid Fixing and Clearing Bath
Add 2 ounces of S. P. C. clarifier (acid bisulphite of sodium) solution to 1 quart of hypo solution 1 in 5. Combined Alum and Hypo Bath Add saturated solution ...
-Reducer for Gelatin Dry-Plate Negatives
I Saturated solution of ferricyanide of potassium ........... 1 part Hyposulphite of sodium solution (1 in 10) 10 parts II Perchloride of iron .. 30 grains ...
-Photo Paper-Sensitizing Processes
Blueprint Paper I The ordinary blue photographic print in which white lines appear on a blue ground may be made on paper prepared as follows: A. Potassium ...
-How to Make Picture Postal Cards and Photographic Letter Heads
I Well-sized paper is employed. If the sizing should be insufficient, resizing can be done with a 10 per cent gelatin solution, with a 2 per cent arrowroot ...
-A Simple Emulsion for Mat or Printing-Out Paper
One of the very best surfaces to work upon for coloring in water color is the carbon print. Apart from its absolute permanency as a base, the surface possesses ...
-How to Sensitize Photographic Printing Papers
I The older form of paper is one in which the chemicals are held by albumen. Silver is said to combine with this, forming an albuminate. Pictures printed on ...
-Ferro-Prussiate Paper
The following aniline process of preparing sensitive paper is employed by the Prussian and Hessian railway administrations. The ordinary paper on reels is used ...
-Pigment Paper for Immediate Use
Pigment paper is usually sensitized in the bichromate solution on the evening before it is desired for use. If it is not then used it will spoil. By proceeding ...
-Photographing on Silk
China silk is thoroughly and carefully washed to free it from dressing, and then immersed in the following solution: Sodium chloride. ... 4 parts Arrowroot.....
-Toning Baths For Paper
The chief complaints made against separate baths are (1) the possibility of double tones, and (2) that the prints sometimes turn yellow and remain so. Such ...
-Toning Baths for Silver Bromide Paper
The picture, which has been exposed at a distance of 1.5 feet for about 8 to 10 seconds, is developed in the customary manner and fixed in an acid fixing bath ...
-Combined Toning And Fixing Baths
The combined toning and fixing bath consists essentially of five parts (1) water, the solvent; (2) a soluble salt of gold, such as gold chloride; (3) the ...
-Photo Enlargements
The object of this table is to enable any manipulator who is about to enlarge (or reduce) a copy any given number of times to do so without troublesome ...
-Varnishes
Cold Varnish I Pyroxylin.......... 10 grains Amyl alcohol....... 1 ounce Amyl acetate....... 1 ounce Allow to stand, shaking frequently till dissolved. Label: ...
-Restoring Faded Photographs
I As a precaution against a disaster first copy the old print in the same size. Soak the faded photograph for several hours in clean water and, after ...
-Faded Photographs Treatment: Mountants
See also Adhesives. I If buckling of the mount is to be cured, the prints must be mounted in a dry state, and the film of mountant borne by the print must be ...
-Transparent Photographs
I The following mixture may be employed at 176 F., to render photographs transparent. It consists of 4 parts paraffine and 1 part linseed oil. After immersion ...
-The Gum - Bichromate Photo - Printing Process
Gum bichromate is not a universal printing method. It is not suited for all subjects or for all negatives, but where there is simplicity and breadth in sizes ...
-Photography: Comparative Exposures of Various Subjects
Seconds Open panorama, with fields and trees......................... 1 Snow, ice, marine views........... 1 Panorama, with houses, etc........ 2 Banks of ...
-To Reduce Photographs
When one wishes to copy a drawing or photograph he is usually at a loss to know how high the plate will be when any particular base is selected. A plan which ...
-Color Photography: A Three-Color Process
Prepare 7 solutions, 4 of which are used for color screens, the remaining 3 serving as dyes for the plates. A. Screen Solutions. Blue violet. by weight ...
-Solution for Preparing Color Sensitive Plates
H. Vollenbruch maintains that plates sensitized with erythrosin silver citrate are not only more sensitive to color impressions, but also have better keeping ...
-Microphotographs
The instruments used are an objective of very short focus and a small camera with a movable holder. This camera and the original negative to be reduced are ...
-Photographs on Brooches
These may be produced by means of a paper (celuidin paper) whose upper layer after exposure by means of ordinary negative can be detached in lukewarm water.
-Flashlight Powders And Apparatus
Flash powders to be ignited by simply applying the flame of a match or laying on an oiled paper and igniting that, may be made by the following formulas: I ...
-Intensifiers And Reducers
Intensifier (Mercuric) with Sodium Sulphite, for Gelatin Dry Plates Whiten the negative in the saturated solution of mercuric chloride, wash and -blacken with ...
-Renovating a Camera
The following formula should be applied to the mahogany of the camera by means of a soft rag, rubbing it well in, finally polishing lightly with a clean soft ...
-Exclusion of Air from Solutions
Water is free from air only when it has been maintained for several minutes in bubbling ebullition. In order to keep out the air from the bottle, when using ...
-Bottle Wax
Many ready-prepared solutions, such as developers and other preparations from which light has to be excluded, should be packed in bottles whose neck, after ...
-Bleaching Photographic Prints White
To make a salt print, ink over it with waterproof ink, then bleach out white all but the black lines. Sensitize Clemon's mat surface paper on a 40-grain bath ...
-To Render Negatives Permanent
A fine negative, one that we would like to preserve, may be rendered permanent by placing it, after it has been fixed, in a 10 per cent solution of alum, and ...
-Stripping Photograph Films
This is generally done by immersing the plate in formaldehyde solution until the film has become almost insoluble and impermeable. Then it is placed in a ...
-Phosphorescent Photographs
The necessary chemicals belong to the class of phosphorescent bodies, among others, calcium sulphite, strontium sulphite, barium sulphide, calcareous spar, ...
-Printing Names on Photographs
The name or other matter to be printed on the photograph is set up in type, and printed on cardboard; from this make an exposure on a transparency plate, ...
-Spots on Photographic Plates
Spots on photographic plates may be caused by dust or by minute bubbles in the emulsion, both of which are easily preventable, but some spots cannot be ...
-To Remove Pyro Stains from the Fingers
Make a strong solution of chlorinated lime; dip the fingers which are stained in this, and rub the stains with a large crystal of citric acid. Apply the lime ...
-Nature, Source, and Manufacture of Pigments
A pigment is a dry earthy or clayey substance that, when mixed with oil, water, etc., forms a paint. Most pigments are of mineral origin, but there are ...
-Mixing Oil Colors and Tints
It must not be expected that the formulas given will produce the exact effect desired, because the strength of the various brands of colors vary to a great ...
-Positive Oil Colors
Blue Twelve parts borate of lime; 6 parts oxide of zinc; 10 parts litharge; 9 parts feldspar; 4 parts oxide of cobalt. Blue Black A Nine parts lampblack; 1 ...
-Positive Oil Colors. Continued
Royal Blue, Dark Eighteen parts ultramarine blue and 2 parts Prussian blue. To lighten use as much white lead or zinc white as is required. Royal Purple Two ...
-Oil Colors: Red Tints
Cardinal Red Equal parts of white lead and scarlet lake. Carnation Red Fifteen parts white lead; 1 part scarlet lake. Claret Twenty-one parts oxide of zinc; 4 ...
-Oil Colors: Green Tints
Apple Green Fifty parts white lead; 1 part chrome green, light or medium shade. Citrine Green One hundred parts white lead; 2 parts medium chrome yellow; 1 ...
-Oil Colors: Brown Tints
Chocolate Twenty-five parts white lead; 3 parts burnt umber. Cocoanut Equal parts white lead and burnt umber. Cinnamon Ten parts white lead; 2 parts burnt ...
-Oil Colors: Gray Tints
Ash Gray Thirty parts white lead; 2 parts ultramarine blue; 1 part burnt sienna. COLOR TESTING. Expense and trouble deter many a painter from having a color ...
-Testing Body Colors for Gritty Admixtures
The fineness of the powdered pigment is not a guarantee of the absence of gritty admixtures. The latter differ from the pigment proper in their specific ...
-To Determine the Covering Power of Pigments
To determine the covering power of white lead, or any other pigment, take equal quantities of several varieties of white lead and mix them with a darker ...
-Pile Ointments
I Extract witch-hazel.......... 2 fluidounces Lanum.......... 2 ounces Petrolatum...... 6 ounces Glycerine........ 4 fluidounces Tannic acid...... 1 drachm ...
-Temperature of Water for Watering Plants
Experiments were made several years ago at the Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station to determine whether cold water was detrimental to plants. Plants were ...
-Plaster Formulas
(See also Gypsum.) Therapeutic Grouping of Medicinal Plasters The vehicle for medicated plasters requires some other attribute than simply adhesiveness. From a ...
-Solution of Rubber in Fixed Solvent: Petrolatum and Incorporation with Lead Acetate
India rubber dissolves, though with difficulty, in petrolatum. The heat required to melt the rubber being comparatively high, usually considerably more than ...
-Court Plaster or Sticking Plaster
I. Brush silk over with a solution of isinglass, in spirits or warm water, dry and repeat several times. For the last application apply several coats of balsam ...
-Coloring of Modeling Plaster
I If burnt gypsum is stirred up with water containing formaldehyde and with a little alkali, and the quantity of water necessary for the induration of the ...
-Treatment of Fresh Plaster
Freshly plastered cement surfaces on walls may be treated as follows: The freshly plastered surface first remains without any coating for about 14 days; then ...
-Hardening and Toughening Plaster of Paris
I Plaster of Paris at times sets too rapidly; therefore the following recipe for toughening and delaying drying will be useful. To calcined plaster of Paris ...
-Preservation of Plaster Casts
Upon complete drying, small objects are laid for a short while in celluloid varnish of 4 per cent, while large articles are painted with it, from the top ...
-Plating Of Metal Surfaces
The plating of metal surfaces is accomplished in four different ways: (1) By oxidation, usually involving dipping in an acid bath; (2) by electrodeposition, ...
-Plating Of Metal Surfaces: Bronzing
Art Bronzes These are bronzes of different tints, showing a great variety according to the taste and fancy of the operator. I After imparting to an object a ...
-Bronzing of Gas Fixtures
Gas fixtures which have become dirty or tarnished from use may be improved in appearance by painting with bronze paint and then, if a still better finish is ...
-Bronzing Metals
I The following composition is recommended for bronzing metal objects exposed to the air: Mix about equal parts of siccative, rectified oil of turpentine, ...
-Plating Of Metal Surfaces: Coloring Of Metals
Direct Coloration of Iron and Steel by Cupric Selenite Iron precipitates copper and selenium from their salts. Immersed in a solution of cupric selenite, ...
