These few practical directions and suggestions are not intended to take the place of the veterinary surgeon, whose skill and experience are often of the greatest value in dealing with cases of a serious nature, but just to give inexperienced persons some idea what to do, in case of emergency; as, in all cases of illness or accidents to animals, immediate treatment is often most important.

I may say that a "bond of sympathy" should exist between an owner or keeper, and his dogs, and when this is the case, it will be much easier to deal with them, either in health or sickness, but particularly the latter.

I believe more trouble is caused by mismanagement than any other cause, and that if only proper attention be paid to the three cardinal points of "cleanliness, food and exercise," there will not be much the matter with the inmates of the kennel.

I have, for a great number of years, kept a small lot of dogs, varying in number from fifteen to fifty, but although accidents will be constantly occurring with live stock of all kinds, I have had wonderfully little illness, amongst my dogs, except the ordinary ailments so generally expected, and I attribute this mainly to endeavouring to enforce cleanliness and plenty of exercise, and providing food varying in character and quantity to suit the appetites of the inmates.

I may say, while on the subject of food, that although in winter, or very cold weather, it is well it should be given "with the chill off," it is better not to let it be warm, in a general way, as it is thought unnatural for dogs, and tends to weaken their digestive powers.

Also except in cases of packs of hounds, where it is unavoidable, (but they are generally accompanied by some of the kennel men, and attendants to avoid undue "differences of opinion,") it is best, not to feed two or more dogs together, as often the stronger member will overpower the weaker, and perhaps consume more than his or her share; you will notice this, even amongst puppies.

An owner, or keeper will soon get to know the right amount to give each, and give just as much as will be finished at the time, when the pan should be removed, or washed out, and filled with water, if benched alone, not otherwise, or it may be upset in the course of play, etc.

Except in cases of bitches with families or puppies by themselves when two or more meals may be given, it is usual to feed once a day either morning or evening as most convenient, giving each as much as they will eat, with appetite, the oftener varied the better, as I said in the "Introduction".

Unless any difficulty occurs, at the birth of the puppies, when skilled assistance should be obtained, the less the bitch is disturbed the better, but a few days afterwards it is well to examine the litter, and destroy any deformed or faulty ones, and if she has more than she can reasonably bring up, to put some of them under a "foster mother," which are frequently advertised in the papers dealing with dogs and doggy matters, if not procurable in your own district, in such case, it is best not to take away all the foster litter at once, but introduce the new-comers (in the absence of the "Foster,") amongst her remaining puppies, and mix them up, together, so that they will smell alike, and gradually weed out those not desired to be kept.

After three weeks old, the puppies should be given bread and milk, which will help the mothers in their nursing, and about this time if a breed which requires their tails to be shortened, a part may be taken off, with a strong pair of scissors, not too sharp, feeling for a joint, before making the cut, and if carefully done, it causes but momentary pain, and soon heals up.

At six weeks old, they may be removed from the mother, altogether, and if she seems at all troubled with milk, occasionally squeeze out any milk, with the finger and thumb, and dress the teats with vinegar and water, which generally prevents swelling or inflammation, and helps to dry off the milk.

I need not say that the stories sometimes heard about dogs having a "worm under the tongue," which must be taken out, are all humbug, and should not be credited.

Sometimes dogs' claws, when not sufficiently exercised, grow too long and require to be shortened, but this is easily done with a sharp pair of "nippers".

Putting a piece of stone sulphur in the water is no good, as being a mineral, it does not dissolve, and you might just as well put a lump of coal in! But, as I said before, a little "Flowers of Brimstone," according to the size of the animal, either mixed in milk, or with its food, is beneficial and has a cooling effect, and I sometimes add a small quantity of magnesia, with the same object.

Above everything, see that the place where the dog lives is dry, warm in winter and free from draughts.

I think dogs kept in a house as pets are more liable to disease, than those kept in kennels, from often having no regular meals or rules, but constantly being fed by many people, and so getting more than they require of food, but much less of exercise.

Chicken and game bones are not desirable for dogs, as they break into sharp splinters which when swallowed may cause injury to the intestines, but other bones are occasionally very good for dogs, and much enjoyed by them; and when at liberty they will take grass, which, as with cats, is very useful for their digestion.

Most dogs are troubled with fleas, and some with ticks and other small insects, particularly in the summer. I have found an occasional washing, with a weak solution of "Jeye's Purifier," (procurable of any chemist, or stores, with full directions on the bottles), makes a great improvement in this respect, and if the breed of the animal is small, or it is one kept indoors, it may have an occasional combing with a small tooth comb, having a basin of boiling water at hand, to put the "results " in.

In all treatment of a sick dog, remember you are dealing with a highly sensitive and nervous patient, be very gentle, avoid roughness, or anything likely to alarm him; in giving any liquid medicine, do not open his month, but placing him between your knees with his face looking in same direction as your own, gently raise his jaw, and pulling his lips away from his teeth, on one side of his mouth, to form a cup, or funnel, very slowly pour from bottle or spoon, the quantity he is to have, into it. Keep his head raised for a minute or two, and if he does not swallow the dose, insert a spoon between his front teeth, this will have the effect of drawing off his attention from the medicine, and he will, usually, swallow at once. If the dose is a pill, bolus, or anything solid, hold his head the same way as before mentioned, but with the left hand under lower jaw, press firmly on each side with thumb and finger at the junction of upper and lower jaws. This will usually cause him to open his mouth, when the dose should be put into the mouth, as far back as possible, over the tongue (or he will spit it out) and close the jaws somewhat sharply, and in most cases the deed is done.