It is essential, therefore, to diminish this secretion before commencing the actual treatment, and much can be done in this direction by dietetic means alone. To the desired end for about one week the diet should be restricted to raw beef, and milk or broths thickened with a few well-toasted bread crusts. And these foods should be limited in quantity. In other words the diet should be of the "starvation sort," provided, of course, it can be safely instituted, the subject being fairly strong and hardy.

Under this restriction in diet the mucous secretion will have greatly lessened, and perhaps sufficiently, but still those who can spare the time required will do well to administer during the dieting the following mixture : Chloride of ammonium, two drachms; fluid extract of senna, six drachms; water sufficient to make three ounces. Dose, one teaspoonful twice daily, in a little water, between the feedings.

This dose is appropriate for all breeds excepting the small and toy. For the former the dose should be one-half a teaspoonful, and for the latter one-fourth of a tea-spoonful.

The week of preparation having ended, the night before the male fern is to be administered, and four or five hours after the patient has had a light supper, a goodly dose of castor oil should be given. Then, the bowels having been thoroughly evacuated and the tapeworm uncovered, as it were, the destroyer can work to advantage.

As the wormseed oil and santonin mixtures - Nos. I and 2 - contain a large proportion of castor oil, a cathartic will not always be required after them. That point, however, has already been covered in their discussion. But the other vermifuges, areca nut and male fern, should invariably be followed in an hour and a half, or two hours, by a cathartic; and here again the preference should be given to castor oil, and the dose of the same graduated according; to the age as follows : -

For all puppies six months of age, excepting small breeds' and toys, it should be one tablespoonful. For the smalt breeds it should be one-half a tablespoonful; and for toys, one teaspoonful.

After this age and up to the twelfth month the doses for all varieties can be gradually increased until they are nearly or quite doubled; and rarely will further increase be necessary for the toys, small and medium-sized breeds, but for the largest dogs three tablespoonfuls of the oil is generally required for very decided effect.

Attention is again called to the fact that puppies infested with worms suffer from considerable inflammation of the intestines; and while this very generally subsides rapidly after the noxious tenants have been driven out, it sometimes persists and keeps the patient ailing for a week or more if it does not eventually kill. Therefore, everything possible should be done to favor restoration of the affected parts. And the essential treatment is, to exclude all farinaceous substances from the dietary save toasted bread, and allow but little of that even, and rely chiefly on milk, eggs and scraped beef. If the mucous discharges have been large it will be well, also, while restricting the diet, to give an alkali to discourage further excessive secretion of mucus, and this requirement is best met by the bicarbonate of soda, "a pinch" of which should be put into the milk three times daily.

Before summarizing and leaving this subject there are a few crumbs to be swept up.

Dogs are threatened by many different kinds of worms, and while some of the pests are destroyed by a certain vermifuge, others are not affected by it or by any other agent excepting their own peculiar antidote, as it were. Moreover, far oftener than otherwise it will be impossible for the owner to determine excepting by treatment the kind of worm his dog is harboring. Now, wormseed oil, santonin, areca nut and male fern constitute an admirable battery, and when one member of it is resisted some of the others are pretty sure to prove all-powerful; but acting singly, while sweeping out their own enemies, they must in many instances leave others behind, hence it will often be necessary to unload them all upon the intruders.

Such occasions as this, however, seldom present themselves in the first year of life, and as a rule one member of the battery does the work for all. But after the sixth month, should a case be encountered in which the symptoms of worms persist after one of the vermifuges recommended has been given, then it will be advisable to administer the others, allowing always an interval of a week between each. As, for instance, give mixture No. 2 the first week, areca nut the second, and male fern the third. And this course pursued, the work of ejectment ought to be complete, each agent finding its own special victims.

But puppies having passed the first year and acquired a resistance to the unpleasant effects of such drugs, were it necessary the entire battery could be turned loose at one and the same time - that is, if in any instance the symptoms of worms did not disappear after each one of the vermifuges advised had been used in turn they might all be given together, in a single dose.