-Production of Rainbow Colors on Metals (iron, copper, brass, zinc, etc.)— I
The following process of irisation is due to Puscher. It allows of covering the metals with a thick layer of metallic sulphide, similar to that met with in ...
-Coloration by Electrolysis
I Colored Rings by Electrolysis (Nobili, Becquerel). In order to obtain the Nobili rings it is necessary to concentrate the current coming from one of the ...
-Coloring of Brass
I (a) Brown bronze: Acid solution of nitrate of silver and bismuth or nitric acid. (6) Light bronze: Acid solution of nitrate of silver and of copper. (c) ...
-Production of Rainbow Hues
Various colors. I. Dissolve tartrate of antimony and of potash, 30 parts; tartaric acid, 30 parts; water, 1,000 parts. Add hydrochloric acid, 90 to 120 parts; ...
-Bronzing of Brass
The object is boiled with zinc grains and water saturated with ammoniacal chlorhydrate. A little zinc chloride may be added to facilitate the operation, wlich ...
-Plating of Aluminum
The light metal may be plated with almost any other metal, but copper is most commonly employed. Two formulas for coppering aluminum follow: I Make a bath of ...
-Coppering of Aluminum
I This is the Dessolle process for the galvanic application of copper. The special advantage claimed is that strong currents can be used, and a deposit ...
-Cobaltizing of Metals
Following are various processes for cobaltizing on copper or other metals previously coppered: I. Cobalt, 50 parts, by weight; sal ammoniac, 25 parts; liquid ...
-Replating with Battery
It is well known to electro-metallurgists that metals deposited by electricity do not adhere so firmly to their kind as to other metals. Thus gold will adhere ...
-Silver Plating
The term silver deposit designates a coating of silver which is deposited upon glass, porcelain, china, or other substances. This deposit may be made to take ...
-Steel Plating
The following is a solution for dipping steel articles before electroplating: Nitrate of silver, 1 part; nitrate of mercury, 1 part; nitric acid (specific ...
-Tin Plating by Electric Bath
Most solutions give a dead-white film of tin, and this has to be brightened by friction of some sort, either by scratch brushing, burnishing, polishing, or ...
-Plating Of Metal Surfaces: Gilding And Gold Plating
Genuine gilding readily takes up mercury, while imitation gilding does not or only very slowly. Any coating of varnish present should, however, be removed ...
-Aluminum Gilding
I Dissolve 6 parts of gold in aqua regia and dilute the I solution with distilled water; on the other hand, put 30 parts of lime in 150 parts of distilled ...
-Amalgam Gold Plating
Gold amalgam is chiefly used as a plating for silver, copper, or brass. The article to be plated is washed over with diluted nitric acid or potash lye and ...
-Brass Gilding
On brass, which is an electropositive metal, an electromagnetic metal, such as gold, can be deposited very cheaply from the dilute solutions of its salts. The ...
-Copper and Brass Gilding
The solutions used to gild copper can be generally used also for brass articles. Copper gilding acquires importance because in order to gild iron, steel, tin, ...
-Cold Chemical Gilding
The chemical gilding by the wet process is accomelished by E. E. Stahl with the aid of three baths: A gold bath, a neutralization bath, and a reduction bath.
-Colored Gilding
A variety of shades of green and red gold can be obtained by the electro-chemical process, which method may be employed for the decoration of various objects ...
-Gilding of Glass
I In order to produce a good gilding on glass, the gold salt employed must be free from acid. Prepare three solutions, viz.: a. 20 parts acid-free gold ...
-Green Gilding
This can be obtained conveniently by the galvanic process, by means of anodes of sheet platinum with the following composition: Water, 10,000 parts, by weight; ...
-Incrusting with Gold
The article is first made perfectly bright, and those places which are to be gilt are covered with a matt consisting of white lead ground with gum water, made ...
-Ivory Gilding
I The pattern is painted with a fine camel's-hair pencil, moistened with gold chloride. Hold the ivory over the mouth of a bottle in which hydrogen gas is ...
-Mat Gilding
To obtain a handsome mat gilding the article, after having been neatly polished, is passed through a sand-blast, such as is found in glass-grinding and etching ...
-Dead-Gilding of an Alloy of Copper and Zinc
The parts which are to be deadened must be isolated from those which are to be polished, and also from those which are to be concealed, and which therefore are ...
-Powder for Gilding Metals
I In a solution of perchloride of gold soak small pieces of linen which are dried over the solution so that the drops falling therefrom are saved. When the ...
-Regilding Mat Articles
In order to regenerate dead gold trinkets without having to color them again which is, as a rule, impossible, because the gold is too weak to stand a second ...
-Wood Gilding
I. The moldings, ledges, etc., to be gilded are painted with a strong solution of joiners' glue, which is left to harden well, whereupon 8 to 10 coatings of ...
-Plating Of Metal Surfaces: Oxidizing Processes
Aluminum Plating I To plate iron and other metals with pure aluminum, deoxidize the pieces with a solution of borax and place them in an enameling oven, fitted ...
-Brassing
I To brass small articles of iron or steel drop them into a quart of water and 0.5 ounce each of sulphate of copper and protochloride of tin. Stir the articles ...
-Green or Gold Color for Brass
French articles of brass, both cast and made of sheet brass, mostly exhibit a golden color, which is produced by a copper coating. This color is prepared as ...
-Nickeling by Oxidation
I Nickeling may be performed on all metals cold, by means of nickelene by the Mitressey process, without employing electrical apparatus, and any desired ...
-Pickling Solutions
Oxidized copper, brass, and German silver articles must be cleansed by acid solutions. In the case of brass alloys, this process, through which the object ...
-Metal Browning by Oxidation
The article ought first to be cleaned with either nitric acid or muriatic acid, then immersed in an acid affecting the metal and dried in a warm place. A light ...
-Silvering by Oxidation
The oxidizing of silver darkens it, and gives an antique appearance that is highly prized. I The salts of silver are colorless when the acids, the elements of ...
-Oxidized Steel
I Mix together bismuth chloride, 1 part; mercury bichloride, 2 parts; copper chloride, 1 part; hydrochloric acid, 6 parts; alcohol, 5 parts; and water, 5 parts.
-Plating Of Metal Surfaces: Patina Oxidizing Processes
Patina of Art Bronzes For all patinas, whether the ordinary brown of commerce, the green of the Barye bronzes, or the dark-orange tint of the Florentine ...
-Patina Oxidizing Processes. Continued
Green Patina Upon Copper To produce a green patina upon copper take tartaric acid, dilute it half and half with boiling water; coat the copper with this; allow ...
-Plating Of Metal Surfaces: Platinizing
Platinizing Aluminum Aluminum vessels coated with a layer of platinum are recommended in place of platinum vessels, when not exposed to very high temperatures.
-Plating Of Metal Surfaces: Silvering, Silver-Plating, And Desilvering
See also Silvering by Oxidation, under Oxidation Processes, under Plating. Antique Silver There are various processes for producing antique silver, either fat ...
-Silvering, Silver-Plating, And Desilvering. Continued
To Silver-Plate Metals I Nitrate of silver, 30 parts, by weight; caustic potash, 30 parts; distilled water, 100 parts. Put the nitrate of silver into the water; ...
-Plating Of Metal Surfaces: Tin Silver-Plating
Prepare a solution of 3 parts, by weight, of bismuth subnitrate in 10 parts of nitric acid of 1.4 specific gravity, to which add a solution of 10 parts of ...
-Plating Of Metal Surfaces: Various Recipes
To Ascertain whether an Article is Nickeled, Tinned, or Silvered When necessary to ascertain quickly and accurately the nature of the white metal covering an ...
-To Make Plush Adhere to Metal
Wash off with ordinary soda water the bottom of a tin box, wiping it dry with cloth. Coat the tin with the juice of onion and press on this space a piece of ...
-Polishes for Aluminum
I. M. Mouray recommends the use of an emulsion of equal parts of rum and olive oil, made by shaking these liquids together in a bottle. When a burnishing stone ...
-Polishes For Brass, Bronze, Copper, Etc.
Objects of polished copper, bronze, brass, and other alloys of copper tarnish through water and it is sometimes necessary to give them again their bright ...
-Polishes For Floors
I Throw a handful of permanganate potash crystals into a pail of boiling water, and apply the mixture as hot as possible to the floor with a large flat brush.
-Colored Floor Polishes
Yellow: Caustic soda solution, 7.5 parts, mixed with 1.5 to 2 parts of finely powdered ocher, heated with 2.5 parts of yellow wax, and stirred until uniformly ...
-Polishes For Furniture
First make a paste to fill cracks as follows: Whiting, plaster of Paris, pumice stone, litharge, equal parts; japan dryer, boiled linseed oil, turpentine, ...
-Polishes for Glass
I Mix calcined magnesia with purified benzine to a semiliquid paste. Rub the glass with this mixture by means of a cotton wad, until it is bright. II Crush to ...
-Polishes for Ivory, Bone, etc
I First rub with a piece of linen soaked with a paste made of Armenian bole and oleic acid. Wash with Marseilles soap, dry, rub with a chamois skin, and ...
-Marble Polishing
Polishing includes five operations. Smoothing the roughness left on the surface is done by rubbing the marble with a piece of moist sandstone; for moldings ...
-Polishing Powders
Polishing powders are advantageously prepared according to the following recipes: I Four pounds magnesium carbonate, 4 pounds chalk, and 4 pounds rouge are ...
-Liquid Polishes
I Malt vinegar....... 4 gallons Lemon juice....... 1 gallon Paraffine oil........ 1 gallon Kieselguhr......... 7 pounds Powdered bath brick 3 pounds Oil lemon..
-Polishing Soaps
I Powdered pipe clay 112 pounds Tallow soap....... 16 pounds Tartaric acid...... 1.25 pounds Grind until pasty, afterwards press into blocks by the machine. II ...
-Metal Polishes: Polishing Pastes
I White petroleum jelly............ 90 pounds Kieselguhr......... 30 pounds Refined paraffine wax............. 10 pounds Refined chalk or whiting.......... 10 ...
-Non-Explosive Liquid Metal Polish
Although in a liquid form, it does not necessarily follow that a liquid polish is less economical than pastes, because the efficiency of both is dependent upon ...
-Miscellaneous Metal Polishes
I Articles of polished copper, such as clocks, stove ornaments, etc., become tarnished very quickly. To restore their brilliancy dip a brush in strong vinegar ...
-Polishes for Pianos
I Alcohol, 95 per cent.. 300 parts Benzol.............. 700 parts Gum benzoin....... 8 parts Sandarac........... 16 parts Mix and dissolve. Use as French ...
-Polishes for Silverware
The best polish for silverware that is, the polish that, while it cleans, does not too rapidly abrade the surface is levigated chalk, either alone or with some ...
-Polishes For Steel And Iron
The polishing of steel must always be preceded by a thorough smoothing, either with oilstone dust, fine emery, or coarse rouge. If any lines are left to be ...
-Stove Polish
The following makes an excellent graphite polish: I Ceresine........... 12 parts Japan wax........ 10 parts Turpentine oil..... 100 parts Lampblack, best.. .
-Polishes For Wood
See also Polishes for Furniture, Floors and Pianos. In the usual method of French polishing, the pad must be applied along curved lines, and with very slight ...
-Hard Wood Polish
In finishing hard wood with a wax polish the wood is first coated with a filler, which is omitted in the case of soft wood. The filler is made from some hard ...
-Miscellaneous Polishing Agents
Polishing Agent which may also be used for Gilding and Silvering The following mediums hitherto known as possessing the aforenamed properties, lose these ...
-Miscellaneous Polishing Agents. Continued
To Polish Paintings on Wood According to the statements of able cabinet makers who frequently had occasion to cover decorations on wood, especially aquarelle ...
-Porcelain Formulas
See also Ceramics. Mending Porcelain by Riveting (see Adhesives for methods of mending Porcelain by means of cements) Porcelain and glass can be readily ...
-Preservatives
(See also Foods.) Preservative Fluid for Museums Formaldehyde solution............. 6 parts Glycerine.......... 12 parts Alcohol............ 3 parts Water......
-Preserving: Canning
There should be no trouble in having canned fruit keep well if perfect or chemical cleanliness is observed in regard to jars, lids, etc., and if the fruit or ...
-Canning without Sugar
I In order to preserve the juices of fruit merely by sterilization, put the juice into the bottles in which it is to be kept, filling them very nearly full; ...
-Crushed Fruit Preserving
Crushed Pineapples Secure a good brand of canned grated pineapple and drain off about one-half of the liquor by placing on a strainer. Add to each pound of ...
-Fruit Preserving
Express the juice and filter at once, through two thicknesses of best white Swedish paper, into a container that has been sterilized immediately before letting ...
-Raspberry Juice
A dark juice is obtained by adding to the crushed raspberries, before the fermentation, slight quantities of sugar in layers. The ethyl-alcohol forming during ...
-Strawberries Preserving
Carefully remove the stems and calyxes, place the strawberries on a sieve, and move the latter about in a tub of water for a few moments, to remove any dirt ...
-Hydrogen Peroxide as a Preservative
Hydrogen peroxide is one of the best, least harmful, and most convenient agents for preserving syrups, wine, beer, cider, and vinegar. For this purpose 2.5 ...
-Powdered Cork as a Preservative
Tests have shown that powdered cork is very efficacious for packing and preserving fruits and vegetables. A bed of cork is placed at the bottom of the case, ...
-Pumice Stone
While emery is used for polishing tools, polishing sand for stones and glass, ferric oxide for fine glassware, and lime and felt for metals, pumice stone is ...
-Putty
(See also Lutes, under Adhesives and Cements.) Common putty, as used by carpenters, painters, and glaziers, is whiting mixed with linseed oil to the ...
-Putty. Continued
To Soften Glaziers' Putty I Glaziers' putty which has become hard can be softened with the following mixture: Mix carefully equal parts of crude powdered ...
-Pyrotechnics: Fireworks
The chief chemical process is, of course, oxidation. Oxidation may be produced by the atmosphere, but in many cases this is not enough, and then the ...
-Pyrotechnics: Rockets
First and foremost among atmospheric fireworks are rockets, made in different sizes, each requiring a slightly different percentage composition. A good formula ...
-Pyrotechnics: Colored Fires
The compounds should be ignited in a small pill box resting on a plate. All the ingredients must be dried and powdered separately, and then lightly mixed on a ...
-Pyrotechnic Magic
Caution When about to place any lighted material in the mouth be sure that the mouth is well coated with saliva, and that you are exhaling the breath ...
-Pyrotechnic Magic. Part 2
Demon Bowls of Fire The performer has three 6.5-inch brass bowls on a table, and openly pours ordinary clean water (may be drunk) into bowls, until each is ...
-Pyrotechnic Magic. Part 3
To Eat Burning Coals In the first place make a good charcoal fire in the furnace. Just before commencing the act throw in three or four pieces of soft pine.
-Rat Poisons
(See also Turpentine.) Poisons for rats may be divided into two classes, quick and slow. Potassium cyanide and strychnine belong to the first, and phosphorus ...
-Squill Poisons
The preparation of the squill as a rat poison can be effected in several different ways. Usually, after the removal of the outer peel, the bulb is cut up into ...
-Phosphorus Poisons
Next to the squill in value as a poison comes phosphorus in the shape of an electuary, or in pills. For readily preparing the electuary, when needed or ordered, ...
-Arsenical Poisons
The following are some of the formulas given by Hager for preparing globules, or pills, of arsenic: I Arsenic, white, powdered...........100 parts Soot from ...
-Strychnine Poisons
The strychnine preparations are also valuable in the destruction of rats and mice. The first of these in point of usefulness is strychnine-wheat, or strychnine- ...
-Razor Paste Formulas
See also Pastes. The razor pastes, razor creams, etc., on the market, have for their cutting, or sharpening, agent jewelers' rouge, or rouge and emery. When ...
-Refrigerants
I Potassium nitrate... 2 pounds Ammonium chloride 2 pounds Water............. 5 pints II Potassium nitrate. .. 2.5 pounds Ammonium chloride 2.5 pounds Sodium ...
-Home-Made Refrigerators
I Partly fill with water a shallow granite-ware pan. Place it in an open, shady window where there is a good draught of air. In this put bottles of water, milk, ...
-Roller Compositions For Printers
Rollers for transferring ink to types have to possess special properties, which have reference both to the nature of the ink and that of the types to which it ...
-Ropes
To protect ropes, cordage, and cloths made of flax and hemp against rot, it has been recommended to leave them for 4 days in a solution of copper sulphate, 20 ...
-Remedies for Dry Rot
A good remedy for dry rot is petroleum. The sick parts of the wood are painted with it, which causes the fungi to die, turn black, and finally drop off. The ...
-Rouge For Buff Wheels
The rouge employed by machinists, watchmakers, and jewelers, is obtained by directly subjecting crystals of sulphate of iron or copperas to a high heat by ...
-Artificial Rubber
Austin G. Day tried hundreds of experiments and took out many patents for rubber substitutes. He was in a measure successful, his Kerite compound proving of ...
-Artificial Rubber. Continued
Another line of experimenting that is interesting, and that will yet produce good results, although so far it has not amounted to much, is in the use of ...
-Rubber and Rubber Articles
As regards the action of coal gas on rubber tubes, it has been observed that it is weakest on ordinary gray rubber which withstands it the longest, and gives ...
-Repairing Rubber Goods
First, clean off all adherent mafter, and dry thoroughly. Varnish or lacquer, as for instance on rubber shoes, may be removed with sand or emery paper, or even ...
-Softening Rubber
The hardening of gum articles is generally referable to these having been kept for a long time in some warm, dry place, though keeping them in the cold will ...
-Treatment and Utilization of Rubber Scraps
The scraps, assorted according to their composition, are first cleaned by boiling to remove the adhering dirt, absorbed and adhering acids, salts, etc., as ...
-Rubber Vulcanization
Besides the Goodyear, Mason, and other patented processes, the process now usually followed in vulcanizing rubber stamps and similar small objects of rubber, ...
-Rubber Stamps
Set up the desired name and address in common type, oil the type and place a guard about 0.5 inch high around the form. Mix plaster of Paris to the proper ...
-Rust Preventives
(See also Enamels, Glazes, Paints, Varnishes, Waterproofing.) In spite of the numerous endeavors to protect metal objects from oxidation, a thoroughly ...
-Rust Preventives. Continued
Emaille de fer contre-oxide is the name of an enamel which is said to protect iron pipes cheaply. The enamel is composed as follows: One hundred and thirty ...
-Black Sheet Rust Preventive
Before black plate is ready to receive a rust protective coating, it is necessary to render the surface free from grease and scales, for which purpose the ...
-Magnetic Oxide
A layer of magnetic oxide is a good preservative from rust. To obtain it the objects are placed in the furnace at a temperature sufficient for decomposing ...
-Rust Paper
Rust paper is produced by coating strong packing paper with linseed-oil varnish, size, or any other binder, and sprinkling on the powder given in previous ...
-Effervescent Salts
Granulated effervescent salts are produced by heating mixtures of powdered citric acid, tartaric acid, sodium bicarbonate, and sugar to a certain temperature, ...
-Basis for Effervescent Salts
Sodium bicarbonate, dried and powdered 53 parts Tartaric acid, dried and powdered..... 28 parts Citric acid, uneffloresced crystals...... 18 parts Powder the ...
-Effervescent Powder Formulas
Magnesian Lemonade Powder Fine white sugar..... 2 pounds Magnesium carbonate 6 ounces Citric acid.......... 4 ounces Essence of lemon .... 2 drachms Rub the ...
-Smelling Salts Formulas
I Moisten coarsely powdered ammonium carbonate with a mixture of Strong tincture of orris root........... 2.5 ounces Extract of violet..... 3 drachms Spirit of ...
-Sand Formulas
Colored Sand Sift fine white sand from the coarser particles and color it as follows: I Blue. Boil 106 parts of sand and 4 of Berlin blue with a small quantity ...
-Sarsaparilla
Each fluidounce of Ayer's sarsaparilla represents Sarsaparilla root..... 10 parts Yellow dock root..... 8 parts Licorice root......... 8 parts Buckthorn bark...
-To Prevent Screws from Rusting and Becoming Fast
Screws will sometimes rust in their seats, even when carefully oiled before driving them to their seats, but if they are anointed with a mixture of graphite ...
-Sea Sickness Prevention
I To prevent sea sickness, take 2 or 3 grams of potassium bromide dissolved in plain or carbonated water every evening either with supper or just before ...
-Pharaoh's Serpents
An old form consisted of pellets of a very poisonous mercurial compound which gave off dangerous fumes when heated. The eggs may be made of comparatively safe ...
-Shaving Paste
An emulsion of paraffine wax, melting at 131 F., should be used. This is prepared with 25 per cent of wax and 2 per cent of tragacanth, the wax being melted ...
-Shellac
See Varnishes. Shellac Bleaching In bleaching, shellac is brought into contact with an acidified solution of chloride of lime for some time, then washed, ...