Nor is it likely that this single dose would do any harm were it made up of full doses of all the ingredients, but no risks should be taken with a good dog, therefore it would be advisable in every instance to give in the combined dose only two-thirds of a dose of each. In other words, it would be necessary to consider the age of the dog to be treated and estimate according to the rules already laid down the quantities of areca nut, male fern and mixture No. 2 suitable for him, and then take of each only two-thirds.

To preclude all possibility of error the writer will go further and assume that the reader has a collie about fourteen months old which presents symptoms of worms that have resisted all the mixtures advised, the same having been given singly, and he now desires to try them together. Turning back to the different preparations it is found that for dogs of this age the following doses were recommended: -

Of No. 2, two doses of three teaspoonfuls each, or six teaspoonfuls in all; of areca nut, three and one-half tea-spoonfuls; and of the oil of male fern mixture, one and one-half teaspoonfuls.

Therefore he will take of each two-thirds of these doses, or of No. 2, four teaspoonfuls, areca nut a trifle over two and one-half teaspoonfuls, and the oil of male fern mixture one teaspoonful.

Now, these proportions of No. 2, areca nut and male fern should be put into a bottle, together with about two tablespoonfuls of warm milk, and administered as soon as they are as well mixed as possible by vigorous shaking. And this dose should be followed in the course of an hour or an hour and a half by not less than two tablespoonfuls of castor oil.

This, which can properly be called a "shot-gun mixture," for it must scatter and hit the mark somewhere, should never be given excepting to dogs, of either sex, that are very vigorous and healthy; and to such it is never at all likely to do any harm when prepared on the lines laid down.

As for adjusting the doses for the small breeds and toys, that should be done in precisely the same way for each class.

In works treating of worms and anthelmintics it is generally recommended that santonin be given two or three times daily for several days and finally followed by a cathartic. The writer believes that this method of administration is open to objection, especially with very young puppies, since it must increase the liability of poisoning by the drug; hence he has combined it with wormseed oil; and two doses of this mixture he has found to be more efficacious than several doses of santonin alone given over several days. However, should the reader desire to give mixture No. 2 to the same puppy several times within a week, he can do so safely if he allows between each treatment an interval of a day.

The influence of diet upon worms has been considered with the subject of "Feeding," and it is merely necessary here to emphasize the fact that worms are greatly favored when the stomach and bowels are kept loaded with indigestible or half-digested food, under which conditions the parasites grow and increase in number far more rapidly than under a happier one. Liquid foods are also, as a rule, friendly to the pests, whereas solids tend to dislodge and sweep them from the body.

As to the prevention of worms, beyond the measures already defined there are none of any special value. Sour milk, very likely, has some action on the egg-shells of worms, and it may be able to penetrate them and destroy their contents; or it may, possibly, soften these shells so that the gastric juice can reach the young worms, which it is thought invariably to kill. But, as far as puppies are concerned, worms are almost always intrenched before this food can properly be given them.

The writer once thought powdered charcoal had some preventive as well as destructive action, but long experience and close observation have since taught him that he greatly over-estimated its effects in this direction, and that if it has any such action it is but slight, and an appreciable effect can only be obtained from very large doses; to give which to puppies is impossible except by force, for small quantities, even, mixed with their food often cause them to refuse it. Consequently he now discourages the use of this agent as practically inert.

Summarizing briefly, cleanliness is the most potent preventive of worms. In the absence of threatening signs worm medicines should be withheld until after the eighth week; but in the event any such signs appear, dosing should be promptly resorted to. Mixture No. I should be relied upon until the eighth week; then if it fails, No. 2 should be tried, and depended upon afterward as long as it proves efficacious - even up to and during maturity. When No. 2 is found wanting areca nut should be used; and that failing in turn, the male-fern mixture can be called into service.

A combination of these vermifuges should be made only when singly they are incapable of doing the work; and after the twelfth month, previous to which one after another may be given if necessary, but always with intervals of several days between each.

Finally, infection is always in lurk in kennels, consequently it is advisable under such conditions to give puppies that have passed the tenth week a dose of vermifuge occasionally, until after the eighth month.