-Shims In Engine Brasses
In taking up the wear of engine brasses on wrist pin or crosshead pin when the key is driven clear down, back out the key and instead of putting in sheet-iron ...
-Shoe Dressings
(See also Leather.) Acid-Free Blacking Lampblack...... 27-36 parts Bone black...... 3 parts Syrup........... 60-70 parts Put in a kettle and under gentle heat ...
-Shoe Dressings. Continued
Boot-Top Liquid Solution of muriate of tin............... 3 drachms French chalk (in powder) .............. 1 ounce Salt of sorrel........ 0.5 ounce Flake ...
-Liquid Shoe Blackings
The following formulas make a product of excellent quality: I Ivory black....... 120 parts Brown sugar...... 90 parts Olive oil......... 15 parts Stale beer....
-Patent-Leather Polish
Yellow wax or ceresine 3 ounces Spermaceti.......... 1 ounce Oil of turpentine..... 11 ounces Asphaltum varnish.. . 1 ounce Borax.............. 80 grains ...
-Preservatives for Shoe Soles
I This preparation, destined for impregnating leather shoe soles, is produced as follows: Grind 50 parts of linseed oil with 1 part of litharge; next heat for ...
-Tan And Russet Shoe Polishes: To Renovate and Brighten Russet and Yellow Shoes
First, clean off all dirt and dust with a good stiff brush, then with a sponge dipped in benzine go over the leather, repeating the process as soon as the ...
-Paste Dressings for Russet Shoes
The paste dressings used on russet leather consist of mixtures of wax with oil and other vehicles which give a mixture of proper working quality. A simple ...
-Waterproof Shoe Dressings
I Caoutchouc....... 10 parts Petroleum........ 10 parts Carbon disulphide. 10 parts Shellac........... 40 parts Lampblack....... 20 parts Oil lavender...... 1 ...
-Waterproof Varnish for Beach Shoes
Yellow Water............. 150 parts Borax............. 5 parts Glycerine.......... 3 parts Spirit of ammonia.. . 1 part White shellac....... 25 parts Yellow ...
-White Shoe Dressing
I Cream of tartar..... 3 ounces Oxalic acid........ 1 ounce Alum............. 1 ounce Milk.............. 3 pints Mix and rub on the shoes. When they are ...
-Show Cases
Dents in show cases and counters, and, indeed, almost all forms of bruises on shop and other furniture, may be removed by the exercise of a little patience, ...
-Siccatives
The oldest drier is probably litharge, a reddish-yellow powder, consisting of lead and oxygen. Formerly it was ground finely in oil, either pure or with ...
-Testing Siccatives
Since it was discovered that the lead and manganese compounds of rosin acids had a better and more rapid action on linseed oil than the older form of driers, ...
-To Remove Black Letters from White Enameled Signs
It frequently happens that a change has to be made on such signs, one name having to be taken off and another substituted. Priming with white lead followed by ...
-Silk Formulas
Artificial Rubbered Silk A solution of caoutchouc or similar gum in acetone is added, in any desired proportion, to a solution of nitro-cellulose in acetone, ...
-Silver Formulas
Antique Silver (see also Plating) Coat the polished silver articles with a thin paste of powdered graphite, 6 parts; powdered bloodstone, 1 part; and oil of ...
-Frosting Polished Silver
Articles of polished silver may be frosted by putting them into a bath of nitric acid diluted with an equal volume of distilled water and letting them remain a ...
-Ornamental Designs on Silver
Select a smooth part of the silver, and sketch on it a monogram or any other design with a sharp lead pencil. Place the article in a gold solution, with the ...
-Silver Testing
For this purpose a cold saturated solution of potassium bichromate in pure nitric acid of 1.2 specific gravity is employed. After the article to be tested has ...
-Artificial Slate
The artificial slate coating on tin consists of a mixture of finely ground slate, lampblack, and a water-glass solution of equal parts of potash and soda water ...
-Snake Bites
About 25 years ago, Dr. S. Weir Mitchell and Dr. Reichert published results of their investigations of snake venom which indicated that permanganate of ...
-Soaps
(See also Cleaning Compounds and Polishes.) Antiseptic Soap I Various attempts have been made to incorporate antiseptics and cosmetics with soap, but for the ...
-Coloring Soap
The first point to be observed is to select the proper shade of flower corresponding with the perfume used, for instance, an almond soap is left white; rose ...
-Garment-Cleaning Soap
The following is excellent: I White soap, rasped or shaved........ 12 parts Ammonia water. ... 3 parts Boiling water...... 18 parts Dissolve the soap in the ...
-Glycerine Soaps
Dr. Sarg's liquid glycerine soap consists of 334 parts of potash soda soap, and 666 parts of glycerine free from lime, the mixture being scented with Turkish ...
-Iodine Soaps
In British hospitals, preference is given to oleic acid over alcoholic preparations for iodine soaps, as the former do not stain and can be washed off with ...
-Liquid Soaps
Liquid soaps, or, as they are sometimes called, soap essences, are made from pure olive-oil soap by dissolving it in alcohol and adding some potassium ...
-Medicated Soaps
First make up a suitable soap body and afterwards add the medicament. For instance, carbolic soaps may be made as follows: I Cocoanut oil........ 20 pounds ...
-Liquid Tar Soap
Mix 200 parts of tar with 400 parts of oleic acid, warm lightly and filter. In this way the aqueous content produces no trouble. Now warm the filtrate on the ...
-Massage Soaps
I An excellent recipe for a massage soap is: Special cocoanut oil ground soap, 2,500 pounds; lanolin, 50 pounds; pine-needle oil, 20 pounds; spike oil, 3 ...
-Metallic Soaps
Metallic soaps are obtained by means of double decomposition. First a soap solution is produced which is brought to a boil. On the other hand, an equally ...
-Petroleum Soap
I Beeswax, refined. .. 4 parts Alcohol........... 5 parts Castile soap, finely grated.......... 10 parts Petroleum......... 5 parts Put the petroleum into a ...
-Perfumes for Soap
From 1 to 2 ounces of the following mixtures are to be used to 10 pounds of soap: I Oil of rose geranium 2 ounces Oil of patchouli..... 0.5 ounce Oil of cloves.
-Pumice-Stone Soaps
These soaps are always produced by the cold process, either from cocoanut oil alone or in conjunction with tallow, cotton oil, bleached palm oil, etc. The oil ...
-Shaving Soaps
I Palm oil soap....... 5 pounds Oil of cinnamon. . .. 10 drachms Oil of caraway..... 2 drachms Oil of lavender..... 2 drachms Oil of thyme......... 1 drachm ...
-Soap Powders
The raw materials of which soap powder is made are soap and soda, to which ingredients an addition of talcum or water glass can be made, if desired, these ...
-Soap Powders. Continued
The best filling material to be employed when it is desired to produce a cheaper article is talcum, and in most cases this is preferred to water glass. The ...
-Toilet Soaps
The question as to the qualities of toilet soaps has a high therapeutical significance. Impurity of complexion and morbid anomalies of the skin are produced by ...
-Recipes For Cold-Stirred Toilet Soaps
Parts by weight I Cocoanut oil............ 30 Castor oil............... 3 Caustic soda lye (38 Bé). 17.5 Pink Soap Parts by weight II Pink No. 114............
-Soft Toilet Soaps
Soft toilet soaps or creams may be prepared from fresh lard with a small addition of cocoanut oil and caustic potash solution, by the cold process or by ...
-Transparent Soaps
The mode of production is the same for all. The fats are melted together, sifted into a double boiler, and the lye is stirred in at 111 F. Cover up for an hour, ...
-Miscellaneous Soap Formulas
Szegedin Soap Tallow, 120 parts; palm kernel oil, 80 parts. Saponify well with about 200 parts of lye of 24 Bé. and add, with constant stirring, the following ...
-Miscellaneous Soap Formulas. Part 2
Soap Substitutes I Linseed oil......... 28 pounds Sulphur........... 8 pounds Aluminum soap. ... 28 pounds Oil of turpentine.. . . 4 pounds II Aluminum soap. ..
-Miscellaneous Soap Formulas. Part 3
Sand Soap Cocoa oil, 24 parts; soda lye, 38 Be., 12 parts; sand, finely sifted, 28 parts; cassia oil, .0100 parts; sassafras oil, .0100 parts. Salicylic Soap ...
-Soap-Bubble Liquids
I White hard soap.. . 25 parts Glycerine......... 15 parts Water............1,000 parts II Dry castile soap. . . 2 parts Glycerine......... 30 parts Water......
-Soldering Of Metals And The Preparation Of Solders
The object of soldering is to unite two portions of the same metal or of different metals by means of a more fusible metal or metallic alloy, applied when ...
-Soldering of Metallic Articles
In a recently invented process the parts to be united are covered, on the surfaces not to be soldered, with a protective mass, which prevents an immediate ...
-Soldering Acid
A very satisfactory soldering acid may be made by the use of the ordinary soldering acid for the base and introducing a certain proportion of chloride of tin ...
-Aluminum Solders
To solder aluminum it is necessary previously to tin the parts to be soldered. This tinning is done with the iron, using a composition of aluminum and tin.
-Brass Solders
Brass solder consists of brass fusible at a low temperature, and is made by melting together copper and zinc, the latter being in excess. A small quantity of ...
-Yellow Hard Solders
Applebaum's Compositions I Copper....... 58 parts Zinc......... 42 parts II Sheet brass. . . 85.42 parts Zinc......... 13.58 parts Karmarsch's Composition III ...
-Copper Solders
The copper solders which are used for soldering copper as well as bronze are mixtures of copper and lead. By increasing the quantity of lead the fusibility is ...
-Fats For Soldering
I Soldering fat or grease is commonly a mixture of rosin and tallow with the addition of a small quantity of sal ammoniac. It is particularly adapted to the ...
-Fluids For Soldering
I To the ordinary zinc chloride, prepared by digesting chips of zinc in strong hydrochloric acid to saturation, add J spirits of sal ammoniac and 1/3 part rain ...
-Fluxes For Soldering
The fluxes generally used in the soft-soldering of metals are powdered rosin or a solution of chloride of zinc, alone or combined with sal ammoniac. A neutral ...
-Gas Soldering
The soldering of small metallic articles where the production is a wholesale one, is almost exclusively done by the use of gas, a pointed flame being produced ...
-German-Silver Solders
Because of its peculiar composition German-silver solder is related to the ordinary hard solders. Just as hard solders may be regarded as varieties of brass to ...
-Hard Solder for Gold
The hard solder or gold solder which the jeweler frequently requires for the execution of various works, not only serves for soldering gold ware, but is also ...
-Solders For Glass
I Melt tin, and add to the melted mass enough copper, with constant stirring, until the melted metal consists of 95 per cent of tin and 5 per cent of copper.
-Hard Solders
Hard solders are distinguished as brass, German silver, copper, gold, silver, etc., according to the alloys used (see Brass Solders, Copper Solders, etc., for ...
-Silver Solders
Silver solder is cast in the form of ingots, which are hammered or rolled into thin sheets. From these small chips or links, as they are called, are cut off.
-Silver Solders for Soldering Iron, Steel, Cast Iron, and Copper
I Silver............ 10 parts Brass............ 10 parts II Silver............ 20 parts Copper........... 30 parts Zinc............. 10 parts III Silver........
-Soft Silver Solders
I A soft silver solder for resoldering parts already soldered is made of silver, 3 parts; copper, 2 parts, and zinc, 1 part. II Silver, 1 part, and brass, 1 ...
-Solder for Silver-Plated Work
I Fine silver, 2 parts; bronze, 1 part. II Silver, 68 parts; copper, 24 parts; zinc, 17 parts. Solder for Silver Chains I Fine silver, 74 parts; copper, 24 ...
-Steel Soldering
Dissolve scraps of cast steel in as small a quantity as possible of nitric acid, add finely pulverized borax and stir vigorously until a fluid paste is formed, ...
-Platinum Solders
There are many platinum solders in existence, but the main principle to be borne in mind in jewelry work is that the soldering seam should be as little ...
-Various Recipes For Soldering
To Conceal Soldering Visible soldering may be obviated by the following methods: For copper goods a concentrated solution of blue vitriol is prepared and ...
-Various Recipes For Soldering. Continued
Soldering a Ring Containing a Jewel I Fill a small crucible with wet sand and bury the part with the jewel in the sand. Now solder with soft gold solder, ...
-Spirit
INDUSTRIAL AND POTABLE ALCOHOL: SOURCES AND MANUFACTURE. Abstract of a Farmers' Bulletin prepared for the United States Department of Agriculture by Dr. Harvey ...
-Extracts and Essences of Spices and Fruits
Extract of Tea It has been proposed to make an aqueous extract of the tea leaf, but the loss of flavor inevitably incident thereto would undoubtedly give an ...
-Sponges
Bleaching Sponges I Soak in dilute hydrochloric acid to remove the lime, then wash in water, and place for 10 minutes in a 2 per cent. solution of potassium ...
-Stamping
(See also Dyes.) Stamping Colors for Use with Rubber Stamps Blue: 0.3 parts of water-blue 1 B, 1.5 parts of dextrin, 1.5 parts of distilled water. Dissolve the ...
-Starches
Black Starch Add to the starch a certain amount of logwood extract be- fore the starch mixture is boiled. The quantity varies according to the depth of the ...
-Annealing Steel
See also Hardening Steel and Tempering Steel. This work requires the use of substances which yield their carbon readily and quickly to the tools on contact at ...
-Coloring Steel
Black I Oil or wax may be employed on hard steel tools; with both methods the tool loses more or less of its hardness and the blacking process therefore is ...
-To Temper Small Coil Springs and Tools
To temper small coil springs in a furnace burning wood the springs are exposed to the heat of the flame and are quenched in a composition of the following ...
-Tempering Steel
To Case harden Locally In case-hardening certain articles it is sometimes necessary, or desirable, to leave spots or sections in the original soft uncarbonized ...
-Tempering Steel. Part 2
To Temper a Tap After the tap has been cut and finished heat it in a pair of tongs to a blood-red heat over a charcoal fire or the blue flame of a Bunsen ...
-Various Steel Recipes
To Put an Edge on Steel Tolls Aluminum will put an' edge on fine cutting instruments such as surgical knives, razors, etc. It acts exactly like a razor-hone of ...
-Various Steel Recipes. Continued
Softening Steel Heat the steel to a brown red and plunge into soft water, river water being the best. Care should be taken, however, not to heat over brown red, ...
-Stereochromy
Stereochromatic colors can be bought ground in a thickly liquid water-glass solution. They are only diluted with water-glass solution before application on the ...
-Manufacturing Artificial Stones
The following is a process of manufacture in which the alkaline silicates prepared industrially are employed. The function of the alkaline silicates, or ...
-Making Sand-Lime Bricks
In a French patent for making bricks from pitch and coal tar, powdered coke and sea sand are gently heated in a suitable vessel, and 20 per cent of pitch and ...
-Making Concrete
Concrete is the name applied to an artificial combination of various mineral substances which under chemical action become incorporated into a solid mass.
-Concrete Voids
The strength of concrete depends greatly upon its density, and this is secured by using coarse material which contains the smallest amount of voids or empty ...
-Materials for Concrete Building Blocks
In the making of building blocks the spaces to be filled with concrete are generally too narrow to permit the use of very coarse material, and the block-maker ...
-Proportions for Concrete Building Blocks
There are three important considerations to be kept in view in adjusting the proportions of materials for block concrete -strength, permeability, and cost. So ...
-Proportion of Water for Concrete Building Blocks
This is a matter of the utmost consequence, and has more effect on the quality of the work than is generally supposed. Blocks made from too dry concrete will ...
-Concrete Building: Facing
Some blockmakers put on a facing of richer and finer mixture, making the body of the block of poorer and coarser material. As will be explained later, the ...
-Concrete Mixers
Hand mixing is always imperfect, laborious, and slow and it is impossible by this method to secure the thorough stirring and kneading action which a good ...
-Block Machines
There are many good machines on the market, most of which are of the same general type, and differ only in mechanical details. They may be divided into two ...
-Tamping of Concrete Blocks
This is generally done by means of hand rammers. Pneumatic tampers, operated by an air compressor, are in use at a few plants, apparently with considerable ...
-Properties of Concrete Blocks — Strength
In the use of concrete blocks for the walls of buildings, the stress to which they are subjected is almost entirely one of compression. In compressive strength ...
-Concrete Blcoks Waterproof Qualities
The chief fault of concrete building blocks, as ordinarily made, is their tendency to absorb water. In this respect they are generally no worse than sandstone ...
-General Hints on Concrete Blocks Waterproof Qualities
To obtain good water-resisting properties the first precaution is to make the concrete sufficiently wet. Dry-tamped backs, even from rich mixture, will always ...
-Cost
Concrete blocks can be sold and laid up at a good profit at 25 cents per cubic foot of wall. Common red brick costs (at this writing) generally about $12 per ...
-Artificial Marbles
I The mass used by Beaumel consists of alum and heavy spar (barium sulphate) with addition of water and the requisite pigments. The following proportions have ...
-Making Glass Stopper
I To make an anti-leak and lubricating mixture for plug-cocks use 2 parts of tried suet and 1 part of beeswax melted together; stir thoroughly, strain, and ...
-Stove Polish Formulas
See also Polishes. The following formula gives a liquid stove blacking: Graphite, in fine powder .............. 1 pound Lampblack......... 1. ounce Rosin.......
-Styptics
Styptics are substances which arrest local bleeding. Creosote, tannic acid, alcohol, alum, and most of the astringent salts belong to this class. Brocchieri's ...
-Syrups
(See also Essences and Extracts.) The syrups should either be made from the best granulated sugar, free from ultramarine, or else rock-candy syrup. If the ...
-Preservation of Syrups
The preservation of syrups is purely a pharmaceutical question. They must be made right in order to keep right. Syrups, particularly fruit syrups, must be kept ...
-How to Make Simple Syrups
Hot Process Put 25 pounds granulated sugar in a large pail, or kettle, and pour on and stir hot water enough to make 4 gallons, more or less depending on how ...
-Colors For Syrups
Caramel Place 3 pounds of crushed sugar in a kettle with 1 pint of water, and heat. The sugar will at first dissolve, but as the water evaporates a solid mass ...
-Alcohol Dilution Table
The following 'able gives the percentage, by weight, of alcohol of 95 per cent and of distilled water to make 1 liter (about 1 quart), or 1 kilogram (2.2 ...
-Capacities of Common Utensils Table
For ordinary measuring purposes a wineglass may be said to hold 2 ounces. A tablespoon, 0.5 ounce. A dessertspoon, 0.25 ounce. A teaspoon, 1/8 ounce, or 1 ...
-Cook's Table
Two teacupfuls (well heaped) of coffee and of sugar weigh 1 pound. Two teacupfuls (level) of granulated sugar weigh 1 pound. Two teacupfuls soft butter (well ...
-Table of Drops
Used in estimating the amount of a flavoring extract necessary to flavor a gallon of syrup. Based on the assumption of 450 drops being equal to 1 ounce. One ...
-Fluid Measure
U. S. Standard, or Wine Measure. Sixty minims are equal to 1 fluidrachm. Eight fluidrachms are equal to 1 fluid-ounce. Sixteen fluidounces are equal to 1 pint.
-Percentage Solutions
To prepare the following approximately correct solutions, dissolve the amount of medicament indicated in sufficient water to make one imperial pint. For 1/50 ...
-Pressure Table
This table shows the amount of commercial sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and sodium bicarbonate necessary to produce a given pressure: 120 Pounds Pressure. Water, Soda ...
-Syrup Table
The following table shows the amount of syrup obtained from 1. The addition of pounds of sugar to 1 gallon of water; and the 2. Amount of sugar in each gallon ...
-To Estimate Contents of a Circular Tank
The capacity of a circular tank may be determined by multiplying the diameter in inches by itself and by .7854 and by the length (or depth) in inches, which ...
-To Remove Broken Taps
First clean the hole by means of a small squirt gun filled with kerosene. All broken pieces of the tap can be removed with a pair of tweezers, which should be ...
-Removal Of Tattoo Marks
Apply a highly concentrated tannin solution on the tattooed places and treat them with the tattooing needle as the tattooer does. Next vigorously rub the ...
-To Whiten Discolored Teeth
Moisten the corner of a linen handkerchief with hydrogen peroxide, and with it rub the teeth, repeating the rubbing occasionally. Use some exceedingly finely ...
-Terra Cotta Substitute
A substance, under this name, designed to take the place of terra cotta and plaster of Paris in the manufacture of small ornamental objects, consists of ...
-Dressing for Sewing Thread
For colored thread: Irish moss, 3 pounds; gum arabic, 2.5 pounds; Japan wax, 0.5 pound; stearine, 185 grams; borax, 95 grams; boil together for 0.25 hour. For ...
-Tinfoil
See also Metal Foil. By pouring tin from a funnel with a very long and narrow mouth upon a linen surface, the latter being tightly stretched, covered with a ...
-Tires
Anti-Leak Rubber Tire Pneumatic tires can be made quite safe from punctures by using a liberal amount of the following cheap mixture: One pound of sheet glue ...
-Tool Setting
The term setting (grinding) is applied to the operation of giving an edge to the tools designed for cutting, scraping, or sawing. Cutting tools are rubbed ...
-Toothache Remedies
TOOTHACHE GUMS: See also Pain Killers. I Paraffine......... 94 grains Burgundy pitch. . .800 grains Oil of cloves...... 0.5 fluidrachm Creosote......... 0.5 ...
-Transparencies
See also Photography. A good method of preparing handsome London transparencies is as follows: White paper is coated with a liquid whose chief constituent is ...
-Transfer Processes
To Transfer Designs Designs can be transferred on painted surfaces, cloth, leather, velvet, oil cloth, and linen sharply and in all the details with little ...
-Twine
See also Thread and Cordage. Tough twine may be greatly strengthened by dissolving plenty of alum in water and laying the twine in this solution. After drying, ...
-Permanent (Record) Ink
Any finely divided, non-fading color may be used as the pigment; vaseline is the best vehicle and wax the best corrigent. In order to make the ribbon last a ...
-Valves Fitting
The manufacturers of valves test each valve under hydraulic pressure before it is sent out from the factory, yet they frequently leak when erected in the pipe ...
-Vanilla
(See also Essences and Extracts.) The best Mexican vanilla yields only in the neighborhood of 1.7 per cent of vanillin; that from Reunion and Guadeloupe about ...
-To Detect Artificial Vanillin in Vanilla Extracts
(see also Foods) There is no well-defined test for vanillin, but one can get at it in a negative way. The artificial vanillin contains vanillin identical with ...
-To Detect Tonka in Vanilla Extract
The following test depends on the chemical difference between coumarin and vanillin, the odorous principles of the two beans. Coumarin is the anhydride of ...
-Varnish Solutions
(See also Enamels, Glazes, Oils, Paints, Rust Preventives, Stains, and Waterproofing.) Varnish is a solution of resinous matter forming a clear, limpid fluid ...
-Coloring "Spirit" Varnishes
In modern works the following coloring substances are used, separately and in blends: Saffron (brilliant golden yellow), dragon's blood (deep reddish brown), ...
-The Gums Used in Making Varnish
Juniper gum or true sandarac comes in long, yellowish, dusty tears, and requires a high temperature for its manipulation in oil. The oil must be so hot as to ...
-Rules for Varnishing
1. Avoid as far as possible all manipulations with the varnishes; do not dilute them with oil of turpentine, and least of all with siccative, to expedite 'the ...
-Amber Varnish
This varnish is capable of giving a very superior polish or surface, and is especially valuable for coach and other high-class work. The amber is first ...
-Asphalt Varnishes
Natural asphalt is not entirely soluble in any liquid. Alcohol dissolves only a small percentage of it, ether a much larger proportion. The best solvents are ...
-Varnish Formulas
I A solution of 1 part of caoutchouc in 16 parts of oil of turpentine or kerosene is mixed with a solution of 16 parts of copal in 8 parts of linseed-oil ...
-Bicycle Varnish
This is a spirit varnish, preferably made by a cold process, and requires less technical knowledge than the preparation of fatty varnishes. The chief ...
-Black Varnishes
Black spirit lacquers are employed in the wood and metal industries. Different kinds are produced according to their use. They are called black Japanese ...
-Bookbinders' Varnishes
I II III IV V Per Per Per Per Per Cent Cent Cent Cent Cent Shellac.....14.5 6.5 13.5 6.3 8.3 Mastic..... 6.0 2.0 .. .. 1.1 Sandarac. . . 6.0 13.0 .. 1.3 1.1 ...
-Bottle Varnish
Bottles may be made to exclude light pretty well by coating them with asphaltum lacquer or varnish. A formula recommended for this purpose is as follows: ...
-Copal Varnish
Very fine copal varnish for those parts of carriages which require the highest polish, is prepared as follows: I Melt 8 pounds best copal and mix with 20 ...
-A Color Enamel
On the piece to be enameled apply oil varnish or white lead, and add a powder giving brilliant reflections, such as diamantine, brilliantine, or argentine. Dry ...
-Enamel for Vats, etc
Two different enamels are usually employed, viz., one for the ground and one for the top, the latter being somewhat harder than the former. Ground enamel is ...
-Finishing Enamel for White Furniture
Various methods are practiced in finishing furniture in white enamel, and while numerous preparations intended for the purpose named are generally purchasable ...
-Quick-Drying Enamel Colors
Enamel colors which dry quickly, but remain elastic so that applied on tin they will stand stamping without cracking off, can be produced as follows: In a ...
-Quick-Drying Enamel Colors. Continued
VIII Pink, Dark. Carmine, 0.5 part, by weight; Turkey red, 1 part, by weight; lithopone, 15 parts, by weight; varnish, 40 parts, by weight. IX Turkey Red.
-Engravers' Varnishes
In copper-plate engraving the plate must be covered with a dark-colored coating which, though entirely unaffected by the etching fluid, must be soft enough to ...
-Floor Varnishes
I Manila copal, spiritsoluble............ 12 parts Ruby shellac, powdered ............. 62 parts Venice, turpentine.. . . 12 parts Spirit, 96 per cent.... 250 ...
-French Varnish
So-called French varnish is made by dissolving 1 part of bleached or orange shellac in 5 parts of alcohol, the solution being allowed to stand and the clear ...
-Golden Varnishes
I Powdered benzoin. . 1 part Alcohol enough to make 10 parts. Pure saffron, roughly broken up, about 6 threads to the ounce. Macerate 3 days and filter. Vary ...
-Japanning Tin
The first thing to be done when a vessel is to be japanned, is to free it from all grease and oil, by rubbing it with turpentine. Should the oil, however, be ...
-Label Varnishes
I Sandarac........ 3 ounces av. Mastic.......... 3/4 ounce a v. Venice turpentine 150 grains Alcohol......... 16 fluidounces Macerate with repeated stirring ...
-Leather Varnishes
I An excellent varnish for leather can be made from the following recipe: Heat 400 pounds of boiled oil to 212 F., and add little by little 2 pounds of ...
-Metal Varnishes
The purpose of these varnishes is to protect the metals from oxidation and to render them glossy. Aluminum Varnish The following is a process giving a special ...
-Brown Varnish
An excellent and quickly drying brown varnish for metals is made by dissolving 20 ounces of gum kino and 5 ounces of gum benjamin in 60 ounces of the best cold ...
-Decorative Metal Varnishes
I II III IV Per Per Per Per Cent Cent Cent Cent .11.5 Amber..... . 7.6 13.5 Gamboge.. . . 7.6 Dragon' s . 0.18 Saffron..... . 0.16 Sandarac.. . 11.2 15.9 16.6 ...
-Gold Varnish
I A good gold varnish for coating moldings which produces great brilliancy is prepared as follows: Dissolve 3 pounds of shellac in 30 quarts of alcohol, 5 ...
-Iron Varnishes
I A varnish obtained by dissolving wax in turpentine is useful. It gives a fairly hard coat, but has the drawback of filling up fine grooves, and so injuring ...
-Stove Varnishes
Shellac............ 12 parts Manila copal....... 14 parts Rosin............. 12 parts Gallipot........... 2 parts Benzoin........... 1 part Lampblack........ 5 ...
-Varnish Substitutes
A substitute for varnish is produced by adding to 100 parts of casein 10 to 25 parts of a 1 to 10 per cent soap solution and then 20 to 25 parts of slaked lime.
-Vasolimentum
This unguent is of two kinds, liquid and semi-solid. The former is prepared by mixing 500 parts of olein, 250 parts of alcoholic ammonia, and 1,000 parts of ...
-Veterinary Formulas For Birds
Asthma in Canaries Tincture capsicum... 5 drachma Spirits chloroform... 90 minims Iron citrate, soluble. . 45 grains Fennel water........ 3.5 ounces Give a few ...
-Bird Food Recipes
Mocking-Bird Food Crackers............ 8 ounces Corn............... 9 ounces Rice................ 2 ounces Hemp seed.......... 1 ounce Capsicum........... 10 ...
-Veterinary Formulas For Horses And Cattle
Blistering Tincture cantharides, 1 ounce; camphorated oil, 0.5 ounce. Apply a portion with friction 3 times a day until a blister shows. As it subsides apply ...
-Veterinary Dose Table
For a colt 1 month old give 1/24 of the full dose; 3 months old, 1/12; 6 months old, 1/6; 1 year old, 1/3; 2 years old, 1/2; 3 years old, 3/4. Fluids for ...
-Veterinary Formulas For Horses And Cattle. Part 2
Astringent I Opium............. 12 grains Camphor........... 1/2 drachm Catechu............ 1 drachm One dose. II Opium............. 12 grains Camphor..........
-Horse and Cows: Cuts, Wounds, Sores
I Tincture opium, 2 ounces; tannin, 1/2 ounce. II Tincture aloes, 1 ounce; tincture of myrrh, 1/2 ounce; tincture of opium, 1/2 ounce; water, 4 ounces. Apply ...
-Horse Embrocations And Liniments
I Camphor........... 1 ounce Acetic acid......... 15 ounces Alcohol............ 18 ounces Oil turpentine....... 51 ounces Eggs................ 6 Distilled ...
-Veterinary Formulas For Horses And Cattle. Part 3
Inflammation Of The Udder I Salicylic acid........ 40 grains Mercurial ointment.. 1 ounce Liniment of camphor 3.25 ounces Apply and rub the udder carefully ...
-Domestic Pets
The sarcoptic itch of the dog, as well as that of the cat, is transmissible to man. The Tinea tonsurans, the so-called barbers' itch, due to a trychophyton, ...
-Worms In Cats And Dogs
In cats and dogs, round worms, of which ascaris mystax is the most common in cats, are found chiefly in young animals. This worm has hirsute appendages ...
-Domestic Pets Foot Itch
The itch that affects the feet of poultry is contagious in a most insidious way. The various birds of a poultry yard in which the disease is prevalent, rarely ...
-Domestic Pet Foods
I Powdered egg shell or phosphate of lime. 4 ounces Iron sulphate....... 4 ounces Powdered capsicum.. 4 ounces Powdered F nugreek 2 ounces Powdered black ...
-Domestic Pet Powders
I Cayenne pepper..... 2 parts Allspice............ 4 parts Ginger............. 6 parts Powder and mix well together. A teaspoonful to be mixed with every pound ...
-Roup or Gapes In Poultry
Roup in poultry is caused by the presence of parasites or entozoa in the windpipe. Young birds are most commonly affected. The best method of treatment is to ...
-Veterinary Formulas For Sheep
Dips For the prevention of scab in sheep, which results from the burrowing of an acarus or the destruction of the parasite when present, various preparations ...
-Vinegar Recipes
I Into a hogshead with a large bung-hole put 1,500 parts, by weight, of honey, 125 parts of carob-pods, cut into pieces, 50 parts of powdered red or white ...
-Aromatic Vinegar
I Sixteen ounces glacial acetic acid, 40 drops oil of cloves, 40 drops oil of rosemary, 40 drops oil of bergamot, 16 drops oil of neroli, 30 drops oil of ...
-Wart Cure
The following is especially useful in cases where the warts are very numerous: I Chloral hydrate..... 1 part Acetic acid......... 1 part Salicylic acid........
-Watchmakers' Formulas
Watch Manufacturers' Alloys. Some very tenacious and hard alloys, for making the parts of watches which are not sensitive to magnetism, are as follows: I II ...
-Watchmakers' Formulas. Part 2
Replacing Rubies whose Settings have Deteriorated Enlarge, with the squarer (steel brooch for enlarging holes), the hole of the old setting, and adjust it, ...
-Watchmakers' Formulas. Part 3
Verification of the Depthings In the verge watches, the English watches, and those of analogous caliber, it is often difficult to verify the depthings, except ...
-Watchmakers' Formulas. Part 4
To Weaken a Balance Spring A balance spring may need weakening; this is effected by grinding the spring thinner. Remove the spring from the collet and place it ...
-Natural and Artificial Water
In making an artificial mineral water it must be remembered that it is seldom possible to reproduce the water by merely combining its chemical components. In ...
-Natural and Artificial Water: Explanation of Groups
The explanation of the use of these groups is simple. When about to prepare an artificial mineral water, first ascertain from the formula which of the ...
-Natural and Artificial Waters
Apollinaris Water Sodium carbonate.. . . 2,835 grains Sodium sulphate..... 335 grains Sodium silicate...... 10 grains Magnesium chloride. 198 grains Calcium ...
-Purifying Water
See also Filters. If an emulsion of clay is poured into a soap solution, the clay gradually separates out without clarifying the liquid. When a few drops of ...
-Waterproofing
(See also Enamels, Glazes, Paints, Preservatives, Varnishes.) Waterproofing Brick Arches Waterproofing of brick arches is done in the following manner: The ...
-Waterproofing Blue Prints
Use refined paraffine, and apply by immersing the print in the melted wax, or more conveniently as follows: Immerse in melted paraffine until saturated, a ...
-Waterproofing Canvas
I The canvas is coated with a mixture of the three solutions named below: 1. Gelatin, 50 parts, by weight, boiled in 3,000 parts of water free from lime. 2.
-Waterproofing Fabrics
It will be convenient to divide waterproof fabrics into two classes, viz., those which are impervious to water, and those which are water-repellent. It is ...
-Waterproofing Fabrics. Part 2
The next operation, after well drying, is to thoroughly masticate the shredded rubber between hot steel rollers, which resemble those already described, but ...
-Waterproofing Fabrics. Part 3
It now remains to apply the rubber to the fabric and vulcanize it. Up to this stage the sulphur has only been mechanically mixed with the rubber; the aid of ...
-Waterproofing Fabrics. Part 4
The different brands of rubber vary so much, especially with regard to solubility, that it is always advisable to treat each brand by itself, and not to make a ...
-Waterproofing Fabrics. Part 5
Besides stearates of the metals, glues and gelatins have been used for proofing purposes, but owing to their stiffening effect, they are only of use in some ...
-Waterproofing Fabrics. Part 6
XII Cotton, linen, jute, and hemp fabrics are first thoroughly saturated in a bath of ammonio-cupric sulphate, of 10 Bé., at a temperature of 77 F., then put ...
-Waterproofing Leather
I. Tenning's process is as follows: Melt together equal parts of zinc and linseed oil, at a temperature not above 225 F. Put the leather in the molten mixture ...
-Oilskins
The art of painting over textile fabrics with oily preparations to make them waterproof is probably nearly as old as textile manufacture itself, an industry of ...
-Waterproofing Paper
Any convenient and appropriate machinery or apparatus may be employed; but the best method for waterproofing paper is as I follows: The treatment may be ...
-Waterproofing Paper. Continued
The paper may be dried in any convenient manner and is in condition for most commercial uses, it being greatly strengthened, more flexible, more impervious to ...
-Adulteration of Wax
Wax is adulterated with the following among other substances: Rosins, pitch, flowers of sulphur, starch, fecula, stearine, paraffine, tallow, palm oil, ...
-Artificial Beeswax
This is obtained by mixing the following substances, in approximately the proportions stated: Paraffine, 45 parts, by weight; white Japan vegetable wax, 30 ...
-Waxes for Floors, Furniture, etc
I White beeswax..... 16 parts Colophony........ 4 parts Venice turpentine.. 1 part Melt the articles together over a gentle fire, and when completely melted ...
-Gilders' Wax
For the production of various colorings of gold in fire gilding, the respective places are frequently covered with so-called gilders' wax. These consist of ...
-Grafting Wax
I Beeswax............ 7 parts Purified rosin....... 12 parts Turpentine......... 3 parts Rape oil............ 1 part Venice turpentine___ 2.5 parts Zinc white..
-Sealing Waxes
The following formulas may be followed for making sealing wax: Take 4 pounds of shellac, 1 pound of Venice turpentine, and 3 pounds of vermilion. Melt the lac ...
-Colorful Waxes
Dark Blue Wax Three ounces Venetian turpentine, 4 ounces shellac, 1 ounce rosin, 1 ounce Prussian blue, 1/2 ounce magnesia. Green Wax Two ounces Venetian ...
-Weather Forecasters
(See also Hygrometers and Hygroscopes.) I It is known that a leaf of blotting paper or a strip of fabric made to change color according to the hygrometric ...
-International Atomic Weights
The International Committee on Atomic Weights have presented this table as corrected: 0-16 H=l Aluminum.....Al 27.1 26.9 Antimony......Sb 120.2 119.3 Argon.....
-United States Weights And Measures
(According to existing standards) LINEAL 12 inches = 1 foot. 3 feet = 1 yard. 5.5 yards =1 rod. 40 rods = 1 furlong. 8 furlongs= 1 mile. Inches. Feet. Yards.
-United States Fluid Measure
Gallon. Pints. Ounces. Drachms. Minims. Cubic Centimeters. 1 = 8 = 128 - 1,024 = 61,440 = 3,785.435 1 - 16 = 128 - 7,680 473.179 1 = 8 = 480 29.574 1 = 60 - 3.
-Apothecaries' Weight
The pound, ounce, and grain are the same as in Troy weight. Avoirdupois Weight Pound. Ounces. Drachms. Grains (Troy) Grams. 1 = 16 = 256 = 7,000 = 453.60 1 = ...
-English Weights And Measures
APOTHECARIES' WEIGHT . 20 grains = 1 scruple = 20 grains 3 scruples = 1 drachm = 60 grains 8 drachms = 1 ounce = 480 grains 12 ounces = 1 pound = 5,760 grains ...
-Metric System Of Weights And Measures
Measures Of Length Denominations and Values. Equivalents in Use, 10,000 meters 1,000 meters 100 meters 10 meters 1 meter l-10th of a meter l-100th of a meter 1- ...
-The Conversion Of Metric Into English Weight
The following table, which contains no error greater than one-tenth of a grain, will suffice for most practical purposes: 1 gram = 15.4 grains 2 grams = 30.8 ...
-The Conversion Of Metric Into English Measure
1 cubic centimeter = 17 minims 2 cubic centimeters = 34 minims 3 cubic centimeters = 51 minims 4 cubic centimeters = 68 minims, or 1 drachm, 8 minims 5 cubic ...
-Welding Powders
See also Steel. Powder to Weld Wrought Iron at Pale-red Heat with Wrought Iron I Borax, 1 part (by weight); sal ammoniac, 1/2 part; water, 1/2 part. These ...
-Whetstones
To make artificial whetstones, take gelatin of good quality, dissolve it in equal weight of water, operating in almost complete darkness, and add 1.5 per cent ...
-Whitewash Formulas
(See also Paint.) Wash the ceiling by wetting it twice with water, laying on as much as can well be floated on, then rub the old color up with a stumpy brush ...
-Window Display
See also Sponges. An attractive window display for stores can be prepared as follows: In a wide-mouth jar put some sand, say, about 6 inches in depth. Make a ...
-Window Perfume
In Paris an apparatus has been introduced consisting of a small tube which is attached lengthwise on the exterior of the shop windows. Through numerous little ...
-Wines and Liquors: Bitters
Bitters, as the name indicates, are merely tinctures of bitter roots and barks, with the addition of spices to flavor, and depend for their effect upon their ...
-Cordials (Liquors)
Cordials, according to the Spatula, are flavored liquors containing from 40 to 50 per cent of alcohol (from 52 to 64 fluidounces to each gallon) and from 20 to ...
-Cordials (Liquors). Continued
Curacoa Cordials I Curacoa orange peel.. 6 ounces Cinnamon.......... 3/4 ounce Mace............... 2.5 drachms Alcohol............ 3.5 pints Water..............
-Detannating Wine
According to Caspari, the presence of appreciable quantities of tannin in wine is decidedly objectionable if the wine is to be used in connection with iron and ...
-Prevention Of Wine Fermentation
Fermentation may be prevented in either of two ways: (1) By chemical methods, which consist in the addition of germ poisons or antiseptics, which either kill ...
-Prevention Of Wine Fermentation. Continued
Then take enough fresh grape juice to fill the barrel one-third full, bung up tight, roll and agitate violently on the skid for a few minutes. Next burn more ...
-Sparkling Wines
An apparatus for converting still into foaming wines, and doing this efficiently, simply, and rapidly, consists of a vertical steel tube, which turns on an ...
-Artificial French Brandy
I The following is Eugene Dieterich's formula for Spiritus vini Gallici artificialis: Tincture of gall-apples........... 10 parts Aromatic tincture... 5 parts ...
-Making Liqueurs
Many are familiar with the properties of liqueurs but believe them to be very complex and even mysterious compounds. This is, of course, due to the fact that ...
-Making Liqueurs. Part 2
Chartreuse I Elixir végétal de la Grande Chartreuse. Fresh balm mint herbs............ 64 parts Fresh hyssop herbs . . 64 parts Angelica herbs and root, fresh, ...
-May Bowl or May Wine
The principal ingredient of May bowl, or that which gives it its flavor and bouquet, is fresh Waldmeisterkraut (Asperula odorata), the woodruff or sweet grass, ...
-Making Liqueurs. Part 3
Maraschino Liqueur Oil bitter almonds.... 15 minims Essence vanilla...... 1 drachn. Jasmine extract...... 2 drops Raspberry essence.. .. 10 drops Oil neroli....
-Medicinal Wines
Beef and Iron The following formula is recommended by the American Pharmaceutical Association: I Extract of beef.... 35 grams Tincture of citro chloride of ...
-To Distinguish Methyl Salicylate From Oil Of Wintergreen
A quantity of the sample is mixed in a test tube with an equal volume of pure concentrated sulphuric acid. Under these conditions the artificial compound shows ...
-Wire Rope
See also Steel. A valuable anti-friction and preservative compound for mine cables is as follows: Seven parts soft tallow and 3 parts plumbago, mixed ...
-Decorative Wood-Finish
Paint or stencil wood with white-lime paint. When it has dried slowly in the shade, brush it off and a handsome dark-brown tone will be imparted to the oak- ...
-Wood Fillers
The novice in coach painting is quite as likely to get bewildered as to be aided by much of the information given about roughstuff, the more so as the methods ...
-Wood Fillers. Part 2
This diversified matter consists of mineral salts and various organic substances, gelatinous in their nature and held in solution by a viscous liquid and ...
-Wood Fillers. Part 3
Close-grained wood contains less albumen and more lignin than open-grained varieties, and consequently does not take so much filler, which accounts for the ...
-Wood Fillers. Part 4
The only way to find the best materials to use in certain cases is to study and experiment with that end in view. If, by aid of a microscope, a certain piece ...
-Removal of Heat Stains from Polished Wood
Fold a sheet of blotting paper a couple of times (making 4 thicknesses of the paper), cover the place with it, and put a hot smoothing iron thereon. Have ready ...
-Preservation Of Wood
I An excellent way of preserving-wood is to cut it between August and October. The branches are removed, leaving only the leaves at the top. The trunks, ...
-Preservation Of Wood. Part 2
IV Wooden objects remaining in the open air may be effectually protected against the inclemency of the weather by means of the following coating: Finely ...
-Preservation Of Wood. Part 3
IX Recently the discovery has been made that wood may be preserved with dissolved betuline, a vegetable product of the consistency of paste, called also ...
-Preservation Of Wood. Part 4
XI Numerous experiments have been made with all kinds of wood, even with hard oak. In the preparation of oak railway ties it was discovered that pieces ...
-Preservation Of Wood. Part 5
XVII The vulcanizing process of treating timber consists essentially in subjecting it to a baking process in hot air which is heated to a temperature of about ...
-Preservation Of Wood. Part 6
XXII Tar paints, called also mineral or metallic paints, are sold in barrels or boxes, at varying prices. Some dealers color them yellow ocher, red ocher, ...
-To Prevent Warping of Wood
Immerse the wood to be worked upon in a concentrated solution of sea salt for a week or so. The wood thus prepared, after having been worked upon, will resist ...
-Stains For Wood
In the staining of wood it is not enough to know merely how to prepare and how to apply the various staining solutions; a rational exercise of the art of wood ...
-Color Stains
Bronze I Prepare first a thin glue size by soaking good animal glue over night in cold water and melting it next morning in the usual water bath. Strain it, ...
-Color Stains. Continued
Oak I Water-color stains do not penetrate deep enough into wood to make the effect strong enough, hence solutions of other material than color are being ...
-Wood Stains Imitation
Yellow, green, blue, or gray staining on wood can be easily imitated with a little glazing color in oil or vinegar, which will prove better and more permanent ...
-Light-Fast Stains
Stains fast to light are obtained by saturating wood in a vacuum chamber, first with dilute sulphuric acid, then with dilute alkali to neutralize the acid, and ...
-Spirit Stains
Black I White shellac....... 12 ounces Vegetable black..... 6 ounces ...
-Turpentine Stains
Turpentine stains are chiefly solutions of oil-soluble coal-tar dyes in turpentine oil, with small quantities of wax also in solution. They do not roughen the ...
-Varnish Stains
Shellac is the chief article forming the basis of varnish stains the coloring matter being usually coal tar or aniline dyes, as they give better results than ...
-Water Stains
Water stains are solutions of chemicals, dye extracts, astringent substances, and coal-tar dyes in water. They roughen the wood, a disadvantage, however, which ...
-Stains for Wood Attacked by Alkalies or Acids
Solution A Copper sulphate... 125 grams Potassium chlorate. 125 grains Water............ 1,000 cu. cm. Boil until all is dissolved. Solution B Aniline ...
-Substitutes For Wood
I Acetic paraldehyde or acetic aldehyde respectively or polymerized formaldehyde is mixed with methylic alcohol and carbolic acid, as well as fusel oil ...
-Restoring Faded Writing
Writing on old manuscripts, parchments, and old letters that has faded into nearly or complete invisibility can be restored by rubbing over it a solution of ...
-Yeast Formulas
Dry Yeast Boil together for 1/2 hour, 95 parts of the finest, grated hops and 4,000 parts of water. Strain. Add to the warm liquor 1,750 parts of rye meal or ...
-Henley's Book Of Recipes: A
ABRASION REMEDY: See Cosmetics and Ointments. ABSINTHE: See Wines and Liquors. ACACIA, MUCILAGE OF: See Adhesives under Mucilages. ACID-PROOF GLASS: See Glass.
-Henley's Book Of Recipes: B
BABBITT METAL: See Alloys. BALANCE SPRING: See Watchmakers' Formulas. BALDNESS: See Hair Preparations. BALL BLUE: See Laundry Preparations. BALSAM STAINS, TO ...
-Henley's Book Of Recipes: C
CADMIUM ALLOYS: See Alloys. CALCIUM SULPHIDE (LUMINOUS): See Paints. CALFSKIN: See Leather. CAMERA RENOVATION: See Photography. CAMPHOR SUBSTITUTES IN THE ...
-Henley's Book Of Recipes: D
DANDRUFF CURE: See Hair Preparations. DEHORNERS See Horn. DELTA METAL See Alloys. DEMON BOWLS OF FIRE See Pyrotechnics. DENTAL CEMENTS See Cements. DEPTHINGS, ...
-Henley's Book Of Recipes: E
EARTHENWARE See Ceramics. EAU DE QUININE: See Hair Preparations. EBONY See Wood. EBONY LACQUER See Lacquers. ECZEMA DUSTING POWDER FOR CHILDREN. Starch, French ...
-Henley's Book Of Recipes: F
FABRIC CLEANERS See Cleaning Preparations and Methods and also Household Formulas. FABRICS, WATERPROOFING OF See Waterproofing. FACE BLACK AND FACE POWDER See ...
-Henley's Book Of Recipes: G
GALVANIZED PAPER See Paper, Metallic. GAMBOGE STAIN See Lacquers. GAPES IN POULTRY: See Veterinary Formulas. GARANCINE PROCESS See Dyes. GAS FIXTURES See Brass.
-Henley's Book Of Recipes: H
HAIR REMOVERS See Depilatories. HAMBURG BITTERS See Wines and Liquors. HAMMER HARDENING See Steel. HAND CREAMS See Cosmetics. HANDS, TO REMOVE STAINS FROM THE: ...
-Henley's Book Of Recipes: I
IMOGEN DEVELOPER See Photography. INCENSE See Fumigants. INCRUSTATION, PREVENTION OF See Boiler Compounds. INDIGO See Dyes. INFANT FOODS See Foods. INFLUENZA ...
-Henley's Book Of Recipes: J
JAPAN BLACK See Paints. JAPANNING AND JAPAN TINNING See Varnishes. JASMINE MILK See Cosmetics. JELLY (FRUIT) EXTRACT: See Essences and Extracts. JEWELERS' ...
-Henley's Book Of Recipes: K
KARATS, TO FIND NUMBER OF: See Jewelers' Formulas. KERAMICS See Ceramics. KERIT See Rubber. KEROCLEAN See Cleaning Preparations and Methods. KETCHUP ( ...
-Henley's Book Of Recipes: L
LABEL PASTES, GLUES, AND MUCILAGES See Adhesives. LABEL VARNISHES See Varnishes. LACE LEATHER See Leather. LACE, TO CLEAN GOLD AND SILVER See Cleaning ...
-Henley's Book Of Recipes: M
MACHINE OIL See Lubricants. MACHINERY, TO CLEAN See Cleaning Preparations and Methods. MAGIC See Pyrotechnics. MAGNOLIA METAL: See Alloys. MAHOGANY See Wood.
-Henley's Book Of Recipes: N
NAIL POLISHES See Cosmetics. NAPOLEON CORDIAL See Wines and Liquors. NAPHTHOL SOAP See Soap. NEEDLES, ANTI-RUST PAPER FOR: See Rust Preventives. NEGATIVES, HOW ...
-Henley's Book Of Recipes: O
OAK: See Wood. ODONTER See Dentifrices. OIL, CASTOR: See Castor Oil. OIL FOR FORMING A BEAD ON LIQUORS See Wines and Liquors. OILS FOR HARNESS See Leather.
-Henley's Book Of Recipes: P-Q
PACKAGE POP See Beverages, under Ginger Ale. PACKAGE WAX: See Waxes. PADS OF PAPER See Paper Pads. PAIN-SUBDUING OINTMENT See Ointments. PAINTING ON LEATHER ...
-Henley's Book Of Recipes: R
RAGS FOR CLEANING AND POLISHING See Cleaning Preparations and Methods. RASPBERRYADE POWDER See Salts, Effervescent. RASPBERRY SYRUP See Essences and Extracts.
-Henley's Book Of Recipes: S
SACCHARINE IN FOOD See Food. SADDLE GALLS See Veterinary Formulas. SADDLE SOAP See Soap. SALAMANDRINE DESSERT See Pyrotechnics. SALICYL (SWEET): See ...
-Henley's Book Of Recipes: T
TABLE-TOPS, ACID-PROOF See Acid-Proofing. TABLES FOR PHOTOGRAPHERS See Photography. TAFFY See Confectionery. TALCUM POWDER See Cosmetics. TALLOW See Fats.
-Henley's Book Of Recipes: U-V
UDDER INFLAMMATION See Veterinary Formulas. VARNISH, HOW TO POUR OUT See Castor Oil. VARNISHES, INSULATING See Insulation. VARNISHES, PHOTOGRAPHIC RETOUCHING ...
-Henley's Book Of Recipes: W
WAGON GREASE See Lubricants. WALLS, DAMP See Household Formulas. WALL AND WALL-PAPER CLEANERS See Cleaning Preparations and Methods, also Household Formulas.









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